Sunteți pe pagina 1din 9


Published 04/01/2014
Copyright © 2014 SAE International

Fuel System Pressure Increase for Enhanced Performance of GDi Multi-

Hole Injection Systems
Guy Hoffmann, Bizhan Befrui, Axel Berndorfer, Walter F. Piock, and Daniel L. Varble
Delphi Automotive

The progressive trend towards the GDi engine downsizing, the focus on better fuel efficiency and performance, and the
regulatory requirements with respect to the combustion emissions have brought the focus of attention on strategies for
improvement of in-cylinder mixture preparation and identification and elimination of the sources of combustion emissions,
in particular the in-cylinder particulate formation.

This paper discusses the fuel system components, injector dynamics, spray characteristics and the single cylinder engine
combustion investigation of a 40 [MPa] capable conventional GDi inwardly-opening multi-hole fuel injection system. It
provides results of a study of the influence of fuel system pressure increase between 5 [MPa] to 40 [MPa], in conjunction
with the injector static flow and spray pattern, on the combustion characteristics, specifically the particulate and gaseous
emissions and the fuel economy.

The combustion data shows the marked effect of fuel pressure increase on reduction of the combustion emissions and
improvement of fuel consumption. It also illustrates an influence of the injector specifications that is evident at all system

The data highlights the complex relation of the fuel system pressure, the injector specifications and the combustion
characteristics, which must be taken into consideration for GDi homogeneous combustion system optimization.

CITATION: Hoffmann, G., Befrui, B., Berndorfer, A., Piock, W. et al., "Fuel System Pressure Increase for Enhanced
Performance of GDi Multi-Hole Injection Systems," SAE Int. J. Engines 7(1):2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1209.

INTRODUCTION higher power density by turbo-charging enables in addition a

reduction of the engine displacement (downsizing) which
Gasoline engines with direct fuel introduction are well
allows the operation in a more efficient engine load range.
established as automotive power source with the overall scope
of improved fuel economy and increased specific performance.
Figure 1 displays the progression of the GDi high pressure fuel
After the mid-1990s when the first gasoline direct injection
system, since its market introduction in the mid-Nineties. These
engines (GDi) was introduced to the market, the engine
systems supported stratified combustion and operated in the
operation was focused on stratified part load combustion to
range of 10 [MPa] fuel system pressure. The broader
gain higher efficiency mainly by reducing the pumping losses,
introduction of turbocharging for GDi engines require extended
a preferable lean charge composition and a higher
flow ranges which can be accommodated by the variable fuel
compression ratio. The expensive and sophisticated
pressure [1]. The second driver for the higher fuel pressure is
aftertreatment and the required fuel quality limits the global
the requirement for better atomization and improved mixture
usage of stratified operation. Today the dominating efficiency
formation, primarily effected by introduction of the spray-
improvement approach is shifting the load regime of the engine
stratified (second generation) combustion systems in 2006 [2].
towards higher values. In order to keep or even improve the
vehicle dynamics turbo-charging is a widely introduced and
Future legislation for the CO2 / fuel consumption and emission
accepted technology in the meantime also for gasoline
reduction are spurring significant development efforts of the
engines. The temporal flexibility of the fuel injection enables
GDi injection system. The reduction of fuel consumption is a
very effective scavenging operation at low engine rpm's
primary driver to improve the combustion efficiency. A more
minimizing the turbo lag compared to conventional port fuel
effective atomization obtainable with higher fuel system
injection (PFI) turbocharged engines and consequently makes
pressure has shown the potential for improvement of the
longer gear ratios acceptable (downspeeding). The significant
Hoffmann et al / SAE Int. J. Engines / Volume 7, Issue 1 (May 2014)

combustion performance for GDi homogeneous systems [3, 4]. Fig. 2 shows schematically the entire GDi fuel system, from the
The future emission legislation of Euro 6C [5, 6], becoming fuel tank through to the injector.
effective in Europe in 2017, is another major driver for a GDi
fuel system pressure increase. Especially in the case
particulate emissions - mass as well as number - a higher fuel
pressure is capable to sustainably reduce the engine
emissions [7, 8].

