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Topics Content Notes for teachers

(a) Temperature,

heat and

internal energy

temperature and realise temperature as the degree of hotness of an object Same treatment as in HKCEE

thermometers interpret temperature as a quantity associated with the Basic principle of how temperature dependent properties can be used

average kinetic energy due to the random motion of for measuring temperature is required

molecules in a system Calibrating a thermometer by plotting a linear graph is required

explain the use of temperature-dependent properties in The detailed structure and facts (e.g. working range, suitability) of

measuring temperature thermometers are not required

define and use degree Celsius as a unit of temperature

heat and realise that heat is the energy transferred as a result of the Same treatment as in HKCEE

internal energy temperature difference between two objects

describe the effect of mass, temperature and state of matter

on the internal energy of a system

relate internal energy to the sum of the kinetic energy of

random motion and the potential energy of molecules in the

system

specific heat define heat capacity as C and specific heat capacity

T

capacity

Q

as c

mT

determine the specific heat capacity of a substance

discuss the practical importance of the high specific heat

capacity of water

solve problems involving heat capacity and specific heat

capacity

(b) Transfer

processes

conduction, identify the means of energy transfer in terms of Same treatment as in HKCEE

convection and conduction, convection and radiation Molecular interpretation of convection is not required

radiation interpret energy transfer by conduction in terms of Factors affecting the rate of conduction are not required

molecular motion

realise the emission of infra-red radiation by hot objects

determine the factors affecting the emission and absorption

of radiation

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

(c) Change of

state

melting and state the three states of matter Same treatment as in HKCEE

freezing, determine the melting point and boiling point

boiling and

condensing

latent heat realise latent heat as the energy transferred during the Same treatment as in HKCEE

change of state without temperature change

interpret latent heat in terms of the change of potential

energy of the molecules during a change of state

Q

define specific latent heat of fusion as f

m

Q

define specific latent heat of vaporization as v

m

solve problems involving latent heat

evaporation realise the occurrence of evaporation below boiling point Same treatment as in HKCEE

explain the cooling effect of evaporation Qualitative explanation of evaporation and its cooling effect in terms

discuss the factors affecting rate of evaporation of molecular motion are required

explain evaporation in terms of molecular motion Interpreting the factors affecting the rate of evaporation in terms of

molecular motion is not required

(d) Gases

general gas law realise the existence of gas pressure Volume-Temperature and Pressure-Temperature relationships of a

verify Boyle’s law gas are used instead of Charles’ law and Pressure law

determine pressure-temperature and volume-temperature Describing experiments to verify Boyle’s law, V-T and p-T

relationships of a gas relationships of a gas are expected

determine absolute zero by the extrapolation of pressure- Avogadro’s law is not required

temperature or volume-temperature relationships Critical temperature is not required

use kelvin as a unit of temperature Heating and work done on gas (1st law of thermodynamics) are not

combine the three relationships (p-V, p-T and V-T) of a gas required

pV pV diagrams are required

to obtain the relationship constant Thermodynamic processes and cycles (e.g. isothermal, isobaric and

T

apply the general gas law pV= nRT to solve problems adiabatic) are not required

Mole, molar mass and Avogadro’s number are required

Compulsory Part in Math

6. Variations

12. Equations of straight lines and circles

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

kinetic theory realise the random motion of molecules in a gas Stating that at high temperature and low pressure a real gas behaves

realise the gas pressure resulted from molecular as an ideal gas is required

bombardment Detailed microscopic explanation for the condition of a real gas to

interpret gas expansion in terms of molecular motion show the behaviour of an ideal gas is not required

state the assumptions of the kinetic model of an ideal gas

realize that connects microscopic and Derivation of is not required

macroscopic quantities of an ideal gas and solve problems

interpret temperature of an ideal gas using Comparing with pV = nRT and deducing that the total

3RT kinetic energy of one mole of a monatomic gas is given by and

K.E.average

2N A hence the average kinetic energy of the monatomic gas molecule is

realise the condition that at high temperature and low , and T is proportional to the average kinetic energy are

pressure a real gas behaves as an ideal gas required.

solve problems involving kinetic theory

Boltzmann constant k is not required

Motion”

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Force and Motion (50 hours)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

(a) Position and

movement

position, distance describe the change of position of objects in terms of Combining percentage errors is not required

and displacement distance and displacement

present information on displacement-time graphs for Vernier caliper and micrometer could be used as instruments in

moving objects practical work

Compulsory Part in Math

2. Functions and graphs

9. More about graphs of functions

Calculus is not expected

scalars and vectors distinguish between scalar and vector quantities Mathematics skills involved - Module 2 (Algebra and Calculus) in

use scalars and vectors to represent physical quantities Math

15. Introduction to vectors

Teachers are expected to introduce the necessary basic ideas of

vectors

speed and velocity define average speed as the distance travelled in a given Relative velocity is not required

period of time and average velocity as the displacement

changed in a period of time Mathematics skills involved:

distinguish between instantaneous and average Compulsory Part in Math

speed/velocity 12. Equations of straight lines and circles

describe the motion of objects in terms of speed and

velocity

present information on velocity-time graphs for moving

objects

use displacement-time and velocity-time graphs to

determine the displacement and velocity of objects

uniform motion interpret the uniform motion of objects using algebraic and

graphical methods

solve problems involving displacement, time and velocity

acceleration define acceleration as the rate of change of velocity

use velocity-time graphs to determine the acceleration of

objects in uniformly accelerated motion

present information on acceleration-time graphs for moving

objects

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

equations of derive equations of uniformly accelerated motion Mathematics skills involved:

uniformly v u at Compulsory Part in Math

accelerated motion s 1

2

(u v )t 1. Quadratic equations in one unknown

s ut 12 at 2

v 2 u 2 2as

solve problems involving objects in uniformly accelerated

motion

vertical motion examine the motion of free-falling objects experimentally Dependence of air resistance on mass, size and shape of objects is

under gravity and estimate the acceleration due to gravity not required

present graphically information on vertical motions under

gravity

apply equations of uniformly accelerated motion to solve

problems involving objects in vertical motion

describe the effect of air resistance on the motion of objects

falling under gravity

(b) Force and

motion

Newton’s First describe the meaning of inertia and its relationship to mass Concepts and formulae of kinetic friction and static friction are not

