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BEAM ANALYSIS USING THE STIFFNESS

METHOD
! Development: The Slope-Deflection
Equations
! Stiffness Matrix
! General Procedures
! Internal Hinges sadsadasd

! Temperature Effects
! Force & Displacement Transformation adsdasd

! Skew Roller Support

1
Slope – Deflection Equations

i P j k
w
Cj

settlement = ∆j

i P j
Mij w Mji

θi

ψ θj

2
• Degrees of Freedom

M
θΑ

A B 1 DOF: θΑ
L

P
θΑ
B 2 DOF: θΑ , θΒ
A C
θΒ

3
• Stiffness Definition

kAA 1 kBA

A B
L

4 EI
k AA =
L
2 EI
k BA =
L

4
kAB kBB

A 1 B
L

4 EI
k BB =
L
2 EI
k AB =
L

5
• Fixed-End Forces
Fixed-End Forces: Loads
P

PL L/2 L/2 PL
8 8
L

P P
2 2

w
wL2 wL2
12 12
L
wL wL
2 2

6
• General Case j k
i P
w
Cj

settlement = ∆j

i P j
Mij w Mji

θi

ψ θj

7
i P j
Mij w
Mji
θi
L settlement = ∆j
ψ θj

4 EI 2 EI 2 EI 4 EI
θi + θj = M Mji = θi + θj
L L ij
L L
θj
θi
+
(MFij)∆ (MFji)∆

settlement = ∆j
+
P
w
(MFij)Load (MFji)Load

4 EI 2 EI 2 EI 4 EI
M ij = ( )θ i + ( )θ j + ( M F ij ) ∆ + ( M F ij ) Load , M ji = ( )θ i + ( )θ j + ( M F ji ) ∆ + ( M F ji ) Load 8
L L L L
• Equilibrium Equations

i P j k
w
Cj

Mji Cj M
jk

Mji Mjk

+ ΣM j = 0 : − M ji − M jk + C j = 0

9
• Stiffness Coefficients

Mij i j Mji
L
θj
θi

4 EI
kii = 2 EI
L k ji = ×θ i
L
1

+
2 EI
kij = 4 EI
L k jj = ×θ j
L
1

10
• Matrix Formulation

4 EI 2 EI
M ij = ( )θ i + ( )θ j + ( M F ij )
L L
2 EI 4 EI
M ji = ( )θ i + ( )θ j + ( M F ji )
L L

 M ij  (4 EI / L) ( 2 EI / L) θ iI   M ij F 
M  =   θ  +  M F 
 ji   ( 2 EI / L ) ( 4 EI / L )   j   ji 

 kii kij 
[k ] = 
k ji k jj 

Stiffness Matrix

11
i P j
Mij w
Mji
θi [ M ] = [ K ][θ ] + [ FEM ]
L
θj ∆j ([ M ] − [ FEM ]) = [ K ][θ ]
ψ
[θ ] = [ K ]−1[ M ] − [ FEM ]
Mij Mji
θj
θi
Fixed-end moment
+ Stiffness matrix matrix
(MFij)∆ (MFji)∆
[D] = [K]-1([Q] - [FEM])
+
P Displacement Force matrix
(MFij)Load w (MFji)Load matrix

12
• Stiffness Coefficients Derivation
Mi θi Mj

Real beam
i j
L
Mi + M j Mi + M j
L L
L/3 M jL Mj
2 EI EI
Conjugate beam
Mi
EI MiL
θι 2 EI

MiL L M j L 2L From (1) and (2);


+ ΣM 'i = 0 : − ( )( ) + ( )( ) = 0
2 EI 3 2 EI 3 4 EI
Mi = ( )θ i
M i = 2 M j − − − (1) L
2 EI
MiL M L Mj =( )θ i
+ ↑ ΣFy = 0 : θ i − ( ) + ( j ) = 0 − − − (2) L
2 EI 2 EI 13
• Derivation of Fixed-End Moment
Point load
P Real beam Conjugate beam
A B

A L B
M M
M EI EI

M
EI ML
M 2 EI

M
ML EI
2 EI 2
P PL2 PL PL
16 EI 4 EI 16 EI

ML ML 2 PL2 PL
+ ↑ ΣFy = 0 : − − + = 0, M =
2 EI 2 EI 16 EI 8 14
P

PL PL
8 L 8
P P
P/2
2 2

P/2
PL/8

-PL/8 -PL/8

-
-PL/8 -PL/16

-
-PL/16
-PL/8
PL/4 − PL − PL PL PL
+ + =
+ 16 16 4 8
15
Uniform load

w Real beam Conjugate beam


A B
A L B
M M
M EI EI

M
EI ML
M 2 EI

M
ML EI
2 EI
wL3 wL2 wL3
w 24 EI 8 EI 24 EI

ML ML 2 wL3 wL2
+ ↑ ΣFy = 0 : − − + = 0, M =
2 EI 2 EI 24 EI 12 16
Settlements
M
Mi = Mj Real beam Mj Conjugate beam EI
L
A B