Figure 2. GDi Fuel System and Components

Figure 1. Pressure Evolution for GDi Systems and Future Trend The fuel is delivered from the fuel tank by the fuel pump to the
inlet the GDi high pressure pump. The fuel enters the high
In the following chapters, the requirements and implications of
pressure pump through the damper body, passes the inlet
a system pressure increase to 40 [MPa] for the GDi
metering valve, and is then pressurized by the plunger and
conventional multi-hole fuel system components are discussed.
exits via the outlet check valve into the high pressure side of
Then, the influence of fuel injection increase between 5 [MPa]
the fuel system. A fuel pipe connects the pump outlet fitting
and 40 [MPa] on the injector hydraulic performance and the
with the high pressure (common) rail which distributes the fuel
spray structure, penetration and atomization are illustrated with
to the individual injectors. The fuel pressure sensor is also
the aid of experimental data. The effect of fuel system pressure
typically mounted on the fuel rail to enable an accurate
on the combustion characteristics is of primary interest: in this
measurement and control. In the following chapters the
context the single-cylinder engine combustion data for three
implications of a fuel system increase from the current 20
GDi multi-hole injectors -with different spray patterns and static
[MPa] to 40 [MPa] are reviewed.
flows - operating at different fuel pressures are presented and
discussed. Finally, a summary of the main findings of this study
is provided. Low Pressure System
Today's high pressure pumps with an “on demand” fuel delivery
generate pressure pulsations that are reflected into the low
FUEL SYSTEM ASPECTS pressure fuel supply system. The amplitude and frequency of
One reason for introduction of GDi systems is to improve the these pressure waves are determined by the pump swept
fuel economy of gasoline powered vehicles. Therefore it is volume and the maximum cam-shaft rotational speed. As long
necessary to carefully assess all required measures, with as this key fuel pump characteristic is not altered, no high
respect to the fuel system, and implications for total engine pressure system excitation is expected and no specific
outputs in order to meet this overall objective. A fuel system measures need to be considered for the fuel system pressure
pressure increase can be expected to elevate the parasitic increase.
losses and, on this ground alone, will be counterproductive for
engine CO2 reduction. A comprehensive review and
optimization of the entire fuel system - from the fuel tank to the High Pressure Pump
injector - needs to performed. This must include all pertinent The high fuel pressure is produced by the high pressure pump.
aspect of a fuel system pressure increase, for instance the Consequently, an increase of the fuel system pressure requires
structural, hydraulic as well as the system component sufficient structural integrity of the high pressure pump. The
interactions, in order to guarantee a safe and efficient components of the pump that are responsible for the fuel
operation in engine applications. pressurization - or in the high pressure circuit - need special
Hoffmann et al / SAE Int. J. Engines / Volume 7, Issue 1 (May 2014)

attention. In particular, interfaces on the high pressure side that (FEA) needs to be performed to assess the fatigue and
are normally welded must be rigorously design optimized in overstress situation and provide appropriate guidelines for
order to withstand a significant higher fatigue stress levels. design improvements.

The pumping force is determined by the plunger diameter and The fuel pressure sensor requires an extended measurement
the pressure in the pumping chamber. By simply increasing the capability as well as structural strength beyond the fuel system
fuel pressure a nearly linear increase of the pumping force is burst limit. Today's 200 [bar] sensor technology can be
observed. This higher force needs to be provided by the cam upgraded to the higher pressure requirements and no new
shaft via the cam lift and the cam lifter. In Fig. 3 the simulated technology needs to be implemented.
pump cam load as function of fuel pressure and plunger
diameter is shown for a given specific cam lift profile. It is very The typical connection system between injector and fuel rail
obvious that the force is a strong function of the plunger consists of a chemically resistive and low temperature capable
diameter. Depending on the camshaft drive situation, a fuel O-ring in combination with a backup ring. Careful redesign of
pressure increase may result in a reduced plunger diameter in this critical interface by optimizing the rail socket diameter, the
order to limit the contact stress between cam and cam lifter gap between injector upper housing and refining the tolerances
and the maxima in the pump driving torque. is required to withstand a potential extrusion of the backup ring.
The O-ring size and material as well as the backup ring
dimensions and material are adapted to provide a leak-free
function over the engine life. Overpressure tests and extended
pressure cycling tests confirm the feasibility of this interface
concept and sealing package. The requirement for an
expensive screwed interface with an intermediate fuel pipe
between the rail and injector, as typically applied in Diesel
injection systems, is not deemed necessary for the fuel system
pressures up to 40 [MPa].