Law of motion state Newton’s First Law of motion and use it to explain required

situations in which objects are at rest or in uniform motion

understand friction as a force opposing motion/tendency of

motion

addition and find the vector sum of coplanar forces graphically and Mathematics skills involved:

resolution of algebraically Compulsory Part in Math

forces resolve a force graphically and algebraically into 13. More about trigonometry

components along two mutually perpendicular directions

Newton’s Second describe the effect of a net force on the speed and/or Solving problems involving two-body or many-body systems is

Law of motion direction of motion of an object expected

state Newton’s Second Law of motion and verify F = ma

experimentally

use newton as a unit of force

use free-body diagrams to show the forces acting on objects

determine the net force acting on object(s)

apply Newton’s Second Law of motion to solve problems

involving motion in one dimension

Newton’s Third realise forces acting in pairs

Law of motion state Newton’s Third Law of motion and identify action and

reaction pair of forces

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

mass and weight distinguish between mass and weight

realise the relationship between mass and weight

moment of a force define moment of a force as the product of the force and its Same treatment as in HKCEE

perpendicular distance from the pivot Solving problems involving non-perpendicular forces is expected

discuss the uses of torques and couples Stability of an object (neutral, unstable and stable equilibrium in

state the conditions for equilibrium of forces acting on a relation to the position of C.G.) is not required

rigid body and solve problems involving a fixed pivot Suitable examples should be used to help students understand the

interpret the centre of gravity and determine it concept of moment of a force

experimentally

(c) Projectile describe the shape of the path taken by a projectile launched Resolving vector quantities into horizontal and vertical components

motion at an angle of projection and solving problems by considering the x and y directions separately

understand the independence of horizontal and vertical are required

motions Deriving the equations for the range, time of flight and maximum

solve problems involving projectile motion height is not required

Deriving the equation y(x) for the parabolic trajectory is not required

Quantitative treatment of air resistance on projectile motion is not

required

(d) Work, energy

and power

mechanical work interpret mechanical work as a way of energy transfer

define mechanical work done W = Fs cos

solve problems involving mechanical work

gravitational state that gravitational potential energy is the energy

potential energy possessed by an object due to its position under gravity

(P.E.) derive P.E. = mgh

solve problems involving gravitational potential energy

kinetic energy state that kinetic energy is the energy possessed by an

(K.E.) object due to its motion

derive K.E. = ½ mv2

solve problems involving kinetic energy

law of state the law of conservation of energy The concepts of energy being stored when spring/elastic cord is

conservation of discuss the inter-conversion of P.E. and K.E. with extended/compressed are required and that the amount of energy

energy in a closed consideration of energy loss stored increases with the extension/compression are also assumed

system solve problems involving conservation of energy The equation of elastic P.E. = ½kx2 is not required

Solving problems involving 2D motions (e.g. projectile motion) is

expected

power define power as the rate of energy transfer The use of equation P = Fv is expected

W

apply P to solve problems

t

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

(e) Momentum

linear momentum realise momentum as a quantity of motion of an object and

define momentum p = mv

change in understand that a net force acting on an object for a period “Change in momentum” is used instead of the term “impulse”

momentum and of time results a change in momentum Interpretation of F-t graph is expected

net force interpret force as the rate of change of momentum

(Newton’s Second Law of motion)

law of state the law of conservation of momentum and relate it to Deriving the law of conservation of momentum from Newton’s laws

conservation of Newton’s Third Law of motion of motion is expected

momentum distinguish between elastic and inelastic collisions Condition of right-angle fork collision (same mass, elastic) and its

solve problems involving momentum in one dimension applications (e.g. collision between -particle and Helium gas atom

in cloud chamber) are expected

Mathematical proof of the right-angle fork collision is not required

The extension of right-angle fork collision to cases of unequal

masses or with K.E. loss is not required

(f) Uniform define angular velocity as the rate of change of angular Identifying the centripetal force responsible for the object to undergo

circular displacement and relate it to linear velocity uniform circular motion is required

motion v2 Non-uniform circular motion (e.g. looping the loop, roller coaster

state centripetal acceleration a and apply it to solve and vertical motion of a bucket of water) is not required

r

problems involving uniform circular motion Overturning of vehicles (involving moment) is not required

realise the resultant force pointing towards the centre of Centrifuge is not required

uniform circular motion Discussing the motion and energy of a satellite with a K.E. loss is not

required

uniform circular motion

Compulsory Part in Math

12. Basic properties of circles

(g) Gravitation state Newton’s law of universal gravitation Gravitational field within the Earth / planet is not required

Addition of gravitational field strength due to two or more object is

define gravitational field strength as force per unit mass not required

determine the gravitational field strength at a point above a Kepler’s laws are not required

planet Escape velocity is not required

determine the velocity of an object in a circular orbit Paths of object being projected with different speeds are not required

solve problems involving gravitation

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Wave Motion (47 hours)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

(a) Nature and

properties of

waves

nature of waves interpret wave motion in terms of oscillation Huygen's principle is not required

realise waves as transmitting energy without

transferring matter

wave motion and distinguish between transverse and longitudinal Direction of motion of medium particles in displacement-distance graphs is

propagation waves assumed

describe wave motion in terms of waveform, crest, Predict the direction of motion of wave, time lags and time leads in

trough, compression, rarefaction, wavefront, phase, displacement-time and displacement-distance graphs

displacement, amplitude, period, frequency, Study phase difference between two sinusoidal waves in simple cases (in-

wavelength and wave speed phase and anti-phase) only

present information on displacement-time and Study displacement-time / displacement-position graphs of transverse and

displacement-distance graphs for travelling waves longitudinal waves

determine factors affecting the speed of propagation

of waves along stretched strings or springs

apply f = 1 / T and v = f λ to solve problems

reflection and realise the reflection of waves at a plane barrier/ Frequency measurement by stroboscope is not required

refraction reflector/ surface Phase difference between two arbitrary wave particles is not required

realise the refraction of waves across a plane

boundary Ripple tank could be used to demonstrate wave motion and wave

examine the change in wave speeds during properties.

