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Perspective as Form and Medium and the Interplay of Proportion Systems and Perspective V

The very roots of the theory of symmetry (in Greece) are inseparably linked to the establishment of the aesthetic principles - the canons and theory of proportions. The links between the theory of symmetry and aesthetics developed and were strengthened throughout history, where works of ornamental art represented the common ground between the theory of symmetry and painting The word "symmetry" has its roots in Greek philosophy and aesthetics, where it was used to express balance, proportion, and to point out a whole spectrum of the philosophic-aesthetic synonym terms: harmony, accord, completeness

Slavik V. Jablan

www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap5.htm

In generalised meaning one can speak about symmetry if under any (not certainly geometric) kind of transformation (operation), at least one (not certainly geometric) property of the (not certainly geometric) object is left invariant (intact). Thus we made a generalisation in 3 respects: to any transformation, any object, and its any property. This generalised meaning of symmetry made possible to apply symmetry to materialised objects in the physical and the organic nature, to products of our mind, etc. Over geometric (morphological) symmetries, we can discuss functional symmetries and asymmetries (e.g., in the human brain), gauge symmetries (of physical phenomena); properties, like colour, tone, shadiness, weight, etc. (of artistic objects). Asymmetry: Dissymmetry: The lack of symmetry The observed object is symmetric in its main features, but this symmetry is slightly distorted (e.g., an arabesque ornament) The observed object is symmetric in one of its properties, but one of its other properties changes to its opposite (e.g., a chess-board)

Antisymmetry:

Gyorgy Darvas

http://symmetry.hu/definition.html

The visual coherence of a complex form as defined by systems theory requires ordered substructure on all scales A form's visual organization communicates information to people through the surfaces and geometry it presents. Environmental experience involves an intimate interaction of human beings with surfaces and spacesIn classic experiments on human eye motion while scanning a picture (Hubel, 1988; Noton and Stark, 1971; Yarbus, 1967), the eye is observed to focus most of the time in the regions of a picture that have the most detail, differentiations, contrast, and curvature (the experiments referred to did not include color). These are clearly the high-information regions in the picture. Eye fixations establish a fairly narrow "scan path" where the eye spends about one-third of its time, with random excursions to low-information (i.e. plain) regions of a visual. The brain thus selects informative details such as convoluted, detailed contours and contrasting edges for recognizing and remembering an object. Our visual system is built to select those items of concentrated information that can provide the most complete response in the shortest possible time Rule 1. Every structure must have some subregion with a high degree of contrast, detail, and curvature. Rule 2. Plain surfaces require either their interior, or their borders, to be defined through contrast and detail Rule 3. Visual information can be ordered via linear continuity Rule 4. Symmetries and patterns organize visual information without significantly increasing the computational overhead Interestingly, the cone cells in the retina responsible for color vision are also responsible for our ability to see fine detail (Hubel, 1988), thus linking color with geometry in our perceptual apparatus. Contrary to what is frequently assumed, therefore, color and linear design are intimately related. This leads us to the final rule. Rule 5. Color is a necessary component of our environment. Correcting an old misunderstanding, ornamentation does not superimpose unrelated structure; rather it is an operation that generates highly-organized internal complexity Nikos A. Salingaros, The

www.math.utsa.edu/ftp/salingar.old/sensoryornament.html

pattern is at once both form and processformations at one pole and kinetic-dynamic processes at the other, the whole being generated and sustained by its essential periodicity. These aspects, however, are not separate entities butappear in their unitariness... So we seeagain the result of finding the "edge of chaos." Complexity and Chaos Theory in Art by Jay Kappraff www.mi.sanu.ac.yu/vismath/jaynew/index.html

The ornament might be regarded as the origin of the arts, says Niklas Luhmann - not the ornament in the sense of ornamentation, but ornament-interpretation as ground-form of the development of forms from forms, the basic form principle of rhythm, line, arabesque, dynamic symmetry, as the paradox of redundancy and variety at the same time.

