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Chapter 13: Women and Education Article 26: Universal Decleration of Human Rights

Education also infos about school - education is fundamental rights

- fulfill one human potential
- basic human rights
- one that essential for progress of society 1989: Convention on the Rights of the Child
- way out of poverty
- full development of the human person
- for better future
- priority agenda for the most government The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
- powerful tool for socialization Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
United Nation incorporated education (UNie) - international bil of rights for women
- states the elimination of discriminatory laws
- as the second Millenium Development Goal
and practices
- implement in 2015 Gender Issues in Education
- aims to ensure inclusive and quality education
for all and promote lifelong learning - non-sexist curriculum
- non-sexist language
Primary Education - freedom in career option
- removal of all forms of discrimination
- hopes to eliminated gender disparity
- non negotiable right that must be free for all Beijing Platform for Action (BPfA)
right education still find itself as the fourth Sustainable - prioritize womens and mens equal access to
Development Goal (SDG) equality.
- hightlights the important formal and non formal
Gender Parity
- used to measure gender balance in a given
Philippine Laws on Gender responsive and Gender fair
situation, can aid in achieving gender equality
- number of females by the number of males
enrolled in a given stage of education Two Primary Plans that hightlight value of education
Non-Traditional Course - Phillippine Development Plan for
- not usualy associated to a particular gender
- Philippine Plan for Gender-responsive
Development (PPGD)
Quality of Education
Womens EDGE plan (Emowerment, Development and
- the knowledge being taught in a classroom Gender Equality Plan

Gender Parity does not mean Gender Equality Magna Carta of Women (MCW)

Positive Effects of Education in girls - revolutionary law that seeks to eliminated

issues of women face within education
- better economic opportunities
- have the right to decent work
- delayed marriage
- reduce fertility Three Educational Institution of MCW
- better sexual
- Department of Education (DepEd)
- reproductive health and rights
- Commission in Higher Education (CHED)
- equality and empowerment
- Technical Education and Skills Development
The Importance of Education: An International Authority (TESDA)
Gender and Development Markers in Education
National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA, Culture
- shared characteristics and norms of particular
- social and economic development planning nationalities
and policy 
Campus Culture

- culture formed within school.

Department of Education Order No. 40, Series of 2012
Peer Culture
- prohibits any form of discrimination against any
- also contributed in campus culture as it plays an
child because of
important role in gender socialization
- age,
- sex,
- ethnicity,
- religion, Chapter 14: Women and Work in the Philippines
- sexual orientation and Women head 25% of household around the globe
- gender identity.
- teachers and stundent who become pregnant Sex role Stereotyping
outside of marriage - pervades all aspect of society
Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) - men and women types of job they can have

- provide women from marginalized sectors 67% of Filipino professional are women
- women in rural areas Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs)
Thelma Kintanar - a notable/remarkable industry that has active
- highlight gender gaps in higher education participation in the Philippines
- issues about gender balance in curriculum, Country that has most active women in MSMEs
sexual harassment on campus
- globally 2nd is the Philippines
The Philippines Anti-Sexual Harassment Law of 1995 - next to peru: peru is the 1st
- a sexual harassment as the demand of sexual 45% microenterprise were women
act or favor in an institution
- nations food production, economy and industrie
- a subtle form of aggression toward historically
marginalized social group The Asian Development Bank

Bullying, as defined by R.A. 1062 - second largest sector for women employment
in the philipppines.
- is a physical, verbal, electronic gesture or act
Balik Pinay Balik Hanapbuhay Project (Return Filipina
Cyberbullying Return to Livelihood)
- bullying in social media - a gender responsive government projects.
- in technology - aims to support women overseas
Relational Aggression Double Standard of Sex
- act that harm other through damage to - sex outside of marriage only acceptable in men
relationship or feelings of acceptance and not in women
Querida other types of VAW defined by Halugpos

- mentality of men - Manwal sa Paghadlang sa Karahasan Laban sa

- cannot be married Kababaihan ( A Manual for the Prevention of
- women express their sexuality in marriage VAW)
- Arugaan ng Kalikasan ( Cradle of Stregth)
Sex Gender System
Physical Violence
- defined by Eviota
- divide between reproductive sphere and - most detectable form of VAW
productive sphere. - causing physical or bodily harm
- women place to have power and authority
Phsychological Force or Violence
- causing harm to victim through the use of
- women delegated to the domestic sphere emotional manipulation resulting in meantal
read page 226 for different laws
Economic Abuse or Violence