refraction and define refractive index in terms of Video Camera and HDMVA could be used to analyse wave motion, and

wave speeds measure wavelength and speed

draw wavefront diagrams to show reflection and

refraction

diffraction and describe the diffraction of waves through a narrow Concept of phase / path difference is assumed in double slits interference

interference gap and around a corner Qualitative treatment only for diffraction of wave

examine the effect of the width of slit on the degree Problem on interference plus diffraction is not required

of diffraction Conversion between path difference and phase difference is required for in-

describe the superposition of two pulses phase and anti-phase interference only

realise the interference of waves Mathematical treatment of superposition is not required

distinguish between constructive and destructive

interferences Superposition of waves could be demonstrated on a long slinky

examine the interference of waves from two

coherent sources

determine the conditions for constructive and

destructive interferences in terms of path difference

draw wavefront diagrams to show diffraction and

interference

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

stationary wave explain the formation of a stationary wave Relationship between distance between adjacent nodes (anti-nodes) and

(transverse waves describe the characteristics of stationary waves wavelength is implied

only) Stationary sound (longitudinal) waves are not required

Measuring speed of sound using stationary wave is not required

Vibrations of strings could be used to demonstrate the characteristics of

stationary waves

(b) Light

light in state that the speed of light and electromagnetic

electromagnetic waves in a vacuum is 3.0 ×108 m s-1

spectrum state the range of wavelengths for visible light

state the relative positions of visible light and other

parts of the electromagnetic spectrum

reflection of light state the laws of reflection

construct images formed by a plane mirror

graphically

refraction of light examine the laws of refraction Refraction by a prism is assumed

sketch the path of a ray refracted at a boundary Dispersion of white light through a prism is assumed from Science (S1-3)

Curriculum

realize as the refractive index of a

Note that refractive index of light of different frequency (colour) is different

medium Solve problem related to the refractive index of different frequency of light

solve problems involving refraction at a boundary is required

General Snell’s law is assumed

Compulsory Part in Math

13. More about Trigonometry

total internal examine the conditions for total internal reflection Critical angle is assumed

reflection solve problems involving total internal reflection at

a boundary

formation of construct images formed by converging and Compound lens system, such as telescope and microscope, is not required

images by diverging lenses graphically Eye defects are not required

lenses distinguish between real and virtual images Using graphical and numerical methods to solve lens problems is assumed

apply to solve problems for a single

thin lens (using the convention “REAL is positive”)

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

wave nature of point out light as an example of transverse wave Air wedge / soap film / adding a thin film to Young’s double slits setting /

light realise diffraction and interference as evidences for immersing the set-up in water are not required

the wave nature of light Only principal maxima for Young’s double slit experiment is required

examine the interference patterns in the Young’s Derivation of the Young’s double slits formula and the diffraction grating

double slit experiment formula is not required

Interference pattern (fringes) of light is required

apply ∆ to solve problems Numerical problems related to double slits interference are implied

examine the interference patterns in the plane Assumptions of the Young’s double slits equation are expected

transmission grating Spectrometer is not required

apply d sinθ = nλ to solve problems

Diffraction grating could be used to measure wavelength of a particular

monochromatic light

(c) Sound

wave nature of realise sound as an example of longitudinal waves Interference pattern (change of loudness) in sound is assumed

sound realise that sound can exhibit reflection, refraction, Order of magnitude of speed of sound and light is expected

diffraction and interference Phase method and stationary wave method to measure speed of sound are

realise the need for a medium for sound not required

transmission

compare the general properties of sound waves and Pulse echo method could be used to estimate the speed of sound

those of light waves

audible frequency determine the audible frequency range

range examine the existence of ultrasound beyond the

audible frequency range

musical notes compare musical notes using pitch, loudness and Harmonics and overtones are not required

quality Quality of sound in terms of different shapes of waveform only

relate frequency and amplitude with the pitch and

loudness of a note respectively

noise represent sound intensity level using the unit Typical noise level in daily life is required

decibel Noise pollution (very briefly) is required

discuss the effects of noise pollution and the The definition of sound intensity level is not required

importance of acoustic protection Relationship between intensity level and amplitude is not required

Curves of equal loudness are not required

Qualitative treatment of sound intensity level only

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Electricity and Magnetism (48 hours)

Topics Content Notes for Teachers

(a) Electrostatics

electric charges examine the evidence for two kinds of charges in Concepts of conductor and insulator are required

nature Charging by sharing and induction is required

realise the attraction and repulsion between Quantity of charge using the SI unit of charge in C (Coulomb) is required

charges Addition of electric forces due to the interaction of point charges in 2D is

state Coulomb’s law required

interpret charging in terms of electron transfer Gold-leaf electroscope could be used as an instrument to demonstrate the

solve problems involving forces between point presence of electric charges

charges

Mathematics skills involved:

Module 2 (Algebra and Calculus)

15. Introduction to Vectors

electric field describe the electric field around a point charge Point action is not required

and between parallel charged plates Charge distributions on a metal sphere and parallel plates are required

represent an electric field using field lines Charge distribution on an irregular shaped metal surface is not required

explain how charges interact via an electric field Calculating resultant force on a moving charged particle in an electric

define electric field strength E at a point as the field is required

force per unit charge on a positive test charge Analogy with gravitational field is not required

placed at that point Flame probe is not required

state electric field strength around a point charge Quantitative treatment of electric field strength around point charges and

parallel plates is required

by and between parallel plates by

Note that electric field strength is a vector quantity

, and solve problems

Experiments involving a shuttling ball and foil strip could be used to

demonstrate electric force and field

Introduce the concept of potential difference V in “electrical energy and

electromotive force” prior to applying to solve problems

Compulsory Part in Math

12. Equations of straight lines and circles – slope of a straight line

(b) Circuits and

domestic

electricity

electric current define electric current as the rate of flow of Same treatment as in HKCEE

electric charges

state the convention for the direction of electric

current

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for Teachers

electrical energy and describe the energy transformations in electric Same treatment as in HKCEE

electromotive force circuits

define the potential difference (p.d.) between two

points in a circuit as the electric potential energy

converted to other forms per unit charge passing

between the points outside the source

define the electromotive force (e.m.f.) of a source

as the energy imparted by the source per unit

charge passing through it

resistance

define resistance Demonstration of the variation of current with applied p.d. in various

conductors and circuit elements (metals, a filament bulb, electrolyte,

describe the variation of current with applied p.d. thermistors and diodes) is encouraged