High Pressure Injector

In general, the injector features that have proven successful for
diesel engines can be expected to be pursued for meeting the
market and regulatory demands for improvement of the GDi
engine fuel economy and emissions. In this context, the fuel
injector will be a key component and features such as
advanced nozzle design and manufacturing process, high fuel
system pressure, controlled fuel injection rate, multiple
Figure 3. Simulated Pump Cam Load as Function of Fuel Pressure and
Plunger Diameter injections in conjunction with precise minimum injected
quantities, will be pursued to improve the fuel economy and
In order to compensate for the smaller plunger diameter, the reduce pollutant emissions of the future gasoline engines. This
cam lift needs to be increased which is to a certain degree renders the injector technology a primary enabler for advancing
possible. The integrated pressure relief valve (PRV) will be the GDi engine combustion characteristics.
adjusted accordingly to provide overpressure protection of the
high pressure fuel system. The focus of the present study is the increase of fuel system
pressure of the conventional GDi multi-hole injector from the
The additional energy required to provide the fuel mass at a current 20 [MPa] to 40 [MPa]. Figure 4 displays the Delphi
higher pressure as well as the higher friction and bypass Multec14®GDi multi-hole injector capable of 40 [MPa] fuel
losses needs to be considered in the overall efficiency system pressure. The increase of fuel system pressure leads
assessment of the combustion engine. A detailed analysis of to increased product and process specifications in several
the fuel pressure impact on high pressure fuel pump efficiency areas.
is provided in Reference [9].
The immediate consequence of the higher system pressure is
increase of structural stress on the injector pressure vessel.
High Pressure Fuel Rail While sufficiently high burst pressure levels can be achieved,
The fuel pipe and the fuel rail are typically connected by metal meeting lifetime pressure cycling durability is challenging. In
to metal interfaces which can be carried over for the discussed particular the structural welds of the injector pressure vessel
fuel pressure increase. Also the base architecture of the fuel require careful design and process optimization, as well as a
rail with its typically brazed components like fittings, end plugs reassessment of material selection. The product validation
or sockets is generally able to withstand the higher stresses. requires extensive pressure cycling testing with a particular
However a careful re-evaluation by finite element analysis focus on parts at the limit of specification in terms of
Hoffmann et al / SAE Int. J. Engines / Volume 7, Issue 1 (May 2014)

parameters like press / slip fit tolerances, wall thickness, weld Finally, the combined optimization of the injector hydraulic and
penetration and targeting, and material properties. Also, the magnetic injector should ensure that the injector electrical
effective loads on the injector due to mounting conditions need requirements - with respect to the drive scheme voltage and
to be considered as these can have an important influence on peak/hold currents - remain as the current conventional GDi
the critical stress levels. system. Last, but not least, the component and assembly cost
increase needs to be moderate in order to maintain price
competitiveness of the high pressure injection system.


Injector Dynamics
Figure 5 presents the dynamic injection rate measurements at
20 [MPa] and 40 [MPa] injection pressures, with the aid of a
shot-to-shot capable device [10]. The data pertains to a total
injected quantity of 11 mg/pulse.

Figure 4. GDi Multec14®inwardly-opening multi-hole injector for 40

[MPa] fuel system pressure

A second area of development is on the actuator force

requirements due to the increased hydraulic loads at elevated
system pressures. In closed position, the pintle of the inwardly-
opening injector is subjected to a hydraulic closing force
proportional to the system pressure and the valve sealing
diameter. When the injector opens this hydraulic closing force
is reduced as the pressure level in the sac volume increases; Figure 5. Experimental injection rate data at 20 and 40 [MPa] fuel
system pressure (injected quantity 11 mg/pulse)
nevertheless it is critical to provide a sufficiently high actuation
force level in this phase in order to guarantee robust injector
opening performance especially at maximum operating
pressure. The optimization of the actuator force needs to take
into account the additional constraints imposed on the actuator
design due to the higher structural requirements as well as the
requirements on the drive scheme in terms of peak and
transient current levels.

Due to higher system pressure targets, the multi-hole valve

group needs to be redesigned by adapting the metering of the
flow in the nozzle holes as well as by optimizing the flow
routing in the upstream pintle seat area. These measures are
necessary to achieve optimized spray penetration and
targeting, but also have an influence on the actuator force
requirements and structural stress level in the injector seat.