Mi + M j ∆ ∆
M
L Mi + M j
M EI
L

M
EI ML
ML
2 EI M
2 EI
M EI

ML L ML 2 L
+ ΣM B = 0 : − ∆ − ( )( ) + ( )( ) = 0,
2 EI 3 2 EI 3
6 EI∆
M= 17
L2
• Typical Problem CB P2
P1 w

A C
B
L1 L2

wL2
PL P PL w wL2
12
8 8 12

L L

0
4 EI 2 EI PL
M AB = θA + θB + 0 + 1 1
L1 L1 8
0 EI
2 EI 4 PL
M BA = θA + θB + 0 − 1 1
L1 L1 8
0 2
4 EI 2 EI P2 L2 wL2
M BC = θB + θC + 0 + +
L2 L2 8 12
0 2
2 EI 4 EI − P2 L2 wL2
M CB = θB + θC + 0 + −
L2 L2 8 12
18
CB P2
P1 w

A C
B
L1 L2

MBA CB M
BC

2 EI 4 EI PL
M BA = θA + θB + 0 − 1 1
L1 L1 8
2
4 EI 2 EI P L wL
M BC = θB + θC + 0 + 2 2 + 2
L2 L2 8 12

+ ΣM B = 0 : C B − M BA − M BC = 0 → Solve for θ B

19
CB P2
P1 w
MBA
MAB
A C M
CB
B MBC
L1 L2

Substitute θB in MAB, MBA, MBC, MCB

0
4 EI 2 EI PL
M AB = θA + θB + 0 + 1 1
L1 L1 8
0 EI
2 EI 4 PL
M BA = θA + θB + 0 − 1 1
L1 L1 8
0 2
4 EI 2 EI P2 L2 wL2
M BC = θB + θC + 0 + +
L2 L2 8 12
0 2
2 EI 4 EI − P2 L2 wL2
M CB = θB + θC + 0 + −
L2 L2 8 12

20
CB P2
P1 w
MBA
MAB
MCB
A MBC C
Ay B Cy
L1 L2
By = ByL + ByR

B C
P1 P2
MBA MCB
MAB A B MBC

Ay ByL ByR Cy
L1 L2

21
Stiffness Matrix

• Node and Member Identification

• Global and Member Coordinates

• Degrees of Freedom

•Known degrees of freedom D4, D5, D6, D7, D8 and D9


• Unknown degrees of freedom D1, D2 and D3

6 9
5 2 3 8
2EI EI
2 7
14 1 21 3

22
Beam-Member Stiffness Matrix
i j
1 4
3 6
E, I, A, L
2 5
k41 k14
k11 = AE/L AE/L AE/L AE/L = k44

d1 = 1 d4 = 1

1 2 3 4 5 6
1 AE/L - AE/L

2 0 0

3 0 0
[k] =
4 -AE/L AE/L
5 0 0

6 0 0
23
i j
1 4
3 6
6EI/L2 = k32 E, I, A, L
2 5 6EI/L2 = k65
k62 = 6EI/L2 6EI/L2 = k35
d2 = 1 d5 = 1

12EI/L3 = k52 12EI/L3 = k25


k22 = 12EI/L3 12EI/L3 = k55

1 2 3 4 5 6
1 AE/L 0 - AE/L 0

2 0 12EI/L3 0 - 12EI/L3

3 0 6EI/L2 0 - 6EI/L2
[k] =
4 -AE/L 0 AE/L 0
5 0 -12EI/L3 0 12EI/L3

6 0 6EI/L2 0 - 6EI/L2
24
i j
1 4
3 6
E, I, A, L
2 5
k33 = 4EI/L 4EI/L = k66
d3 = 1 2EI/L = k63 2EI/L = k36

d6 = 1
k23 = 6EI/L2 6EI/L2 = k53 k26 = 6EI/L2 6EI/L2 = k56
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 AE/L 0 0 - AE/L 0 0