in metal wires, electrolytes, filament lamps and

diodes

realise Ohm’s law as a special case of resistance

behaviour

determine the factors affecting the resistance of a

wire and define its resistivity

describe the effect of temperature on resistance of

metals and semiconductors

series and parallel compare series and parallel circuits in terms of Quantitative problems involving simple parallel and series circuits are

circuits p.d. across the components of each circuit and the required

current through them The concept of the conservation of charge and energy of a closed circuit is

derive the resistance combinations in series and required

parallel

R = R1 + R2 + ... for resistors connected in series

⋯ for resistors connected in

parallel

simple circuits measure I, V and R in simple circuits The structure of ammeter and voltmeter, and operation principles are not

assign the electrical potential of any earthed points required

as zero Loading effect of ammeter and voltmeter on measurement is required

compare the e.m.f. of a source and the terminal Concept of potential divider is required

voltage across the source experimentally and Problems on converting a moving coil meter by using a shunt or a

relate the difference to the internal resistance of multiplier are not required

the source Concept of internal resistance of a power supply (e.g. battery) is required

explain the effects of resistance of ammeters and Digital multimeter could be used to measure current (A), voltage (V) and

voltmeters on measurements resistance ()

solve problems involving simple circuits

Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 12 / 17

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for Teachers

electrical power examine the heating effect when a current passes Same treatment as in HKCEE

through a conductor Calculating the power rating and maximum possible current of an appliance

apply P = VI to solve problems is required

Applying V=IR and P=VI to solve problems is required

domestic electricity determine the power rating of electrical appliances Same treatment as in HKCEE

use kilowatt-hour (kWh) as a unit of electrical Understanding of household wiring and discussing safety aspects (e.g. live /

energy neutral / earth wires) are required

calculate the costs of running various electrical Function of earth wire to prevent electric shock is required

appliances The use of fuse and circuit breaker as a safety device is required, but

understand household wiring and discuss safety detailed structure of them is not required

aspects of domestic electricity Ring circuit in domestic electricity is required

determine the operating current for electrical

appliances

discuss the choice of power cables and fuses for

electrical appliances based on the power rating

(c) Electromagnetism

magnetic force and realise the attraction and repulsion between Plotting compass, hall probe, current balance and search coil could be

magnetic field magnetic poles used to examine magnetic field

examine the magnetic field in the region around a

magnet

describe the behaviour of a compass in a magnetic

field

represent magnetic field using field lines

magnetic effect of realise the existence of a magnetic field due to Use Tesla (T) as a unit of magnetic flux density B

electric current moving charges or electric currents Numerical problems involving magnetic fields around a straight wire, and

examine the magnetic field patterns associated inside a long solenoid carrying current are required

with currents through a long straight wire, a Derivation of the equations and by ampere’s law is not

circular coil and a long solenoid

required

apply and to represent the

magnetic fields around a long straight wire, and

inside a long solenoid carrying current, and solve

related problems

examine the factors affecting the strength of an

electromagnet

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for Teachers

force due to magnetic examine the existence of a force on a current- Quantitative treatment of the force between currents in long straight parallel

field carrying conductor in a magnetic field and conductors is required

determine the relative directions of force, field and Turning moment (torque) of a current carrying coil in a magnetic field is

current required

determine the factors affecting the force on a Principles of design / structure and operation of a moving-coil galvanometer

straight current-carrying wire in a magnetic field are not required

and represent the force by F = BIl sinθ Relative directions of force, field and current is required

determine the turning effect on a current-carrying Moment of a force is introduced in “ Force and Motion”

coil in a magnetic field Calculating resultant force on a moving charged particle in a magnetic field

describe the structure of a simple d.c. motor and is required

how it works

solve problems involving current-carrying

conductors in a magnetic field

represent the force on a moving charge in a

magnetic field by F = BQv sinθ

and solve problems

electromagnetic examine induced e.m.f. resulting from a moving Numerical problems on the application of Faraday’s law are required

induction conductor in a steady magnetic field or a

stationary conductor in a changing magnetic field Using CRO as a meter / detector in practical work is encouraged. The

apply Lenz’s law to determine the direction of detailed structure of CRO is not required

induced e.m.f./current Using induction cooking as an example of practical uses of eddy currents

define magnetic flux Φ = BA cosθand weber is encouraged

(Wb) as a unit of magnetic flux

interpret magnetic field B as magnetic flux density

ΔΦ

State Faraday's Law as and apply it

Δ

to calculate the average induced e.m.f.

examine magnetic fields using a search coil

describe the structures of simple d.c. and a.c.

generators and how they work

discuss the occurrence and practical uses of eddy

currents

alternating currents distinguish between direct currents (d.c.) and Relate the r.m.s. and peak value of an a.c. for sinusoidal waves only

(a.c.) alternating currents (a.c.)

define r.m.s. of an alternating current as the steady Mathematics skills involved:

d.c. which converts electric potential energy to Compulsory Part in Math

other forms in a given pure resistance at the same 13.1 understand the functions sine, cosine and tangent, and their graphs and

rate as that of the a.c. properties, including maximum and minimum values and periodicity

relate the r.m.s. and peak values of an a.c.

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for Teachers

transformer describe the structure of a simple transformer and Same treatment as in HKCEE

how it works Ohmic loss and eddy current loss are required

relate the voltage ratio to turn ratio by

and apply it solve problems

examine methods for improving the efficiency of

a transformer

high voltage discuss the advantages of transmission of Same treatment as in HKCEE

transmission electrical energy with a.c. at high voltages

of electrical energy describe various stages of stepping up and down

of the voltage in a grid system for power

transmission

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy (16 hours)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

(a) Radiation

and

radioactivity

X-rays realise X-rays as ionizing electromagnetic radiations X-ray spectrum and the detailed production mechanism of X- rays are not

of short wavelengths with high penetrating power required

realise the emission of X-rays when fast electrons hit

a heavy metal target

discuss the uses of X-rays

α, β and γ describe the origin and nature of α, β and γ radiations Qualitative treatment only for the penetration power of the three type of

radiations compare α, β and γ radiations in terms of their radiations

penetrating power, ranges, ionizing power, behaviour Quantitative treatment of attenuation of radiation is not required.