In order to improve engine warm-up and/or reduce emissions, Figure 6. Experimental flow curve data for fuel system pressures of
injection strategies with multiple pulses at small dwell times 5,10, 20 and 40 [MPa]
and a precise control of small injected fuel quantities are
required also for high operating pressures. This leads to more As visible in Figure 5, the increase of injection pressure
stringent flow requirements in the ballistic operation zone of the corresponds to an increase of the injection rate, which results
injector as well as drives optimization of the injector dynamic in a shorter pulse length to deliver the same quantity of fuel.
behavior in order to reduce undesirable effects due to armature The data shows no undesirable post-injection, caused by the
and pintle impact on opening and closing performance. higher pintle closing speed associated with the injection
pressure increase.
Hoffmann et al / SAE Int. J. Engines / Volume 7, Issue 1 (May 2014)

Figure 6 presents the flow curves, for the injector 6H-LF, for
different fuel systems pressures between 5 [MPa] - 40 [MPa]. It
is noteworthy that through specific design, the injector
dynamics are similar for the small pulse durations, in the range
bellow 0.4 [ms], thus enabling easy control of small injected

Spray Structure and Penetration

Figure 7 displays the effect of fuel pressure on the spray
structure with the aid of Mie images of spray at the end of
fueling (i.e. visible end of injection) for four fuel systems
pressures of 5, 10, 20 and 40 [MPa]. The injected quantity is 11
[mg/pulse] and pulse duration is adjusted to deliver the same
quantity for the four fuel pressure conditions. Figure 8. Transient spray front penetration for fuel system pressures of
5, 10, 20 and 40 [MPa], injected quantity = 11mg/pulse (Pulse width
The imaging data shows insignificant effect of fuel system adjusted according to the fuel system pressure)
pressure on the spray penetration, at the end of delivery of an
identical injected quantity. Figure 8 illustrates the effect of fuel pressure on the injection
velocity and, hence, the spray front penetration velocity. The
However, the images show visible increase of light scattering data underscores the necessity for start-of-injection (SOI)
by the spray plume, which is an indication of the droplet-size adjustment in engine operation to compensate for the faster
reduction associated with the system pressure increase. spray front propagation (and hence the risk of spray-piston
impingement) with increase of the fuel system pressure.

Notably, the final plume penetration length (corresponding to

the end of visible injection in Figure 7) is nearly independent of
the fuel pressure. The implications are significant in that the
integral injected spray momentum (for a constant injected
quantity) increases according to the square root of the fuel
pressure. The absence of a proportional increase in the final
spray penetration underscores the enhancement of the
spray-air momentum exchange (thus the air entrainment into
the spray). This is a key mechanism - in addition to the
atomization improvement - for promotion of the spray
vaporization and mixing processes.

Spray Atomization
Figure 9 shows the effect of fuel system pressure on the spray
atomization quality, as illustrated by the spray droplet size
parameters Dv10, D32 (i.e. Sauter mean diameter) and Dv90.
In accordance with the SAE J2715 standard [11] guidelines,
the laser diffraction measurement is performed at 50 [mm]
downstream of the nozzle exit with the n-Heptane fuel. The
injection pulse-width was adjusted in order to maintain an
injected quantity of 7 mg/pulse for all fuel pressures. This
Figure 7. Mie spray images for fuel system pressures of 5, 10, 20 and
40 [MPa], t = visible end of injection, quantity = 11 mg/pulse (Pulse injected quantity rendered a dilute spray (at the measurement
width adjusted according to fuel system pressure) location) as per requirements of the laser diffraction
measurement system.
Figure 8 presents the transient development of the spray front
penetration for various fuel system pressures, extracted from Figure 9 illustrates the marked effect of fuel pressure on the
high-speed imaging of a single injection event. For all cases, spray atomization, especially in the pressure range of 5 - 20
the injected quantity for is 11 [g/pulse], thus the data permits [MPa]. The effect of pressure on spray atomization diminishes
direct comparison of the spray penetration pertinent to a for fuel pressures higher than 20 [MPa], but without reaching
specific engine operating condition (in this case, the 2000 [rpm] an asymptotic condition at 40 [MPa].
/ 300 [kPa] point).
Hoffmann et al / SAE Int. J. Engines / Volume 7, Issue 1 (May 2014)

The term GDi “homogeneous” combustion denotes the

prevalent strategy for fuel injection during the induction
process, in order to obtain a “homogeneous” in-cylinder
mixture at the spark time. It is recognized that perfect
homogeneity is not achieved due to the time scales of fuel
delivery, spray atomization, vaporization and mixing processes.
The mixture inhomogeneity is a primary contributor to the GDi
engine emissions. An objective of the fuel injection system
parameter optimization (such as injection pressure, spray
pattern, plume atomization charactersitics, SOI) is to promote
mixture homogeneity and, thereby, improve the combustion
and emission characteristics.

