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Assessment of the Drainage Adequacy from Storm and Waste Water Discharge fronting

NCCC- Victoria Plaza Davao City

A Research Presented to

Engr. Jef V. de Leon, RCE


College of Engineering
University of Southeastern Philippines
Bo. Obrero Campus, Davao City, Philippines

In Partial Fulfillment of the


Requirements in CE 515a
Water Resources Engineering

Proponents:
Adaptar, Marc Jayson C.

Caybot, Earlo P.

Dinsay, Riamieh S.

Lago, Dyrenne Jayne G.

Limosnero, Mary Faith B.

Macarik, Haula C.

Melchor, Gex D.

Nacilla, Debbie A.

Tano, Jester P.

Vivar, Laurice Fe Marie D.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researchers would like to show their sincere gratitude to these individuals. This study
would not be possible if not for the support, cooperation, guidance, and encouragement from the
following:

The family and friends of the researchers for their support and encouragement throughout
this study.

We would like to thank the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) for
providing the drainage plan of the studied area necessary for the research, PAGASA for the rainfall
depth that was used for calculation, and Davao City Water District for the average water
consumption that was used for the estimation of wastewater discharge.

We are grateful to Engr. Jef V. De Leon for the insight, comment and recommendations
which improved the study significantly.

Lastly, and most importantly the researchers would like to thank the Almighty Creator for
giving the researchers the strength and good health while conducting this study.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgement ....................................................................................................................................... ii
Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................. iii-iv
Abstract........................................................................................................................................................ v
Chapter I: INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................... 1
Scope and Limitation of the Study ............................................................................................................ 4
Site Selection ................................................................................................................................... 4
Site Description................................................................................................................................ 4
Statement of the Problem .......................................................................................................................... 6
Objectives of the Study ............................................................................................................................. 7
Significance of the Study .......................................................................................................................... 8
Chapter II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ........................................................................... 9
Related Literature...................................................................................................................................... 9
Related Studies........................................................................................................................................ 10
Chapter III: METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................. 16
Research Design...................................................................................................................................... 16
Rainfall Data Collection.......................................................................................................................... 17
Determination of Area for the Storm Water Runoff ............................................................................... 18
Runoff Coefficient .................................................................................................................................. 23
Drainage System Analysis ...................................................................................................................... 24
Rainfall Data Analysis ............................................................................................................................ 26
Calculation of Wastewater Discharge ..................................................................................................... 34
Chapter IV: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ......................................................................................... 36
Chapter V: CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................... 38
Recommendations ................................................................................................................................... 39
REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................................... 40
APPENDICES ........................................................................................................................................... 42
Appendix A: Site Location ..................................................................................................................... 42
Appendix B: Daily Rainfall Data ............................................................................................................ 45
Appendix C: Average Water Consumption ............................................................................................ 55
Appendix D: Sewage Disposal System ................................................................................................... 56

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1. Location .................................................................................................................................. 4
Figure 3.1. Presentation of the Research Design Process ....................................................................... 17
Figure 3.2. Presentation of the Maximum Annual Rainfall from 2010-2019 ........................................ 18
Figure 3.3. Study Site Location for DEM ............................................................................................... 19
Figure 3.4. Elevations, Watershed Boundary and Flow Direction using GIS......................................... 20
Figure 3.5. Overlay Map and GIS ........................................................................................................... 20
Figure 3.6. Determined Area................................................................................................................... 21
Figure 3.7. Legend for Elevations ........................................................................................................... 21

Figure 3.8. Drainage Plan .................................................................................................................... 22


Figure 3.9. Drainage Plan (Location 1) ................................................................................................... 22
Figure 3.10. Drainage Plan (Location 2) ................................................................................................ 22
Figure 3.11. Drainage Plan (Location 3) ................................................................................................ 22
Figure 3.12. Details of Surface at the Study Site ................................................................................... 24
Figure 3.13. Drainage Plan from DPWH. Indicating discharge point and design discharge of the study
site .......................................................................................................................................................... 25

Figure 3.14. Average Consumption of Customers ................................................................................. 34

LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1. Runoff Coefficient ................................................................................................................. 23
Table 3.2. Mean and Standard Deviation ................................................................................................ 28
Table 3.3. Gumbel Frequency Factor...................................................................................................... 29
Table 3.4. Rainfall Intensity at a Specific Return Period ........................................................................ 30
Table 4.1. Discharge Produced by Surface Runoff ................................................................................. 36

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ABSTRACT

Inundation occurs when runoff exceeds the capacity of drainage systems to discharge

precipitations. Due to the increasing industrial growth, human vulnerability to inundation effects

will continue to increase unless changes are done in the drainage system. Rainfall data collection

help identify the present climate condition (i.e. rainfall intensities)– which is increasing with time

and using its associated rainfall-runoff discharge from the rainfall intensity of specified return

period would help determine the adequacy of the drainage in disposing of these surface runoffs.

Hydrologic modeling provides an efficient analysis of the area using GIS and Google Earth Pro to

determine the discharge point of the drainage network and the Digital Elevation Model. The use

of this method determines the areas that contribute to the surface runoff needed to be disposed of.

Overlaying these models provides a reviewable evaluation of catchment and drainage networks.

Results in GIS analysis provided aid identifying drainage network and low points of the catchment

area- verified through observation of the field. Using the data collected from PAGASA Davao and

DCWD to calculate discharges through the rational method. Rational method resulted to

discharges of 0.47158 m3/s, 0.61979 m3/s, 0.7179 m3/s, 0.8419 m3/s, 0.93388 m3/s and 1.025177

m3/s from return periods 2-yr, 5-yr, 10-yr, 25-yr, 50-yr, and 100-yr respectively. While wastewater

discharge was 0.013532234 m3 / s. The discharge capacity of the outlet was 0.0471 m3/s. The

drainage can be improved by a) increasing the size of culverts in the area to accommodate

sufficient runoff b) an additional outlet to increase discharge capacity. Future hydrologic studies

are suggested for analysis for further improvements.

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Most of the cities are undergoing rapid development in recent decades. These

developments have associated land use and land cover change that affects runoff response from

catchments, which is often evident in the form of increased runoff peaks, volume, and velocity in

a drain network.

Drainage is a must component in the road construction. The drainage system minimizes

the impact of flooding by safely carrying storm water away from built-up areas into rivers and

creeks.

The drainage system is a system of a natural or artificial channel through which water flows

or drains for carrying off excess water. A drainage system is designed that the water flows away

quickly, smoothly and is disposed of in a surface watercourse. To prevent flooding, an efficient

drainage system is therefore essential to allow water to flow off and away from the ground as

quickly as possible.

During the rains, part of the rainwater flows to the surface and part of it flows through the

soil mass as gravitational water until it reaches the groundwater. Some water is held on the soil

mass pores and on the soil particle surface that cannot be drained by standard gravitational methods

and this liquid is called hold water.

It is necessary to efficiently remove the surface water from the carriageway and shoulder

without causing it to subgrade. The surface water should be prevented from entering the street

from adjacent land. The side drains should have enough room and longitudinal slopes to hold all

the accumulated surface water.

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The rainfall data from the past may not be the same as the rainfall data from now due to

climate change. This is one of the reasons why we need to assess the drainage system if its design

would be adequate for the recent rainfall data. Evidence that extreme rainfall intensity is increasing

at the global scale has strengthened considerably in recent years. (S. Westra et al., 2014).

Due to increasing population, rapid infrastructural development and continuous

degradation of ecosystem services and climate change, lead to further increase in flood risks

worldwide. Calabar City in Nigeria is one of the fast-growing cities, which involves construction

and concretization of the city land surface, thus, leading to flooding.

Philippines ranks third among countries most at risk of disasters and this include flooding,

about 80 percent of all death, 90 percent of the total affected citizen, and 92 percent of total

economic impact caused by typhoons and flooding, which is the most devastating calamity in terms

of social and economic impact.

In Davao City, the drainage issue is not new. Parts of the city, especially in the downtown

area, are flooded during heavy rains. When the streets of the city are flooded, many of us don't

want to be stranded in that situation. It would be difficult for the commuters to get home when the

public utility vehicle or jeepneys couldn’t pass through due to high level of flood.

The students of the University of Southeastern Philippines including the researchers have

had experienced of being stuck in traffic because of the flooding at the J.P Laurel street fronting

NCCC Victoria Plaza, most of the students are affected by this problem since the area has been

the route of most jeepneys. The researchers have observed that the flooding of the street fronting

NCCC Victoria Plaza causes a nuisance to the drivers and commuters. Due to this observation, the

researchers have decided to assess the adequacy of the drainage fronting NCCC Victoria Plaza.

2
The drainage system in J.P Laurel Avenue was designed based on the rainfall data from

the years passed. According to the Office of the City Building Official (OCBO) headed by Cirinia

Grace Catubig, the city’s drainage system is not efficient enough to prevent the city streets from

flooding. She stated from her interview on the Sunstar Davao news that the current drainage design

should depend on the volume amount of rain. PAGASA’s data noted three times increase in the

volume of rain compared to five years ago. Adding to the problem of drainage is the lack of

discipline of some Dabawenyos when it comes to trash even though some may say that it is not

Dabawenyos who are throwing trash anywhere which finds its way into the drainage system.

Darrell Blatchley, environmental advocate and museum founder of D'Bone Collector, recently

shed light on how garbage clogged the canal in Barangay 37-D in Bucana. Similarly, Paul Bermejo,

Head of Ancillary Services Unit (ASU), said that building waste, sands, and gravel were disposed

of in some of the open canals and canals, which were used to block the drainage in the town.

In view of the problem described, this study aims to identify the capacity of the existing

drainage system in J.P. Laurel Avenue specifically in front of NCCC Victoria Plaza, an identified

flood-prone area in Davao City.