in electric field and magnetic field, and cloud

chamber tracks

radioactive decay realise the occurrence of radioactive decay in unstable Using linear scale graph to plot decay curve is expected, but using log

nuclides graph to plot decay curve is not required

examine the random nature of radioactive decay Mixture of radioactive sources for simple cases only

state the proportional relationship between the Conservation of charge and mass number in decay series is required

activity of a sample and the number of undecayed Interpretation of decay constant k as the constant chance of an atom

nuclei decaying per unit time

define half-life as the period of time over which the Carbon dating is required

number of radioactive nuclei decreases by a factor of Derivation of exponential law of decay is not required

one-half The conversion of measured radioactivity in unit of cps to the absolute

determine the half-life of a radioisotope from its radioactivity of the sample in Bq is not required.

decay graph or from numerical data The effect of background radiation to the measurement of radioactivity is

realise the existence of background radiation required.

solve problems involving radioactive decay Factors, such as detector efficiency, counting geometry, self-absorption of

represent the number of undecayed nuclei by the the radiation in the sample, which affect the absolute measurement of

exponential law of decay N = No e-kt radioactivity are not required

apply the exponential law of decay N = No e-kt to

solve problems Note the difference between measured radioactivity and the absolute

relate the decay constant and the half-life radioactivity of a radioactive sample. The Becquerel (Bq) is an absolute

radioactivity while count per second (cps) is a measured radioactivity.

(For teacher’s reference)

The Becquerel (Bq) is the SI-derived unit of radioactivity. One Bq is

defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one

nucleus decays per second. The Bq unit is therefore equivalent to s−1

(For teacher’s reference)

SS Physics Curriculum- Compulsory Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

Mathematics skills involved:

Compulsory Part in Math - 3. Exponential and logarithmic functions

Module 1 (Calculus and Statistics) – 2. Exponential and Logarithmic

functions

Module 2 (Algebra and Calculus) – 5. Introduction to the number e

detection of detect radiation with a photographic film and GM Suitability of photographic film and GM counter for detection of α, β and γ

radiation counter emissions is required

detect radiation in terms of count rate using a GM Familiarity with cloud chamber tracks (in photography) is required

counter The structure and operation principle of an ionization chamber and a cloud

chamber are not required

radiation safety represent radiation equivalent dose using the unit Sources of background radiation and typical radiation doses is required

sievert (Sv)

discuss potential hazards of ionizing radiation and the Note the exposure time and radiation exposure level for estimating the

ways to minimise the radiation dose absorbed radiation dosage (For teacher’s reference)

suggest safety precautions in handling radioactive

sources

(b) Atomic

model

atomic structure describe the structure of an atom Same treatment as HKCEE

define atomic number as the number of protons in the

nucleus and mass number as the sum of the number of

protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

use symbolic notations to represent nuclides

isotopes and define isotope Same treatment as HKCEE

radioactive realise the existence of radioactive isotopes in some

transmutation elements

discuss uses of radioactive isotopes

represent radioactive transmutations in α, β and γ

decays using equations

(c) Nuclear

energy

nuclear fission realise the release of energy in nuclear fission and Operation principle of nuclear power station, structure of nuclear reactor,

and fusion fusion control rods / moderators are not required

realise nuclear chain reaction

realise nuclear fusion as the source of solar energy

mass-energy state mass-energy relationship ΔE = Δm c2 If conversion between units (u, MeV and J) is required, the following will

relationship use atomic mass unit as a unit of energy be given: 1 u = 931 MeV

determine the energy release in nuclear reactions Mole, molar mass and Avogadro’s number are required

apply ΔE = Δm c2 to solve problems

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Astronomy and Space Science (25 hours)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

(a) The universe as seen

in different scales

structure of the universe use the “Powers of Ten” approach to describe the A brief introduction to the relative order of magnitude of the

basic features and hierarchy of celestial bodies such celestial bodies only, exact values are not required

as satellite, planet, star, star cluster, nebula, galaxy The names of the eight planets of the solar system are not required

and cluster of galaxies, as seen in different spatial

scales

define the basic terminologies such as light year and

astronomical unit for describing the spatial scale

(b) Astronomy through

history

models of planetary compare the heliocentric model with the geocentric A brief historic review of geocentric model and heliocentric model

motion model in explaining the motion of planets on the serves to stimulate students to think critically about how scientific

celestial sphere hypotheses were built on the basis of observation

describe Galileo’s astronomical discoveries and Realize the retrograde motion of planets

discuss their implications Note that the planets Mercury and Venus always appear close to

describe planetary motion using Kepler’s laws the Sun

Be familiar with the basic terminologies of an ellipse (focus and

semi-major axis)

Variation of speed in elliptical orbit is expected (Kepler’s Second

Law)

Angular momentum is not required

(c) Orbital motions

under gravity

Newton’s law of apply Newton’s law of gravitation F

GMm

to “Uniform circular motion” and “Gravitation” are introduced in the

gravitation r2 Compulsory Part - “Force and Motion”

explain the motion of celestial bodies in circular Application of the Kepler’s third law to solve problems involving

orbits elliptical orbits by using semi-major axis (a) instead of radius (r) is

derive Kepler’s third law T 2 r 3 for circular orbits required

from Newton’s law of gravitation Solving problems involving the motion of planets, moons and

state Kepler’s third law for elliptical orbits satellites is required

4 2 a 3 Direct application of T2 (in Earth years) = a3 (in AU) to orbital

T2 motions around the Sun is not required

GM

apply Kepler’s third law to solve problems involving

circular and elliptical orbits

weightlessness explain apparent weightlessness in an orbiting

spacecraft as a result of acceleration due to gravity

being independent of mass

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

conservation of energy interpret the meaning of gravitational potential Discussion of the motion of a satellite with an energy loss is not

GMm required

energy and its expression U

r

apply conservation of mechanical energy to solve

problems involving the motion of celestial bodies or

spacecraft

determine the escape velocity on a celestial body

(d) Stars and the

universe

stellar luminosity and determine the distance of a celestial body using the Use of d = 1/p (where p is in arc-seconds, d is in parsecs) and

classification method of parallax quantitative analysis of photographic images to determine the

use parsec (pc) as a unit of distance distance of celestial body is required. As a unit of distance, parsecs

realise magnitude as a measure of brightness of can be expressed in AU or light years.