Roman mosaic

Roman mosaic

Russian Icon

Paul Klee

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse

the word "pattern" denotes a regularity in some dimension. The simplest examples are repeated visual units ordered with translational (linear) or rotational symmetry. Patterns also exist in a scaling dimension, where similar forms occur at different magnification. When geometric self-similarity is defined on a hierarchy of scales, a self-similar fractal is created. The concept of a pattern also extends to solution space, in that solutions to similar problems are themselves related and define a single template that repeats - with some variation - every time such a problem is solved. The underlying idea is to reuse information; whether in repeating a unit to generate a two-dimensional tiling design, or in reusing the general solution to a class of differential equations Tilings and visual patterns are a "visible tip" of mathematics, which otherwise requires learning a special language to understand and appreciate. Patterns manifest the innate creative ability and talent that all human beings have for mathematics. The necessity for patterns in the visual environment of a developing child is acknowledged by child psychologists as being highly instrumentalA close link exists between carpet designs and mathematical rules for organizing complexity Any effort to quantify the degree of pattern in a structure or design leads one to consider its information content. There are two separate variables here: (i) the actual information and its presentation, and (ii) how that information is organized. Blank walls convey no information other than their outline. Ordered patterns on the one hand, and chaotic designs on the other, offer a large quantity of information; but it is organized very differently in these two cases. Complex, ordered patterns have a large information content, which is tightly organized and therefore coherent. Chaotic forms, however, have too much internally uncoordinated information, so that they overload the mind's capacity to process information. Random information is incoherent: by failing to correlate, it cannot be encoded [25]. Nikos Salingaros, "Architecture, Patterns, and Mathematics", Nexus Network Journal, vol. 3, no. 1 (Winter 2001), pp. 75-85, http://www.nexusjournal.com/Salingaros.html [The term information obviously refers only to the organized visual complexity of form, the formal assemblage]

Bessarabian rugs

Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse

Paul Klee

Paul Klee

Paul Klee

Paul Klee

Paul Klee

Maurice Esteve

Maurice Esteve

Maurice Esteve

Marc Chagall

Chichester cathedral

Fraumnster, Zurich

Paolo Caliari Veronese (Verona 1528 Venezia 1588) Ceiling of the Sala dell' Olimpo" (1559 1561) Maser, Villa Barbaro. Al centro c' la Sapienza divina circondata dagli dei planetari con i relativi segni zodiacali in monocromo. Agli angoli ci sono le personificazioni dei quattro elementi: Giunone-Aria, Vulcano-Fuoco, Cibele-Terra, NettunoAcqua; nei finti cammei ci sono le raffigurazioni di Amore, Fecondit, Abbondanza, Fortuna. [In the center, there is Divine Wisdom surrounded by the planetary gods with the related zodiac signs in monochrome. In the corners there are the personifications of the four elements: Juno-Air, Vulcan-Fire, Cybele-Earth, Neptune-Water; the cameos contain the depiction of Love, Fecundity, Abundance, Fortune.]

The proper translation of the Greek term symmetry is common measure, from the prefix sym, common, and the noun metros, measure. The Greeks interpreted this word to mean the harmony between the different partsthe good proportions reflection, also called bilateral symmetry, is a very frequentmanifestation of symmetrywe have made a geometric transformation rotationanother frequent manifestation of symmetry Similitude is a symmetry transformation Affine projection is a symmetry transformation in which straight lines are transformed into other straight lines but angles are not conserved Topological symmetry is a symmetry transformation in which the neighborhood relations between the points of the object are left intact, the distances between them as well as the angles between the lines connecting them are altered. Straight lines do not necessarily remain straight. A good example of topological symmetry is the lattice of the points of a squashed sponge Combined symmetries occur when we perform two or more symmetry transformations on the same object[e.g.] glide reflectionfrequently applied in frieze patterns In perspectivewe find a combination of the symmetry transformations affine projection and similitude

remain unaltered. We say that this property is invariant under the given transformation

Gyrgy Darvas ,

"Perspective as a Symmetry Transformation", Nexus Network Journal, vol. 5 no. 1 (Spring 2003), http://www.nexusjournal.com/Darvas.html

Examples of friezes with the symmetry group 11 in the art of (a), (b) pre-dynastic; (c) dynastic period of Egypt. Slavik V. Jablan www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap24.htm

Sumerian

Akkadian cylinder seal and its clay Impression depicting a water god in his enclosure

