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# SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

## Heat and Gases (23 hours)

Topics Content Notes for teachers
(a) Temperature,
heat and
internal energy
temperature and  realise temperature as the degree of hotness of an object  Same treatment as in HKCEE
thermometers  interpret temperature as a quantity associated with the  Basic principle of how temperature dependent properties can be used
average kinetic energy due to the random motion of for measuring temperature is required
molecules in a system  Calibrating a thermometer by plotting a linear graph is required
 explain the use of temperature-dependent properties in  The detailed structure and facts (e.g. working range, suitability) of
measuring temperature thermometers are not required
 define and use degree Celsius as a unit of temperature

heat and  realise that heat is the energy transferred as a result of the  Same treatment as in HKCEE
internal energy temperature difference between two objects
 describe the effect of mass, temperature and state of matter
on the internal energy of a system
 relate internal energy to the sum of the kinetic energy of
random motion and the potential energy of molecules in the
system

## heat capacity and Q  Same treatment as in HKCEE

specific heat  define heat capacity as C  and specific heat capacity
T
capacity
Q
as c 
mT
 determine the specific heat capacity of a substance
 discuss the practical importance of the high specific heat
capacity of water
 solve problems involving heat capacity and specific heat
capacity
(b) Transfer
processes
conduction,  identify the means of energy transfer in terms of  Same treatment as in HKCEE
convection and conduction, convection and radiation  Molecular interpretation of convection is not required
radiation  interpret energy transfer by conduction in terms of  Factors affecting the rate of conduction are not required
molecular motion
 realise the emission of infra-red radiation by hot objects
 determine the factors affecting the emission and absorption

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 1 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
(c) Change of
state
melting and  state the three states of matter  Same treatment as in HKCEE
freezing,  determine the melting point and boiling point
boiling and
condensing
latent heat  realise latent heat as the energy transferred during the  Same treatment as in HKCEE
change of state without temperature change
 interpret latent heat in terms of the change of potential
energy of the molecules during a change of state
Q
 define specific latent heat of fusion as  f 
m
Q
 define specific latent heat of vaporization as  v 
m
 solve problems involving latent heat

evaporation  realise the occurrence of evaporation below boiling point  Same treatment as in HKCEE
 explain the cooling effect of evaporation  Qualitative explanation of evaporation and its cooling effect in terms
 discuss the factors affecting rate of evaporation of molecular motion are required
 explain evaporation in terms of molecular motion  Interpreting the factors affecting the rate of evaporation in terms of
molecular motion is not required
(d) Gases
general gas law  realise the existence of gas pressure  Volume-Temperature and Pressure-Temperature relationships of a
 verify Boyle’s law gas are used instead of Charles’ law and Pressure law
 determine pressure-temperature and volume-temperature  Describing experiments to verify Boyle’s law, V-T and p-T
relationships of a gas relationships of a gas are expected
 determine absolute zero by the extrapolation of pressure-  Avogadro’s law is not required
temperature or volume-temperature relationships  Critical temperature is not required
 use kelvin as a unit of temperature  Heating and work done on gas (1st law of thermodynamics) are not
 combine the three relationships (p-V, p-T and V-T) of a gas required
pV  pV diagrams are required
to obtain the relationship  constant  Thermodynamic processes and cycles (e.g. isothermal, isobaric and
T
 apply the general gas law pV= nRT to solve problems adiabatic) are not required
 Mole, molar mass and Avogadro’s number are required

## Mathematics skills involved:

Compulsory Part in Math
 6. Variations
 12. Equations of straight lines and circles

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 2 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
kinetic theory  realise the random motion of molecules in a gas  Stating that at high temperature and low pressure a real gas behaves
 realise the gas pressure resulted from molecular as an ideal gas is required
bombardment  Detailed microscopic explanation for the condition of a real gas to
 interpret gas expansion in terms of molecular motion show the behaviour of an ideal gas is not required
 state the assumptions of the kinetic model of an ideal gas
 realize that connects microscopic and  Derivation of is not required
macroscopic quantities of an ideal gas and solve problems
 interpret temperature of an ideal gas using  Comparing with pV = nRT and deducing that the total
3RT kinetic energy of one mole of a monatomic gas is given by and
K.E.average 
2N A hence the average kinetic energy of the monatomic gas molecule is
 realise the condition that at high temperature and low , and T is proportional to the average kinetic energy are
pressure a real gas behaves as an ideal gas required.
 solve problems involving kinetic theory
 Boltzmann constant k is not required

Motion”

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 3 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Force and Motion (50 hours)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
(a) Position and
movement
position, distance  describe the change of position of objects in terms of  Combining percentage errors is not required
and displacement distance and displacement
 present information on displacement-time graphs for  Vernier caliper and micrometer could be used as instruments in
moving objects practical work

## Mathematics skills involved:

Compulsory Part in Math
 2. Functions and graphs
 9. More about graphs of functions
 Calculus is not expected

scalars and vectors  distinguish between scalar and vector quantities Mathematics skills involved - Module 2 (Algebra and Calculus) in
 use scalars and vectors to represent physical quantities Math
 15. Introduction to vectors
 Teachers are expected to introduce the necessary basic ideas of
vectors
speed and velocity  define average speed as the distance travelled in a given  Relative velocity is not required
period of time and average velocity as the displacement
changed in a period of time Mathematics skills involved:
 distinguish between instantaneous and average Compulsory Part in Math
speed/velocity  12. Equations of straight lines and circles
 describe the motion of objects in terms of speed and
velocity
 present information on velocity-time graphs for moving
objects
 use displacement-time and velocity-time graphs to
determine the displacement and velocity of objects
uniform motion  interpret the uniform motion of objects using algebraic and
graphical methods
 solve problems involving displacement, time and velocity
acceleration  define acceleration as the rate of change of velocity
 use velocity-time graphs to determine the acceleration of
objects in uniformly accelerated motion
 present information on acceleration-time graphs for moving
objects

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 4 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
equations of  derive equations of uniformly accelerated motion Mathematics skills involved:
uniformly v  u  at Compulsory Part in Math
accelerated motion s 1
2
(u  v )t  1. Quadratic equations in one unknown
s  ut  12 at 2
v 2  u 2  2as
 solve problems involving objects in uniformly accelerated
motion
vertical motion  examine the motion of free-falling objects experimentally  Dependence of air resistance on mass, size and shape of objects is
under gravity and estimate the acceleration due to gravity not required
 present graphically information on vertical motions under
gravity
 apply equations of uniformly accelerated motion to solve
problems involving objects in vertical motion
 describe the effect of air resistance on the motion of objects
falling under gravity
(b) Force and
motion
Newton’s First  describe the meaning of inertia and its relationship to mass  Concepts and formulae of kinetic friction and static friction are not
Law of motion  state Newton’s First Law of motion and use it to explain required
situations in which objects are at rest or in uniform motion
 understand friction as a force opposing motion/tendency of
motion
addition and  find the vector sum of coplanar forces graphically and Mathematics skills involved:
resolution of algebraically Compulsory Part in Math
forces  resolve a force graphically and algebraically into  13. More about trigonometry
components along two mutually perpendicular directions

