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81

BOMBAY

1

2

3

4

7

9

10

Contents

GeneraL

a.

Harbor

(1) Location

(2)' Type of Harbor and Nature of Port

(3)

(4) Anchorages

Entrance Channel

(5) Significant Hydrographic Features (6) Local Weather Features

b.

landing

Facilities

12

(1) Piers, Wharves, Quiays', etc.

(2)

(3)

Cranage

Warehouses, Storage Facilities,

Supply

Dumps

(4) Harbor Craft

(5) Facilities for Clearing Port

(a)

(b)

Railway

Road

(c) Waterways'

12

15

16

19

23

25

28

;

,.

 

(d)Air

 

29

e Communications

 

30

 

(6)

Labor

(Loading & Unloading)

33

(7) Capacity

 

36

a.

Supplies

 

38

a

(1)Water

 

.

-

3

(2) Petroleum Products

 

41

(3)

Coal

45

{

(4) Electricity

and

Gas

46

p

(5) Food

 

49

d. Repair Facilities

e. Vulnerability, sort Security

.f.

Industry

g. 'Health and Sanitation

t

1

50

59

61

64

i

:I

~i~iB~i~i~ss "1

:

i;h

:1*a

":"'

i :e

Illustrations

Map No. 1 - Bombay Harbor'

BOMBAY

Following

Map No. 2 - Bombay Port Facilities

1

Photo No. 2

Photo No.

- Bombay Port. Facilities - Mosaic

-

Alexandra- Dock and

Hughes

Dry

Dock

3 - Alexandra Dock

4

-

Naval Dockyard

5

- Alexandra

Dock

6 - Alexandra Dock

7 - Outside Prince's Dock

$ The Rod El Fara~

9 - Landing-craft ramp - Victoria Dock

Diagram

10

No.

-

1

Photo

No.

11 -

-

anding-craft

ramp

Diagrams of three heavy-lift cranes

The

crane

"IBIS"

Photo No. 13,- Victoria Dock

14 - Open storage area, Prince's and

Map No. 3 -

Map No. 4 -

Victoria

Docks

Bombay

India

Railways

-

principal

railways

and

highways

Photo No.' 15 - Sewree oil installation

Photo No. 16 -

Oil discharge pier at Pir Pau

17 - Oil discharge

pier at Pir Pau'

18- Hughes Dry Dock

19

-

Merewether

Dry Dock

I-.-

n

81.

General

of

India, is the second largest.city of India, and'itsr ost important

peacetime port; it is the headquar'ters and. main operating base of the

Royal Indian Navy.

Bombay, on an island of.the

same

name

on

the Guest coast

The Port of Bombay is administered by the Bombay Port Trust,

a

separate

public

the

Government

of

body

India

creatd

;.by ;.and .operated under the

(bbiiunications Department).;he

control of

Ghai'ian is

customarily a high-ranking civil servant. The Board of Trustees is

composed of government nominees, including local service chiefs, and

of representatives of the.municipality, the British and Indian Chambers

of Commerce and, other special interests.

a commercial as well as a' public service body, and in most matters acts

The Port

Trust operates as

independently

of

outside

authority.

featured

The

coastal

terrain

by

low marshland,

to

the

north

and

swamps,

and

streams

south

of

in

which

Bombay

patches

is

of

dry land are isolated. This belt rises gradually to a low country

to

the

strip of 25 -

ghats

40 miles

lwiidth

the

thence

and

the foothills rise

reaching

a

height

gradually

of

paralleling

coast

approximately

2,5001.

The

low

coastal

belt

is

marked by salt pans and rice paddies

with

some

farming

country

as

the

land

rises.

Palm-studded

sand

beaches

lie

both

to

the

north

and

south

but

are

broken

by.swamps,

and

low

marsh-

land

usually lies

between

the

beaches

-1-

and

the

firm

coastal

belt.

a.

Harbor:

(1)

Location:

See Map #5

18°52' No, 720511 ~

BCMBAY

Charts: H.0. 2460, 2461, 2462~ Admiralty 2621, 655.