These would be determined through a gathering of data such as a drainage plan from the

Department of Public Works and Highways, rainfall depth from PAGASA Davao and estimated

water consumption of the establishments along JP Laurel Avenue from Medical School Dr – J.P.

Laurel Ave. Crossing to J.P Laurel Ave.– Iñigo St. Crossing Highway from Davao City Water

District.

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Scope and Limitation of the Study

Site Selection

From Medical School Dr – J.P. Laurel Ave. Crossing to J.P Laurel Ave.– Iñigo St. Crossing

Highway was selected for the study of the assessment of the drainage system in J.P. Laurel Ave.

Davao City. The selected area was chosen due to a rising issue of flooding caused by the poor

drainage system within the vicinity.

Site Description

The Maharlika Highway is one of Davao City’s busy roads and the main catch of runoffs

from adjacent elevated areas. The drainage of the road doesn’t meet the performance which

involves the collection, conveyance, removal, and disposal of surface water runoff properly from

the traveled way, shoulders and adjoining roadside areas. It goes further that the roadway drainage

fills up causing flooding around the highway during heavy rains.

The Highway is a center to urbanization and business which all contributes to the

performance of draining capabilities of the said area.

Figure 1.1 Maharlika Highway, Davao (Google Earth, 2019)

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This study would like to assess the drainage systems along JP. Laurel road in front of

NCCC Victoria Plaza Davao City. The study is only limited within Davao Medical School

Foundation (DMSF) J.P Laurel Crossing to Iñigo St. J.P Laurel Crossing Highway. The

researchers aimed to determine if the existing drainage is adequate for disposing of storm water

and wastewater. The researchers would like to determine the depth of rainfall that will cause

flooding in the area. The study aims to come up with the findings on the remedies and reformation

on how to prevent or minimize the threat of flooding along JP. Laurel Avenue. The researchers

would be in need of data such as size, elevation and location of the drainage system along J.P

Laurel road and its tributaries pipe culverts. In addition, this will also need rainfall data to

determine the adequacy of the drainage system. Furthermore, the data of water consumption in

establishments and households within the aforementioned area are needed and that would be used

in determining the discharge to determine the adequacy of the drainage system. The reliability and

representability of this assessment are limited since long term high-frequency measurements are

necessary to obtain the precise assessment of rainfall intensity at a given period (Oskam, 2013).

Due to limitations of the privileged data obtained, long term short duration observations of rainfall

are not provided by the office (PAG-ASA, Davao), since only 24-hour data from 2010-2019 are

available for the researchers.

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Statement of the Problem

Flood is a natural phenomenon that is regular and common all over the world, making it

the most dangerous of all the natural hazards. It is one of the greatest natural hazards that threaten

human settlements, stability, health, and amenity.

Even though Davao City is recognized as a typhoon free area, the city is not entirely free

from extreme weather events due to climate change such as flooding, sea-level rise, strong winds,

rain-included landslides, monsoon waves, and drought. JP Laurel Avenue is one of Davao City’s

busy roads and the main catch of runoffs from nearby elevated areas. During heavy rain, the runoff

would accumulate in the streets of J.P Laurel that would lead to commuters being stranded. The

area is prone to flooding during the rainy season, according to McAdrian Cobero, an information

officer of the Office of Civil Defense (OCD) in Region XI. Thursday night, September 7, many

commuters were stranded at Victoria Plaza along Bajada St in Davao City due to flooding triggered

by heavy rain according to an article by Danielle Nakpil (2017).

Runoff accumulation leading to flooding is an outcome of various factors. Such factors are

increasing the incidence of heavy rainfall, waterways are indiscriminately invaded, inadequate

capacity of drains, and the lack of maintenance of drainage infrastructures.

Over the years, there has been a problem regarding flood in J.P Laurel Avenue, especially

the street in front of Victoria Plaza. The researchers experienced problems in transportation due to

flood which sometimes exceeded the level of the sidewalk of the road. The situation has affected

civilians which lead them being stranded.

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Thus, determining the adequacy of the drainage system on J.P. Laurel Avenue

specifically in front of NCCC Victoria Plaza has become an uttermost concern of the researchers.

The study seeks to answer the following problems:

1. What is the surface runoff discharge brought by the recent climatic condition?

2. What is the discharge brought by establishment and households?

3. Is the drainage system along J.P Laurel fronting NCCC Victoria Plaza capable of

disposing storm water and wastewater?

4. Is the drainage system along J.P Laurel fronting NCCC Victoria Plaza adequate

considering the surface runoff alone?

5. What is the rainfall depth that will cause the flooding in J.P Laurel fronting NCCC

Victoria Plaza?

Objectives of the Study

J.P Laurel Avenue specifically in front of NCCC- Victoria Plaza which is identified as

one of the flood-prone areas in Davao City. Given the problem described, this study aims to:

1. To determine the surface runoff discharge brought by the recent climatic condition,

2. To determine the discharge brought by establishment and households,

3. To determine the adequacy of the drainage system along J.P Laurel fronting NCCC

Victoria Plaza,

4. To determine the adequacy of the drainage system along J.P Laurel fronting NCCC

Victoria Plaza considering the surface runoff only,

5. To determine the rainfall depth that will cause the flooding in J.P Laurel fronting NCCC

Victoria Plaza.

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Significance of the Study

Drainage systems have continued to be a vital city infrastructure to collect and convey

storm water away from the city (Chocat, et. Al., 2007). Due to development over the years,

designing an effective functioning drainage system is still a significant challenge for engineers.

In this study, the researchers aim to determine the adequacy of the existing drainage in J.P

Laurel Avenue Bajada fronting NCCC- Victoria Plaza from the storm and wastewater discharge

and recommendations would be given based on the results. This study is significant to the

following:

The Residents and Commuters

The study is significant for commuters because it will help to improve the drainage system

which will lessen the traffic in the area and minimize the chance of being stranded during heavy

rainfall. A good drainage system will lessen the probability of inundation in residences within the

area.

The Local Government and Engineers

The study is significant for the local government and engineers because the result of the

study shows the status of the existing drainage system in the area in terms of its capacity and the

present climatic condition. The result may be used for the improvement of the drainage system.

This study provides rainfall intensities in the study area in which discharge capacity can be

designed, determines the rainfall depth in which the present drainage can be inadequate in

accommodating rainfall runoffs, provides information on the flow directions and accumulation

points of the area considered, and also the findings of this research can be used for further analysis

to improve the drainage system in the area.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This Chapter consists of studies with bearing to the present study. The essence of this

chapter is to understand the drainage concept and to study critically and evaluate the various

studies that have been carried out regarding drainage. Drainage, according to Longman Dictionary

of Contemporary English, is the process or system by which water or waste liquid flows away.

Based on the English Dictionary, drainage system refers to a system of watercourses or drains to

carry excess water. Conferring to Atom Consultants (2018), drainage systems can be defined as

subsurface and surface. Surface drains are designed to remove excessive runoff from the surface

which would otherwise cause localized flooding. Subsurface drainage is intended to remove excess

water from the soil mass. This study focuses on the surface drainage efficiency along the Medical

School Dr – J.P. Laurel Ave. Crossing to J.P. Laurel Ave. – Iñigo St. crossing Highway.

Related Literature
Drainage system is a system of natural or artificial channel through which water flows or

drains to remove excess water. A drainage system is designed that the water flows away quickly,

efficiently and to be disposed in a surface watercourse. To prevent flooding, an efficient drainage

system is therefore essential to allow water to flow off and away from the ground as quickly as

possible.

Montoya (1987:24) found that it was not directly attributed to rainfall that water discharg

ed from the storm drainage system. Many water sources can be identified and accounted for by

allowing industrial sewage to discharge into the storm drainage system.

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Most of the waste, however, comes from other sources, including unauthorized or improper entri

es to the network of storm drainage. (Piit and Mclean,1996).

In his book Water Resources Engineering, Linsley et.al claimed that the amount of

domestic wastewater from an area would typically be about 60 to 85% of the water supplied to

the city. The remainder is used in industrial processes, for lawn sparkling etc. Hence, if the water

use of a community is known, the probable output of domestic wastewater can be estimated.

Estimates for wastewater facilities should allow for future growth of the area.

Related Studies

The following are the conducted studies related to this work.

Global Studies

Investigation on Urban Drainage System in Sululta City, Ethiopia

Takhellambam Bijoychandra Singh et al. (2016) conducted a study of the existing drainage

system in Sululta City. The data collection study approach was implemented through different

techniques such as field analysis, observation with photographs and household survey (200

households as sample size in each town location) and restricted literature review. The following

goals were then identified: (1) the study of sustainable urban drainage from literature review; (2)

the analysis of current drainage coverage and field investigations; and (3) the study of drainage

quality through household surveys.

An Investigation into the Adequacy of the Drainage System on Narok Mai Mahiu Road

Victor K. Rono (2014) conducted a research survey to obtain information about the

condition of drainage systems in Narok Mai Mahiu road and how poor drainage affects the

10
environment and road users. The survey involved; Kenya National Highway Authority, Gauff Hp

Consultants who designed the road and drainage system, neighboring area residents, and road

users. Different techniques used to collect data include questionnaires, photos, observations and

interviews. The results of this study showed that the road drainage system for Narok Mai Mahiu

was not adequate to drain the runoffs satisfactorily.

Adequacy of Drainage Channels in a Small Urban Watershed in Nigeria

A study by Adaba and Agunwamba presented an analysis of drainage adequacy of drainage

channels in a small urban watershed in Nigeria. Drainage channels were located using

topographical and location maps. Rainfall records for a period of four years were used to develop

the intensity- duration frequency of the study area. Geometrical measurements of the drainage

channels were carried out and the data obtained from the measurements were used for the analysis

of runoff from drainage channels. Time of concentration was determined using kirpich equation,

peak flow and maximum flow velocity from the drainage channels were determined using ration

model and manning’s equation. Their study showed that the drainage of the two basins have drain

capacities greater than the actual discharge which means that the drainage is adequate while other

basin had actual discharge greater than its drain capacity.