2 0 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 0 - 12EI/L3 6EI/L2

3 0 6EI/L2 4EI/L 0 - 6EI/L2 2EI/L


[k] =
4 -AE/L 0 0 AE/L 0 0
5 0 -12EI/L3 -6EI/L2 0 12EI/L3 -6EI/L2

6 0 6EI/L2 2EI/L 0 - 6EI/L2 4EI/L


25
• Member Equilibrium Equations
i j
Fxi Fxj
Mi Mj
E, I, A, L
Fyi Fyj

=
AE/L AE/L x δ AE/L AE/L
i x δj
1 1

+
+
6EI/L2
6EI/L2
6EI/L2 6EI/L2
1 1
x ∆i x ∆j
12EI/L3 12EI/L3
12EI/L3 12EI/L3

+
+

4EI/L 2EI/L 4EI/L


1 2EI/L
x θi x θj
1
6EI/L2 6EI/L2 6EI/L2 6EI/L2
+

FFyi FFyj
FFxi FFxj
MFi MFj 26
Fxi = ( AE / L)δ i + (0) ∆i (0)θ i + (−AE / L)δ j + (0) ∆j + (0)θ j + FxiF
Fyi = (0)δ i + (12EI / L3 ) ∆i (6EI / L2 )θ i (0)δ j (−12EI / L3 ) ∆j (6EI / L2 )θ j FyiF
Mxi = (0)δ i (6EI / L2 ) ∆i (4EI / L)θ i (0)δ j (−6EI / L2 ) ∆j (2EI / L)θ j MiF
Fxj = (−AE / L)δ i (0) ∆i (0)θ i ( AE / L)δ j (0) ∆j (0)θ j FxiF
Fyj = (0)δ i (−12EI / L3 ) ∆i (−6EI / L2 )θ i (0)δ j (0) ∆j (−6EI / L2 )θ j FyjF
Mj = (0)δ i (6EI / L2 ) ∆i (2EI / L)θ i (0)δ j (−6EI / L2 ) ∆j (4EI / L)θ j MjF

Fxi  − AE/ L  δ i   Fxi 


F
 AE/ L 0 0 0 0
      
Fyj   0 12 EI / L3
6EI/ L2 0 − 12 EI/ L3 6EI/ L2   ∆i   FyiF 
Mi   0 6EI/ L2 4 EI/ L 0 − 6EI/ L2 2EI/ L  θ i  MiF 
 =    +  F 
Fxj  − AE/ L 0 0 AE/ L 0 0  δ j   Fxj 
Fyj   0 − 12 EI/ L3 − 6EI/ L2 0 12 EI/ L3 − 6EI/ L2   ∆ j   FyiF 
      F 
M j   0 6EI/ L2 2EI/ L 0 − 6EI/ L2 4 EI/ L  θ j  M j 

Stiffness matrix Fixed-end force matrix

[q] = [k][d] + [qF]

End-force matrix Displacement matrix 27


6x6 Stiffness Matrix
δi ∆i θi δj ∆j θj
Ni  AE/ L 0 0 − AE/ L 0 0 
Vi  0 12 EI / L3
6EI/ L2 0 − 12 EI/ L3 6EI/ L2 

Mi  0 6EI/ L2 4 EI/ L 0 − 6EI/ L2 2EI/ L 
[k ]6×6 =  
Nj − AE/ L 0 0 AE/ L 0 0 
Vj  0 − 12 EI/ L3 − 6EI/ L2 0 12 EI/ L3 − 6EI/ L2 
 
Mj  0 6EI/ L2 2EI/ L 0 − 6EI/ L2 4EI/ L 

4x4 Stiffness Matrix

∆i θi ∆j θj
Vi  12 EI/ L3 6EI/ L2 − 12 EI/ L3 6EI/ L2 
 
Mi  6EI/ L2 4 EI/ L − 6EI/ L2 2EI/ L 
[k ]4×4 =
Vj − 12 EI/ L3 − 6EI/ L2 12 EI/ L3 − 6EI/ L2 
 
Mj  6EI/ L
2
2EI/ L − 6EI/ L2 4 EI/ L 

28
2x2 Stiffness Matrix

θi θj
Mi 4 EI / L 2EI / L 
[k ]2×2 =  
Mj 2EI / L 4 EI / L

Comment:
- When use 4x4 stiffness matrix, specify settlement.
- When use 2x2 stiffness matrix, fixed-end forces must be included.

29
General Procedures: Application of the Stiffness Method for Beam Analysis

P P2y
w
M1 M2

2 4 6

Global 1
1 3
2
2
1 3 5

2´ 4´ 2´ 4´

Local
1 2
1´ 3´ 1´ 3´

30
P P2y
w
M1 M2

2 4 6

Global 1 3
1 2
2
1 3 5
2 4 4 6

Member
1 2
1 3 3 5
2´ 4´ 2´ 4´

Local
1 2
1´ 3´ 1´ 3´

31
P P2y
w
M1 M2

2 4 6

Global 1 3
1 2
2
1 3 5
2´ 4´ 2´ 4´

Local
1 2
1´ 3´ 1´ 3´

P
w
(q´F 2)1
(q´F1)2
(q´F4 )2
[FEF] 1
(q´F4)1
2
(q´F1 )1 (q´F3)1 (q´F2)2 (q´F3 )2
32
2 4 6

Global 1 3
1 2
2
1 3 5
2´ 4´

Local
1
1´ 3´

[q] = [T]T[q´]
1´ 2´ 3´ 4´
q1  1 1 0 0 0 q1' 
q  0 q 
 2 = 2  1 0 0  2' 
q3  3 0 0 1 0 q3' 
     
 q4  1 4 0 0 0 1  q4 ' 