Distances: (In nautical mi~les)

Aden

Karachi

Colombo

Cochin

1,657 miles

500

889

550

?r

If

* ~ ., 'OjOOLOL. Jo POWDERSCRDUNDER(ROSENOACTUSLIFAPOWDERSUNDER) *p-NOOORDO R IGTDYDC
*
~
.,
'OjOOLOL.
Jo POWDERSCRDUNDER(ROSENOACTUSLIFAPOWDERSUNDER)
*p-NOOORDO R
IGTDYDC
CCFROB4UIG(SUBSIDIARYMINORLANDINOCROFTROSIN)
P000004BAS WAOLBUNDEDOILINSTALLATION
NARALESUF
SERESREATHERCR0DORK
DROCOFBAS/N(SURSIDIAROMINORLANDINGCROFTROSIN)
PRINCESDCKI
I~ICTORIADOCK
CANLOCROSSISLAND
BA
C
K
BA Y
{-
ISTMQ®EPHINTONECIRCLE
F1IL?
SL j
ALLAROPIER
1)~
SMALLCGRAFTLANDINGFLOAT
TORPEDODRYDORK
I
-DRYDOCRSI PPER(NORTH)DUNCAN00CR)
ILOWER
15SOUTH)RORRAYDOOR)
I
0
UILDINOSLIPS
00 BOVERNMENTROSIN

CU MIDDLOGROUNDISLAND

I

PRONGS

R EEF

SUNI)ROCR

72*5OI

MAP #1

BOMBAY

HARBOR

1000

5OD

0

1000

200

z

.

A

9

r

t

BUTOCHER?

BIG

REEF

PIR

PAU OIL PIER

E UCOER I.

_

(2)

-

~

Tvoie of Harbor and Naur of Port.

~~BOMBAY ''4~

j',.'

Bombay Harbor lies between Bombay and Trombay islands (see Map,#1) 'on the tiest'and 'northwest,'-and Ksranja Island and the mainland

the

the

The; width

on

to

eas 'and

riortheateh':

varies

southeast.' It

limit

of

is

:about

port,

12

miles

long from

the

entrance

Islands.

the

from ,about .4'to

betwean

ard

Hog, and, Trombay

the

harbor

6 miles,

contains

severa.l

islands,

"rocks

and

shoals,

.with.nunderous

bgys

and

inlets

n'

denting

its

shores.

It

is'a

maignif icent,

natural

harbor,

and

accommo-

dates

vessels

of

any

.length

up

to

40'

draft.

Bombay

harbor

guffers

greatly

from

the

lack

of

deep

water.

In

the

last

90

years,

an

increase

of

10' "of silt

has .been recorded

over the

entire.

harbor.

Two

suction

dredges

and one bucket dredge are

working

continuously tQ keep open

main channels and berth approaches. Any one' of these

"would 'lose

two

approximately

months,

and

2-.

to

3

should

is

dredging

so

large

be

that

or

three

Bombay

harbor

any

but

the most important places would be

too costly.

channels or berths

discontinued

for

the

dredging

of

is

Back

included

in

Bay,

the

the

area

bight

formed

between.Colaba

enclosed

by the

Bombay

port

and lalabar' Points, limits.

quired

The

harbor. can

be

defended,

but

a.

from

Pron'gs

Lighthouse "to Thal Point.

six-mile

boom

'

xperience

would

be

indicates

re-

that

fixed

anti-submarine

defenses

are

maintained

with difficulty dur-

'ing the

southwest monsoon,

considerable

wear and

ter'to

The

heavy

such

an

strict

Visible

the

effectiveness

close

from

outside,

'of'indicator

the

'harbor

swell

and

adverse

and

The

weather

severely

add

re-

installation

loop systems.

anchorage

is

comodatin

'av.'i.tble

The

'a

to

harbor

is

few

ships

capital

of

classified

ships,

' by

as

the

a

"C"

anchorage,

Admiralt:

,,

and

the

Courageous

class.

Bombay's

capable

of ac-

is

size

considered

qualifies

it

for

an

"A"

anchorage' .capable' of

accommodating

an

entire

fleet

The

lower

classification'

of

is

mercial use

the

port

given

and

by

because

of

limitation

limitations

imposed

of

shoal- water, in

by com-

all

areas

except

at

the outer

anchorage,

-

3-w

rr.7

mu-.--.-

B_

AY

(3) .EntranceChannel:.