Design of Storm Water Drains by Rational Method – an Approach to Storm Water

Management for Environmental Protection

Needhidasan et al (2013) uses rational method in designing storm water. Based on their

research, rational method has been effectively used to design the storm water drains.

The runoff coefficient in Rational Method includes a lot of factors to consider such

as catchment basin, pattern of land use, soil cover, descriptions of infiltration, etc. Diligent

11
efforts are required to estimate these parameters in order to reach the value of runoff coefficient.

In the present study utmost care has been taken to finalize the value of runoff coefficient ‘C’. It

has been noted that the current sections are not enough to handle runoff in most areas. The

inundation of the study area is mainly due to the blockage of the drains in various points; therefore,

periodical maintenance of existing drains is essential.

Flood Frequency Analysis Using the Gumbel Distribution

Mujere, N. (2011) conducted a study in Zimbabwe on the rate in which floods of the River

Nyanyadzi are observed by the Gumbel distribution. Fields have been swept away, houses

destroyed and livestock killed by heavy floods over the last years. It was assumed that the flood

flows of Nyanyadzi obey the Gumbel distribution. Method of moments was used to estimate the

distribution's scale and shape parameters. In this study, 30 yrs (1969-1999) of Maximum

instantaneous flow data for station E119 on Nyanyadzi River was obtained from the Zimbabwe

National Water Authority (ZINWA). The study revealed no significant difference (p= 1 000)

between recorded and predicted flood flows. This result was identified by a Chi- square χ2 test.

Because of the goodness of fit of the Gumbel distribution, they believed it was ideal for modeling

intensity of Nyanyadzi River floods. The magnitudes of the 100 and 200-year floods are measured

at 276 and 310 m3/s respectively.

Developing rainfall intensity–duration–frequency relationship for two regions in Saudi

Arabia

Ibrahim (2011) conducted a study using Intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) relationship

of rainfall amounts for two regions in Saudi Arabia. IDF is one of the most commonly used tools

in water resources engineering for planning, design and operation of water resources projects. The

objective of their study is to derive IDF relationship of rainfall at Najran and Hafr Albatin regions

12
in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). These relationships are useful in the designing works for

urban drainage such as storm sewers, culverts and other hydraulic structures. They used two

common frequency analysis techniques to develop the IDF relationship from rainfall data of these

regions. These techniques are Gumbel and the Log Pearson Type III distribution (LPT III). Based

on their findings, the results obtained using Gumbel distribution are slightly higher than the results

obtained using the LPT III distribution. Rainfall intensities obtained from those two methods

showed good agreement with results from previous studies on some parts of the study area. The

chi-square goodness of-fit test was used to determine the best fit probability distribution.

The IDF parameters and correlation coefficient for various return periods (2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and

100) are determined using multiple regression models that are non linear. The findings showed

that in all the cases the correlation coefficient is very high indicating the goodness of fit of the

formulae to estimate IDF curves in the region of interest.

The Effects of Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves Reformation on Urban

Flood Characteristics in Semi-Arid Environment

Ghahreman, R. et al. (2017) conducted a study in Zanjan city located in the north-west of

Iran estimated impacts of rainfall IDF curves change in flood properties using Storm Water

Management Model (SWMM). IDF curves were generated by Sherman method and Ghahreman

and Abkhezr method. Sherman empirical equation was determined in 1995, but due to climate

change, Ghahreman and Abkhezr (2004) show that rainfall IDF curves in recent years have

changed significantly. In this study, they presented a new equation to indicate the relationship

between rainfall IDF curve parameters in Iran. The accuracy of model simulations was confirmed

based on the results of calibration.

13
Local Studies

Causes of Short Duration Flooding in Davao City

A study conducted by Oskam (2013) about the rainfall intensity, duration and frequency

analysis of the available rainfall data in Davao City. According to his study, many parts in Davao

City are subjected to water clogging and flooding during heavy rainstorms. It is said that flooding

is mostly of short duration. The study emphasizes that the best way or practice in designing storm

water drainage system is the Rational Method. Rational method is a simple method for estimating

a design discharge from a small watershed. To compute the design capacity using the rational

Method, the Rainfall Intensity Duration (RIDF) has to be known. RIDF curves show the ratio

between intensity and duration of rainfall events with certain probability. The author used the data

from scarcely available rain gauges in Davao City to analyze RIDF. To make an accurate

assessment of it, long term high frequency measurements are also needed. He had also used a

method in calculating the expected return time of certain events. Based on his findings, as long-

term high frequency measurements are scarce, Rainfall Intensity Duration (RIDF) can only be

approximated.

An Assessment of the Drainage System Located at Zone 7, Vicmar Area, Carmen,

Cagayan De Oro City: Basis for the Proposed Drainage Design

Louie M. Galamiton et al. (2009) conducted a study to assess the present condition of the

drainage system in Zone 7, Vicmar District, Carmen, Cagayan de Oro City, and to decide whether

a drainage system for proper disposal and storage of wastewater and storm water is required. This

study contained two parts. Part 1 is thoroughly intended for research work and part 2 contains the

14
complete content of the Civil Engineering (CE) project, which includes the determination of total

waste and storm water discharge, the determination of structure sections, estimates and costs,

architectural and technical drawings and the management of construction projects. The study's

findings revealed that water is collected in the middle of the road whenever it rained. It was found

that the existing drainage did not have a proper escape route and that some houses in the area did

not have adequate waste disposal.

GIS-based Estimation of Catchment Basin Parameters and Maximum Discharge

Calculation using Rational Method of Luinab Catchment in Iligan City

Liwanag et al. conducted a study that estimates catchment basin using GIS and calculating

maximum discharge using Rational Method. By using surface runoff and drainage modeling, it

helps to identify areas that are susceptible to flooding and was also used in determining the

dynamic capabilities of urban drainage network. The use of GIS-based software and hydrologic

modeling provide fast and reviewable assessment of the existing drainage system of the catchment.

Researcher’s data was used in calculating peak discharges using rational method. Based on their

findings, improvement of the drainage system could be achieved by either increasing the capacity

of main canal and/or providing an additional outlet from identified flood-prone areas.

15
CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

Research Design

Research design is defined as a framework of methods and techniques chosen by a

researcher to combine various components of research in a reasonably logical manner so that the

research problem is efficiently handled (Bhat, 2019). It is the arrangement of conditions for the

collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research process

with the economy in the procedure and it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement,

and analysis of data (Kothari, 2004).

The case of this research involved hydrologic analysis. Rainfall depth, natural ground

elevations, drainage capacity, and wastewater discharge are the parameters included in analyzing

the condition of the drainage system. These parameters are acquired through legal terms with

different engineering offices in Davao City.

Drainage adequacy determination is processed through analyzing the average maximum

annual rainfall depth and identify rainfall intensities at a specified return period plus the wastewater

discharge of establishments and comparing it to the total drainage capacity in the area. Stormwater

discharge (surface runoff) is acquired through Direct Runoff Analysis (Rational Method) using the

rainfall depth. The wastewater discharge was determined using the water consumption data of

establishments within the area and was provided by Davao City Water District (DCWD). Due to

the volumetric difference between water supplied and water discharged inside establishments, a

percentage of this water consumption per establishment was used as the value for the wastewater

discharge. Drainage capacity was based on the data provided by the Department of Works and

Highways Davao.

16
Figure 3.1 Presentation of the Research Design Process

Rainfall Data Collection

Daily rainfall data from the year 2010 to the year 2019 was collected from PAG-ASA

Davao. The data collected is a low frequency of twenty-four hours. The maximum annual rainfall

depth was determined to obtain the rainfall intensity at a given return period. The reliability and

representability of this assessment are limited since long term high-frequency measurements are

necessary to obtain the precise assessment of rainfall intensity at a given period (Oskam, 2013).

17
MAXIMUM ANNUAL RAINFALL
DEPTH 2010-2019
250

192
Rainfall Depth (mm)
200 186
153.7
150 137
113 111.6 113.2 110
100
72.8 66.4
50

0
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Year

Figure 3.2. Shows the maximum annual rainfall depth from year 2010 to year
2019 that was determined from Appendix B.

Determination of Area for the Storm Water Runoff

Using Google Earth Pro, the researchers also determined the location, the surrounding

establishment, and area. Using ArcGIS, the researchers determined the elevations, watersheds, and

flow directions where NCCC Victoria Plaza is positioned. By overlaying these data, the exact

location of NCCC Victoria Plaza in the watershed was determined. Since the flow direction of the

watershed where NCCC Victoria Plaza is directed towards the back of the said mall, the

researchers considered only the front of NCCC Victoria Plaza for the surface run-off from the

rainfall, since at the back of the said mall will not contribute to the rainwater/storm water runoff

in front of it. Also, the determination of the area was based on the drainage plan from the DPWH.

The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was verified through the drainage plan. For the drainage

network at the watershed boundary or at the highest point on the DEM is facing to the lower

18
elevation, thus giving the direction of its flow. Some parts outside the said watershed were

considered for it has pipes that is directed towards the NCCC Victoria Plaza.

The researchers determined the area by only considering the area from front of the NCCC

Victoria Plaza to the boundary of the watershed it belonged.

Figure 3.3 Study Site Location for Digital Elevation Model

19
Figure 3.4 GIS (Elevation, Watershed Boundary and Flow Direction)

Figure 3.5 Overlay of Map and GIS

20
Figure 3.6 Determined Area

Figure 3.7 Legend for Elevations

21
Figure 3.8 Drainage Plan

Figure 3.9 Location 1 Figure 3.10. Location 2 Figure 3.11 Location 3

22
Run-off Coefficient

One of the affecting factors in the calculation of discharge is the runoff coefficient (C)

which is a dimensionless coefficient relating the amount of runoff to the amount of precipitation

received. It is a larger value for areas with low infiltration and high runoff (pavement, steep

gradient), and lower for permeable, well-vegetated areas (forest, flat land). A high runoff

coefficient (C) value may indicate flash flooding areas during storms as water moves fast overland

on its way to a river channel or a valley floor. The larger values correspond to higher runoff and

lower infiltration.