Figure 10 shows the single-cylinder engine test bed. The

engine is equipped with multiple endoscopic accesses to the
Figure 9. Effect of fuel pressure on the spray droplet-size distribution combustion chamber that allows simultaneous imaging of the
parameters Dv10, D32 and Dv90 spray and the combustion process.


Single cylinder engine combustion tests were performed in
order to assess the effect of fuel pressure system on the
combustion characteristics, specifically the particulate
emissions (both PM and PN). Simultaneously, the effect of
injector static flow and spray pattern were investigated through
combustion tests of injectors with similar static flow and
different plume patterns (identified as low-flow 6 and 5 plume
patterns 6H-LF and 5H-LF, respectively) and injectors with
identical plume pattern and different static flows (identified as
low-flow and high-flow, respectively 6H-LF and 6H-HF, having
6 plumes with identical targeting pattern).

Measurement Setup and Equipment

The combustion test bed is equipped with a single-cylinder GDi Figure 10. Single-cylinder engine test bed and optical access for
engine, whose layout and dimensions are provided in Table 1. combustion imaging

Table 1. GDi Single-Cylinder Engine Specifications The layout of the injector and spark plug results in charge
transport from injector towards the spark plug by the persisting
tumble motion during late compression and early expansion
strokes. A high speed camera [12] is connected to the
endoscope which enables a sampling rate of 8,000 frames per
second with sufficient optical resolution. Exhaust gas
particulate mass is measured by AVL-483 Micro-soot sensor
[13] and the particulate number is measured by Cambustion
DMS500 MKII fast particle analyzer [14].

Combustion Test Plan

The engine speed and load conditions have considerable
influence on the exhaust particulate emission, even if it is
operated under strict stoichiometric air-fuel mixture and with a
thermodynamically optimized spark setting (MBT). The
selected engine speed and load point for the study is 2,500
The engine has a relatively low tumble charge motion [rpm] and an indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 686
optimized for the spray-stratified lean combustion strategy, but [kPa] (corresponding to a net mean effective pressure (NMEP)
in the present study it was operated under homogenous, of 640 [kPa]) with a stoichiometric air-fuel condition and MBT
stoichiometric air-fuel mixture and with a thermodynamically spark timing. This engine speed-load condition is in the range
optimized spark setting (MBT). adopted for accelerated injector coking study.
Hoffmann et al / SAE Int. J. Engines / Volume 7, Issue 1 (May 2014)

The combustion test procedure entails the following: starting emissions. This is a consequence of the augmented spray-
with a clean (free of deposit) injector, the appropriate SOIs for front propagation speed with the increase of fuel system
all fuel system pressures are established through SOI sweep pressure, illustrated in Figure 8.
tests. Then, a 10 [hr] injector conditioning at 20 [MPa] fuel
pressure is performed, succeeded by the fuel pressure sweep
test. Table 2 presents the combustion test sequence: it
comprises a 10 [hr] injector conditioning at fuel pressure of 20
[MPa], followed by the fuel pressure variations of 5, 10, 20, and
40 [MPa]. The pressure sweep involves 1 [hr] operation at
each pressure step The goal is to investigate the effect of fuel
pressure, in conjunction with nozzle design and injector static
flow characteristics.