- deprivation of a womens financial

Chapter 15: Women and Violence
Violence Against Women (VAW) - right to use her property or materials

- strikes the personhood of women Sexual Violence

- attach women at their core
- forcing of unwanted acts upon a person
- physical and emotional effects in women
- such as rape, marital rape, incest, sexual abuse
- place in agenda in 1980s
of children
- crimes because of its gender
Two Reasons of Disagreement about VAW
- forced or penetration of parts of women body
- 1st some people assume that gender specific
violence does not exist Attempted Rape
- 2nd those who witness and recognize VAW view
- unsuccessful rape
it as normal and unavoidable
Gang Rape
Gender Specific Violence
- more than one person
- how the world is
- never change Lack of Consent
Two Umbrella terms for VAW - essential to sexual violence
- being drugged, drunk
- sexual violence
- physical violence Marital Rape
Four Types of Violence as defined in Anti VAW and their - rape occurred in married couple
children law of 2003
- physical
- psychological - sexual acts done between family
- economic Female Genital
- sexual abuse
- also called female circumcision
- removing or cutting parts of external vagina
Sexual Harassment Domestic Violence

- specific form of sexual violence - occurs within home

- occurs outside ones home - unequal power relationship between the victim
and perpetrator
Street Harassment
Three things of cause of VAW
- occurs in public space
- ones personal experience
- ones context
- most controversial issue in the feminist circle - ones culture and society
- representation through publication, shows

Chapter 16: Representation of Women in the Arts and
- defined as any act, transaction, scheme or Media
design in exchange of money
The painting the Judgement of Paris by Paul Rubens
- related is sex tourism, sexual exploitation and
sex slavery - a strong starting point for the study of women
in western art
Sex Tourism
- uses sexual services as a selling point
- considered forms are Escort Services - most beautiful man was made to choose the
most beautiful goddess among
Sexual Exploitation
o Aphrodite
- participation of women in sex industry, o Hera
prostitution of pornography o Athena
- those three claim the golden apple from Garden
Sex Slaves
of the Hasperides by Eris
- women are deceive into entering sex industry
Sex Trafficking
- deity of discord
- involves the relocation of women from one
The Male Haze
place to another
- derives pleasure from sexual imbalance
Spiritual Violence
- male looks for pleasure by looking to women
- violence that uses religion or spirituality
other forms of Violence
- a Freudian term
Reproductive or Medical abuse - act of looking become form of pleasure
- taking other people as objects
- related to having or not having children
- force to get pregnant Beauty Myth by Naomi Wolf

Abuse of Women in Intimate Relationship (AWIR) - existence of one universal beauty ideal
- all women must strive to achieve
- abuse by partners called victim of intimate
partner violence or abuse
- also called psychosocial harm
Chapter 17: Masculinity Raunch Culture

Carol Giligan - potential and actual harm

- drinking to harassment
- American psychologist known for his study of
women ways of learning Homophobia

Women Ways of Learning - fear of man that become gay men or feminine
- cause of sexism, racism and heterosexism by
- women socialized roles as caregivers
Michael Kimmel
- sociologist
- about power
- describes the specific meaning of masculinity to
- controls various resources
be fluid
- fragile
Four Rules of American Masculinity by Kimmel
Fragile Masculinities
1. No sissy Stuff
- one buzzword that surrounds masculinity
- refers to being brave, have strength, never
Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS)
being sissy.
- amount of psychological conflict, anxiety,
2. Be a Big Wheel
tension and general negative emotion
- have a power, wealth and status
3. Be a Sturdy Oak
- brotherhood
- a man that is reliable in crisis - space for men to be men
- free from wives and responsibilities
4. Give ‘em Hell - break from work and home life
- encourages aggression and risk taker Under the saya
Hogemonic Masculinity - under their wives
- some men feel can dominate both men and

Factors that surround manhood by Vandello and Bosson

- hard to win
- required constant proof
- easy to lose


- an identity that is socially constructed through


Lad Culture

- an example of masculine culture

- variety of masculinities and cultures in UK
university communitites
- linked to the crisis of masculinity in the West
- related to rauch culture
- counterpart is Hookup Culture