celestial bodies Calculation of apparent magnitude and absolute magnitude is not

distinguish between apparent magnitude and absolute required but qualitative treatment is expected

magnitude The surface temperature of stars in relation to their spectral classes

describe the effect of surface temperature on the is not required

colour and luminosity of a star using blackbody Stellar evolution is not required

radiation curves Note that Stefan’s law gives the radiant power output per unit

realise the existence of spectral lines in the spectra of surface area of a blackbody while luminosity gives the absolute

stars (total) radiant power output of an object

state major spectral classes: O B A F G K M and Note that absolute magnitude or luminosity (Sun = 1) of stars is

relate them to the surface temperature of stars taken as the y-axis while surface temperature of stars is taken as

state Stefan’s law and apply it to derive the the x-axis in the H-R diagram

luminosity L = 4R2T4 for a spherical blackbody

represent information of classification for stars on the Mathematics skills involved

Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram according to Module 2 (Algebra and Calculus) in Math - (4) More about

their luminosities and surface temperatures trigonometric Functions

use H-R diagram and Stefan’s law to estimate the 4.1 understand the concept of radian measure

relative sizes of stars 4.2 find arc lengths and areas of sectors through radian measure

Doppler effect vr Simple application of Doppler effect and radial velocity curve is

realise the Doppler effect and apply to

o c expected

Simple qualitative understanding of the problems related to dark

determine the radial velocity of celestial bodies

matter and expansion of the universe is expected

use the radial velocity curve to determine the orbital

radius, speed, and period of a small celestial body in

circular orbital motion around a massive body as seen

along the orbital plane

relate the rotation curve of stars around galaxies to

the existence of dark matter

relate the red shift to the expansion of the universe

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Atomic World (25 hours)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

(a) Rutherford’s atomic

model

the structure of atom describe Rutherford’s construction of an atomic Note that scattering experiments are commonly used in modern

model consisting of a nucleus and electrons physics researches for finding the structure of atoms and searching

state the limitations of Rutherford’s atomic model in for new particles

accounting for the motion of electrons around the The setups of different scattering experiments and the names of

nucleus and line spectra new particles found by the scattering experiments are not required

realise the importance of scattering experiments in

the discovery of the structure of atoms and the

impact on the searching for new particles

(b) Photoelectric effect

evidence for light quanta describe photoelectric effect experiment and its The use of gold-leaf electroscope in photoelectric effect

results experiment is not required

state the limitations of the wave model of light in The use of photocell in photoelectric effect experiment is implied

explaining the photoelectric effect Applications of photocell are not required

Einstein’s interpretation of state photon energy E = hf Stopping potential of photoelectrons in photoelectric effect

photoelectric effect and describe how the intensity of the incident light of a experiments is implied

photoelectric equation given frequency is related to the number of photons Expressing work function in terms of threshold frequency

explain photoelectric effect using Einstein’s ( hf0 ) is required

1

photoelectric equation hf m e v max 2 Millikan’s photoelectric experiment is not required

2

realise the photoelectric effect as the evidence of

particle nature of light

apply E = hf and Einstein’s photoelectric equation to

solve problems

of hydrogen

line spectra describe the special features of line spectra of The names of spectral series (e.g. Lyman, Balmer and Paschen)

hydrogen atoms and other monatomic gases are not required

explain spectral lines in terms of difference in

energies

realise that the energy of a hydrogen atom can only

take on certain values

realise line spectra as evidence of energy levels of

atoms

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

Bohr’s model of hydrogen state the postulates that define Bohr’s model of Basic knowledge of angular momentum = mvr is expected

atom hydrogen atom nh

The derivation of the postulate m e vr is not required

distinguish between the “quantum” and “classical” 2

aspects in the postulates of Bohr’s atomic model of

hydrogen

nh

realise the postulate m e vr as the quantization

2

of angular momentum of an electron around a

hydrogen nucleus where n=1,2,3… is the quantum

number labelling the nth Bohr orbit of the electron

realise the equation for the energy of an electron in a

Noted that electric potential energy ( ) and kinetic

hydrogen atom as energy ( ) can be used to explain the total energy

4

Etot ( 1 me e ) 13.6 eV of an electron in a hydrogen atom

n 2 8h 2 o2 n2

use electron-volt (eV) as a unit of energy

distinguish ionization and excitation energies

.

apply to solve problems

the interpretation of line derive, by using Bohr’s equation of electron energy Note that the expression is only for photon emission where “a” is

spectra . the higher level and “b” is the lower level”

and E=hf, the expression

→

For the case of photon absorption (“a” is the lower level and “b” is

for the wavelength of photon emitted or absorbed

the higher level), the expression is given by

when an electron undergoes a transition from one .

energy level to another →

interpret line spectra by the use of Bohr’s equation The existence of dark lines (Fraunhöfer lines) in Sun’s spectrum is

of electron energy used to illustrate absorption spectrum

.

apply E=hf and to solve Emission line spectrum in monatomic gas discharge tube is used

→

to illustrate emission spectrum

problems

(d) Particles or Waves

realise the wave-particle duality of electrons and h

Note that the de Broglie formula λ can be used to explain

light p

describe evidences of electrons and light exhibiting nh

both wave and particle properties the quantization of angular momentum m e vr

2π

relate the wave and particle properties of electrons

h

using the de Broglie formula λ

p

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

h

apply λ to solve problems

p

(e) Probing into nano

scale

physical properties of understand that nano means 10-9 Note that different arrangements of atoms lead to different

materials in nano scale realise that materials in nano scale can exist in physical properties (can be illustrated using the different forms of

various forms, such as nano wires, nano tubes and carbon)

nano particles Limited to the following physical properties: optical (e.g. colour,

realise that materials often exhibit different physical transparency), mechanical (e.g. strength, hardness) and electrical

properties when their sizes are reduced to nano scale (e.g. conductivity) properties

seeing at nano scale describe the limitations of optical microscope in Spherical and chromatic aberrations of optical microscope are not

seeing substances of small scale required

describe how a transmission electron microscope Detailed mechanism of focusing by electric and magnetic fields in