Assyrian relief

Greek relief

Romanesque frieze

Romanesque relief

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Massimo Campigli

Massimo Campigli

symmetry is never perfect. Objects can be invariant in respect of certain transformations, but never under all;Symmetry often manifests itself in combined and generalized forms, especially in the arts. Here we should emphasize the role of dissymmetry, an expression denoting a property of objects showing symmetry in their general features, albeit slightly distorted. Gyrgy Darvas , "Perspective as a Symmetry Transformation", Nexus Network Journal, vol. 5 no. 1 (Spring 2003), http://www.nexusjournal.com/Darvas.html

Georges Braque

Serge Poliakoff

Byzantine Icon

Jacopo di Cione

Giovanni di Paolo

Bernardo Daddi

Bernardo Daddi

Anonymous

Raffaello Botticini

Carlo Crivelli

Georges Rouault

Georges Rouault

Georges Rouault

Andre Derain

Pierre Bonnard

Georges Braque

Stefan Arteni

Ion Tuculescu

Within the desymmetrization method, we can, depending on the desymmetrization means used, distinguish classical-symmetry (non-colored), antisymmetry and color-symmetry desymmetrizations. Under the term "classical-symmetry desymmetrization" (non-colored desymmetrization) we will discuss all desymmetrizations realized, for example, by using an asymmetric figure belonging to the fundamental region, or by deleting their boundaries and joining two or more adjacent fundamental regions, etc. The term "non-colored" used as the alternative for "classical-symmetry", should not be understood literally, since it does not prohibit the use of colors or some of their equivalents (e.g., indexes), but includes as well, all other cases where colors have been used for a desymmetrization without resulting in some antisymmetry or color-symmetry groupThe term "external desymmetrization" will be used to denote a desymmetrization achieved by varying boundaries of a fundamental region. Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/monographs/jablan/chap15.htm

Regarded from the symmetry viewpoint, every regular coloring represents a desymmetrization (or "symmetrybreaking") of some symmetry group Antisymmetry and Modularity in Ornamental Art Ljiljana Radovic, Slavik Jablan http://www.mi.sanu.ac.yu/vismath/radovic/index.html arole in the formation of different ornamental motifsbelongs to thedesymmetrization (symmetry-breaking) procedure The desymmetrization canbe accomplished by means of colors we canuse colors such that it results in so-called colored symmetry groups, from which we can easily determine subgroups as desymmetrizations. Thereby we can use several colors. When only two colors are used, for instance black and white, and if it results in a colored symmetry group, then this (colored) symmetry group is called an antisymmetry group, i.e. a colored symmetry group with only two colors. Antisymmetry is the simplest case of colored symmetry, namely the case where N = 2 (where N is the number of colors used). So even more possibilities for modelling real structures are possessed by colored symmetry groups where N is equal to or greater than 3. Colored symmetry involves change of colors (whichdo not have to be interpreted as just colors, but as species of any polyvalent quality geometric or not). Such color changes -- all by themselves -- can be described by permutation groups. . http://metafysica.nl/groups/d2_patterns_2.html

Serge Poliakoff

Georges Braque

Example of a black -and-white colouring. (a) Mirror design; (b) Corresponding mirror curve; (c) Starting the colouring; (d) Final black-and-white pattern (with the grid points marked); (e) Final black-andwhite pattern (with the grid points unmarked); (f) Final black-and-white pattern (with the border rectangle unmarked). This type of black-and-white design was discovered in the context of analyzing sand drawings from the Tchokwe, who predominantly inhabit the north-eastern part of Angola, a region called Lunda. Paulus Gerdes http://members.tripod.com/vismath/paulus/pg5.htm

Many Lunda designs in ornamental art possess an amazing property: equality between figure and ground (black and white). This means that they are antisymmetrical. Slavik Jablan http://members.tripod.com/~modularity/d3.htm Image from: Paulus Gerdes http://members.tripod.com/vismath/paulus/pg5.htm

GENERALISATION OF LUNDA-DESIGNS

As Lunda-designs may be considered as matrices, it is quite natural to define addition of Lunda-designs in terms of matrix addition: the sum of two (or more) matrices (of the same dimensions) is the matrix in which the elements are obtained by adding corresponding elements.