Newton’s Second  describe the effect of a net force on the speed and/or  Solving problems involving two-body or many-body systems is
Law of motion direction of motion of an object expected
 state Newton’s Second Law of motion and verify F = ma
experimentally
 use newton as a unit of force
 use free-body diagrams to show the forces acting on objects
 determine the net force acting on object(s)
 apply Newton’s Second Law of motion to solve problems
involving motion in one dimension
Newton’s Third  realise forces acting in pairs
Law of motion  state Newton’s Third Law of motion and identify action and
reaction pair of forces

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 5 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
mass and weight  distinguish between mass and weight
 realise the relationship between mass and weight
moment of a force  define moment of a force as the product of the force and its  Same treatment as in HKCEE
perpendicular distance from the pivot  Solving problems involving non-perpendicular forces is expected
 discuss the uses of torques and couples  Stability of an object (neutral, unstable and stable equilibrium in
 state the conditions for equilibrium of forces acting on a relation to the position of C.G.) is not required
rigid body and solve problems involving a fixed pivot  Suitable examples should be used to help students understand the
 interpret the centre of gravity and determine it concept of moment of a force
experimentally
(c) Projectile  describe the shape of the path taken by a projectile launched  Resolving vector quantities into horizontal and vertical components
motion at an angle of projection and solving problems by considering the x and y directions separately
 understand the independence of horizontal and vertical are required
motions  Deriving the equations for the range, time of flight and maximum
 solve problems involving projectile motion height is not required
 Deriving the equation y(x) for the parabolic trajectory is not required
 Quantitative treatment of air resistance on projectile motion is not
required
(d) Work, energy
and power
mechanical work  interpret mechanical work as a way of energy transfer
 define mechanical work done W = Fs cos
 solve problems involving mechanical work
gravitational  state that gravitational potential energy is the energy
potential energy possessed by an object due to its position under gravity
(P.E.)  derive P.E. = mgh
 solve problems involving gravitational potential energy
kinetic energy  state that kinetic energy is the energy possessed by an
(K.E.) object due to its motion
 derive K.E. = ½ mv2
 solve problems involving kinetic energy
law of  state the law of conservation of energy  The concepts of energy being stored when spring/elastic cord is
conservation of  discuss the inter-conversion of P.E. and K.E. with extended/compressed are required and that the amount of energy
energy in a closed consideration of energy loss stored increases with the extension/compression are also assumed
system  solve problems involving conservation of energy  The equation of elastic P.E. = ½kx2 is not required
 Solving problems involving 2D motions (e.g. projectile motion) is
expected

power  define power as the rate of energy transfer  The use of equation P = Fv is expected
W
 apply P  to solve problems
t

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 6 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
(e) Momentum
linear momentum  realise momentum as a quantity of motion of an object and
define momentum p = mv
change in  understand that a net force acting on an object for a period  “Change in momentum” is used instead of the term “impulse”
momentum and of time results a change in momentum  Interpretation of F-t graph is expected
net force  interpret force as the rate of change of momentum
(Newton’s Second Law of motion)
law of  state the law of conservation of momentum and relate it to  Deriving the law of conservation of momentum from Newton’s laws
conservation of Newton’s Third Law of motion of motion is expected
momentum  distinguish between elastic and inelastic collisions  Condition of right-angle fork collision (same mass, elastic) and its
 solve problems involving momentum in one dimension applications (e.g. collision between -particle and Helium gas atom
in cloud chamber) are expected
 Mathematical proof of the right-angle fork collision is not required
 The extension of right-angle fork collision to cases of unequal
masses or with K.E. loss is not required

(f) Uniform  define angular velocity as the rate of change of angular  Identifying the centripetal force responsible for the object to undergo
circular displacement and relate it to linear velocity uniform circular motion is required
motion v2  Non-uniform circular motion (e.g. looping the loop, roller coaster
 state centripetal acceleration a  and apply it to solve and vertical motion of a bucket of water) is not required
r
problems involving uniform circular motion  Overturning of vehicles (involving moment) is not required
 realise the resultant force pointing towards the centre of  Centrifuge is not required
uniform circular motion  Discussing the motion and energy of a satellite with a K.E. loss is not
required

##  Suitable examples should be selected to illustrate the concept of

uniform circular motion

## Mathematics skills involved:

Compulsory Part in Math
 12. Basic properties of circles
(g) Gravitation  state Newton’s law of universal gravitation  Gravitational field within the Earth / planet is not required
 Addition of gravitational field strength due to two or more object is
 define gravitational field strength as force per unit mass not required
 determine the gravitational field strength at a point above a  Kepler’s laws are not required
planet  Escape velocity is not required
 determine the velocity of an object in a circular orbit  Paths of object being projected with different speeds are not required
 solve problems involving gravitation

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 7 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Wave Motion (47 hours)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
(a) Nature and
properties of
waves
nature of waves  interpret wave motion in terms of oscillation  Huygen's principle is not required
 realise waves as transmitting energy without
transferring matter
wave motion and  distinguish between transverse and longitudinal  Direction of motion of medium particles in displacement-distance graphs is
propagation waves assumed
 describe wave motion in terms of waveform, crest,  Predict the direction of motion of wave, time lags and time leads in
trough, compression, rarefaction, wavefront, phase, displacement-time and displacement-distance graphs
displacement, amplitude, period, frequency,  Study phase difference between two sinusoidal waves in simple cases (in-
wavelength and wave speed phase and anti-phase) only
 present information on displacement-time and  Study displacement-time / displacement-position graphs of transverse and
displacement-distance graphs for travelling waves longitudinal waves
 determine factors affecting the speed of propagation
of waves along stretched strings or springs
 apply f = 1 / T and v = f λ to solve problems
reflection and  realise the reflection of waves at a plane barrier/  Frequency measurement by stroboscope is not required
refraction reflector/ surface  Phase difference between two arbitrary wave particles is not required
 realise the refraction of waves across a plane
boundary  Ripple tank could be used to demonstrate wave motion and wave
 examine the change in wave speeds during properties.
refraction and define refractive index in terms of  Video Camera and HDMVA could be used to analyse wave motion, and
wave speeds measure wavelength and speed
 draw wavefront diagrams to show reflection and
refraction
diffraction and  describe the diffraction of waves through a narrow  Concept of phase / path difference is assumed in double slits interference
interference gap and around a corner  Qualitative treatment only for diffraction of wave
 examine the effect of the width of slit on the degree  Problem on interference plus diffraction is not required
of diffraction  Conversion between path difference and phase difference is required for in-
 describe the superposition of two pulses phase and anti-phase interference only
 realise the interference of waves  Mathematical treatment of superposition is not required
 distinguish between constructive and destructive
interferences  Superposition of waves could be demonstrated on a long slinky
 examine the interference of waves from two
coherent sources
 determine the conditions for constructive and
destructive interferences in terms of path difference
 draw wavefront diagrams to show diffraction and
interference

