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 Major group of materials  Creep: The slow and gradual deformation of an object with

 Metals respect to time

 Ductility: Ability of a material to deform under tensile load
 Metals are comparatively malleable, optically reflective, (% elongation)
and electrically conductive. Most metals and alloys are  Durability: Ability to withstand wear, pressure, or damage;
easily shaped by forming. Their disassociate electron hard-wearing.
bonding makes them excellent conductors of electricity and
heat. Almost all metals have an orderly arrangement of
atoms, resulting in a crystalline structure that may have  Elasticity: Ability of a body to resist a distorting influence
multiple crystal phases bordering each other. or stress and to return to its original size and shape when
the stress is removed
 Ceramic  Fatigue limit: Maximum stress a material can withstand
under repeated loading (MPa)
 A ceramic is a non-metallic material composed of inorganic  Flexibility: Ability of an object to bend or deform in
molecules, normally prepared by heating a powder or response to an applied force; pliability; complementary to
slurry. Many common ceramics are made up of oxides or stiffness
nitride compounds and are highly crystalline with long-  Flexural strength : The stresses in a material just before it
range molecular order. Some ceramics are partially or fully yields.
amorphous, with no long-range molecular order; these are  Fracture toughness: Ability of a material containing a crack
typically classified as glassy materials. to resist fracture (J/m^2)
 Hardness: Ability to withstand surface indentation and
 Composites scratching (e.g. Brinnell hardness number)
 Malleability: Ability of the material to be flattened into thin
 are mixtures of two or more bonded materials. Composites sheets under applications of heavy compressive forces
are the mixture of multiple materials, which in combination without cracking by hot or cold working means.
offer superior properties to the materials alone. Structural
composites usually refer to the use of fibers which are  Mass diffusivity: Ability of one substance to diffuse through
embedded in a plastic. These composites offer high strength another
with very little weight.  Plasticity: Ability of a material to undergo irreversible or
permanent deformations without breaking or rupturing;
 polymers opposite of brittleness.
 difference between tensile and compressive stress
 Natural polymers include such materials as silk, shellac,  Tensile Stress
bitumen, rubber, and cellulose. However, the majority of
polymers or plastics used for engineering design
 Tensile stress is a quantity associated with stretching or
are synthetic and often they are specifically formulated or
tensile forces. Usually, tensile stress is defined as the force
“designed” by chemists or chemical engineers to serve a
per unit area and denoted by the symbol σ. The tensile
specific purpose.
stress (σ) that develops when an external stretching force
(F) is applied on an object is given by σ = F/A where A is
 Mechanical properties the cross sectional area of the object. Therefore, the SI unit
of measuring tensile stress is Nm-2 or Pa. Higher the load
 Brittleness: Ability of a material to break or shatter without or tensile force, higher the tensile stress.
significant deformation when under stress; opposite of
plasticity,examples:glass,concrete,castiron,ceramics etc.  Compressive Stress
 Bulk modulus: Ratio of pressure to volumetric compression  Compressive stress is the opposite of tensile stress. An
(GPa) or ratio of the infinitesimal pressure increase to the object experiences a compressive stress when a squeezing
resulting relative decrease of the volume. brass has highest force is applied on the object. So, an object subjected to a
bulk modulus of 116 GPa. compressive stress is shortened. Compressive stress is also
defined as the force per unit area and denoted by the symbol
σ. The compressive stress (σ) that develops when an
 Coefficient of restitution:the ratio of the final to initial external compressive or squeezing force (F) is applied on an
relative velocity between two objects after they collide. object is given by σ = F/A. Higher the compressive force,
Range : 0-1, 1 for perfectly elastic collision. higher the compressive stress.
 Compressive strength: Maximum stress a material can
withstand before compressive failure (MPa)  major thermal factors to consider when selecting a
 Operating TemperatureTemperature attack concrete. High temperature corrosion is endemic to
 Temperature is often the first—and sometimes the only— any metal used at high temperature and is in fundamental
data point given upon which one is supposed to base alloy terms a form of burning although the protective effect of
selection. However, one cannot successfully choose an oxide layers usually prevents rapid destruction of metal
alloy based on temperature alone. Nevertheless, one simple from occuring. Molten metals and salts can be very
guide to alloy selection is an estimate of the maximum destructive solvents of metals
temperature at which a given alloy might have useful long-
term engineering properties. Considering oxidation in air as  Stages in a material’s life cycle that are considered when
the limiting factor, several common alloys, in plate form, calculating embodied energy
rate as shown in Table 1. Thin sheets will have a lower
limiting temperature because of proportionally greater  Embodied energy is the total energy required for the
losses from oxidation. extraction, processing, manufacture and delivery of
building materials to the building site.
 Thermal Stability  The process of assessing embodied energy involves
 After long exposure to temperatures in the range of 1,100- measuring or estimating the total energy consumed in the
1,600°F (590-870°C), many of the higher chromium alloys life-cycle of a product.
precipitate a brittle intermetallic compound known as sigma  A further complication is the concept of ‘embodied carbon’.
phase. Molybdenum contributes to this phase. Sigma This refers to the carbon dioxide emitted as a consequence
reduces room-temperature impact strength and ductility. of sourcing and processing materials or products, concerned
The quantity and morphology of the sigma phase with mechanical and chemical operations and the by-
determines severity of embrittlement. Usually the metal is products these create.
brittle only near room temperature, and it retains reasonable
ductility at operating temperatures between 600-1000°F  Embodied energy is measured as the quantity of non-
(315-540°C). Higher nickel grades, such as N08811, renewable energy per unit of building material, component
N08330, N06600 or N06601, are not susceptible to or system. The units of measurement for embodied
embrittlement by sigma. Because of higher carbon content, energy are represented as megajoule per kilogram (MJ/kg).
which causes carbide precipitation, cast heat-resistant alloys This is the energy density of a material. Embodied
lose ductility in service. energy can also be expressed in terms of MJ/m2.

 Thermal Expansion  The measurement process involves assessing the relevant

 A major cause of distortion and cracking in high- production means, which may include but is not limited to:
temperature equipment is failure to adequately address the  Extraction.
issue of thermal expansion, and differential thermal  Manufacturing (including the energy to manufacture
expansion. Temperature gradients of only 200°F (110°C) capital equipment, heating and lighting of factories, and so
are sufficient to strain metals beyond the yield point. on)
 Transportation.
 Galling  Construction.
 Austenitic nickel alloys tend to gall when they slide against  Maintenance.
each other. At elevated temperatures, cobalt oxide tends to  Disposal.
be somewhat lubricious. Cobalt or alloys with high cobalt
content, such as cast Super-therm, are resistant to galling at  The full measure of the energy processes involved in the
red heat. For heat treat furnace applications up through various stages of a product's life is often referred to as
1650°F, Nitronic® 6010 (S21800) has resisted galling well. 'cradle-to-grave'. However, the embodied
 Thermal conductivity of material energy of products is often specified in terms of 'cradle-to-
 Factors describe the overall gate’, that is, the energy consumed until the product leaves
thermal performance of a building. the factory gate. An alternative measure is ‘cradle-to-site’,
which is the energy consumed until the product reaches
 Most common form of chemical degradation the construction site.
 Chemically mediated degradation can be divided into 3
basic classifications:
 aqueous,
 high temperature and,
 biochemical/biological.
o Aqueous degradation involves damage by water, salt water
or acids to metals, which either rust or dissolve. Water and
acids can also damage non-metals e.g. strong acids rapidly