[k] = [T]T[q´] [T]

33
2 4 6

Global 1 3
1 2
2
1 3 5
2´ 4´

Local 2
1´ 3´

[q] = [T]T[q´]
1´ 2´ 3´ 4´
q3  3 1 0 0 0 q1' 
q  0 q 
 4 = 4  1 0 0  2' 
q5  5 0 0 1 0 q3' 
     
q6  2 6 0 0 0 1  q4 ' 

[k] = [T]T[q´] [T]

34
2 4 6

1 3
1 2
2
1 3 5
Stiffness Matrix:

1 2 3 4
1
1 2 3 4 5 6
2
[k]1 = 3
1
Member 1
2
4 3
[K] = 4
Node 2
3 4 5 6
5
3 Member 2
6
4
[k]2 = 5
6
35
2 4 6

1 3
1 2
2
Joint Load 1 3 Du=Dunknown 5
Qk QFA
2 3 4 1 5 6
M
Q 2 1z 2   D2  Q 2F 
 -P2y   D   F 
Q 3  3  KAA KAB   3  Q 3 
Q 4 M3z 4   D 4  Q 4F 
 =    0 +  F 
Q
 1  1   D1  Q1 
Q 5  5   D5 0  Q F 
  KBA KBB   0   5F 
 6 
Q 6   D6  Q 6 
Reaction
Dk = Dknown QFB
Qu
[Q k ] = [K AA ][Du ] + [Q AF ]
[Du ] = [K AA ]−1 + ([Qk ] − [QAF ])
Member Force : [q ] = [k ][d ] + q F [ ]
36
Global: 2 4 6

1 3
1 2
2
1 P 3 5
w
(qF2)1 (qF 4)2
(q´F6 )2
[FEF] 1 (qF4)1
2
(qF1 )1 (qF3)1 (qF3)2 (q´F5 )2

1 2 3 4 5 6
Q1  1   D1 0  Q1F 
 M  Member 1     F 
Q 2 1 2 D
 2   Q 
  2

Q 3 -P2y 3   D3  Q 3 = (q 3 ) 1 + (q 3 ) 2 
F F F

 M =  Node 2  
D
+  F
Q = (q F
) + (q F
)

Q 4 2 4    4   4 4 1 4 2
Q 5  5   D5 0  Q 5F 
   Member 2   0  F

 6 
Q 6   D6   Q 6 
2 3 4
 Q2 = M 1  2  D2  Q 2F 
Q = − P    D   F 
 3 2y  = 3

 Q4 = M 2 
   3  + Q 3 
4  Node 2  D4  Q 4F 
37
2 4 6

1 3
1 2
2
1 3 5

2 3 4
D2  2    Q2 = M 1  Q2F  
      − Q F  
D
  3 = 3
  Q
 3 = − P2y   3 
D4  4  Node 2    Q = M  Q F  
 4 2   4 

38
2 4 6

1 3
1 2
2
1 3 5
P
qF2

1
qF4

qF1 [FEF] qF3

Member 1:
1 2 3 4
q 1  1    d1 = 0  q 1F 
  2     F
q 2  =  k1  d 2 = D 2  + q 2 
q 3  3   d 3 = D3  q 3F 
      F
q 4  4   d 4 = D4  q 4 

39
2 4 6

1 3
1 2
2
1 3 5
w
qF6
qF4 2
qF3 qF5
[FEM]

Member 2:
1 2 3 4
 q3  1    d 3 = D3  q3F 
q  2   d = D   F
k1
 4 =    4 4  + q4 
q5  3    d5 = 0  q5F 
       F
q6  4    6d = 0  q6 

40
Example 1

For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:


(a) Determine the deflection and rotation at B.
(b) Determine all the reactions at supports.
(c) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams.

10 kN
1 kN/m

C
A B
1.5 m
9m 3m

41
10 kN
1 kN/m

C
A B
1.5 m
9m 3m

3 2 1

Global 1 2

3 1
2 2

Members
1 2

10 kN
1 kN/m
1.5 m 1.5 m
[FEF]
9m 1 2
wL2/12 = 6.75 wL2/12 = 6.75 PL/8 = 3.75 PL/8 = 3.75
42
3 2 1

1 2

9m 3m

Stiffness Matrix:
θi θj
Mi 4 EI / L 2EI / L 
[k ]2×2 =  
Mj 2EI / L 4 EI / L

3 2 2 1
4/9 2/9 3 4/3 2/3 2
[k]1= EI [k]2 = EI
2/9 4/9 2 2/3 4/3 1

2 1
(4/9)+(4/3) 2/3 2
[K] = EI
2/3 4/3 1
43
3 2 10 kN 1
1 kN/m

A C
6.75 6.75 3.75
B
9m 1.5 m 1.5 m

Equilibrium equations: MCB = 0


MBA + MBC = 0
Global Equilibrium: [Q] = [K][D] + [QF]