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 8 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
stationary wave  explain the formation of a stationary wave  Relationship between distance between adjacent nodes (anti-nodes) and
(transverse waves  describe the characteristics of stationary waves wavelength is implied
only)  Stationary sound (longitudinal) waves are not required
 Measuring speed of sound using stationary wave is not required

##  A long slinky could be used to demonstrate stationary wave

 Vibrations of strings could be used to demonstrate the characteristics of
stationary waves
(b) Light
light in  state that the speed of light and electromagnetic
electromagnetic waves in a vacuum is 3.0 ×108 m s-1
spectrum  state the range of wavelengths for visible light
 state the relative positions of visible light and other
parts of the electromagnetic spectrum
reflection of light  state the laws of reflection
 construct images formed by a plane mirror
graphically
refraction of light  examine the laws of refraction  Refraction by a prism is assumed
 sketch the path of a ray refracted at a boundary  Dispersion of white light through a prism is assumed from Science (S1-3)
Curriculum
 realize as the refractive index of a
 Note that refractive index of light of different frequency (colour) is different
medium  Solve problem related to the refractive index of different frequency of light
 solve problems involving refraction at a boundary is required
 General Snell’s law is assumed

## Mathematics skills required

Compulsory Part in Math

total internal  examine the conditions for total internal reflection  Critical angle is assumed
reflection  solve problems involving total internal reflection at
a boundary

formation of  construct images formed by converging and  Compound lens system, such as telescope and microscope, is not required
images by diverging lenses graphically  Eye defects are not required
lenses  distinguish between real and virtual images  Using graphical and numerical methods to solve lens problems is assumed

 apply to solve problems for a single
thin lens (using the convention “REAL is positive”)

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 9 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
wave nature of  point out light as an example of transverse wave  Air wedge / soap film / adding a thin film to Young’s double slits setting /
light  realise diffraction and interference as evidences for immersing the set-up in water are not required
the wave nature of light  Only principal maxima for Young’s double slit experiment is required
 examine the interference patterns in the Young’s  Derivation of the Young’s double slits formula and the diffraction grating
double slit experiment formula is not required
 Interference pattern (fringes) of light is required
 apply ∆ to solve problems  Numerical problems related to double slits interference are implied
 examine the interference patterns in the plane  Assumptions of the Young’s double slits equation are expected
transmission grating  Spectrometer is not required
 apply d sinθ = nλ to solve problems
 Diffraction grating could be used to measure wavelength of a particular
monochromatic light
(c) Sound
wave nature of  realise sound as an example of longitudinal waves  Interference pattern (change of loudness) in sound is assumed
sound  realise that sound can exhibit reflection, refraction,  Order of magnitude of speed of sound and light is expected
diffraction and interference  Phase method and stationary wave method to measure speed of sound are
 realise the need for a medium for sound not required
transmission
 compare the general properties of sound waves and  Pulse echo method could be used to estimate the speed of sound
those of light waves
audible frequency  determine the audible frequency range
range  examine the existence of ultrasound beyond the
audible frequency range
musical notes  compare musical notes using pitch, loudness and  Harmonics and overtones are not required
quality  Quality of sound in terms of different shapes of waveform only
 relate frequency and amplitude with the pitch and
loudness of a note respectively
noise  represent sound intensity level using the unit  Typical noise level in daily life is required
decibel  Noise pollution (very briefly) is required
 discuss the effects of noise pollution and the  The definition of sound intensity level is not required
importance of acoustic protection  Relationship between intensity level and amplitude is not required
 Curves of equal loudness are not required
 Qualitative treatment of sound intensity level only

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 10 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Electricity and Magnetism (48 hours)
Topics Content Notes for Teachers
(a) Electrostatics
electric charges  examine the evidence for two kinds of charges in  Concepts of conductor and insulator are required
nature  Charging by sharing and induction is required
 realise the attraction and repulsion between  Quantity of charge using the SI unit of charge in C (Coulomb) is required
charges  Addition of electric forces due to the interaction of point charges in 2D is
 state Coulomb’s law required

 interpret charging in terms of electron transfer  Gold-leaf electroscope could be used as an instrument to demonstrate the
 solve problems involving forces between point presence of electric charges
charges
Mathematics skills involved:
Module 2 (Algebra and Calculus)
 15. Introduction to Vectors
electric field  describe the electric field around a point charge  Point action is not required
and between parallel charged plates  Charge distributions on a metal sphere and parallel plates are required
 represent an electric field using field lines  Charge distribution on an irregular shaped metal surface is not required
 explain how charges interact via an electric field  Calculating resultant force on a moving charged particle in an electric
 define electric field strength E at a point as the field is required
force per unit charge on a positive test charge  Analogy with gravitational field is not required
placed at that point  Flame probe is not required
 state electric field strength around a point charge  Quantitative treatment of electric field strength around point charges and
parallel plates is required
by and between parallel plates by
 Note that electric field strength is a vector quantity
, and solve problems
 Experiments involving a shuttling ball and foil strip could be used to
demonstrate electric force and field
 Introduce the concept of potential difference V in “electrical energy and
electromotive force” prior to applying to solve problems

## Mathematics skills involved:

Compulsory Part in Math
 12. Equations of straight lines and circles – slope of a straight line
(b) Circuits and
domestic
electricity
electric current  define electric current as the rate of flow of  Same treatment as in HKCEE
electric charges
 state the convention for the direction of electric
current