The covered area in this study can be classified as a concrete pavement street. Yet, there

are some parts where the runoff flows to the drainage that is still not developed into the concrete

like the plant boxes, and private areas. But these areas are rather small compared to the general

state of the total covered area. Therefore, a runoff coefficient of 0.95 is used in the calculation for

the rainfall-runoff.

Table 3.1. Values of relative imperviousness for use in rational formula.


23
(American Iron and Steel Institute, 1971).
Figure 3.12. Details of Surface at the Study Site. Photos indicates the type of surface
in the area

Drainage System Analysis

The researchers were able to collect the needed data from DPWH for the discharge capacity

of the drainage system near Victoria Plaza. The said data was the drainage plan in the whole Davao

City which includes the discharge capacity of the drainage system near Victoria Plaza as shown in

the photo. In addition, the photo shows the location of the discharge point that receives the total

discharge from storm water runoff and wastewater. This discharge point is where the low elevation

points meet, thus accumulated rainfall flows towards this point. Since the discharge capacity of

the drainage within this point is 0.0471m3/s, this value was used with the direct surface runoff to

determine its adequacy with the rainfall-runoff alone. Wastewater discharge was added to

determine its adequacy for the total capacity needed in the area.

24
Figure 3.13. Drainage Plan from DPWH. Indicating discharge point and design
discharge of the study site

Using Rational Method Q=ciA, rainfall depth (i) that can cause flooding can be calculated using

the data mention above where design discharge is equal to 0.0471 m3/s and area considered is

equal to 361509 m2. Calculations are shown below:

𝑄𝑠 = 𝑐𝑖𝐴

𝑚3
0.0471 𝑠
= 0.95 × [𝑖] × 361509 𝑚2

𝑖 = 0.49372 𝑚𝑚/ℎ𝑟

𝑅𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝐷𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ = [𝑖] × 24ℎ𝑟𝑠

0.49372 𝑚𝑚
𝑅𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝐷𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ = × 24ℎ𝑟𝑠
ℎ𝑟

𝑅𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝐷𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ = 11.84928 𝑚𝑚

25
Rainfall Data Analysis

The rain gauge station in PAGASA Davao was selected to represent the rainfall within the

area of consideration. Rainfall data collected was then used to analyze rainfall-runoff discharge.

From this discharge, the actual storm water discharge produced by the precipitation of the recent

years considered can be estimated. This storm water discharge would then be used to analyze the

needed capacity of the drainage in terms of storm water run-off alone, thus for the drainage to be

adequate, it should be able to dispose of more than that of storm water discharge to accommodate

discharges from households or establishments in the study site. The daily rainfall data underwent

a frequency analysis to determine each rainfall intensity for the specified return period. There are

two methods to perform this frequency analysis, first is the empirical plotting position approach to

estimate the exceedance probabilities based on the observations while the second method is fitting

a theoretical Extreme Value (EV) distribution (e.g., Gumbel Type I) to the observations for

estimations of rainfall events at theoretical distributions (Ramirez, 2010). The latter was used since

the study is more concerned with the theoretical distribution of rainfall events than the estimation

of exceedance probabilities, furthermore, there is an insufficient number of observations for

empirical plotting position approach which is dependent on observations in estimating exceedance

of probability of rainfall events.

The researchers used Gumbel (Type I) distributions as the EV distribution. According to

Gumbel (Type I) distribution, precipitation intensity associated with a given return period can be

obtained using the mean of the observations and its associated standard deviation and the

frequency factor with its specified return period. Gumbel frequency factor (K) was calculated

using the specified return periods. Standard deviation and the average of ten maximum annual

rainfall depths were calculated using the gathered data. The mean maximum annual rainfall was

26
used in order to clarify the meaning of determining the adequacy of drainage from rainfall-runoff

alone. Rainfall intensity at a given return period is then calculated from the mean maximum annual

rainfall, standard deviation, and frequency factor.

A widely accepted method to design storm water drainage systems is the rational method

(Oskam, 2013). According to the rational method, rainfall intensity “i” begins instantaneously and

continues indefinitely and which runoff will increase until the time of concentration (where the

entire watershed contributes to the flow at the outlets). The discharge rate of the system is the

product of rainfall intensity “i” and watershed area “A” which will then be multiplied by a runoff

coefficient (Needhidasan.S et.al, 2013). Since only a part of a watershed is considered in this study,

time of concentration is not necessary for it is only used to determine peak discharge of an entire

watershed.

Mean:

1
𝑋̅ = ∑𝑥
𝑛

Where, 𝑋̅ − 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ

𝑛 − 𝑛𝑜 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑏𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑥 − 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ

27
Standard Deviation:

̅) 𝟐
∑(𝒙 − 𝒙
𝑺=√
𝒏−𝟏

Where, 𝑆 − 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑣𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑋̅ − 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ

𝑛 − 𝑛𝑜 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑏𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑥 − 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ

MAXIMUM ANNUAL RAINFALL


YEAR ̅)𝟐
(𝒙 − 𝒙
DEPTH
2010 113 mm 158.0049 mm2
2011 137 mm 130.6449 mm2
2012 72.8 mm 2784.6729 mm2
2013 153.7 mm 791.2969 mm2
2014 111.6 mm 195.1609 mm2
2015 113.2 mm 153.0169 mm2
2016 66.4 mm 3501.0889 mm2
2017 192 mm 4412.9449 mm2
2018 110 mm 242.4249 mm2
2019 186 mm 3651.7849 mm2
TOTAL 1255.7 mm 16021.041 mm2
̅
𝒙 125.57 mm

̅)𝟐
∑(𝒙 − 𝒙
𝑺=√ 42.19141698 mm
𝒏−𝟏

TABLE 3.2. Mean and Standard Deviation of Maximum Annual Rainfall Depth from
year 2010
28 to 2019
The table 2 shows that the drainage system near NCCC Victoria Plaza has an average

rainfall depth of 120.92 mm and a standard deviation of 46.14382829 mm, which would be used

in determining the frequency rainfall depth at a given return period.

Gumbel Frequency Factor

√𝟔 𝑻
𝑲=− [𝟎. 𝟓𝟕𝟕𝟐 + 𝐥𝐧 [𝐥𝐧 ]]
𝝅 𝑻−𝟏

Where, 𝐾 − 𝐺𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑙 𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝑇 − 𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑑 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 24 − ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠 𝑑𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

√𝟔 𝑻 ̅ + 𝑲𝑺
Return Period, T 𝑲=− [𝟎. 𝟓𝟕𝟕𝟐 + 𝐥𝐧 [𝐥𝐧 ]] 𝑷𝑻 = 𝑿
𝝅 𝑻−𝟏

2 years -0.164272 118.6391 mm

5 years 0.71945742 155.9249 mm

10 years 1.30456321 180.6114 mm

25 years 2.04384594 211.8028 mm

50 years 2.5922881 234.9423 mm

100 years 3.13668064 257.911 mm

TABLE 3.3. Gumbel Frequency Factor and Frequency Precipitation

Table 3 shows the Gumbel Frequency Factor of 2-years, 5-years, 10-years, 25-years, 50-

years, and 100-years return period that would be used in determining the frequency precipitation

at a return period. It was also shown that the frequency precipitation increases as the return period

increases. Therefore, the frequency precipitation is directly proportional to the return period.

29
Frequency Precipitation:

𝑃𝑇 = 𝑋̅ + 𝐾𝑆

Where, 𝑃𝑇 − 𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑝𝑖𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑋̅ − 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ

𝐾 − 𝐺𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑙 𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝑆 − 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑣𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

Rainfall Intensity:

𝑃𝑇
𝑖=
24 ℎ𝑟.

Where, 𝑖 – 𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑎𝑡 𝑎 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑑 (𝑚𝑚𝑙ℎ𝑟)

𝑃𝑇 − 𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑝𝑖𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑷𝑻
T (Return Period) 𝑹𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒇𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝑰𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒊𝒕𝒚, 𝒊 =
𝟐𝟒 𝒉𝒓.

2 years 4.943297 mm/hr.

5 years 6.496872 mm/hr.

10 years 7.525474 mm/hr.

25 years 8.825115 mm/hr.

50 years 9.789263 mm/hr.

100 years 10.74629 mm/hr.

TABLE 3.4. Rainfall Intensity at a specific Return Period

30
The table 3.4 shows the rainfall intensity of 2-years, 5-years, 10-years, 25-years, 50-years,

and 100-years return period. These rainfall intensities would used in determining the stormwater

runoff.

Discharge:

𝑄𝑠 = 𝑐𝑖𝐴

Where, 𝑄𝑠 − 𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑟𝑢𝑛𝑜𝑓𝑓 (𝑚3/s)

𝑐 − 𝑟𝑢𝑛𝑜𝑓𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡

𝑖 – 𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑎𝑡 𝑎 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑑 (𝑚𝑚𝑙ℎ𝑟)

𝐴 − 𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑒

Determining the Discharge Based on Surface Runoff:

𝑄𝑠 = 𝑐𝑖𝐴

Where, 𝑄𝑠 − 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 (𝑚3 /𝑠)

𝑐 − 𝑟𝑢𝑛𝑜𝑓𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 0.95

𝑖 – 𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑎𝑡 𝑎 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑑 (𝑚𝑚𝑙ℎ𝑟)

𝐴 − 𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑒 = 361509 𝑚2

31
From Table 3.4,

T 𝒊

2 years 4.943297 mm/hr.

5 years 6.496872 mm/hr.

10 years 7.525474 mm/hr.