(TEM) works TEM is not required

draw the analogy between the use of electric and 1.22λ

Derivation of θ is not required

magnetic fields in TEMs and lenses in optical d

microscopes

estimate the anode voltage needed in a TEM to

accelerate electrons achieving wavelengths of the

order of atomic size

explain the advantage of high resolution of TEM

using Rayleigh criterion for minimum resolvable

1.22λ

detail, θ

d

describe how a scanning tunnelling microscope

(STM) works in seeing nano particles (principles of

the tunnelling effect are not required)

recent development in describe recent developments and applications of Current developments and daily life applications of

nanotechnology nanotechnology in various areas related to daily life nanotechnology including: (1) Materials (stain-resistant fibres,

discuss potential hazards, issues of risks and safety anti-bacterial / detoxicating / de-odorising nano paint, strong /

concerns for our lives and society in using flexible / light / conductive materials); (2) Information technology

nanotechnology (better data storage and computation); and (3) Health care &

Environment (chemical and biological sensors, drugs and delivery

devices, clean energy, clean air and water) are expected

Note that nanotechnology is still developing

Note that the long term effect of nano materials to safety, health,

and environment is still under investigation

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

Information search could be arranged on the recent development

in nanotechnology

Debates could be arranged on discussing potential hazards,

issues of risks and safety concerns in using nanotechnology

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Energy and Use of Energy (25 hours)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

(a) Electricity at home

energy consuming state electricity as the main source for domestic Identification of energy input and useful energy output in different

appliances at home energy appliances is required

describe the energy conversion involved in electrical Note that the concept of end-use energy efficiency and its

appliances application to solve problems are required

define end-use energy efficiency in terms of the ratio

of the amount of useful energy output to energy

input

lighting state the different types of lighting used at home Note that the response of our light sensitive cells is frequency

describe how incandescent lamps, gas discharge dependent

lamps and light emitting diodes (LED) work and Quantitative treatment of efficacy of electric lights is required

interpret light emission in terms of energy change in

atomic level

discuss cost effectiveness of incandescent lamps, gas

discharge lamps and light emitting diodes

realise that the eye response depends on

wavelengths

define luminous flux as the energy of light emitted

per unit time by a light source

use lumen as a unit of luminous flux

define illuminance as luminous flux falling on unit

area of a surface

use lux as a unit of illuminance

use inverse square law and Lambert’s cosine law to

solve problems involving illuminance

define efficacy of electric lights as a ratio of

luminous flux (lm) to electrical power input (W) and

solve related problems

cooking without fire describe how electric hotplates, induction cookers Same treatment as HKCEE

and microwave ovens work in heat generation

use the power rating of cookers to determine running

cost

solve problems involving end-use energy efficiency

of cookers

discuss the advantages and disadvantages of electric

hotplates, induction cookers and microwave ovens

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

moving heat around describe how air-conditioner as a heat pump Simple qualitative treatment of heat transfer during compression

transfers heat against its natural direction of flow and expansion is implied

interpret cooling capacity as the rate at which a 1st law of thermodynamics (U=Q+W) is not required

cooling appliance is capable of removing heat from Quantitative treatment of COP is required

a room and use kilowatt (kW) as a unit for cooling

capacity to solve related problems

define coefficient of performance COP as ratio of

cooling capacity to electrical power input and solve

related problems

discuss possible ways of using heat generated by

central air-conditioning systems

Energy Efficiency discuss the uses of the Hong Kong Energy Interpretation of Energy Efficiency Label of electrical appliances

Labelling Scheme Efficiency Labelling Scheme (EELS) for energy- is required

saving EELS classifies the energy performance of appliances into five

solve problems involving EELS grades from 1 to 5. Grade 1 is the most efficient and 5 is the least

suggest examples of energy-saving devices efficient in that category

(b) Energy efficiency in

building and

transportation

building materials used to Interpret as the rate of energy Note that OTTV can be expressed by OTTV where

improve the energy

efficiency transfer by conduction and discuss the heat loss in refers to average rate of heat gain due to conduction and

conduction denotes average rate of heat gain due to solar radiation

define thermal transmittance U-value of building The term building envelope refers to the outermost layer of a

materials as and solve related problems building. It includes the roof, the walls and windows of all sides

Qualitative treatment of solar control window film which

define the Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV)

selectively permits the transmission of EMW is required

as the average rate of heat gain per unit area into a

building through the building envelope and solve

Teachers may refer to the “Teaching Kit for the Appreciation of

related problems

Architecture in Secondary School Curriculum” for the detailed

discuss factors affecting the OTTV discussion of OTTV and calculation of OTTV.

discuss the use of solar control window film in a (http://minisite.proj.hkedcity.net/hkiakit/cht/Science/index.html)

building

discuss the factors affecting the energy efficiency of

buildings

electric vehicles state the main components of the power system of Qualitative treatment of the function of the main components of

electric vehicles EVs and hybrid vehicles is implied

discuss the use of electric vehicles Detailed internal function of the battery of EVs is not required

state the main components of the power system of Note that the use of EVs is to reduce pollutants in urban area

hybrid vehicles and compare their end-use energy Pros and cons of fossil-fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles is implied

efficiency to fossil-fuel vehicles

Learning and teaching strategies for reference only. 8 / 12

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

discuss the advantages of public transportation

systems and give examples

(c) Renewable and non-

renewable energy

sources

renewable and describe the characteristics of renewable and non- Note that the power output of a wind turbine depends on the

non-renewable energy renewable energy sources and give examples efficiency of converting the kinetic energy of air into electrical

sources define solar constant as the total electromagnetic energy and is typically only 30% – 40% of the maximum power

radiation energy radiated at normal incidence by the

Sun per unit time per unit area at the mean distance Simple concept of a solar cell in terms of the electric field across

between the Earth and the Sun measured outside the PN junction which provides the voltage needed to drive the

Earth’s atmosphere current through an external load. By absorbing photon energy,

solve problems involving the solar constant bounded electron is able to escape from its normal position to

derive maximum power by wind turbine as become part of the current in an electrical circuit (For teachers’

reference)

, where is the efficiency and solve

problems

describe the energy conversion process for

hydroelectric power and solve problems

define binding energy per nucleon in unit of eV and

solve problems

relate the binding energy curve to nuclear fission

and fusion

describe the principle of the fission reactor and state

the roles of moderator, coolant and control rods

describe how a solar cell works

environmental impact of discuss the impact of extraction, conversion, Hong Kong Energy End-use Data, the consumption data of the

energy consumption distribution and use of energy on the environment different energy fuel types and the specific purposes for which

and society these fuels are consumed can be found in EMSD website

discuss effect of greenhouse gases on global ( http://www.emsd.gov.hk/emsd/eng/pee/edata.shtml)

warming

analyse the consumption data for different fuel types

in Hong Kong and their specific purposes

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Medical Physics (25 hours)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

(a) Making sense of the

eye and the ear

physics of vision describe the function of light sensitive cells (rods Relate accommodation process of the eye to physics principles by

and cones) of retina in vision referring to the basic structure of eye (same treatment as HKCEE)

interpret spectral response of light sensitive cells Interpret response curve of the light sensitive cells (rods and cones)

using receptor absorption curves to visible light

.

apply resolving power to solve problems Note that the response of the light sensitive cells is dependent on

the brightness of environment

describe the process of accommodation of the eye

Relate resolving power to the ability of an eye to distinguish small

details of an object

.