2 1
2 MBA + MBC = 0 2 (4/9)+(4/3) 2/3 θB -6.75 + 3.75 = -3
= EI +
1 MCB = 0 1 2/3 4/3 θC -3.75

θB 0.779/EI
=
θC 2.423/EI
44
3
2

1
1 kN/m
[FEF]
9m 1
wL2/12 = 6.75 wL2/12 = 6.75

Substitute θB and θC in the member matrix,

Member 1 : [q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1

3 2 0
3 MAB 4/9 2/9 θA 6.75 6.92
= EI + =
2 MBA 2/9 4/9 θB= 0.779/EI -6.75 -6.40

1 kN/m
6.92 kN•m 6.40 kN•m
9m 1
4.56 kN 4.44 kN
45
10 kN
2 1
1.5 m 1.5 m
2 2
PL/8 = 3.75 PL/8 = 3.75
[FEF]

Substitute θB and θC in the member matrix,

Member 2 : [q]2 = [k]2[d]2 + [qF]2

2 1
2 MBC 4/3 2/3 θB = 0.779/EI 3.75 6.40
= EI + =
1 MCB 2/3 4/3 θC = 2.423/EI -3.75 0

10 kN

6.40 kN•m
2
7.13 kN 2.87 kN
46
10 kN
1 kN/m
6.92 6.40
6.40
4.56 kN 4.44 kN 7.13 kN 2.87 kN

1 kN/m θB = +0.779/EI 10 kN
θC = +2.423/EI
6.92 kN•m
A C
4.56 kN B 11.57 kN 2.87 kN
9m 1.5 m 1.5 m
7.13
4.56

V (kN)
x (m)
4.56 m
-4.44 -2.87
3.48 4.32
M
(kN•m) x (m)

-6.92 -6.40 47
Example 2

For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:


(a) Determine the deflection and rotation at B.
(b) Determine all the reactions at supports.

20 kN
9kN/m 40 kN•m

2EI EI
A B C
4m 4m

48
2 4 6

1 2EI 3 EI 5

1 2
1 2 3

Use 4x4 stiffness matrix,


∆i θi ∆j θj 3 4
Vi  12 EI/ L3 6EI/ L 2
− 12 EI/ L3
6EI/ L  2

Mi   3 0.5625 -0.375
− 6EI/ L2 [K] = EI
2
6 EI / L 4 EI/ L 2EI/ L 
[k ] = 
Vj  4 -0.375 3
− 12 EI/ L3 − 6EI/ L 2
12 EI/ L3 − 6EI/ L2 
Mj  6EI/ L2 2EI/ L − 6EI/ L2 4 EI/ L 


[k]1 [k]2
1 2 3 4 3 4 5 6
1 0.375EI 0.75EI - 0.375EI 0.75EI 3 0.1875EI 0.375EI - 0.1875EI 0.375EI
2 0.75EI 2EI -0.75EI EI 4 0.375EI EI -0.375EI 0.5EI
3 -0.375EI -0.75EI 0.375EI -0.75EI 5 -0.1875EI -0.375EI 0.1875EI -0.375EI
4 0.75EI EI -0.75EI 2EI 6 0.375EI 0.5EI -0.375EI EI
49
20 kN
9kN/m 40 kN•m

12 kN•m 12 kN•m
18 kN 18 kN
4m 4m
2 4 6

1 3 5
2EI EI
1 2
1 2 3
[Q] = [K][D] + [QF]
Global:
3 4

3 Q3 = -20 3 0.5625 -0.375 D3 18 3


= EI 4 -0.375 3 D4 +
4 Q4 = 40 -12 4

D3 -61.09/EI
=
D4 9.697/EI
50
2 4
9 kN/m
1 3 12 kN•m 12 kN•m
2EI
A B
1 1 2 1
18 kN [qF]1 18 kN
Member 1:

[q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1

1 2 3 4
q1 1 12(2EI)/430.75EI - 0.375EI 0.75EI d1 = 0 18 48.18
q2 2 0.75EI 2EI -0.75EI EI d2 = 0 12 67.51
q3L -0.375EI -0.75EI 0.375EI -0.75EI d3 = -61.09/EI 18 -12.18
3
q4L 4 0.75EI EI -0.75EI 2EI d4 = 9.697/EI -12 53.21

9 kN/m 53.21 kN•m

A B
1
67.51 kN•m
48.18 kN [q]1 12.18 kN
51
4 6

3 5
EI
2
2 3

Member 2:

[q]2 = [k]2[d]2 + [qF]2

3 4 5 6
q3R 3 0.1875EI 0.375EI - 0.1875EI 0.375EI d3 =-61.09/EI 0 -7.818
q4R 4 0.375EI EI -0.375EI 0.5EI d4 = 9.697/EI 0 -13.21
q5 5 -0.1875EI -0.375EI 0.1875EI -0.375EI d5 = 0 0 7.818
q6 6 0.375EI 0.5EI -0.375EI EI d6 = 0 0 -18.06