The channel is half 'a mile

1400,

1

mile

from

Sunk

ceach

side.:of

a

center

line

from

in

direction

2d8

for

a position

2 miles to No. 4 buoy, conical with black and white vertical stripes

Rock

Lighthouse

in position 18 0

t-o No, 1 buoy,

51' N., 720 49? 40" 5. Thence 255.50 for 12.5 miles

posi-

red

conical

with

red

staff

and

drum

top

mark

in

tion 180 48' N., 720 37' B.

white;, and

are 3.5 and

No. 2 buoy,

red

conical

with numeral

2

in

No.

.3 buoy, 'conical, with red and whit e horizontal stripes,

respectively

from

No.

1

buoy<.

7 miles

Ships keep to port, ie., outgoing ships keep to the south

of the buoys,

An uniwatched and unli ghted light vessel is in

position 180

52' N.,

720 361 E.

Vessels

proceeding

nortiward are

to

keep

west

of

position

196 00' N.,

720 16'

.

The seaward, approach to the

entrance channel of Bombay Har-

bor. is

free

of

underwater

obstructions

and

there

is

a

charted

depth

of at least 32' until Sunk Eock Light bears 2700

relative (T).

The

width

at

the

outer

entrance

of

the

channel

between

the

five

fathom

lines

is

approximately

1.6

miles,

Vessels

drawing

less

than

thirty

feet

and

even

those

with very shallow draft

are

cautioned

to

remain

outside

the

five-fathom

 

limits

inasmuch

as

the

depths

given

within

the

five-fathom

lines

are

said

to

be

inaccurate

due

to

the

difficulty,

of

making

corrections

for

seasonal

and

yearly

changes.

 
 

Altbough

all

lights'

onf

the

west

coast

of

India

are

now

operating at full brilliancy som.of. the 21 lighted aids to naviga- ':tionin Bombay,, Harbor. as shown on H.:0. charts.2461 and 2462 are not

presently in use for

pracfical

rather

following

lights' are in

operation:

than,

strategic

Light Vessel (18 0 48' N., 720 37'

E.)

reasons.

The

Prongs Reef Lighthouse (on Colaba Point)

Khanderi

Island

Light

Sunk Rock Light

Dolphin Rock Light

Urani Beacon

Light

Tucker

North Channel Beacdn Light

Two (2) light buoys marking north and south

Beacon

Light

limits

of

five

fathom

light at

harbor

en

trances

In

thick

weather

-1

Th

U

when

visible

-

aids

to

navigation

cannot

be

BOMBAY

4

utilized, ships may take radio beazrings, on the radio beacon at Khanderi Island, to the south of the harbor entrance. The Khanderi radio beacon operates on 287.7 meters (l050 Kc/s), VUK 16 times, 10 seconds dash,

VUK once,

silence

180 seconds

(complete

word 4 minutes).

The radio

beacon operates continually during fog, and in clear weather at 00 and

28 minutes past

those specified above the beacon will operate only as ordered by NOIC.

the

hour from

5

.PM

to

5 AM .

At all

times other than

The swept channel is marked by the following four unlighted

buoys:

Number

mark,

1 buoy- Con.

1O

4I

N.,

Number 2 buoy Con.

R.,

720

R 4 4

staff and drum' top

37?

E.

(numeral

2

in

white)

0750,

3.5 miles from buoy number l

Number 3 buoy Con. R.W.H.3. 0752°9 3.5 miles

from

buoy number

2.

Number 4 buoy Con. B.W.V.S. 0752°o, 5.2 miles

from buoy number 3.

.Pilotage is

compulsory

for all vessels over 200 tons maneuver-

ing within the harbor area to the northward of a line running East and West through Prongs Reef Lighthouse.' Vessels which are obliged by the pilot to anchor outside the entrance to the wet docks due to congestion, improper stage- of the tide, or other circumstances, shall not enter at a later time without having a pilot aboard. Pilots are likewise to be in charge of all vessels leaving the wet docks and the regulation ap- plies to ships which may find it necessary to change their berths. within the dock area.

Inbound

vessels. will

pick up their pilots

of Sunk Rock.

at the examinat' gon Should the pilot

ground

fail to appear immediately, ships are to lay to or anchor within a l2

mile

approximately one mile E.S.E.

arc swung E. and S. from Sunk

Rock.