Derivation of is not required

Relate angular resolution to the spatial resolution by multiplication

of the angle (in radians) with the distance to the object

defects of vision and their define power of a lens as the reciprocal of the focal The optical power (dioptre) is adjusted by changing the form

corrections length of a lens (curvature) of the elastic lens using the ciliary muscle

use dioptre as a unit of power of a lens Note that optical powers are approximately additive for thin lenses

state the near point and far point of the eye placed close together

describe the defects of vision including short sight Note that distance of the near point of accommodation from the

(myopia), long sight (hypermetropia) and old sight eyes increases with age

(presbyopia) and their corrections Presbyopia occurs when the near point of the eye is beyond the

reading distance

physics of hearing describe the pressure amplification in the middle ear Note that pressure amplification is a combination of the lever action

realise the response of the inner ear to incoming of the 3 ear bones and the area ratio of the ear drum and the oval

sound waves window. Detail of the lever action of the 3 ear bones is not required

realise hearing perception of relative sound intensity Note that cochlea acts as a frequency analyser - regions nearer its

levels and the need for a logarithmic scale to base resonate with higher-frequency signals; regions closer to its

represent the levels apex resonate with lower-frequency ones. Detail of inner ear

apply sound intensity level structure is not required.

Similar treatment of sound intensity level as HKAL, but

10 dB to solve problems

pressure level is not required

interpret the curves of equal loudness Relate equal loudness curves and loudness level (phons) to sound

discuss the effects of noise on health of hearing intensity level (dB) of a pure note at 1 kHz

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

(b) Medical imaging

using non-ionizing

radiation

properties of ultrasound describe how a piezoelectric transducer works in Relate piezoelectric properties of a crystal to the generation and

generating and detecting an ultrasound pulse detection of ultrasound

define acoustic impedance Z = ρc and compare the Apply intensity reflection coefficient to estimate the reflected and

acoustic impedances of various body tissues transmitted intensity of a ultrasound pulse across a boundary

apply intensity reflection coefficient Note that penetration depth of a ultrasound beam is frequency

dependent

to solve problems Compensation of attenuation loss of a return pulse is not required

on the nature of the medium and the frequency Compulsory Part in Math - 3. Exponential and logarithmic functions

Module 1 (Calculus and Statistics) - 2. Exponential and

Logarithmic functions

Module 2 (Algebra and Calculus) - 5. Introduction to the number e

ultrasound scans realise A-scan and B-scan as range-measuring Prior knowledge of pulse-echo measurements in sound waves is

systems assumed

describe how A-scan works Prior knowledge of wave nature of sound (reflection, refraction,

interpret the pulse display of A-scan diffraction and interference) in “ Wave Motion” is assumed

identify suitable frequency ranges of ultrasound for Distinguish between the working principles of A-scan and B-scan

scanning based on penetration depth, resolution and Understanding of the factors affecting the penetration depth and

body structures resolution, and hence the choice of frequencies for medical

describe how B-scan works scanning

estimate the size of a body tissue in a B-scan image

discuss the advantages and limitations of ultrasound

scans in diagnosis

fibre optic endoscopy describe the characteristics of an optical fibre Prior knowledge of refraction of light (Snell’s Law) and total

describe how a fibre optic endoscope works internal reflection is assumed

describe how coherent bundle fibres form image Basic components of a fibre optic endoscope such as lighting, lens

solve problems involving optical fibre system (objective & eyepiece) and imaging system are required

discuss the advantages and limitations of using Note that fibre optic bundles are used to convey light from source

endoscope in diagnosis to distal tip, and carry image back to the eye / video monitor

(c) Medical imaging

using ionizing

radiation

X-ray radiographic apply to determine the transmitted Prior knowledge of exponential law of decay in ‘Radioactivity and

imaging intensity of a X-ray beam after travelling through a Nuclear Energy’ is assumed

certain thickness in a medium

SS Physics Curriculum- Elective Part (for students taking 2016 and after 2016 HKDSE)

Topics Content Notes for teachers

relate the linear attenuation coefficient (μ) to half- Derivation of half-value thickness and its application to solve

value thickness

realise a radiographic image as a map of attenuation problems is required

of X-ray beam after passing body tissues Note that attenuation coefficient depends on tissue density

explain the use of artificial contrast media such as Relate a radiographic image to the X-ray intensity transmitted

barium meal in radiographic imaging through the body

discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Note that a X-ray radiographic image is a 2D projection of the X-

radiographic imaging in diagnosis ray attenuation of a 3D object

CT scan describe how a computed tomography (CT) scanner Detailed structure of CT machine is not required

works Note that the CT image is reconstructed by back-projection of

realise a CT image as a map of attenuation attenuation profiles

coefficients of body tissues CT number is not required

realise the image reconstruction process of CT The differences in the use of CT images and X-ray radiographic

scanning images is required

compare CT images with X-ray radiographic images

radionuclides for medical identify the characteristics of radionuclides such as The relationship between effective half-life, biological half-life and

uses technetium-99m used for diagnosis physical half-life is required

define biological half-life as the time taken for half Calculation of effective half-life of a radionuclide from its

the materials to be removed from the body by biological and physical half-life is required

biological processes and apply it to solve related Application of effective half-life to solve problems is required

problems Detailed structure of gamma camera is not required

describe the use of radioisotopes as tracers for The differences in the use of radionuclide images and X-ray

diagnosis radiographic images are required

realise a radionuclide image obtained by a gamma Note that ionizing radiation used in medical imaging may lead to

camera as a map of radioisotopes distribution in a health risk

body

compare radionuclide planar images with X-ray

radiographic images

compare effective dose in diagnostic medical

procedures involving ionizing radiation

discuss the health risk and safety precautions for

ionizing radiation

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