13.21 kN•m 18.06 kN•m


B C
2
7.82 kN [q]2 7.82 kN
52
9 kN/m 53.21 kN•m
13.21 kN•m 18.06 kN•m
A B B C
1 2
67.51 kN•m
48.18 kN [q]1 12.18 kN 7.82 kN [q]2 7.82 kN
20 kN
9kN/m 40 kN•m
D3 = ∆B = -61.09/EI 18.06 kN•m
67.51 kN•m

48.18 kN 4m D4 = θB = +9.697/EI 4 m 7.818 kN


48.18

V (kN) + 12.18
x (m)
-
-7.818 -7.818
53.21
M
(kN•m) + 13.21
x (m)
-
- -18.08
-67.51
53
Example 3

For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:


(a) Determine the deflection and rotation at B.
(b) Determine all the reactions at supports.

20 kN 10 kN
9kN/m 40 kN•m

2EI EI
A B C
4m 2m 2m

54
20 kN 10 kN
9kN/m 40 kN•m
A C
2EI B EI
4m 2m 2m
2 4 6

1 3 5
Global 2
1 1 2 3

10 kN
9 kN/m 5 kN•m
12 kN•m 5 kN•m
12 kN•m
[FEF] 1 2
18 kN 18 kN
5 kN 5 kN
∆i θi ∆j θj
Vi  12 EI/ L3 6EI/ L2 − 12 EI/ L3 6EI/ L2 
Mi  
6 EI / L2
4 EI/ L − 6EI/ L2 2EI/ L 
[k ]4×4 = 
Vj 
− 12 EI/ L3 − 6EI/ L2 12 EI/ L3 − 6EI/ L2 
Mj  6EI/ L2 2EI/ L − 6EI/ L2 4 EI/ L 

 55
2 4 6

1 3 5

1 2
1 2 3
4m 2m 2m

1 2 3 4
1 12(2EI)/43 0.75EI - 0.375EI 0.75EI
2 0.75EI 2EI -0.75EI EI
[k]1 = -0.375EI -0.75EI 0.375EI -0.75EI
3 4 6
3
3 0.5625 -0.375 0.375
4 0.75EI EI -0.75EI 2EI/L
[K] = EI 4 -0.375 3 0.5
3 4 5 6 6 0.375 0.5 1

3 0.1875EI 0.375EI - 0.1875EI 0.375EI


4 0.375EI EI -0.375EI 0.5EI
[k]2 = 5 -0.1875EI -0.375EI 0.1875EI -0.375EI
6 0.375EI 0.5EI -0.375EI EI
56
20 kN 10 kN
9kN/m 40 kN•m
A C
2 B4 6

1 3 5
1 2
1 2 3
10 kN
9 kN/m 5 kN•m
12 kN•m 5 kN•m
12 kN•m
[FEF] 1 2
18 kN 18 kN
5 kN 5 kN
Global: [Q] = [K][D] + [QF]
3 4 6
VBL+VBR = -20 3 0.5625 -0.375 0.375 ∆B 18 + 5 = 23
MBA+MBC = 40 = EI 4 -0.375 3 0.5 θB + -12 + 5 = -7
MCB = 0 6 0.375 0.5 1 θC -5

∆B -116.593/EI
θB = -7.667/EI
θC 52.556/EI 57
2 4
9 kN/m
1 3 12 kN•m
12 kN•m
1 1
1 2 18 kN 18 kN
[FEF]

Member 1: [q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1

1 2 3 4
VA 1 0.375EI 0.75EI - 0.375EI 0.75EI 0 18 55.97
MAB 2 0.75EI 2EI -0.75EI EI 0 12 91.78
VBL
= -0.375EI -0.75EI 0.375EI -0.75EI ∆B =-116.593/EI
+ 18
= -19.97
3
MBA 4 0.75EI EI -0.75EI 2EI/L θB =-7.667/EI -12 60.11

9kN/m

91.78 kN•m 60.11 kN•m


4m 1

55.97 kN 19.97 kN
58
4 6 10 kN
5 kN•m
3 5 5 kN•m
3
2 2 2
5 kN [FEM] 5 kN
Member 2: [q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1

3 4 5 6
VBR 3 0.1875EI 0.375EI - 0.1875EI 0.375EI ∆B =-116.593/EI 5 -0.0278
MBC 4 0.375EI EI -0.375EI 0.5EI θB =-7.667/EI 5 -20.11
VC
= 5 -0.1875EI -0.375EI 0.1875EI -0.375EI 0 + 5 = 10.03
MCB 6 0.375EI 0.5EI -0.375EI EI θC =52.556/EI -5 0