Pilots will furnish all masters with copies of the port rules

as well, as -the official arrival report forms which must be filled out and returned to the pilot before the ship reaches Middle Ground Island. The attention of masters in charge of vessels carrying dangerous cargo

is especially directed to the. port

regulations concerning the handling

and disposition of such cargo. The master of any vessel entering the harbor with petroleum having a flash point below 760 Fahrenheit, or explosives exceeding in weight 100 pounds, shall give notice thereof to the pilot imnediately on his boarding ship.

New standing orders for the working of vessels carrying ex- plosives, dangerous petroleum and other dangerous goods were promul- ".gated 1 November 1944.

,~-#

u

-.

and the

public

Traffic

Regulation;

governing navigation

were issued

and

safetyr

and

security

of vessels,

1 January,

T en

of war are

ex mpt' from all pilot regulations.

-6-

pil6oage,

1l45

WMWl

(4) Anchorages.

The

Bombay

Harbor

within

the

harbor

area

the

can

anchorages

have

accommodate

anchorages

berthing

plan

provides

definite

anchorage

of

sites

94 of

others

The, latter

for 431 ships drawing over 12'

a

minimum, depth

with

l/

drafts

. of

a

of

five

fathoms,

som'ew-ffhat

in

mile

water.

'17

while

vessels

are

located

The

excess

of 36'.

northwest .and south-

,water (10 fathoms) lies between

west of Karanja Beacon.

deepest

Elephanta Island and the eastern shore of the harbor but adjacent shoals 'preclude the entry of vessels into this area even at high tide

,if they draw more than 26'.

of

It is considered that 75 large

constitute

vessels

with

drafts

more

than

25'

a

and

practical

facility

maximum number fof

inside:

200

150

the harbor

big

of

ships

these

ships

which

may

be

anchored

with safety

limits,

However,

on

one

occasion

early

simltaneously took refuge in were at anchor in the stream.

the

in' 1942, over

and more

than

harbor

The

holding

ground

Vessels: need not

be

anchored

is

mud

and

fore

and

aft

is

at

generally

considered

good.

any time since the berth-

ing

plan

provides

adequate

space

anchor

anchorages

in

the

should

on '60

are

same

such

fathoms

use,

of

scope

The

bow

fact

and

and

in

line

mooring

renders

appear

feasible.

for

still

that

stern

all

the

ships

clear

tide

to, swing

one

another

does

not

anchoring

impractical

at

single

when

all

ebb

and

flow

even

actual

times

It

wind

has

direction

southeasterly,

been

observed

within

the

and

rarely

that

during

harbor

is

the

usually

southwest

southerly,

monsoon,

the

some-

southwesterly. Undoubtedly this phe-

nomenon is the result of local tidal and topographical influences, but

it serves to underline the fact that the closer a ship's anchorage is to the eastern shore,-the better are her chances of finding a lee.

The southwest monsoons create a considerable swell in the harbor which

is intensified when the tide is on the ebb. It is nonetheless possible

to

harbor during the

is especially true provided the tide is coming in. Ship cargo may be

handled effectively by lighters under almost any conditions, to the north-eastward of Butcher Island.

handle

ship

cargo

not

by means

infrequent

of

lighters

in the northern part of the

of

the

monsoon

and

this

moderations

There

is

no

specific

anchorage

for

one

class

of vessel

as

opposed to another since under the present port procedure allocation

of

berths

is

primarily

determined

by

a

ship's' draft

.and not

by

her

type or cargo,

out 'dangerous cargo, may be placed at any, suitable and available

anchorage. Ships with explosive and inflamnmable substances are de-

Thus warships, merchantmen,' and tankers, with or with-

nied

entry

to

the

wet

docks

vide

that

such

ships

shall

shipping

and one mile to

the

time

exigencies

have

forced

by

be

the

port

anchored

eastward

a

revision

regulations

which

further

pro-

at

least

-

mile

from

other

of

Middle

Ground.

However,

war-

of

this

port rule

and,

following

~.I

a;

4:

i

::7

1.II~r.1.N

7r

 

kTif

-

~.81Ss li:':~

y

:

::

B~T,'B~AY

the

disaster

of

for

all

14

April

1944,

of

the

by

the

ships

Government

carrying

of

India

delegated

cargo

and

re-

for

sponsibility

the

safety

Under

certified,

this

of

the

ships

entry

in

all

dangerous

Naval

dangerous

harbor

to

the

with

Officer-in-Charge,

:cargoes

a

arrangement,

prior'

to

entry

ships laden

the

must be

'repre-

NO.IC., who also

delegates

sentative officer' to supervise cargo handling and the education of

preventative measures stipulated in N.OI.C 1

's orders.