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 11 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for Teachers
electrical energy and  describe the energy transformations in electric  Same treatment as in HKCEE
electromotive force circuits
 define the potential difference (p.d.) between two
points in a circuit as the electric potential energy
converted to other forms per unit charge passing
between the points outside the source
 define the electromotive force (e.m.f.) of a source
as the energy imparted by the source per unit
charge passing through it
resistance
 define resistance  Demonstration of the variation of current with applied p.d. in various
conductors and circuit elements (metals, a filament bulb, electrolyte,
 describe the variation of current with applied p.d. thermistors and diodes) is encouraged
in metal wires, electrolytes, filament lamps and
diodes
 realise Ohm’s law as a special case of resistance
behaviour
 determine the factors affecting the resistance of a
wire and define its resistivity
 describe the effect of temperature on resistance of
metals and semiconductors
series and parallel  compare series and parallel circuits in terms of  Quantitative problems involving simple parallel and series circuits are
circuits p.d. across the components of each circuit and the required
current through them  The concept of the conservation of charge and energy of a closed circuit is
 derive the resistance combinations in series and required
parallel
R = R1 + R2 + ... for resistors connected in series
⋯ for resistors connected in
parallel
simple circuits  measure I, V and R in simple circuits  The structure of ammeter and voltmeter, and operation principles are not
 assign the electrical potential of any earthed points required
as zero  Loading effect of ammeter and voltmeter on measurement is required
 compare the e.m.f. of a source and the terminal  Concept of potential divider is required
voltage across the source experimentally and  Problems on converting a moving coil meter by using a shunt or a
relate the difference to the internal resistance of multiplier are not required
the source  Concept of internal resistance of a power supply (e.g. battery) is required

 explain the effects of resistance of ammeters and  Digital multimeter could be used to measure current (A), voltage (V) and
voltmeters on measurements resistance ()
 solve problems involving simple circuits
 Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 12 / 17
SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for Teachers
electrical power  examine the heating effect when a current passes  Same treatment as in HKCEE
through a conductor  Calculating the power rating and maximum possible current of an appliance
 apply P = VI to solve problems is required
 Applying V=IR and P=VI to solve problems is required

domestic electricity  determine the power rating of electrical appliances  Same treatment as in HKCEE
 use kilowatt-hour (kWh) as a unit of electrical  Understanding of household wiring and discussing safety aspects (e.g. live /
energy neutral / earth wires) are required
 calculate the costs of running various electrical  Function of earth wire to prevent electric shock is required
appliances  The use of fuse and circuit breaker as a safety device is required, but
 understand household wiring and discuss safety detailed structure of them is not required
aspects of domestic electricity  Ring circuit in domestic electricity is required
 determine the operating current for electrical
appliances
 discuss the choice of power cables and fuses for
electrical appliances based on the power rating

(c) Electromagnetism
magnetic force and  realise the attraction and repulsion between  Plotting compass, hall probe, current balance and search coil could be
magnetic field magnetic poles used to examine magnetic field
 examine the magnetic field in the region around a
magnet
 describe the behaviour of a compass in a magnetic
field
 represent magnetic field using field lines

magnetic effect of  realise the existence of a magnetic field due to  Use Tesla (T) as a unit of magnetic flux density B
electric current moving charges or electric currents  Numerical problems involving magnetic fields around a straight wire, and
 examine the magnetic field patterns associated inside a long solenoid carrying current are required
with currents through a long straight wire, a  Derivation of the equations and by ampere’s law is not
circular coil and a long solenoid
required
 apply and to represent the
magnetic fields around a long straight wire, and
inside a long solenoid carrying current, and solve
related problems
 examine the factors affecting the strength of an
electromagnet

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 13 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for Teachers
force due to magnetic  examine the existence of a force on a current-  Quantitative treatment of the force between currents in long straight parallel
field carrying conductor in a magnetic field and conductors is required
determine the relative directions of force, field and  Turning moment (torque) of a current carrying coil in a magnetic field is
current required
 determine the factors affecting the force on a  Principles of design / structure and operation of a moving-coil galvanometer
straight current-carrying wire in a magnetic field are not required
and represent the force by F = BIl sinθ  Relative directions of force, field and current is required
 determine the turning effect on a current-carrying  Moment of a force is introduced in “ Force and Motion”
coil in a magnetic field  Calculating resultant force on a moving charged particle in a magnetic field
 describe the structure of a simple d.c. motor and is required
how it works
 solve problems involving current-carrying
conductors in a magnetic field
 represent the force on a moving charge in a
magnetic field by F = BQv sinθ
and solve problems
electromagnetic  examine induced e.m.f. resulting from a moving  Numerical problems on the application of Faraday’s law are required
induction conductor in a steady magnetic field or a
stationary conductor in a changing magnetic field  Using CRO as a meter / detector in practical work is encouraged. The
 apply Lenz’s law to determine the direction of detailed structure of CRO is not required
induced e.m.f./current  Using induction cooking as an example of practical uses of eddy currents
 define magnetic flux Φ = BA cosθand weber is encouraged
(Wb) as a unit of magnetic flux
 interpret magnetic field B as magnetic flux density
ΔΦ
 State Faraday's Law as and apply it
Δ
to calculate the average induced e.m.f.
 examine magnetic fields using a search coil
 describe the structures of simple d.c. and a.c.
generators and how they work
 discuss the occurrence and practical uses of eddy
currents

alternating currents  distinguish between direct currents (d.c.) and  Relate the r.m.s. and peak value of an a.c. for sinusoidal waves only
(a.c.) alternating currents (a.c.)
 define r.m.s. of an alternating current as the steady Mathematics skills involved:
d.c. which converts electric potential energy to Compulsory Part in Math
other forms in a given pure resistance at the same  13.1 understand the functions sine, cosine and tangent, and their graphs and
rate as that of the a.c. properties, including maximum and minimum values and periodicity
 relate the r.m.s. and peak values of an a.c.