25 years 8.825115 mm/hr.

50 years 9.789263 mm/hr.

100 years 10.74629 mm/hr.

𝒓𝒖𝒏𝒐𝒇𝒇 𝒄𝒐𝒆𝒇𝒇𝒊𝒄𝒊𝒆𝒏𝒕 (𝒄) 𝟎. 𝟗𝟓

𝒅𝒓𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒈𝒆 𝒛𝒐𝒏𝒆 (𝑨) 𝟑𝟔𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟗 𝒎𝟐

At 2 years return period: 𝑄𝑠 = 𝑐𝑖𝐴

𝑚𝑚 1ℎ𝑟 1𝑚
𝑄𝑠 = 0.95 × [4.943297 × 3600𝑠𝑒𝑐 × 1000𝑚𝑚] × 361509 𝑚2
ℎ𝑟.

𝑄𝑠 = 0.47158 𝑚3 /𝑠

At 5 years return period: 𝑄𝑠 = 𝑐𝑖𝐴

𝑚𝑚 1ℎ𝑟 1𝑚
𝑄𝑠 = 0.95 × [6.496872 × 3600𝑠𝑒𝑐 × 1000𝑚𝑚] × 361509 𝑚2
ℎ𝑟.

𝑄𝑠 = 0.61979 𝑚3 /𝑠

32
At 10 years return period: 𝑄𝑠 = 𝑐𝑖𝐴

𝑚𝑚 1ℎ𝑟 1𝑚
𝑄𝑠 = 0.95 × [7.525474 × 3600𝑠𝑒𝑐 × 1000𝑚𝑚] × 361509 𝑚2
ℎ𝑟.

𝑄𝑠 = 0.71792 𝑚3 /𝑠

At 25 years return period: 𝑄𝑠 = 𝑐𝑖𝐴

𝑚𝑚 1ℎ𝑟 1𝑚
𝑄𝑠 = 0.95 × [8.825115 × 3600𝑠𝑒𝑐 × 1000𝑚𝑚] × 361509 𝑚2
ℎ𝑟.

𝑄𝑠 = 0.841900 𝑚3 /𝑠

At 50 years return period: 𝑄𝑠 = 𝑐𝑖𝐴

𝑚𝑚 1ℎ𝑟 1𝑚
𝑄𝑠 = 0.95 × [9.789263 × 3600𝑠𝑒𝑐 × 1000𝑚𝑚] × 361509 𝑚2
ℎ𝑟.

𝑄𝑠 = 0.93388 𝑚3 /𝑠

At 100 years return period: 𝑄𝑠 = 𝑐𝑖𝐴

𝑚𝑚 1ℎ𝑟 1𝑚
𝑄𝑠 = 0.95 × [10.74629 × 3600𝑠𝑒𝑐 × 1000𝑚𝑚] × 361509 𝑚2
ℎ𝑟.

𝑄𝑠 = 1.02518 𝑚3 /𝑠

33
Calculation of Wastewater Discharge

R. Kinsley, et. al. (2009), stated that the quantity of domestic wastewater from an area is

generally be about 60 to 85 percent of the water supplied to the area. This estimation of water

supply must include all water from private as well as public sources. In this study, the 85 percent

of the water supplied to the area or the maximum value for domestic wastewater was used to obtain

the wastewater discharge flowing in the drainage fronting Victoria Plaza. Maximum value is

necessary in order to emphasize the adequacy of the drainage. The area of rainfall does not

necessarily the same with the area covered for the wastewater discharge. Due to the elevation

differences in the area, only wastewater discharge that flows along the drainage of Victoria Plaza

are selected to be one of the needed flows to consider. The value for the water supplied in the

affected area was obtained from the Davao City Water District (DCWD) – DIS Division –

Information and Communication Technology Department. The office provided the average

consumption of costumers, consisted of 38 households and establishment, located in front of

Victoria Plaza, Bajada, Davao City with 10,383 cubic meters per month. Calculations are shown

below.

Figure 3.14. Average Consumption of Customers around the Area

34
𝑄𝑤 = 85% 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎

𝑚3 𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ 𝑑𝑎𝑦 ℎ𝑟𝑠


𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 10,383 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥
𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ 30𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠 24ℎ𝑟𝑠 3600𝑠

𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 0.004 𝑚3 / 𝑠

𝑚3
𝑄𝑤 = 0.85 (0.004 ) = 0.00340492𝑚3 / 𝑠
𝑠

The value 0.00340492𝑚3 / 𝑠 would be added to the wastewater discharge from Bacaca

Road which would flow to the drainage in NCCC Victoria Plaza. The wastewater discharge from

this area is from the 616 estimated houses. According to Michael Bauer Research using ArcGIS

Online, the Philippines average household size is 4.4 people per household. In this study, 5 persons

per houses would be used to obtained the maximum value of wastewater discharge. In the book of

Max Fajardo entitled Master Plumber Reviewer (see Appendix D), the wastewater discharge

single-family dwelling is 75 gal/person/day.

𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑜𝑛 1 𝑚3 1𝑑𝑎𝑦 1ℎ𝑟


𝑄𝑤 = 616 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑠𝑒 × 5 × 75𝑔𝑎𝑙/𝑝𝑒𝑠𝑜𝑛/𝑑𝑎𝑦 × × ×
ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑠𝑒 264 𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑠 24ℎ𝑟𝑠 3600𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝑄𝑤 = 0.010127315 𝑚3 / 𝑠

𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑄𝑤 = 0.010127315 + 0.00340492 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟏𝟑𝟓𝟑𝟐𝟐𝟑𝟒𝒎𝟑 / 𝒔

35
Chapter IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Discharge Capacity of the present drainage

Q = 0.0471 m3/s

Wastewater Discharge

Qw = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟏𝟑𝟓𝟑𝟐𝟐𝟑𝟒 𝒎𝟑 / 𝒔

Return Period Qs + Qw
C i (mm/hr) A (mm2) Qs (m3/s)
(Years) (m3/s)

2 0.95 4.943297 361509 0.471581684 0.485113918

5 0.95 6.496872 361509 0.619789948 0.633322182

10 0.95 7.525474 361509 0.717916715 0.731448948

25 0.95 8.825115 361509 0.841900144 0.855432378

50 0.95 9.789263 361509 0.933878135 0.947410369

100 0.95 10.74629 361509 1.025176975 1.038709209

Table 4.1. Discharge Produced by Surface Runoff and Wastewater

From Table 4.1, stormwater runoff was shown. It was calculated by rational method,

Q=CiA where C is the runoff coefficient base on the type of surface (0.95, concrete pavement), i

is the rainfall intensity based on the rainfall data gathered and A is the area, determined by utilizing

GIS, which is 361509 m2. Based on the table, it was shown that in a 2-year return period, the

surface runoff is greater that the drainage capacity of the present drainage. It also shown that as

36
the return period increases, the discharge brought by runoff increases. It can be inferred from this

situation that all other return periods can produce greater runoff discharge than the designed

capacity of the drainage fronting NCCC Victoria Plaza.

Based on the gathered data from the DCWD the water consumption is 10383 cubic meter

per month supplied to 38 households and establishments located in front of NCCC Victoria Plaza.

This data is converted to cubic meter per seconds which yields to 0.004 m3/s and then utilizing the

85 percent of the water consumption to obtain the wastewater discharge from this area. The

discharge from the estimated houses is 0.010127315 m3/s from 616 houses with an occupancy of

5 persons per house and a discharge of 75 gal/person/day. From this, the total discharge brought

by wastewater is 0.013532234 m3/s.

The rainfall depth (i) that could cause flooding was calculated using Rational Method.

From the given data: the discharge capacity of the drainage, runoff coefficient and the area, the

rainfall intensity was calculated which is equal to 0.49372 mm/hr. The rainfall depth was also

determined which is equal to 11.84928 mm for 24-hour rainfall.

37
Chapter V

CONCLUSION

Based on the data gathered and the results discussed on the previous chapter, researchers

were able to determine the adequacy of the existing drainage system fronting NCCC Victoria

Plaza. The discharge brought by the surface runoff for the return period of 2,5,10,25,50 and 100

years are 0.47158 m3/s, 0.61979 m3/s, 0.7179 m3/s, 0.8419 m3/s, 0.93388 m3/s and 1.025177 m3/s

respectively. The wastewater discharge from Bacaca road is equal to 0.0101275315 m3/s.

Therefore, the total wastewater discharge from the 616 estimated houses and from the households

and establishments in front of NCCC Victoria Plaza is 0.013532234 m3/s.

By adding the results of surface runoff discharge and wastewater discharge, it can be

concluded that the existing drainage system fronting NCCC Victoria Plaza is not capable of

disposing both discharges. It is because the total discharges yield larger value than the designed

capacity of the existing drainage which is 0.0471 m3/s that even surface runoff alone cannot be

disposed sufficiently. From that drainage capacity the percentages of adequacy from storm and

waste water discharge was 9.64%, 7.4%, 6.41%, 5.48%, 4.95%, 4.52% from return periods 2-yr,

5-yr, 10-yr, 25-yr, 50-yr, and 100-yr respectively. Furthermore, only 9.99%, 7.6%, 6.56%, 5.59%,

5.04%, 4.59% of the discharge from the 2-yr, 5-yr, 10-yr, 25-yr, 50-yr, and 100-yr return period

respectively are accommodated whenever these rainfall intensities occur making the remaining

percentage to trigger flood.

Therefore, the wastewater discharge, which is comparably smaller than the drainage

capacity of the drainage fronting NCCC Victoria Plaza can be suitably accommodated by the said

38
drainage. Yet, on the instances of rainfall situation where it reaches the 2-year return period, the

designed capacity would be insufficient for the significantly large surface runoff together with the

wastewater discharge. Hence, it is inadequate.

It is concluded that when rainfall depth reaches 11.84928 mm, it will exceed the limits of

the drainage which will cause flooding in the area.