10 kN

20.11 kN•m 2m 2m
2
0.0278 kN 10.03 kN
59
9kN/m 20.11 kN•m 10 kN
91.78 kN•m 2m 2m
4m 1 2
60.11 kN•m 0.0278 kN 10.03 kN
55.97 kN 19.97 kN
20 kN 10 kN
9kN/m 40 kN•m θC = 52.556/EI
91.78 kN•m

55.97 kN 10.03 kN
θB = -7.667/EI ∆B = -116.593/EI
55.97 4m 2m 2m

19.97
V (kN) +
x (m)
-
-0.0278
60.11 -10.03 -10.03
20.11
M +
(kN•m) x (m)
-

-91.78 60
Example 4

For the beam shown:


(a) Use the stiffness method to determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative free-body diagram of member.
(c) Draw the quantitative shear diagram, bending moment diagram
and qualitative deflected shape.
Take I = 200(106) mm4 and E = 200 GPa and support B settlement 10 mm.

40 kN
6 kN/m
B
A C
2EI EI
∆B = -10 mm
8m 4m 4m

61
1 2 3

2EI EI
1 2

θi θj
Use 2x2 stiffness matrix: Mi 4 EI / L 2EI / L 
[k ]2×2 =  
Mj 2EI / L 4 EI / L

1 2 2 3

1 8 4 2 4 2
EI EI
[k]1 = 8 [k]2 = 8
2 4 8 3 2 4

2 3

2 12 2
EI
[K] = 8
3 2 4
62
40 kN 1 2 3
6 kN/m
B C
A 2EI EI 1 2
∆B = -10 mm
8m 4m 4m
40 kN
6 kN/m
[FEM]load

1 32 kN•m 2 40 kN•m
wL2/12 = 32 kN•m PL/8 = 40 kN•m
2 37.5 kN•m
1 75 kN•m
[FEM]∆ 10 mm
10 mm
6(EI)∆/L2 = 37.5 kN•m
6(2EI)∆/L2 = 75 kN•m
Global: [Q] = [K][D] +2[QF] 3

Q2 = 0 2 12 2 D2 -32 + 40 + 75 -37.5 = 45.5


EI
=
8
+
Q3 = 0 3 2 4 D3 -40 - 37.5 = -77.5

D2 -61.27/EI rad
=
D3 185.64/EI rad
63
1 2 6 kN/m
[FEM]load
2EI
1 32 kN•m
1 wL2/12 = 32 kN•m

1 75 kN•m
[FEM]∆ 10 mm
6(2EI)∆/L2 = 75 kN•m

Member 1: [q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1

1 2

q1 1 8 4 d1 = 0 32 + 75 = 107 76.37 kN•m


EI
= + =
q2 8 d2 = -61.27/EI -32 + 75 = 43 -18.27 kN•m
2 4 8

6 kN/m
76.37 kN•m 18.27 kN•m

8m 1
31.26 kN 16.74 kN
64
2 3 40 kN

[FEM]load
2 2
PL/8 = 40 kN•m 40 kN•m

[FEM]∆
2 37.5 kN•m
10 mm
6(EI)D/L2 = 37.5 kN•m
Member 2: [q]2 = [k]2[d]2 + [qF]2

2 3

q2 2 4 2 d2 = -61.27/EI 40 - 37.5 = 2.5 18.27 kN•m


EI
= + =
q3 8 d3 = 185.64/EI -40 - 37.5 = -77.5 0 kN•m
3 2 4

40 kN
18.27 kN•m

2
22.28 kN 17.72 kN
65
2 6
4
2EI EI
1 2
1
3 5
Alternate method: Use 4x4 stiffness matrix

[k]1 [k]2
1 2 3 4 3 4 5 6
1 12(2)/82 3 12/82
1.5 -0.375 1.5 0.75 -0.1875 0.75
EI 2 1.5 8 -1.5 4 EI
4 0.75 4 -0.75 2
= =
8 3 8 5
-0.375 -1.5 0.375 -1.5 -0.1875 -0.75 0.1875 -0.75
4 1.5 4 -1.5 8 6 0.75 2 -0.75 4
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 0.375 1.5 -0.375 1.5 0 0
2 1.5 8 -1.5 4 0 0
EI 3 -0.375 -1.5 0.5625 -0.75 -0.1875 0.75
[K] =
8 4 1.5 4 -0.75 12 -0.75 2
5 0 0 -0.1875 -0.75 0.1875 -0.75
6 0 0 0.75 2 -0.75 4 66
40 kN 2
6 kN/m 4 6
B C
A 2EI EI 1 2
∆B = -10 mm 1
3 5
8m 4m 4m
40 kN
6 kN/m 40 kN•m
32 kN•m 40 kN•m
32 kN•m
[FEF] 1 2