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 14 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for Teachers

transformer  describe the structure of a simple transformer and  Same treatment as in HKCEE
how it works  Ohmic loss and eddy current loss are required
 relate the voltage ratio to turn ratio by
and apply it solve problems
 examine methods for improving the efficiency of
a transformer
high voltage  discuss the advantages of transmission of  Same treatment as in HKCEE
transmission electrical energy with a.c. at high voltages
of electrical energy  describe various stages of stepping up and down
of the voltage in a grid system for power
transmission

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 15 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy (16 hours)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
and
X-rays  realise X-rays as ionizing electromagnetic radiations  X-ray spectrum and the detailed production mechanism of X- rays are not
of short wavelengths with high penetrating power required
 realise the emission of X-rays when fast electrons hit
a heavy metal target
 discuss the uses of X-rays
α, β and γ  describe the origin and nature of α, β and γ radiations  Qualitative treatment only for the penetration power of the three type of
penetrating power, ranges, ionizing power, behaviour  Quantitative treatment of attenuation of radiation is not required.
in electric field and magnetic field, and cloud
chamber tracks
radioactive decay  realise the occurrence of radioactive decay in unstable  Using linear scale graph to plot decay curve is expected, but using log
nuclides graph to plot decay curve is not required
 examine the random nature of radioactive decay  Mixture of radioactive sources for simple cases only
 state the proportional relationship between the  Conservation of charge and mass number in decay series is required
activity of a sample and the number of undecayed  Interpretation of decay constant k as the constant chance of an atom
nuclei decaying per unit time
 define half-life as the period of time over which the  Carbon dating is required
number of radioactive nuclei decreases by a factor of  Derivation of exponential law of decay is not required
one-half  The conversion of measured radioactivity in unit of cps to the absolute
 determine the half-life of a radioisotope from its radioactivity of the sample in Bq is not required.
decay graph or from numerical data  The effect of background radiation to the measurement of radioactivity is
 realise the existence of background radiation required.
 solve problems involving radioactive decay  Factors, such as detector efficiency, counting geometry, self-absorption of
 represent the number of undecayed nuclei by the the radiation in the sample, which affect the absolute measurement of
exponential law of decay N = No e-kt radioactivity are not required
 apply the exponential law of decay N = No e-kt to
solve problems  Note the difference between measured radioactivity and the absolute
 relate the decay constant and the half-life radioactivity of a radioactive sample. The Becquerel (Bq) is an absolute
(For teacher’s reference)
 The Becquerel (Bq) is the SI-derived unit of radioactivity. One Bq is
defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one
nucleus decays per second. The Bq unit is therefore equivalent to s−1
(For teacher’s reference)

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 16 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
Mathematics skills involved:
Compulsory Part in Math - 3. Exponential and logarithmic functions
 Module 1 (Calculus and Statistics) – 2. Exponential and Logarithmic
functions
 Module 2 (Algebra and Calculus) – 5. Introduction to the number e

detection of  detect radiation with a photographic film and GM  Suitability of photographic film and GM counter for detection of α, β and γ
 detect radiation in terms of count rate using a GM  Familiarity with cloud chamber tracks (in photography) is required
counter  The structure and operation principle of an ionization chamber and a cloud
chamber are not required
sievert (Sv)
 discuss potential hazards of ionizing radiation and the  Note the exposure time and radiation exposure level for estimating the
ways to minimise the radiation dose absorbed radiation dosage (For teacher’s reference)
 suggest safety precautions in handling radioactive
sources
(b) Atomic
model
atomic structure  describe the structure of an atom  Same treatment as HKCEE
 define atomic number as the number of protons in the
nucleus and mass number as the sum of the number of
protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
 use symbolic notations to represent nuclides
isotopes and  define isotope  Same treatment as HKCEE
transmutation elements
 discuss uses of radioactive isotopes
 represent radioactive transmutations in α, β and γ
decays using equations
(c) Nuclear
energy
nuclear fission  realise the release of energy in nuclear fission and  Operation principle of nuclear power station, structure of nuclear reactor,
and fusion fusion control rods / moderators are not required
 realise nuclear chain reaction
 realise nuclear fusion as the source of solar energy
mass-energy  state mass-energy relationship ΔE = Δm c2  If conversion between units (u, MeV and J) is required, the following will
relationship  use atomic mass unit as a unit of energy be given: 1 u = 931 MeV
 determine the energy release in nuclear reactions  Mole, molar mass and Avogadro’s number are required
 apply ΔE = Δm c2 to solve problems

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 17 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Astronomy and Space Science (25 hours)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
(a) The universe as seen
in different scales
structure of the universe  use the “Powers of Ten” approach to describe the  A brief introduction to the relative order of magnitude of the
basic features and hierarchy of celestial bodies such celestial bodies only, exact values are not required
as satellite, planet, star, star cluster, nebula, galaxy  The names of the eight planets of the solar system are not required
and cluster of galaxies, as seen in different spatial
scales
 define the basic terminologies such as light year and
astronomical unit for describing the spatial scale
(b) Astronomy through
history
models of planetary  compare the heliocentric model with the geocentric  A brief historic review of geocentric model and heliocentric model
motion model in explaining the motion of planets on the serves to stimulate students to think critically about how scientific
celestial sphere hypotheses were built on the basis of observation
 describe Galileo’s astronomical discoveries and  Realize the retrograde motion of planets
discuss their implications  Note that the planets Mercury and Venus always appear close to
 describe planetary motion using Kepler’s laws the Sun
 Be familiar with the basic terminologies of an ellipse (focus and
semi-major axis)
 Variation of speed in elliptical orbit is expected (Kepler’s Second
Law)
 Angular momentum is not required
(c) Orbital motions
under gravity
Newton’s law of  apply Newton’s law of gravitation F 
GMm
to  “Uniform circular motion” and “Gravitation” are introduced in the
gravitation r2 Compulsory Part - “Force and Motion”
explain the motion of celestial bodies in circular  Application of the Kepler’s third law to solve problems involving
orbits elliptical orbits by using semi-major axis (a) instead of radius (r) is
 derive Kepler’s third law T 2  r 3 for circular orbits required
from Newton’s law of gravitation  Solving problems involving the motion of planets, moons and
 state Kepler’s third law for elliptical orbits satellites is required
4 2 a 3  Direct application of T2 (in Earth years) = a3 (in AU) to orbital
T2  motions around the Sun is not required
GM
 apply Kepler’s third law to solve problems involving
circular and elliptical orbits
weightlessness  explain apparent weightlessness in an orbiting
spacecraft as a result of acceleration due to gravity
being independent of mass

