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EXPOSITORY OR DIRECT CHARACTERIZATION

 It is when the readers deduce the trait


of the characters' thoughts, words,
Forms of Literature
actions and decisions. They infer the
 characteristics of these characters
from what they say and do.
Short Story Novel

 It is a brief  It is a long
imaginative narrative that
narrative, involves
unfolding a fictional or
predominating imagined
incident and a characters and
single chief events. It
involves more
character; it
characters,
contains a plot,
complications
the details of and conflicts
which are so than a short
compressed story does.
and the whole  It is a fictitious
treatment so prose narrative
organized as to of
provide a single considerable
impression. length and
complexity,
 It is a piece of portraying
prose fiction characters and
that can be usually
read in one presenting a
sitting. sequential DRAMATIC OR INDIRECT
organization of
actions & CAHARACTERIZATION
scenes.
 It is when the readers deduce the trait
of the characters' thoughts, words,
actions and decisions. They infer the
Elements of a Short Story & Novel characteristics of these characters
from what they say and do.

1. Characterization

 It is a method by which a writer shows


what kinds of person each character
is.

As usual, Ramon entered the room


five minutes after the class had begun. He
passed his hands over his hair to make sure it EXPOSITORY (DIRECT)
was still plastered down with the pomade he
"Perhaps it had something to do with living in
had generously applied on it. Pausing at the
a dark cupboard, but Harry had always been
door, he took an enormous pair of sunglasses
small and skinny for his age . . . Harry had a
from his pocket, carefully polished them and
thin face, knobbly knees, black hair, and
put them on. Then he smoothed the front of
bright green eyes. He wore round glasses held
his shirt and squared his shoulders slightly as
together with a lot of Scotch tape because of
he walked to his seat. A pleased smile was on
all the times Dudley had punched him on the
his face. He knew that everyone was looking
nose. The only thing Harry liked about his own
at him.
appearance was a very thin scar on his
forehead that was shaped like a bolt of
lightning."
DRAMATIC (INDIRECT CHARACTERIZATION)
Harry Potter in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's
Stone:
As usual, Ramon entered the room
five minutes after the class had begun.
Kinds of Characters
He passed his hands over his hair to make
sure it was still plastered down with the 1. Protagonist
pomade he had generously applied on it.
- is the main character of a story.
Pausing at the door, he took an enormous pair
- the admirable character who embodies
of sunglasses from his pocket, carefully cetain human ideals.
polished them and put them on.
2. Antagonist
Then he smoothed the front of his shirt and
squared his shoulders slightly as he walked to - the one who provides an opposition to the
his seat. protagonist
3. Statis/ Flat
A pleased smile was on his face. He knew that
everyone was looking at him. - the one who does not undergo any
important internal changes in the story.
4. Dynamic/Full/Round
"Perhaps it had something to do with living in
a dark cupboard, but Harry had always been - the one who is capable of
small and skinny for his age . . . Harry had a undergoingchanges.
thin face, knobbly knees, black hair, and
bright green eyes. He wore round glasses held
together with a lot of Scotch tape because of 2. SETTING
all the times Dudley had punched him on the It is the locale and period in which the story
nose. The only thing Harry liked about his own occurs.
appearance was a very thin scar on his
forehead that was shaped like a bolt of It initiates the main backdrop and the mood
of the story.
lightning."

Harry Potter in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's


Stone:
4. It can be means of revealing the character
5. It can be means of reinforcing the theme of
the story.

3. THEME
The idea that is drawn onthe readers when
he comes to the end of the story.
It is the insight worth-keeping and sharing.
It is the proposition or a statement and not
just a topic or subject matter.
The setting can be:
A story may be about death, but deat is not
PLACE-Geographical Location the theme
TIME- Historical Period “Death conquers everyone”
WEATHER CONDITION “Death is inevitable”
SOCIAL CONDITION “Life is short and death is sure”
4. Point of View (POV)

The viewpoint/perspective of the narrator

1. First Person Point of View


It is when the writer narrates the
story by using the personal pronoun “I” who
may be the central character or a minor figure
who either observes or participates in the
action.

