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# SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

## Atomic World (25 hours)

Topics Content Notes for teachers
(a) Rutherford’s atomic
model
the structure of atom  describe Rutherford’s construction of an atomic  Note that scattering experiments are commonly used in modern
model consisting of a nucleus and electrons physics researches for finding the structure of atoms and searching
 state the limitations of Rutherford’s atomic model in for new particles
accounting for the motion of electrons around the  The setups of different scattering experiments and the names of
nucleus and line spectra new particles found by the scattering experiments are not required
 realise the importance of scattering experiments in
the discovery of the structure of atoms and the
impact on the searching for new particles
(b) Photoelectric effect
evidence for light quanta  describe photoelectric effect experiment and its  The use of gold-leaf electroscope in photoelectric effect
results experiment is not required
 state the limitations of the wave model of light in  The use of photocell in photoelectric effect experiment is implied
explaining the photoelectric effect  Applications of photocell are not required
Einstein’s interpretation of  state photon energy E = hf  Stopping potential of photoelectrons in photoelectric effect
photoelectric effect and  describe how the intensity of the incident light of a experiments is implied
photoelectric equation given frequency is related to the number of photons  Expressing work function in terms of threshold frequency
 explain photoelectric effect using Einstein’s (   hf0 ) is required
1
photoelectric equation hf    m e v max 2  Millikan’s photoelectric experiment is not required
2
 realise the photoelectric effect as the evidence of
particle nature of light
 apply E = hf and Einstein’s photoelectric equation to
solve problems

## (c) Bohr’s atomic model

of hydrogen
line spectra  describe the special features of line spectra of  The names of spectral series (e.g. Lyman, Balmer and Paschen)
hydrogen atoms and other monatomic gases are not required
 explain spectral lines in terms of difference in
energies
 realise that the energy of a hydrogen atom can only
take on certain values
 realise line spectra as evidence of energy levels of
atoms

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 3 / 12

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
Bohr’s model of hydrogen  state the postulates that define Bohr’s model of  Basic knowledge of angular momentum = mvr is expected
atom hydrogen atom nh
  The derivation of the postulate m e vr   is not required
distinguish between the “quantum” and “classical” 2
aspects in the postulates of Bohr’s atomic model of
hydrogen

nh
 realise the postulate m e vr  as the quantization
2
of angular momentum of an electron around a
hydrogen nucleus where n=1,2,3… is the quantum
number labelling the nth Bohr orbit of the electron
 realise the equation for the energy of an electron in a
 Noted that electric potential energy ( ) and kinetic
hydrogen atom as energy ( ) can be used to explain the total energy
 4 
Etot (   1  me e  )   13.6 eV of an electron in a hydrogen atom
n 2  8h 2  o2  n2
 use electron-volt (eV) as a unit of energy
 distinguish ionization and excitation energies
.
 apply to solve problems
the interpretation of line  derive, by using Bohr’s equation of electron energy  Note that the expression is only for photon emission where “a” is
spectra . the higher level and “b” is the lower level”
and E=hf, the expression

 For the case of photon absorption (“a” is the lower level and “b” is
for the wavelength of photon emitted or absorbed
the higher level), the expression is given by
when an electron undergoes a transition from one .
energy level to another →
 interpret line spectra by the use of Bohr’s equation  The existence of dark lines (Fraunhöfer lines) in Sun’s spectrum is
of electron energy used to illustrate absorption spectrum
.
 apply E=hf and to solve  Emission line spectrum in monatomic gas discharge tube is used

to illustrate emission spectrum
problems
(d) Particles or Waves
 realise the wave-particle duality of electrons and h
 Note that the de Broglie formula λ  can be used to explain
light p
 describe evidences of electrons and light exhibiting nh
both wave and particle properties the quantization of angular momentum m e vr 

 relate the wave and particle properties of electrons
h
using the de Broglie formula λ
p

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 4 / 12

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
h
 apply λ  to solve problems
p
(e) Probing into nano
scale
physical properties of  understand that nano means 10-9  Note that different arrangements of atoms lead to different
materials in nano scale  realise that materials in nano scale can exist in physical properties (can be illustrated using the different forms of
various forms, such as nano wires, nano tubes and carbon)
nano particles  Limited to the following physical properties: optical (e.g. colour,
 realise that materials often exhibit different physical transparency), mechanical (e.g. strength, hardness) and electrical
properties when their sizes are reduced to nano scale (e.g. conductivity) properties

seeing at nano scale  describe the limitations of optical microscope in  Spherical and chromatic aberrations of optical microscope are not
seeing substances of small scale required
 describe how a transmission electron microscope  Detailed mechanism of focusing by electric and magnetic fields in
(TEM) works TEM is not required
 draw the analogy between the use of electric and 1.22λ
 Derivation of θ  is not required
magnetic fields in TEMs and lenses in optical d
microscopes
 estimate the anode voltage needed in a TEM to
accelerate electrons achieving wavelengths of the
order of atomic size
 explain the advantage of high resolution of TEM
using Rayleigh criterion for minimum resolvable
1.22λ
detail, θ 
d
 describe how a scanning tunnelling microscope
(STM) works in seeing nano particles (principles of
the tunnelling effect are not required)

recent development in  describe recent developments and applications of  Current developments and daily life applications of
nanotechnology nanotechnology in various areas related to daily life nanotechnology including: (1) Materials (stain-resistant fibres,
 discuss potential hazards, issues of risks and safety anti-bacterial / detoxicating / de-odorising nano paint, strong /
concerns for our lives and society in using flexible / light / conductive materials); (2) Information technology
nanotechnology (better data storage and computation); and (3) Health care &
Environment (chemical and biological sensors, drugs and delivery
devices, clean energy, clean air and water) are expected
 Note that nanotechnology is still developing
 Note that the long term effect of nano materials to safety, health,
and environment is still under investigation

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 5 / 12

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
 Information search could be arranged on the recent development
in nanotechnology
 Debates could be arranged on discussing potential hazards,
issues of risks and safety concerns in using nanotechnology