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 1 / 12

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
conservation of energy  interpret the meaning of gravitational potential  Discussion of the motion of a satellite with an energy loss is not
GMm required
energy and its expression U  
r
 apply conservation of mechanical energy to solve
problems involving the motion of celestial bodies or
spacecraft
 determine the escape velocity on a celestial body
(d) Stars and the
universe
stellar luminosity and  determine the distance of a celestial body using the  Use of d = 1/p (where p is in arc-seconds, d is in parsecs) and
classification method of parallax quantitative analysis of photographic images to determine the
 use parsec (pc) as a unit of distance distance of celestial body is required. As a unit of distance, parsecs
 realise magnitude as a measure of brightness of can be expressed in AU or light years.
celestial bodies  Calculation of apparent magnitude and absolute magnitude is not
 distinguish between apparent magnitude and absolute required but qualitative treatment is expected
magnitude  The surface temperature of stars in relation to their spectral classes
 describe the effect of surface temperature on the is not required
colour and luminosity of a star using blackbody  Stellar evolution is not required
radiation curves  Note that Stefan’s law gives the radiant power output per unit
 realise the existence of spectral lines in the spectra of surface area of a blackbody while luminosity gives the absolute
stars (total) radiant power output of an object
 state major spectral classes: O B A F G K M and  Note that absolute magnitude or luminosity (Sun = 1) of stars is
relate them to the surface temperature of stars taken as the y-axis while surface temperature of stars is taken as
 state Stefan’s law and apply it to derive the the x-axis in the H-R diagram
luminosity L = 4R2T4 for a spherical blackbody
 represent information of classification for stars on the Mathematics skills involved
Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram according to Module 2 (Algebra and Calculus) in Math - (4) More about
their luminosities and surface temperatures trigonometric Functions
 use H-R diagram and Stefan’s law to estimate the  4.1 understand the concept of radian measure
relative sizes of stars  4.2 find arc lengths and areas of sectors through radian measure
Doppler effect  vr  Simple application of Doppler effect and radial velocity curve is
 realise the Doppler effect and apply  to
o c expected
 Simple qualitative understanding of the problems related to dark
determine the radial velocity of celestial bodies
matter and expansion of the universe is expected
 use the radial velocity curve to determine the orbital
radius, speed, and period of a small celestial body in
circular orbital motion around a massive body as seen
along the orbital plane
 relate the rotation curve of stars around galaxies to
the existence of dark matter
 relate the red shift to the expansion of the universe

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 2 / 12

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Atomic World (25 hours)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
(a) Rutherford’s atomic
model
the structure of atom  describe Rutherford’s construction of an atomic  Note that scattering experiments are commonly used in modern
model consisting of a nucleus and electrons physics researches for finding the structure of atoms and searching
 state the limitations of Rutherford’s atomic model in for new particles
accounting for the motion of electrons around the  The setups of different scattering experiments and the names of
nucleus and line spectra new particles found by the scattering experiments are not required
 realise the importance of scattering experiments in
the discovery of the structure of atoms and the
impact on the searching for new particles
(b) Photoelectric effect
evidence for light quanta  describe photoelectric effect experiment and its  The use of gold-leaf electroscope in photoelectric effect
results experiment is not required
 state the limitations of the wave model of light in  The use of photocell in photoelectric effect experiment is implied
explaining the photoelectric effect  Applications of photocell are not required
Einstein’s interpretation of  state photon energy E = hf  Stopping potential of photoelectrons in photoelectric effect
photoelectric effect and  describe how the intensity of the incident light of a experiments is implied
photoelectric equation given frequency is related to the number of photons  Expressing work function in terms of threshold frequency
 explain photoelectric effect using Einstein’s (   hf0 ) is required
1
photoelectric equation hf    m e v max 2  Millikan’s photoelectric experiment is not required
2
 realise the photoelectric effect as the evidence of
particle nature of light
 apply E = hf and Einstein’s photoelectric equation to
solve problems

## (c) Bohr’s atomic model

of hydrogen
line spectra  describe the special features of line spectra of  The names of spectral series (e.g. Lyman, Balmer and Paschen)
hydrogen atoms and other monatomic gases are not required
 explain spectral lines in terms of difference in
energies
 realise that the energy of a hydrogen atom can only
take on certain values
 realise line spectra as evidence of energy levels of
atoms

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 3 / 12

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
Bohr’s model of hydrogen  state the postulates that define Bohr’s model of  Basic knowledge of angular momentum = mvr is expected
atom hydrogen atom nh
  The derivation of the postulate m e vr   is not required
distinguish between the “quantum” and “classical” 2
aspects in the postulates of Bohr’s atomic model of
hydrogen

nh
 realise the postulate m e vr  as the quantization
2
of angular momentum of an electron around a
hydrogen nucleus where n=1,2,3… is the quantum
number labelling the nth Bohr orbit of the electron
 realise the equation for the energy of an electron in a
 Noted that electric potential energy ( ) and kinetic
hydrogen atom as energy ( ) can be used to explain the total energy
 4 
Etot (   1  me e  )   13.6 eV of an electron in a hydrogen atom
n 2  8h 2  o2  n2
 use electron-volt (eV) as a unit of energy
 distinguish ionization and excitation energies
.
 apply to solve problems
the interpretation of line  derive, by using Bohr’s equation of electron energy  Note that the expression is only for photon emission where “a” is
spectra . the higher level and “b” is the lower level”
and E=hf, the expression

 For the case of photon absorption (“a” is the lower level and “b” is
for the wavelength of photon emitted or absorbed
the higher level), the expression is given by
when an electron undergoes a transition from one .
energy level to another →
 interpret line spectra by the use of Bohr’s equation  The existence of dark lines (Fraunhöfer lines) in Sun’s spectrum is
of electron energy used to illustrate absorption spectrum
.
 apply E=hf and to solve  Emission line spectrum in monatomic gas discharge tube is used

to illustrate emission spectrum
problems
(d) Particles or Waves
 realise the wave-particle duality of electrons and h
 Note that the de Broglie formula λ  can be used to explain
light p
 describe evidences of electrons and light exhibiting nh
both wave and particle properties the quantization of angular momentum m e vr 

 relate the wave and particle properties of electrons
h
using the de Broglie formula λ
p

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 4 / 12

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
h
 apply λ  to solve problems
p
(e) Probing into nano
scale
physical properties of  understand that nano means 10-9  Note that different arrangements of atoms lead to different
materials in nano scale  realise that materials in nano scale can exist in physical properties (can be illustrated using the different forms of
various forms, such as nano wires, nano tubes and carbon)
nano particles  Limited to the following physical properties: optical (e.g. colour,
 realise that materials often exhibit different physical transparency), mechanical (e.g. strength, hardness) and electrical
properties when their sizes are reduced to nano scale (e.g. conductivity) properties

seeing at nano scale  describe the limitations of optical microscope in  Spherical and chromatic aberrations of optical microscope are not
seeing substances of small scale required
 describe how a transmission electron microscope  Detailed mechanism of focusing by electric and magnetic fields in
(TEM) works TEM is not required
 draw the analogy between the use of electric and 1.22λ
 Derivation of θ  is not required
magnetic fields in TEMs and lenses in optical d
microscopes
 estimate the anode voltage needed in a TEM to
accelerate electrons achieving wavelengths of the
order of atomic size
 explain the advantage of high resolution of TEM
using Rayleigh criterion for minimum resolvable
1.22λ
detail, θ 
d
 describe how a scanning tunnelling microscope
(STM) works in seeing nano particles (principles of
the tunnelling effect are not required)

recent development in  describe recent developments and applications of  Current developments and daily life applications of
nanotechnology nanotechnology in various areas related to daily life nanotechnology including: (1) Materials (stain-resistant fibres,
 discuss potential hazards, issues of risks and safety anti-bacterial / detoxicating / de-odorising nano paint, strong /
concerns for our lives and society in using flexible / light / conductive materials); (2) Information technology
nanotechnology (better data storage and computation); and (3) Health care &
Environment (chemical and biological sensors, drugs and delivery
devices, clean energy, clean air and water) are expected
 Note that nanotechnology is still developing
 Note that the long term effect of nano materials to safety, health,
and environment is still under investigation