Paul Klee

[from http://members.tripod.com/~ modularity/isoh.htm]

the various applications of colors in ornaments, e.g., ornamental motifs based on the use of colors in a given ratio, by which harmony balance of colors of different intensities - is achieved, have yet to find their mathematical interpretation. Accepting "color" as a geometric property, and colored transformations as geometric transformations which commute with the symmetries of the generating group, has opened up a large unexplored field for the theory of colored symmetry. Slavik Jablan http://www.emis.de/ monographs/jablan/ chap15.htm

Serge Poliakoff

Paul Klee

Paul Klee

Paul Klee

Jacques Villon

1. COLORED SYMMETRY The theoretical backgrounds for the application of the colored symmetry in the analysis of musical works are given by A. V. Shubnikov and V. A. Koptsik in their monograph Symmetry in Science and Art (1974). In the symmetry analysis of a musical work from the point of view of antisymmetry and colored symmetry, the authors considered so-called "level of light and shade" and the "level of coloring": the first one is mostly represented by bivalent ("black-white") changes of musical parameters, while the second one by considering color changes, which means the permutations of musical parameters. The most of possible colored symmetries (simple antisymmetry, multiple antisymmetry, p-symmetry, etc.) are included in the general theory of P-symmetry (permutational symmetry) developed by A. M.Zamorzaev (1976, 1978). In the case of antisymmetry we have a possibility to analyze any alternating change of some bivalent quality, and to describe "black-white" contrasting of musical parameters (major-minor, piano-forte, ...). Because the structure of every musical work is hardly reducible to some regular repetitive pattern, antisymmetry is more present at a global, then in the local level. More refined, the multiple antisymmetry represents a combination of several mutually independent bivalent properties composed with some symmetry group. In the analysis of a musical work, it introduces the possibility to follow simultaneous changes of that bivalent properties and their correlation. Belovs p-symmetry, based on the cyclic permutation of p qualities could be used to follow similar cycles that may appear in some musical piece, e.g., a cycle of modulations beginning from some tonality, going further by a series of different tonalities, and then back to the basic tonality. In the general P-symmetry, we have the arbitrary permutation group of qualities (represented by colors), and a possibility for a most subtle analysis. JADRANKA HOFMAN-JABLAN, ANTISYMMETRY AND COLORED SYMMETRY IN MUSICAL WORKS http://www.mi.sanu.ac.yu/vismath/proceedings/hofjablan.htm

Colored symmetry (or permutational symmetry) is present in all musical structures based on the recombination, where some musical material (rhythmical or melodic) is varied using permutations of its elements. The most illustrative examples of the permutation principle can be found in the minimalistic or serial music (e.g., in the works of P. Glass). The general theory of colored symmetry (P-symmetry) gives a chance to consider the compositions of colored symmetries. In this case, it is possible to consider every component of the colored symmetry as an independent symmetry property, and to follow simultaneity of the different musical parameters and their degree of correlation. For example, several antisymmetries may be present in different planes of a musical work (e.g., in its rhythmical and melodic level), and in this case we may consider that as the multiple antisymmetry. Anyway, the main difference between the theory of colored symmetry used in the mathematical crystallography and other sciences, and that applicable to the analysis of musical works is the existence of the strongly periodical (mostly isometric) symmetry group, composed with color changes, that does not appear in musical works. Therefore, for the more refined analysis of musical works from the point of view of colored symmetry, some more recent approaches based on the "local colored symmetries" or "topological colored symmetries" may produce the better results.

One of the essential generalizations of classical symmetry is the P-symmetry of A.M.Zamorzaev. In the case of P-symmetry, the transformations of the qualities attributed to the points, are combined directly with the geometrical transformations and do not depend on the choice of points. Other proposed generalizations such as polychromatic symmetry of Wittke-Garrido or complex symmetry are not included in the scheme of A.M.Zamorzaev's P-symmetry. For these generalizations, the transformations of the qualities attributed to the points, essentially depend on the choice of points. The mentioned generalizations are included in Wp-symmetry that was introduced by V.A.Koptsik and I.N.Kotsev The recent generalizations of colored symmetry, Lungu Alexandru www.mi.sanu.ac.yu/vismath/lungu/index.html

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