Recommendations:

A new design of the drainage system is recommended to increase its capability of holding

storm water to prevent the flood. The new drainage system should be depended on the current

volume of rain. To keep the drainage system in good condition and functional, adequate

construction and continuous maintenance should also be implemented.

Based on the results, the present drainage design is inadequate if both wastewater and storm

water are considered, therefore the researchers recommend separate sewerage system in which

wastewater and storm water are carried separately in two sets of sewers.

The researchers also recommend additional outlets to accommodate increasing

precipitation of the present climate. Outlets are needed to be properly designed in order to

withstand high flow velocities and thus avoid excessive downstream erosion and eventual road

failure. Also, further study for the efficiency of the collector drains or inlet in terms of collecting

precipitation.

Further improvements could be analyzed and evaluated through succeeding hydrologic

studies and data from this research can also be used for studies relating to the drainage design or

rainfall information on the area of the study.

39
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42
Appendices

APPENDIX A

Site Location

43
44
45
APPENDIX B

Daily Rainfall from Year 2010-2019

2010
2010 Dec Nov Oct Sept Aug Jul Jun May Apr Mar Feb Jan
1 -9999 7.6 0 28 0 13.1 0 0 11 0 0 0
2 0.6 0 1.6 0 52.8 0.7 0 0 0.4 0 0.7 0
3 1.6 2.4 0 0 6 0 0.4 0.4 6.1 0 0 0
4 11 9.8 0 0 -9999 3 3 0.8 0 0 0 3.4
5 1.8 2.6 9.2 5.4 -9999 0.5 0 0 -9999 0 0 0
6 0.8 0 8 0 1.2 25.5 5.4 8.6 -9999 0 0 0
7 2.4 2 1.1 -9999 0 14.4 0 0.2 5.5 0 0 0
8 1 2.8 0 0.2 22.6 0 20.2 0.4 2.4 0 -9999 -9999
9 0 0 -9999 0 46.6 53.4 0 0.6 0.2 0 0 0
10 1.4 0 2 2.3 6.8 -9999 6 1 0.8 0 0 0.2
11 19.6 -9999 2.8 38 35.2 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 6.6
12 0.1 0 0.1 7.4 0 11.6 1 0 25.6 -9999 0 -9999
13 8.4 0 0 0.2 0 54.6 0.8 0 4 0 0 -9999
14 5.2 5 0 0.2 2.5 0.1 -9999 1.6 0.4 0 2.3 0.3
15 0 0.6 13.2 0 -9999 0 -9999 -9999 24.8 0 2 6.2
16 -9999 -9999 0 -9999 31.4 0 2.5 20.2 0 0 0 3.5
17 0 0 0.2 -9999 1.1 24.3 2 5 -9999 -9999 0.2 46.4
18 -9999 1 0 0 0 1 0 0.2 7 0.8 0 0
19 27.7 1.6 0 0 1.8 3 0.6 0 0 0 -9999 4.2
20 2 2.7 0 0.2 0.3 9.4 13.3 0 0 0.8 -9999 11.2
21 0 28.6 0.2 0 0.1 2 5 0 4.2 13.1 0 41.4
22 0 1 0.2 0 0 3.7 0.6 1.1 0 0 10.4 3
23 14.4 0 0 4.2 1.8 2.2 0 -9999 0 0 0.4 5.2
24 4.2 0 0 -9999 3.2 0 -9999 0.4 0 36.2 0 21.4
25 0 1.6 113 0 25.6 0 25.4 10.4 0 1.8 0 -9999
26 0 1 0.2 0.7 0 4.2 0 0 29.8 -9999 0 0
27 0 10.1 0 1 4.6 3.6 0 0 0 0 0 2.7
28 -9999 0 3 23.6 -9999 -9999 1.2 6.4 1.8 0 0 0.6
29 22.5 7 18.8 4.8 38.2 4.5 0.4 0 0 0.2 1
30 -9999 0.6 5.1 1.4 0 16.6 -9999 0 0 -9999 0.8
31 74.5 1 0 0 0 -9999 0

46
2011
2011 Dec Nov Oct Sept Aug Jul Jun May Apr Mar Feb Jan
1 41.6 1 6.4 60 65.7 0.2 0 0.2 5.1 0
2 0 0 0 0 0 7.4 0 1.4 0 37.7
3 0 0 0.4 9 0 22.6 2.4 95.6 0 2.9 0.5
4 0.6 19.6 17.2 0 6.2 33.6 0 7.5 0.8 2 0.6 12.1
5 0 1.2 0 0 5 0 137 9.3 16.7 2.8
6 1 0.2 0.6 4.6 3.2 0 1.2 0 0
7 9 8 34.2 32.8 14.6 1.2 2.2 0 0
8 1.2 23.6 0.1 8.7 65.2 0 36.6 1 0 1.6 0 0.3
9 2.3 1.2 20.4 0.3 28.8 0.2 2.2 0 0 0 0 0
10 0 0.2 40.8 33.2 66.2 0 11.3 3.4 0 0.2
11 2.6 0 3.2 2 1 1.2 0.2 5 9 3.2 0.2
12 17.2 0 36.2 3.6 35.2 8.5 0 0 5.3 1.7 16
13 0 0 4.6 0.2 5.6 11 7.8 1.8 0.1 1.2
14 16.2 1.4 1.2 0 2.4 0.1 0 1.2 40.6
15 6.4 0 44.2 8.2 0 1 0 0.3
16 15.1 0.2 0.4 6.4 0 15.4 3.4 1 7 53.8
17 0 1.3 6.8 0 7.8 0.2 0.4 0.4 3.4 23.6 43.6
18 0 0 26.8 0 6 0 1.2 0 0 0.4 0.5
19 0 0 2.5 1.2 14.1 3 4.6 9
20 0 0 20.6 10 1.3 31.6 0.4 7 3 0 0
21 0 1.2 0 5.4 1.6 5.3 5.8 14 57.1 0.6 0.2 22.9
22 0 12.8 0 11.7 7.2 0 0.4 10.6 3
23 0 0 0 0 0 8.8 10.5 0 0.4
24 3.2 28.7 0 0.2 0 3.3 0 0 7.6 0 2.6
25 4 0.3 0 0 21.3 0 5.2 6.2 4.6 7.2
26 53.4 0 0 5.6 0 1.3 3.8 0.6 0 2.6 1.6
27 2.2 0 0 0 0 11.4 0.6 1 0 1 22.5 6.6
28 0 0 0 3.8 17.4 0 8 5.2 0.8 0 0.2
29 0 0 81.6 0 3.8 1.7 0 0
30 0.6 3.4 9.8 0 4.4 0.2 0 0 4.5
31 0.2 13 7.8 2.4 0 38.6 11.8

47
2012
2012 Dec Nov Oct Sept Aug Jul Jun May Apr Mar Feb Jan
1 0 0 0.2 5.2 0 3.4 0 0 0.2 1.4
2 0 0 12.6 0.9 0 1.2 3 2.6 0.2 0
3 41.6 0.2 -9999 18.4 0 1.2 0 1.2 0 28.7 2.5
4 22.4 4 -9999 12 0 0 1.8 2.9 0 0.3 0
5 0 0 0 7.8 0 18.6 1 0.2 0.3
6 64.8 33.5 0 10.3 0 0 0.2 61.3 6.2 0 0.1
7 0 2.1 0 3.3 10.3 0.4 0 0 38.8 0 17.6 23.7
8 0 0.1 0 -9999 12 6.4 19.6 4.4 12.8 2.9
9 36 0.6 0 -9999 2.4 0 35.5 0 0 11.8
10 29.6 3.2 0 8.8 0 0 0 3.4 2.2 0 0.5 0
11 0.4 1.8 0 2.8 11.4 22 22.9 0.2 0.1 15.2 0
12 3 0 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.4 0 2.6 0 21.4 4.6
13 0 23 35.8 0 3.6 72.8 2.2 0.2 0 0 63.8 42.8
14 0 0.4 -9999 0 5.6 -9999 0.8 0 1.6 7.8
15 0.8 0.2 0 -9999 0 0.2 0 0.7 1.9 0
16 0 9.5 5.2 0 7 0 0 4.8 0 0
17 -9999 0 0.2 1 -9999 0 0.2 16.2 0.2 1.8 0
18 -9999 0 10.9 1.6 0 0 0 18.3 0 4 0
19 0.1 3 -9999 0 1.2 1.8 0 0 5.8 0 0 3.3
20 12.4 34.6 31.4 0 41.6 0 41.4 0.8 7.4 1.6 19 0
21 3.4 0 -9999 0 24.6 0 4.2 0.5 9.2 0 4 0.6
22 2.7 0 0 1 33 0.4 0 0.2 0
23 -9999 0 34 5.1 1.6 51.6 0 8.9 17.2 52.1 0 0
24 0 0.5 3.6 0 11.4 0.4 9.8 0 0 1.2 0.2 4.4
25 28.8 9.4 12.4 0 0.7 4.4 31 3.7 0 13.9 8.7 1.4
26 0.6 0 0.4 0 0 58.2 0.2 3.3 6 12.6 13.5
27 0.8 0.4 7 0 0.5 0.3 0 1 8.8 29 1.8 7
28 0 0 0 0 0.8 -9999 0 0 0 6.6 12.8
29 0 0 0 13.8 3.3 0 1 0 11.2 11.1 0 0
30 0 0 -9999 -9999 40.4 0 43.4 1.8 0.2 0.2 0
31 0.2 0.2 -9999 -9999 0 1.2 0