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 5 / 12

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
 Information search could be arranged on the recent development
in nanotechnology
 Debates could be arranged on discussing potential hazards,
issues of risks and safety concerns in using nanotechnology

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 6 / 12

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Energy and Use of Energy (25 hours)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
(a) Electricity at home
energy consuming  state electricity as the main source for domestic  Identification of energy input and useful energy output in different
appliances at home energy appliances is required
 describe the energy conversion involved in electrical  Note that the concept of end-use energy efficiency and its
appliances application to solve problems are required
 define end-use energy efficiency in terms of the ratio
of the amount of useful energy output to energy
input
lighting  state the different types of lighting used at home  Note that the response of our light sensitive cells is frequency
 describe how incandescent lamps, gas discharge dependent
lamps and light emitting diodes (LED) work and  Quantitative treatment of efficacy of electric lights is required
interpret light emission in terms of energy change in
atomic level
 discuss cost effectiveness of incandescent lamps, gas
discharge lamps and light emitting diodes
 realise that the eye response depends on
wavelengths
 define luminous flux as the energy of light emitted
per unit time by a light source
 use lumen as a unit of luminous flux
 define illuminance as luminous flux falling on unit
area of a surface
 use lux as a unit of illuminance
 use inverse square law and Lambert’s cosine law to
solve problems involving illuminance
 define efficacy of electric lights as a ratio of
luminous flux (lm) to electrical power input (W) and
solve related problems
cooking without fire  describe how electric hotplates, induction cookers  Same treatment as HKCEE
and microwave ovens work in heat generation
 use the power rating of cookers to determine running
cost
 solve problems involving end-use energy efficiency
of cookers
hotplates, induction cookers and microwave ovens

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 7 / 12

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
moving heat around  describe how air-conditioner as a heat pump  Simple qualitative treatment of heat transfer during compression
transfers heat against its natural direction of flow and expansion is implied
 interpret cooling capacity as the rate at which a  1st law of thermodynamics (U=Q+W) is not required
cooling appliance is capable of removing heat from  Quantitative treatment of COP is required
a room and use kilowatt (kW) as a unit for cooling
capacity to solve related problems
 define coefficient of performance COP as ratio of
cooling capacity to electrical power input and solve
related problems
 discuss possible ways of using heat generated by
central air-conditioning systems
Energy Efficiency  discuss the uses of the Hong Kong Energy  Interpretation of Energy Efficiency Label of electrical appliances
Labelling Scheme Efficiency Labelling Scheme (EELS) for energy- is required
saving  EELS classifies the energy performance of appliances into five
 solve problems involving EELS grades from 1 to 5. Grade 1 is the most efficient and 5 is the least
 suggest examples of energy-saving devices efficient in that category
(b) Energy efficiency in
building and
transportation
building materials used to  Interpret as the rate of energy  Note that OTTV can be expressed by OTTV where
improve the energy
efficiency transfer by conduction and discuss the heat loss in refers to average rate of heat gain due to conduction and
conduction denotes average rate of heat gain due to solar radiation
 define thermal transmittance U-value of building  The term building envelope refers to the outermost layer of a
materials as and solve related problems building. It includes the roof, the walls and windows of all sides
 Qualitative treatment of solar control window film which
define the Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV)
selectively permits the transmission of EMW is required
as the average rate of heat gain per unit area into a
building through the building envelope and solve
 Teachers may refer to the “Teaching Kit for the Appreciation of
related problems
Architecture in Secondary School Curriculum” for the detailed
 discuss factors affecting the OTTV discussion of OTTV and calculation of OTTV.
 discuss the use of solar control window film in a (http://minisite.proj.hkedcity.net/hkiakit/cht/Science/index.html)
building
 discuss the factors affecting the energy efficiency of
buildings
electric vehicles  state the main components of the power system of  Qualitative treatment of the function of the main components of
electric vehicles EVs and hybrid vehicles is implied
 discuss the use of electric vehicles  Detailed internal function of the battery of EVs is not required
 state the main components of the power system of  Note that the use of EVs is to reduce pollutants in urban area
hybrid vehicles and compare their end-use energy  Pros and cons of fossil-fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles is implied
efficiency to fossil-fuel vehicles
 Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 8 / 12

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
 discuss the advantages of public transportation
systems and give examples
(c) Renewable and non-
renewable energy
sources
renewable and  describe the characteristics of renewable and non-  Note that the power output of a wind turbine depends on the
non-renewable energy renewable energy sources and give examples efficiency of converting the kinetic energy of air into electrical
sources  define solar constant as the total electromagnetic energy and is typically only 30% – 40% of the maximum power
Sun per unit time per unit area at the mean distance  Simple concept of a solar cell in terms of the electric field across
between the Earth and the Sun measured outside the PN junction which provides the voltage needed to drive the
Earth’s atmosphere current through an external load. By absorbing photon energy,
 solve problems involving the solar constant bounded electron is able to escape from its normal position to
 derive maximum power by wind turbine as become part of the current in an electrical circuit (For teachers’
reference)
, where  is the efficiency and solve
problems
 describe the energy conversion process for
hydroelectric power and solve problems
 define binding energy per nucleon in unit of eV and
solve problems
 relate the binding energy curve to nuclear fission
and fusion
 describe the principle of the fission reactor and state
the roles of moderator, coolant and control rods
 describe how a solar cell works
environmental impact of  discuss the impact of extraction, conversion,  Hong Kong Energy End-use Data, the consumption data of the
energy consumption distribution and use of energy on the environment different energy fuel types and the specific purposes for which
and society these fuels are consumed can be found in EMSD website
 discuss effect of greenhouse gases on global ( http://www.emsd.gov.hk/emsd/eng/pee/edata.shtml)
warming
 analyse the consumption data for different fuel types
in Hong Kong and their specific purposes