Functions of Setting
1. It provides background of the action.
2. It can also serve as an antagonist
3. It can be means of creating appropriate
atmosphere.
2. Third Person Limited POV 2. Medias Res- it is a plot that begins in the
middle
(Camera Eye Technique)
3. Flashback- it is when past events are shown
It is when the unidentified author to justify the conflict at present.
refers to his characters in the third person but
limits himself by telling only what can be seen 4. Foreshadowing- it is when author presents
or heard inside the world of the story. insignificant evemts or details of the present
to take on value by being indicators of future
3. Third Person Central POV events.
It is when the narrator refres to his 5. Stream of Consciousness- it is a continuous
characters inthe third person but limits and random flow of ideas, feelings, sensation,
himself to narrating only whatthe character association and perception as they register on
thinks, feels, does and what and whom the the protagonist's consciousness.
central character can observe.
...My friends keep telling me that I am inlove.
4. Omniscient POV Ugh! I'm going to give my cousin a hand when
It is when the narrator acts as if he I get home. She's having a hardtime chhosing
knows everything that happens including the for a birthday present. I suppose I am in love.
thoughts of the characters. My classmates are actually biased about “old
maidenism”. I gues there is nothing wrong
5. Plot iwth being an old maid, but I hope I won't be
It is made up of incidents arranged in one. My brown shoes are worth the price I
sequence. paid for them.

Kinds of Conflict Climax

1. Man Vs. God


2. Man Vs. Nature
3. Man Vs. Society
4. Man Vs. Man Rising Action Falling Action

5. Man Vs. Himself

KINDS OF PLOT Exposition or Inciting


1. Comic- it is when the central character has Moment
Denouement
successfully solves the problem and attains (Conclusion)
his/her goal.
2. Tragic-it is when the forces opposing the
major character prevent the protagonist from
attaining his goal.
DEVICES IN PLOT
1. Chronological Arrangement-it is a
plot that
2. starts from the beginning of the
events.
6. Tone 7. Symbol

This refers to the attitude of a writer towards This is a concrete object, action or word that
the subject he is writing about. represents something larger than itself.

Tone is achieved through word choice The Wedding Dance


(diction), sentence construction and word
(Amador Daguio)
order (syntax), and by what the viewpoint
character focuses on. “This house is yours”, he said. “I built it for
you. Make it your own, live in it as long as you
7. Symbol
The Wedding Dance wish. I will build another house for
Madulimay.”
“I don't want any man” she said sharply “I don't want any
other man” “I'll keep my beads”, she said. “Awiyao, let me
keep my beads,” she half whispered.
He felt relieved that atleast she talked: “You know very
well that I won't marry any other woman either. You “You will keep the beads...”
know that, don't you? Lumnay, you know it, don't you?” DRAMA
She did not answer him. It is a literary composition portraying life and
“You know it Lumnay, don't you?” he repeated character by means of dialogue and actions
designed to be performed on stage.
“Yes I know”, she said weakly
Drama is a mode of fictional representation
“It is not my fault,” he said, feeling relieved. “You cannot through dialogue and performance. It is one
blame me; I have been a good husband to you”. of the literary genres, which is an imitation of
“Neither can you blame me”, she said. She seemed about some action.
to cry.

“I don't want any man” she said sharply “I don't want any Kinds of Play
other man”
7. Symbol
He felt relieved that atleast she talked: “You know very
well that I won't marry any other woman either. You
7. Symbol 1. Comedy- this is a kind of play that ends
know that, don't you? Lumnay, you know it, don't you?” happily. Humor and irony are often used to
7. Symbol show the incongruity of things to make the
She did not answer him. audience laugh.
7. Symbol
“You know it Lumnay, don't you?” he repeated 2. Tragedy- this is when the character losses
7. Symbol
“Yes I know”, she said weakly in his struggle against circumstances and
7. Symbol againts his own weakness.
“It is not my fault,” he said, feeling relieved. “You cannot
7. Symbol Elements of a Drama
blame me; I have been a good husband to you”.
7. Symbol 1. Plot
“Neither can you blame me”, she said. She seemed about
to cry.7. Symbol It is the overall structure of a play. This
consists of a beginning. a middle and an end.
7. Symbol
(Amador Daguio) A. Conflict
7. Symbol
It is a clash of actions, ideas, desires or wills
7. Symbol
1. Person against person
2. Person agianst environment 4. Dialogue

3. Person against herself/himself The exchange of ideas by charactres in a play.

B. Protagonist and Antagonist Dialogue gives information, reveals character,


directs play and audience attention reveals
The protagonist is the central character,
play themes, controls tempo and rhythm.
sympathetic or unsypathetic. The forces
working against him/her are the antagonists. 5. Music

C. Artistic Unity The sound of a play.

This is essential to a good plot; This is the sound of human voice, sound
nothingirrelevant; good arrangement. effects and sound provided by intruments for
mood or rhythm.
D. Plot Manipulation
6. Spectacle
A good plot should not have any unjustified or
unexpected turns or twists; no false leads; no The visual elements of a play.
deliberate and misleading information.
It gives information about the locale, time and
2. Character style of a production.

