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SPSS / PSPP Material

Simplified Points for Revision

1. Hypothesis:
There are two kinds of statements for t-tests, the hypothesis and the Null
hypothesis. The hypothesis assumes that statistically significant difference exists
between multiple groups of data, whereas the null hypothesis assumes that no
difference exists.

2. T-Tests:
T-tests allow us to compare the average values of the two data sets and determine
if there is a statistically significant difference between the two data sets. A t-test is
used as a hypothesis testing tool. Either the Null Hypothesis is Accepted or
Rejected. There are three types of T-tests:

a. One sample t-test


The One Sample t Test determines whether the sample data is statistically different
from a known value (which comes from another source). The rules for one sample
t-test is:

if T(SPSS) > T(table)


Reject NULL Hypothesis
Else
Accept NULL Hypothesis

If T(SPSS) is almost equal to T(table), then check Sig value (p). If p < 0.05, Reject Null

b. Paired sample t-test


The Paired sample t Test is normally used for Pre and Post analysis of the same
sample population. For example, to check if the blood pressure of the sample group
has improved after diet and medication. The rules are the same as one sample t-
test, but the procedure is different in SPSS.
c. Independent sample t-test
The Independent sample t Test is used when you can split your sample data into
two groups (like male and female). For this, you would require a Nominal variable
in your data. The rules are the same as one sample t-test and paired sample t-test,
but the procedure is different in SPSS.

3. ANOVA (ANalysis Of VAriances)


 T test fails for more than two sets of data
 ANOVA is for checking difference among data sets with more than two data
sets.
 First you have to check if the data is homogenous or not. For that, you need
Levene’s test.
 If Levene value > 0.05, you can proceed and ANOVA can be applied
 SPSS produces an F value.
 F value greater than 1.5 means that there is a statistically significant
difference between the sets.
 But ANOVA does not tell you that the differences are between which
variables.
 For that, you have to do POSTHOC analysis
 The script for that in SPSS is:
/STATISTICS=DESCRIPTIVES HOMOGENEITY
/POSTHOC = LSD.
 See p value (sig) to compare different groups

4. Pearson’s R Correlation test


 Is a test to check if there is any correlation between two variables
 Pearson’s R value is always between -1 to 1

if R is close to +1
There is a strong directly proportional relationship between the variables
Else if R is close to -1
There is a strong inversely proportional relationship between the variables
Else if R is close to 0
There is no relationship between the variables