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 9 / 12

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Medical Physics (25 hours)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
(a) Making sense of the
eye and the ear
physics of vision  describe the function of light sensitive cells (rods  Relate accommodation process of the eye to physics principles by
and cones) of retina in vision referring to the basic structure of eye (same treatment as HKCEE)
 interpret spectral response of light sensitive cells  Interpret response curve of the light sensitive cells (rods and cones)
using receptor absorption curves to visible light
.
 apply resolving power to solve problems  Note that the response of the light sensitive cells is dependent on
the brightness of environment
 describe the process of accommodation of the eye
 Relate resolving power to the ability of an eye to distinguish small
details of an object
.
 Derivation of  is not required
 Relate angular resolution to the spatial resolution by multiplication
of the angle (in radians) with the distance to the object

defects of vision and their  define power of a lens as the reciprocal of the focal  The optical power (dioptre) is adjusted by changing the form
corrections length of a lens (curvature) of the elastic lens using the ciliary muscle
 use dioptre as a unit of power of a lens  Note that optical powers are approximately additive for thin lenses
 state the near point and far point of the eye placed close together
 describe the defects of vision including short sight  Note that distance of the near point of accommodation from the
(myopia), long sight (hypermetropia) and old sight eyes increases with age
(presbyopia) and their corrections  Presbyopia occurs when the near point of the eye is beyond the

physics of hearing  describe the pressure amplification in the middle ear  Note that pressure amplification is a combination of the lever action
 realise the response of the inner ear to incoming of the 3 ear bones and the area ratio of the ear drum and the oval
sound waves window. Detail of the lever action of the 3 ear bones is not required
 realise hearing perception of relative sound intensity  Note that cochlea acts as a frequency analyser - regions nearer its
levels and the need for a logarithmic scale to base resonate with higher-frequency signals; regions closer to its
represent the levels apex resonate with lower-frequency ones. Detail of inner ear
 apply sound intensity level structure is not required.
 Similar treatment of sound intensity level as HKAL, but
10 dB to solve problems
pressure level is not required
 interpret the curves of equal loudness  Relate equal loudness curves and loudness level (phons) to sound
 discuss the effects of noise on health of hearing intensity level (dB) of a pure note at 1 kHz

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 10 / 12

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
(b) Medical imaging
using non-ionizing
properties of ultrasound  describe how a piezoelectric transducer works in  Relate piezoelectric properties of a crystal to the generation and
generating and detecting an ultrasound pulse detection of ultrasound
 define acoustic impedance Z = ρc and compare the  Apply intensity reflection coefficient  to estimate the reflected and
acoustic impedances of various body tissues transmitted intensity of a ultrasound pulse across a boundary
 apply intensity reflection coefficient  Note that penetration depth of a ultrasound beam is frequency
dependent
to solve problems  Compensation of attenuation loss of a return pulse is not required

##  realise the dependence of attenuation of ultrasound Mathematics skills involved

on the nature of the medium and the frequency Compulsory Part in Math - 3. Exponential and logarithmic functions
 Module 1 (Calculus and Statistics) - 2. Exponential and
Logarithmic functions
 Module 2 (Algebra and Calculus) - 5. Introduction to the number e
ultrasound scans  realise A-scan and B-scan as range-measuring  Prior knowledge of pulse-echo measurements in sound waves is
systems assumed
 describe how A-scan works  Prior knowledge of wave nature of sound (reflection, refraction,
 interpret the pulse display of A-scan diffraction and interference) in “ Wave Motion” is assumed
 identify suitable frequency ranges of ultrasound for  Distinguish between the working principles of A-scan and B-scan
scanning based on penetration depth, resolution and  Understanding of the factors affecting the penetration depth and
body structures resolution, and hence the choice of frequencies for medical
 describe how B-scan works scanning
 estimate the size of a body tissue in a B-scan image
 discuss the advantages and limitations of ultrasound
scans in diagnosis
fibre optic endoscopy  describe the characteristics of an optical fibre  Prior knowledge of refraction of light (Snell’s Law) and total
 describe how a fibre optic endoscope works internal reflection is assumed
 describe how coherent bundle fibres form image  Basic components of a fibre optic endoscope such as lighting, lens
 solve problems involving optical fibre system (objective & eyepiece) and imaging system are required
 discuss the advantages and limitations of using  Note that fibre optic bundles are used to convey light from source
endoscope in diagnosis to distal tip, and carry image back to the eye / video monitor
(c) Medical imaging
using ionizing
X-ray radiographic  apply to determine the transmitted  Prior knowledge of exponential law of decay in ‘Radioactivity and
imaging intensity of a X-ray beam after travelling through a Nuclear Energy’ is assumed
certain thickness in a medium

##  Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 11 / 12

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)
Topics Content Notes for teachers
 relate the linear attenuation coefficient (μ) to half-  Derivation of half-value thickness and its application to solve
value thickness
 realise a radiographic image as a map of attenuation problems is required
of X-ray beam after passing body tissues  Note that attenuation coefficient  depends on tissue density
 explain the use of artificial contrast media such as  Relate a radiographic image to the X-ray intensity transmitted
barium meal in radiographic imaging through the body
 discuss the advantages and disadvantages of  Note that a X-ray radiographic image is a 2D projection of the X-
radiographic imaging in diagnosis ray attenuation of a 3D object
CT scan  describe how a computed tomography (CT) scanner  Detailed structure of CT machine is not required
works  Note that the CT image is reconstructed by back-projection of
 realise a CT image as a map of attenuation attenuation profiles
coefficients of body tissues  CT number is not required
 realise the image reconstruction process of CT  The differences in the use of CT images and X-ray radiographic
scanning images is required
 compare CT images with X-ray radiographic images
radionuclides for medical  identify the characteristics of radionuclides such as  The relationship between effective half-life, biological half-life and
uses technetium-99m used for diagnosis physical half-life is required
 define biological half-life as the time taken for half  Calculation of effective half-life of a radionuclide from its
the materials to be removed from the body by biological and physical half-life is required
biological processes and apply it to solve related  Application of effective half-life to solve problems is required
problems  Detailed structure of gamma camera is not required
 describe the use of radioisotopes as tracers for  The differences in the use of radionuclide images and X-ray
 realise a radionuclide image obtained by a gamma  Note that ionizing radiation used in medical imaging may lead to
camera as a map of radioisotopes distribution in a health risk
body
 compare radionuclide planar images with X-ray