48
2013
Dec Nov Oct Sept Aug Jul Jun May Apr Mar Feb Jan
1 0 -9999 0.7 0 -9999 0 0 0.2 4.7 0 -9999 1
2 -9999 17.6 0 8.9 2.2 17.4 22.6 0 0 0 -9999 43.4
3 1 0.5 0.6 0 9 0 0.5 -9999 0.4 -9999 0 4.2
4 0 0.2 10.2 -9999 7.5 0 -9999 0 1 8.6 0 0.4
5 2.6 0.1 0.2 45 0.3 0 30.3 -9999 0 -9999 0 0.2
6 -9999 0 -9999 38.5 3.2 11.7 -9999 -9999 0 -9999 0 20.3
7 0 0.2 5.1 0 4.3 18 9.6 9 1 1.6 -9999 13.8
8 2 40.4 0 0 0 0 0 -9999 8.7 4.5 0 0.3
9 -9999 -9999 0.4 -9999 0 0 0 0 2 -9999 54 3.4
10 -9999 0 0 0.4 0 0 0 12.5 83.6 13 -9999 -9999
11 0.4 32.6 -9999 0.4 3.2 25.2 2.2 0 0 2.4 0 0
12 6 4.2 -9999 8.6 84.2 0 2.2 15.8 8 1 0 0.4
13 0 4.8 0.1 0 0.4 0 15.6 5.2 0 0 0 0
14 0 3.4 21.6 0 7.4 0.6 0.2 -9999 0.6 0 0 110.2
15 13.9 0 0.5 0 0.6 -9999 16.5 0 0 0 0 1.6
16 0.8 41 -9999 0 1.2 -9999 0 3.6 -9999 4.2 1.6 0.4
17 0 0 80.4 1.8 0.5 0 0 7.2 0.4 0.1 5.2 0
18 -9999 0 24.8 0 -9999 -9999 0 0.1 0.4 4.1 64.1 0.2
19 1.8 3 -9999 0 0 2 4 0 -9999 0 7.2 47.8
20 0 0 0 -9999 0 0 -9999 0 0.6 0.8 20.8 17.4
21 -9999 5.8 -9999 0 26.5 4.6 12.4 0 1.6 -9999 20.2 20.9
22 9.2 1.7 12 0 1.2 15.6 0 1.5 0 0 37.5 23.2
23 1.4 0 -9999 0 0.3 0 4.2 60.8 0 0.1 1.4 0
24 5 0 0 -9999 8.6 2 44.7 0 3.6 18.2 0 12.8
25 5.3 1.2 0 0 -9999 0.4 0 0 0 0.3 0 11.1
26 10.2 -9999 5 0 0.2 29.3 0 0 5.2 0 0 33.4
27 0 3.2 0.2 0 -9999 2.3 17.6 10.4 2.3 1.1 -9999 34.8
28 0 1.8 16 8.5 24.3 0 3 2 -9999 0 0 0
29 0 3.2 25.9 0.2 -9999 0 0.4 0.6 0 0 -9999
30 0 8.6 0 -9999 0 0 0.8 -9999 -9999 0 19.6
31 4.7 153.7 0 0 0 -9999 0
67.3 192.6 357.4 112.3 185.6 129.1 186.4 128.9 124.1 60 212 430.5

49
2014
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 0.2 9999 0 0 0
2 0 2.3 6.2 0 0 8 9999 0.4 20.2 0.6 10.7 0
3 0 0 9999 0 0 0.6 0 0 0 0.1 2.2 0
4 0 0 0 9999 9999 0.8 0.4 0 0.4 0 0 0
5 9999 8.8 0.2 0 0 0 9999 0 9999 0 32 0
6 11.2 1.3 0 0 9999 7.6 0 0 11.8 0.2 15.8 0
7 20.7 9999 0 0 0 1.4 0 0 2.6 11.8 8.6 0
8 0.5 0.2 0 0 9999 9999 9999 0 7 9999 2 0
9 2.4 0.2 0 9999 9999 0 3.6 9999 0 0 27 36.4
10 46.2 11 9999 0 0 1 0 0 2.8 0 0 8.6
11 80.8 9999 8.3 9999 0 0.2 9999 0 9 0.2 0 1.2
12 0.4 0 2 41 0.4 3.2 1 6.8 5 0 0 0
13 5.7 9999 9999 2.8 8.4 5 9999 0 7.2 0 0 0
14 22.7 9999 2.6 7.2 9999 1 0.2 24.6 1 9999 2.4 0
15 7.3 9999 4.4 0 3 40 0 1.6 0 27.7 0.4 9999
16 0 9999 9999 0 18.2 7.4 0 1 33.6 6.4 0.2 1.6
17 31.4 0 0.2 4.4 14.6 3.5 0.2 11.2 1.1 7.8 0 7.4
18 14.2 0 24.8 28.8 0 9999 8 1.4 0 0.6 0 15
19 9.4 0 4.6 19.6 9.1 1 9999 9.8 0 4.0 1.6 1.8
20 1.2 0 8.7 0 0.06 4.2 0.8 10.9 0 0.8 0 0
21 9999 0 6.4 13.4 9999 4.6 0 9999 0.2 0 4.6 0
22 26.7 0 2.2 30.7 9999 3 0 0 31 31.6 0 4
23 9999 9999 78.2 0.8 2.8 0.4 0.4 0 9999 37.8 9999 1.4
24 0 0 60.3 0.8 4.2 24 14.8 10.2 1.8 61.4 9999 2.2
25 0 0 2.0 9999 9999 8.8 16.7 24.2 0.1 0.1 4.8 17.2
26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 37.6 1.2 52.5 0.4
27 1.1 0 9999 0 0 0 9999 17 1.6 111.6 1.2 6.8
28 3.4 0 0 1 5.8 8.6 3 0 0.2 9999 12.8 16.8
29 0 - 27.2 0 22.2 1.9 0 9999 1 80.6 1.2 0
30 0 - 0 0 2.6 1.1 0.4 34.3 0 0 0 0
31 9999 - 0 - 9999 - 0 9.9 - 42.4 - 18

50
2015
DAY JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC
1 3.8 0 9999 0 9999 10 1 1 0 2.2 1.1 0
2 0.4 6.2 16.4 0 58.6 9999 3 0.2 0.4 0 0.6 0.2
3 0 0 0 0 9999 113.2 1 7.8 15.8 9999 0.2 0
4 3.2 0 0 0 0.6 0 9999 6.2 1.8 56.2 0 0
5 3.4 0 0 0 11.8 1 0 1.2 5.6 0 4.2 9999
6 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.4 0 1.2 1.2 0
7 7.8 1.4 0 0 15.4 0 0 9999 0 13.8 20 14.8
8 0 0 0 21.4 1.8 21.4 9999 0 9999 38.4 0.2 9999
9 10 3 0 0 0 1.8 9999 0 0 39.1 11 0
10 0 0 0 9999 9999 3.8 9999 9999 0.5 0 37.6 0
11 0 3 0 0 1.2 3.1 0 0 14.8 40.6 0 0
12 0 1.6 0 0 9999 0 0 0.2 0 28.8 9999 0
13 9999 10.2 0 1 9999 3.2 0.8 1 7.4 24 3 0.2
14 0 10.2 0 0.2 0 3.4 0 0.8 22.4 0.6 9999 0
15 0 0 0 0 21 0 0 0.2 0.4 11.9 0 0
16 0 0 0.4 8.4 31.8 1.2 9999 8.9 9999 16.9 0 7.8
17 0 0 0 3.4 9999 2.4 0 12.6 9999 9999 9999 0
18 9999 0 0 29.6 7.6 9999 0 4.4 9999 0 8.2 25.2
19 16.6 9999 0 0 2.6 0.1 0 9999 9999 0 1.2 3.1
20 9999 9999 0 0 0 9999 9999 0 16 0 9999 9999
21 89.4 0.8 9999 9999 0 1.2 2.8 0 9999 0 0.8 0
22 4 0 0 5.8 0.5 1 0.4 9999 9999 0 0 0
23 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 1.8 0 0 0 0.4 0
24 0.2 0 0.4 0 3 8.3 48.1 0 2.8 9999 0 0
25 0 0 1.2 0 0.4 15.9 1.8 0 9999 9999 3.2 0
26 0 0 0.2 4.2 8 3.6 51 9999 0 0 0 0
27 0 0 0.2 47.8 0 29.1 0 9999 9999 9999 0.2 0.6
28 0 0 9999 2.2 0.4 0 6.6 0 0.2 1 9999 5.2
29 26.2 - 0.2 0 9999 9999 8.8 0 0.2 0.5 0 0
30 18.7 - 9999 1.4 0 0 19.8 0 3.2 0 0.2 0.2
31 0 - 0 - 0 - 3 9999 - 9999 - 6