Experience has shown that strict control of the injector tip initial
clean condition, its engine conditioning process and the
combustion test parameters / procedure is critical for
comparative study of the engine particulate emissions. These
were closely monitored and followed in the present

Table 2. Combustion Test Sequence

Figure 11. SCE combustion data for particulate emission dependence

on SOI and fuel system pressure (injector 6H-High Flow)
Combustion Data
It must be noted that no valve timing or external EGR strategy
Optimum Start of Injection
is employed in conjunction with the fuel pressure study to
Figure 11 presents results of the SOI sweep test for optimum promote spray vaporization and mixture preparation.
injection timing. It displays the particulate mass and number
emissions as a function of the SOI time, for different fuel
system pressures, for the injector 6H-HF. Particulate Emissions
Figure 12 presents the particulate emissions (PM, PN) data for
The results highlight two notable effects of the increase of fuel the three injectors (6H-LF, 5H-LF and 6H-HF) at three selected
system pressure on the engine particulate emissions, namely fuel system pressures of 5, 20 and 40 [MPa]. The figure
(a) the significant reduction of the PM/PN levels, and (b) the presents the complete combustion data for 1[hr] engine
remarkable widening of the optimum SOI window for optimum operation (at the speed / load condition of 2500 [rpm] / 686
particulate emissions. In view of the lack of a strong tumble [kPa, IMEP] and stoichiometric fuel/air ratio) at a constant fuel
motion in this engine to promote fuel vaporization and air system pressure.
mixing, the results underscore the extent of mixture preparation
enhancement achieved through the increase of fuel system Figure 12 illustrates the effect of fuel pressure on reduction of
pressure. The data demonstrates that 40 [MPa] fuel system the engine PM/PN particulate emissions with respect to both
pressure is capable to provide very good spray vaporization the average level and cycle-to-cycle variations. It also shows
and mixing, even for fuel injection during late induction. This is the broad correspondence between the trends of PM and PN
attributable to the augmented injection momentum and variations, with respect to both the injector seat secification and
atomization quality with the pressure system increase. the fuel system pressure. In addition, Figure 12 allows few
noteworthy observations with respect to the injector features:
Also evident in Figure 11 is the trend of retarding the SOI with
increase of the fuel pressure, in order to prevent spray-piston
interaction and the associated pool-fire source of particulate
Hoffmann et al / SAE Int. J. Engines / Volume 7, Issue 1 (May 2014)

1. There is a systematic improvement of PM/PN emissions Hydrocarbon Emissions

with increase of fuel pressure, irrespective of the injector The influence of fuel pressure system on hydrocarbon
features, emissions for three injectors 6H-LF, 5H-LF and 6H-HF are
2. There is significant influence of injector static flow and presented in Figure 13. The data show a systematic effect of
plume targeting pattern on the particulate emissions at a fuel pressure on reduction of HC emissions - both its mean and
specific fuel pressure. cycle-to-cycle-variation - as well as an influence of the nozzle
static flow and plume pattern.

Figure 13. SCE hydrocarbon emission data for three injectors 6H-LF,
5H-LF and 6H-HF, at 3 fuel system pressures of 5, 20 and 40 [MPa]

Fuel Economy
Figure 14 presents the single cylinder engine net specific fuel
consumption (NSFC) data, displaying the effect of fuel system
pressure and the seat-nozzle specifications on the engine
specific fuel consumption. The trends are similar as in the
cases of PM/PN and NSFC, and show systematic reduction of
NSFC mean and cycle-to-cycle variations with the increase of
fuel pressure. There is also evidence of the influence of seat
- nozzle specification that is not diminished with the increase of
the fuel system pressure.

Figure12. SCE particulate emission data for three injectors 6H-LF,

5H-LF and 6H-HF, at fuel system pressures of 5, 20 and 40 [MPa]

It is worth noting that these observations pertain to a low

tumble combustion system, optimized for the GDi spray-
stratified (spray guided) combustion operation. So, although
principally valid, the extent of their influence could vary for the
prevalent high-tumble charge-motion design of GDi systems
adopted for the homogeneous combustion strategy in order to
promote mixture homogenization. The data indicate the
complex relation between the injector static flow, spray pattern,
fuel system pressure and the combustion characteristics that
need to be taken into consideration when optimizing the
combustion system.