The participants in the play. It established the mood of a play.

A. Direct Presentation 7. Theme

It is when author tells us straight out, by The controling idea or cetral insight of a play.
exposition or analysis or through another
8. Points of View
character.
A. Omniscient
B. Indirect Presentation
A story told by the author, using the
It is when author shows us the character in
third person; his/her knowledge, control and
action. The audience infer what a character is
prerogatives are unlimited.
like from what she/he thinks, or says or does.
B. Limited Omniscient
D. Character Types
A story in which the author associates
1. A Flat Character is known by one or two
in a major or minor character; this character
traits.
serves as the author's spokesperson or
2. A Round Character is complex and many mouthpiece.
sided.
C. First Person
3. A Stock Character is a stereotyped
The author identifies with or
character
disappears in a major or minor character; the
4. A Static Character remains the same from story is told using the first person “I”
the beginning of the plot to the end
D. Objective or Dramatic
5. Dynamic (Developing) Character undergoes
The opposite of omniscient.
permanent change.
Very little of the past or the future is given;
3. Thought
the story is set in the present.
The themes, concepts and ideas in the play.
9. Symbol
A literary symbol means more than what it is. on. Because of this understanding, the words
It has layer of meanings. and actions of the characters take on a
different meaning. This can create intense
 Names are used as a symbol
suspense or humor. Tension develops
 Objects are used as a symbol between what the audience and characters
know is happening.
 Actions are used as a symbol
 A woman thinks her boyfriend is
10. Irony acting strangely because he's about to
It is used to suggest the difference between propose, but the audience knows that
appearance and reality, between expectation he is planning to run away with
and fulfillment. another woman, intensifying
emotions.
It is the opposite of what is expected in the
story.  In a scary movie, the character goes
into a house they think is empty, but
A. Verbal Irony the audience knows the killer is in the
It is the opposite is said from whatis intended. house. This increases the suspense.

It occurs when a speaker’s intention is the In Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, the
opposite of what he or she is saying. For audience knows Juliet is in a drugged sleep, so
example, a character stepping out into a when Romeo thinks she is dead and kills
hurricane and saying, “What nice weather himself (followed by Juliet doing the same) it
we’re having!” increases the audience's shock

B. Dramatic Irony Dramatic Genre

It is the contast of what the character A. Tragedy


says and what the character knows ti be true. This is the imitationin dramatic form of an
This occurs when the actual result of a action that is serious and complete, with
situation is totally different from what you’d incidents igniting pity and fear.
expect the result to be. Sitcoms often use It shows greatness in human nature
situational irony. For example, a family spends
a lot of time and money planning an elaborate B. Comedy
surprise birthday party for their mother to This lies in between satire and romance.
show her how much they care. But it turns
out, her birthday is next month, and none of It shows human weakness and human
them knew the correct date. She ends up limitation
fuming that no one cares enough to
C. Melodrama
remember her birthday.
This ignites pity and fear through cruder
C. Irony of Situation
means.
It is the discrepancy between the appearnace
The plot is emphasized overcharacter
and reality, or between expectation and
development.
fulffillment.
D. Farce
This occurs when the audience knows
something that is going on in a situation but It aims at arousing the explosive laughter
the characters are unaware of what is going using crude means.
Conflicts are violent, practical jokes are
common and the wit is course.

Essay

It is a piece of prose writing which expresses


the thoughts, attitudes and opinin of a writer
on various subjects.

The word Essay is derived from exagium (Lt.)


which means to weigh, to try or from essai
(Fr.) which means to attempt.

Michael de Montaigne is known as the Father


of the Essay, who first attempted to writee his
personla observations, reflections, and
experiences in his book entitled ESSAIS, a
prose type of writing that is now popularly
known as essay.

Types of Essay

1. Formal or Serious

It aims at instructing or giving knowledge. Its


mood is serious, descriptive or argumentative
but most often expository. The style is
impersonal and it often follows a logical
organization.

2. Informal or Familiar

It is designed to entertained, inform or


persuade. It is personal in tone aand is
conversational. It is characterized by short
sentences, simple vocabulary and idiomatic
expressions.