 

In

fair

weather,

handling

of

dangerous

,taken

any place

within

the

harbor

as

long

as

built

cargoes .may.be under' up areas and other

ships

are

net

close

aboard,

During

the

southwest 'monsoons

and,

in

hea ry

Tweather,

dangerous

petroleum

and

explosive

cargo

handling

is

limited

perforce

to

an

area

- mile

to

the

northeastward

of

TIBtcher

Island or the wet docks.

lee in the former locality

Vessels

with

non-dangerous

There is ample water and usually a suitable

to

cargo

afford

may

practicable working conditions.

be

accommodated

likewise

north-

east

of

Butcher

Island

during

the

monsoon

when

berths

within

the

wet

docks

are not available.

 

Anchorfng is prohibited within 3/14 of a mile radius of an

arc swung from 900 to 180° from the southern tip of Butcher Island

since ships in this locality would lay afoul of the D.G. range.

The

degaussing

loop

and

buoys are

set

300

feet

due

east

of Middle 'Ground

Islands

Vessels are also reminded that under no circumstances are they to anchor within the three-mile radius of an arc swung from

Prongs

Reef

Light,

even

though

they

may

be

awaiting

a

pilot.

-

8

-

1

31

1

~Y-

(5) Si nificn

Springs rise

MVean range,

BOM\BY

Hydrographic Features :

-

14.1';9

8.2t- Mean

eaps

10.7'

spring range

11.'

Mlean ,high water interval - 11 h. 27 m.

The rate

of

strong

Reef 'is

from 22- to. 3 knots,

on the

ebb.

spring tides

beteween

Thai Shoal

and. Prongs

and perhaps

as much as 4 knots"during rains,

Southward

of Dolphin

Rock

the flood

rate of 2'knots,

,and. the ebb

current 4-knots.

har~bor the nrate is

fr-om 2-to 4 knots.

cui'rent at springs has In other parts of the

"WV~est.

Tide rates along 'outside, galls

of main dock areas:

Spring tides

Neap tides

-1

details

of the

India".

3 to 4 knots

to 2 knots.

tidal' cu'rents are noted in ,HOG.159,

Further

of

Coast

a*

ri~

r

-9-

j

(6

Local weather Features:

November

to April

-

land and sea breezes,

and

.fine at this

the

sea

breeze

Minrg fairly

strong from the northwestward,

The

weather

is

the' land breeze season.

almost negligible

being

June

or

to September

winds

southwest

moderate

twesterly

westerly

-the

monsoon~,

Betweeni

south--

J'2st

with much rain.

the

the possibility of'a

mocnsoonas,

cyclone 0

thunder

storms

occurs

a~nd

there

is

befogie,

and

juist

after

the monsoon,

the weather

is

hot and humid,

Tempzerature:

The mean annual 'temperature is 8O 0 .

is

consider ed

to be from

85O to 900,

The

and

avrerage daily

at. night from

perature

70°. Extremnes of temperature !recorded are 1030 and 500.

temn-

65° to

Humidity o

Duiring the

rainy sea son, the

relative

humidity

is

as much as

95,

increasing

The mnean~ annual

the unc ornfortable

relative

humidity

effect

is

78?%.

of

the higher temnperatur'e

Rainfall:

The

average in the months. of

annual rainfal1 is 70 8"'

June

-

Of this

tota1,

66.91?

falls

of Ju~ne and Ju1~r. November - May is

ber

April

September

inclusive;

42,611 in the months

monthly

rainfall

during

the months of

and

for

the months

month.

of

Decem-

The averag

less

than

11" per month,

exceed

inciusive does not

o',111, .per

Details

of

temperature

and

rainfall

are found

on page

11.

-

10'-

rIndia",s

The

page

followving table

404:

is

BOMBAY

tak~en from H.O.

159,

"West Coast

Air Temperature

OF.

 

Mean

Extreme

Month

 

I

-

Fearuar

75'

3