Figure 14. SCE net specific fuel consumption data for three injectors
6H-LF, 5H-LF and 6H-HF, at three fuel system pressures of 5, 20 and
40 [MPa]
Hoffmann et al / SAE Int. J. Engines / Volume 7, Issue 1 (May 2014)

SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 5. Regulation (EF) No 715 /2007 of the European Parliament and
the Council of 20 June 2007,
The single cylinder engine combustion data shows a
pronounced influence of fuel pressure on reduction of the PM 6. Commission Regulation (EU) No 459/2012 of 29 May 2012, http://
and PN emissions, both the mean and the cycle-to-cycle 459:en:NOT
variations, concurrent with parallel improvements of the 7. Berndorfer, A., Breuer, S., Piock, W., and Von Bacho, P.,
gaseous emissions and fuel consumption. The data also offers “Diffusion Combustion Phenomena in GDi Engines caused by
Injection Process,” SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0261, 2013,
evidence of significant influences of the injector static flow and doi:10.4271/2013-01-0261.
the spray pattern on the combustion and emission 8. Klauer N., Klüting M., Schünemann E., Schwarz C., Steinparzer
characteristics. F.:“BMW TwinPower Turbo Gasoline Engine Technology -
Enabling Compliance with worldwide Exhaust Gas Emissions
Requirements,” 34th Vienna Motor Symposium, 2013
The data underscore the complex relation of the injector 9. Husted, H., Spegar, T., and Spakowski, J., “The Effects of GDi Fuel
specifications, fuel system pressure and the combustion Pressure on Fuel Economy,” SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1438,
2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1438.
characteristics. It is noteworthy that although the magnitude of 10. Mexus diesel and gasoline light duty shot-to-shot injection
the fuel pressure influence on the combustion characteristics measuring system, Loccioni Group,
varies for individual injectors, overall, the effect of injector MexusDLD-GLD.pdf
11. Hung, D., Harrington, D., Gandhi, A., Markle, L. et al., “Gasoline
specifications is not diminished by the increase of the fuel Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New
system pressure. SAE J2715 Recommended Practice,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr.
1(1):534-548, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-01-1068.
12. Technical documentation: MotionBLITZ EoSens ® mini1, Mikrotron
The single cylinder combustion tests were carried out with due GmbH, Germany, 2011.
care to ensure the injectors were subjected to identical 13. Technical Documentation: Micro Soot Sensor, AVLGmbH, Austria,
conditioning and tests procedure. This is an absolute 2008.
requirement to ensure the PN/PM emissions data are not 14. Technical Documentation: DMS500 MkII Transient Engine
Particulate Analyzer, Cambustion LTD, UK, 2011.
influenced by uncontrolled parameters.

It is recognized that due the low-tumble charge motion design ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

of the single-cylinder engine, the fuel injection system plays a The authors would like to acknowledge the significant efforts of
major role in the mixture preparation in the present study. On colleagues at the Delphi Technical Center Rochester and the
this, the single-cylinder engine may differ from the prevalent Delphi Customer Technology Centre Luxembourg, specifically
high-tumble GDi homogeneous engines. This underscores the N. Mastro, D. Dalo, P. Spiekermann, C. Deliege and C.
necessity for combustion system optimization, taking into Majerus, who made this project possible.
account the injector specification, spray pattern, fuel system
pressure and the engine design and performance parameters.
Further investigations of the influence of fuel system pressure ATDC - After top dead center
on the GDi homogenous combustion fuel economy and
CAD - Crank Angle Degrees
emissions are in progress and will be reported.
MBT - Maximum brake torque
NMEP - Net mean effective pressure
NSFC - Net specific fuel consumption
1. Piock, W., Pinter, A., and Fraidl, G., “Gasoline Direct Injection and
Engine Boosting,” SAE International TOPTEC, Aug. 2002. PM - Particulate Mass emission
2. Waltner A., Lueckert P., Schaupp U., Rau E., Kemmler R. Weller
R., “Future Technology of the Spark-ignition Engine: Spray-guided PN - Particulate Number emission
Direct Injection with Piezo Injector,” 27th Vienna Motor Symposium SOI - Start of Injection (start of injector energizing)
3. Nauwerck, A., Pfeil, J., Velji, A., Spicher, U. et al., “A Basic Euro-6C - Commission Regulation (EU) No 459/2012 of 29
Experimental Study of Gasoline Direct Injection at Significantly May 2012
High Injection Pressures,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0098,
2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-0098.
4. Herweg R., Haase D., Dieler T., Berndt F., Rottenkolber G.:
“Lean Burn Combustion for Gasoline Engines: Potential of High
Frequency Ignition and High Pressure Injection,” 13th Stuttgart
International Conference Automotive and Engine Technology, 2013

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of SAE International.

Positions and opinions advanced in this paper are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of SAE International. The author is solely responsible for the content of the