51
2016
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC
1 0.7 0 0 0 0 35.4 9999 18 0.2 19 44.6 15.4
2 9999 0 0 0 9999 3 4.2 0 0 0 6.6 0
3 0.2 5 0 0 9999 4 9999 0.4 29 48 1 9.2
4 0 0 9999 9999 0.4 9999 0 0.4 0.4 4.8 0.6 7.2
5 0 0 30.2 9999 0 1.6 0 0 0 0.8 3.8 0
6 0 4.4 0 0 0 1 10.8 9999 0.8 8.8 0 9.2
7 0 9999 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.2 0.5 0 1.4
8 0 0 0 9999 0 4 0 0 9999 17.2 0 10.2
9 7.6 9999 9999 0.8 0 0.2 12.4 0 9999 59 0 0
10 0 9999 0 0 0.6 18 0 0 32.8 0.4 0 16.2
11 0 4 9.4 0.4 0.4 0 1.4 0 0 57.8 66.4 0.2
12 0 0.2 0.2 0 9999 0.8 0.4 0 1.4 0.8 0 3.4
13 0 3.7 0 0 0 3.8 1 0 3.4 0 0 9999
14 0 4.4 0 0 5.8 0 0 1.6 4.8 9999 0 3
15 0 0 0 0 20.6 15.2 0 0 0 0 25.8 2
16 0 0 0 0 0.2 3.6 9999 0 9999 0.8 0.8 0.6
17 0 0 0 9999 0 39.2 0 0 0 0.8 3.2 1.2
18 9999 0 0 0 8.6 0.3 0 0 1.6 26.7 1.6 0.2
19 9999 0 0 0.6 28.8 0.4 1 0 38.6 0 1.4 6
20 9999 1 0 10.8 4 18.9 0 8.6 9999 11.1 0 0
21 0 0 0 0.6 1.5 21.0 0 0 0 9999 0.2 0
22 0 0.8 0 0 12 0 3.4 4.2 9999 0.1 5 0.5
23 0.3 9999 0 0 8.8 9999 9999 0 63.2 9999 3.2 4.6
24 0 0 0 0 1.6 12.7 16 9999 0 0.6 0 29.3
25 9999 0 9999 0 0.4 2 3.6 0 9999 28.4 5.6 1.6
26 2 4.3 0 0 9999 0.2 0.2 9999 0 7.4 29.8 9999
27 9999 9999 0 0 2 1.8 3.8 0.2 0.8 4 3.8 1.6
28 0 9999 0 28.4 1 6.6 9999 45.4 4.8 9999 0
29 0 0 0 9999 9999 0.6 1.1 0 1.6 16.2 3 0
30 0.4 - 0 0.2 2.6 0 2.7 0 9999 62.2 0 7.2
31 9999 - 0 - 0 - 9999 0 - 4.8 - 6.8

52
2017
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC
1 7.4 10.6 9999 0.2 14.8 0 0./ 0 0.2 0.6 30.2 0
2 86.2 0 6.4 0 8 0 2.6 7 0.8 0.2 0.1 0.4
3 0 2 9999 0.4 51.8 0 0.4 0 5.8 9999 10.2 0
4 11.6 0 0 0 0 25.4 0 60.2 9999 9999 2.3 0
5 4.4 17.6 3.6 16.2 1.6 4 1.2 9.6 2.2 68.4 3.2 109.8
6 21.4 9999 10.8 9999 3 54.8 64 11.6 0.4 9999 2 31
7 2 0 21.8 13.6 13.8 16.6 99999 9999 40.8 9999 9999 0
8 0.6 7.2 4.6 0 60 7.4 2.6 0.6 9999 0.4 0 24.4
9 9999 9999 6.8 0 7.6 3.6 0 3 192 0 0 0.2
10 0 0 6.2 1 9999 0 10.4 0 0 0 4.4 50
11 0 0 28.4 0 10.2 6.2 9999 0.2 30.8 0 13.8 20.2
12 9999 0 13.2 0 0.2 0.4 0 9999 1 6.6 9999 18
13 0 0 26.4 18 19.2 0 9999 0.8 4 9999 0 31
14 0 0.2 20 0 0.2 9999 2.4 9999 64.2 17.6 0.3 1.8
15 0.3 132.2 2.8 0 71.6 0.8 0.8 5.8 0.2 2.4 8.6 0
16 4.4 2 0 0 5.6 0 0.2 10 23.6 2.4 18.6 0
17 4.2 9999 0.2 0 2.2 12 14.1 9999 0 3.8 0 0
18 19.2 4 0 9999 4.8 9999 0.2 27.2 0.2 2.9 0.4 9999
19 7.4 0 9999 0.2 0.8 9999 2.6 0 0.2 0 1.6 12.8
20 0 1.6 0 9999 31.6 0 1 0 25.8 0 9.8 0
21 16.4 0 0 9999 8.8 7.2 9999 4 1.6 9999 0.7 39.4
22 5.2 9999 0 70.4 4 9999 0.6 9999 6 0.2 0 0.4
23 12.6 35.4 0 9999 1.8 5.8 0 53 0 0 0 9
24 11.4 0.2 0 0 0.6 0 0 0.2 1.8 1.6 2.6 0.2
25 9999 9999 0 1 9999 1 9999 14.8 8.4 7.4 3.5 0
26 9999 3.2 2.4 9 2.4 9999 0 1 0.4 0 6 22.4
27 3.6 15.4 1.2 57.2 2.2 0.6 0 2.2 0.4 9999 0 1.6
28 1.1 0 9.2 3.8 0 0 0.4 0.5 3.0 2.8 9999 0
29 0.8 - 0 1.2 0 3.8 9999 0 39.2 19.4 0 0
30 19.2 - 0.2 9999 14 72.4 0.2 8.6 0 7.1 0 0
31 2.8 - 6 - 5.4 - 2.8 0.6 - 6.2 - 9999

53
2018
DAY JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC
1 44.4 9999 0.8 9999 0.4 7 0 0 0 0 3 0
2 0.6 16.6 8.2 9999 0 0 11 2.5 14.8 36.8 0.4 0.8
3 1.4 0 0 52.8 2.3 10.8 13.4 0.3 0 26.2 0.6 0
4 3 1 0.2 42.6 36.6 0 3.8 0 0 0 3.2 0.4
5 6.8 17 0 5.1 3 0.3 11.4 0.1 0 9999 0 0
6 1.6 8.4 0 0 3.8 9999 67.6 3.4 0 4 0 0.3
7 1.2 0.2 0 17.8 10.2 0 0 0 1.6 0 0 3
8 15.2 9999 0 0 18 1.2 0 0 18.6 0 0.6 5.3
9 11.2 0 0 0 21.5 0 0 0 9999 0 0 0
10 0 9999 0 9999 0 2.8 30 0 9.6 0 0.2 0
11 0 2.4 1.8 1.2 0 0 12 0 9999 0 0 9999
12 0 0.1 0 0 25 9999 0.2 9999 0 9999 9999 0
13 0.6 0 2.9 10.4 9999 22 0 0 9999 1.8 2.4 0
14 17.6 0 0 1.4 9999 4.7 0 0 0 9999 0 9999
15 3.6 1 0 31.8 0 3.2 1.4 0 0.6 1 1 5.1
16 0.4 0 9999 5.8 0 0.4 0.2 0 0 1.8 0 3.8
17 4.8 0 5.8 1 9999 9999 0 22.2 11.8 7.8 0 5.2
18 1 9999 0 9999 0.2 0.6 0 9999 0 4.6 0 16.2
19 0.2 9999 6.6 2.2 0 24.6 0 3 77.9 6.6 0.2 38.8
20 0.8 0 0 0 6.9 3.5 0 1.2 0.2 3.9 0 9999
21 0.6 0 0 1.3 3.2 1.6 19.6 3 2.2 0.4 0 0
22 0.2 0 1.4 0 0 0.2 2.9 12.4 44.2 25.4 4.4 4.9
23 0.3 1.2 0 2.3 9999 9999 9999 56.7 0 9999 43.2 28.4
24 3.1 6 9999 0 33.8 0 9999 42.6 0 9999 9999 1
25 0 9999 0 0 0 22.4 9999 56.9 9999 0.2 9999 0
26 0 0 24.8 0 0 0.6 0 1.5 0 19.8 0 33.2
27 0.2 3.6 0 1.2 0 0 0 0.4 0 1.2 0 0
28 0 0 0 0 89.2 0.8 5 6.8 0 0 1.6 0
29 0 - 1.6 0 0 1 1.1 1 0 0 0 110
30 0 - 2.2 1.7 0.002 0.3 0 0.4 0.3 1.2 0 0.2
31 0 - 0 - 0 - 9999 9999 - 9999 - 0

54
2019
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC
1 0 0 0 0 102 7.5 9999 9999 9999 0.8
2 9999 9999 0 9999 0 1.2 1.4 0.2 23.4 0.4
3 0 7.2 0 0 0 2.4 1.4 1 26.6 53.3
4 0 0.6 0 0 10.8 0.2 32.5 0 0 0.8
5 0 3 2.2 0 17.2 27.8 5.2 0.1 9999 21.1
6 9999 0 6 0.2 1 0 1.2 0 36.4 0
7 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 102
8 0 0 0 2.6 0 9999 10.8 0.2 0 0
9 9999 0 0 9999 3 0 1.6 0 0 0
10 0.8 0 0 2.6 0.3 53.6 0 0 0 9999
11 10.4 9999 0 0 9999 9999 6.4 0 0 1.4
12 0.6 9999 0 9999 0 9999 0.6 0 10.5 1.6
13 9999 0 0 0 18.6 43.8 0.8 0 0 9999
14 0 0 1.3 0 0 9999 4.4 9999 0 2
15 0 0 0 0 9999 100.8 9999 4.8 0 186
16 2.8 5 9999 0 0 9.2 0 1.6 0 0
17 0 0 0.3 0 6.8 0.6 0 68.6 0 0
18 0 0 90.6 0 9999 3.6 0 0.9 0 0
19 0.2 0 20.4 0 9999 0 0 70.6 0 1.2
20 8 0 9999 0 4.2 3.2 0.2 2.6 0 1.2
21 1.4 0 0 1.2 0 0 1 38 0 0.2
22 11.8 0 0 0 16 4 25.4 0 0 3.4
23 10.6 0 0 0 6.4 29.2 93.3 0 0 0.4
24 9999 0 0 0 74.4 24.6 9999 0 0 1.2
25 5.6 0 0 22.4 0 9999 9999 3.8 0.2 0
26 47.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2
27 9999 0 5.8 0 0 9999 5 1 9999 4.8
28 0 0 0.2 0 0 1.2 18.4 68.4 2.1 0
29 0.6 - 0 0 0.8 13.6 9999 2.2 2.8 18.4
30 7.4 - 0 11.2 1.6 9999 60.3 11 0 0
31 9999 - 0 - 0.8 - 0.2 13 - 0

55
APPENDIX C

Average Water Consumption

56
APPENDIX D

Sewage Disposal System (Source: Max Fajardo Plumbing Reviewer)

57