24 kN 24 kN 20 kN 20 kN
Global: [Q] = [K][D] + [QF]
4 6 5
Q4 = 0 EI 4 12 2 D4 200 × 200 4 -0.75 D = -0.01 8
= +( ) 5 +
Q6= 0 8 6 2 4 D6 8 6 -0.75 -40
4 6
Q4 = 0 EI 4 12 2 D4 (200x200/8)(-0.75)(-0.01) = 37.5 8
Q6= 0
=
8 6 2 4 D6
+ (200x200/8)(0.75)(-0.01) = -37.5
+ -40

D4 -61.27/EI = -1.532x10-3 rad


D6
= 185.64/EI = 4.641x10-3 rad 67
2
4
6 kN/m
32 kN•m
1 ∆B = -10 mm 32 kN•m
1 [FEF]load 1
3
24 kN 24 kN
Member 1: [q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1

1 2 3 4
q1 1 12(2)/82
1.5 -0.375 1.5 d1 = 0 24
q2 2 1.5 8 -1.5 4 d2 = 0 32
(200x200)
q3 = 8 3 -0.375 -1.5 0.375 -1.5 d3 = -0.01
+ 24
q4 4 1.5 4 -1.5 8 d4 = -1.532x10-3 -32

q1 31.26 kN
6 kN/m
q2 76.37 kN•m 18.27 kN•m
76.37 kN•m
q3 = 16.74 kN 8m 1
q4 -18.27 kN•m 16.74 kN
31.26 kN
68
6 40 kN
4 40 kN•m
40 kN•m
-10 mm = ∆B [FEF]
2 2
3 5 20 kN 20 kN

Member 2:
3 4 5 6
q3 3 12/82
0.75 -0.1875 0.75 d3 = -0.01 20
q4 4 0.75 4 -0.75 2 d4 = -1.532x10-3 40
(200x200)
q5
= 8 5 +
-0.1875 -0.75 0.1875 -0.75 d5 = 0 20
q6 6 0.75 2 -0.75 4 d6 = 4.641x10-3 -40

q3 40 kN
22.28 kN
18.27 kN•m
q4 18.27 kN•m
q5 = 17.72 kN 2
q6 22.28 kN 17.72 kN
0 kN•m
69
40 kN
6 kN/m
76.37 kN•m B C
A 2EI EI
∆B = -10 mm
31.26 kN 16.74 + 22.28 kN 17.72 kN
8m 4m 4m

31.26
V (kN) 22.28
+ +
- - x (m)
5.21 m -16.74
-17.72
70.85

M 5.06 +
(kN•m) - x (m)
- -18.27

-76.37
∆B = -10 mm D6 = θC = 4.641x10-3 rad
Deflected
Curve
d4 = θB = -1.532x10-3 rad
70
Example 5

For the beam shown:


(a) Use the stiffness method to determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative free-body diagram of member.
(c) Draw the quantitative shear diagram, bending moment diagram
and qualitative deflected shape.
Take I = 200(106) mm4 and E = 200 GPa and support C settlement 10 mm.

4 kN
0.6 kN/m 20 kN•m
B
A C
2EI EI
∆C = -10 mm
8m 4m 4m

71
2 6
4
2EI EI
1 2
1 -10 mm
3 5
•Member stiffness matrix [k]4x4

[k]1 [k]2
1 2 3 4 3 4 5 6
1 12(2)/82 3 12/82
1.5 -0.375 1.5 0.75 -0.1875 0.75
EI 2 1.5 8 -1.5 4 4 0.75 4 -0.75 2
= EI
8 3 = 5
-0.375 -1.5 0.375 -1.5 8 -0.1875 -0.75 0.1875 -0.75
4 1.5 4 -1.5 8 6 0.75 2 -0.75 4

• Global: [Q] = [K][D] + [QF]

3 4 6 5
Q3 3 0.5625 -0.75 0.75 D3 3 -0.1875 QF3
EI 4 200 × 200
Q4 = -0.75 12 2 D4 +( ) 4 -0.75 D5 = -0.01 + QF4
8 8
Q6 6 0.75 2 4 D6 6 -0.75 QF6

72
4 kN 2
0.6 kN/m 20 kN•m 4 6
B 2EI EI
C 2
A 2EI EI 1
10 mm 1
3 5
8m 4m 4m
4 kN
0.6 kN/m 4 kN•m
3.2 kN•m 4 kN•m
3.2 kN•m
[FEF] 1 2

2.4 kN 2.4 kN 2 kN 2 kN
Global: [Q] = [K][D] + [QF]
3 4 6
Q3 = 0 3 0.5625 -0.75 0.75 D3 9.375 2.4+2 = 4.4
Q4 = 0 EI 4 -0.75 12 2 D4 + 37.5 + -3.2+4 = 0.8
=
Q6 = 20 8 D6 37.5 -4.0
6 0.75 2 4

D3 -377.30/EI = -9.433x10-3 m
D4 = -61.53/EI = -1.538x10-3 rad
D6 +74.50/EI = +1.863x10-3 rad
73
2
4
0.6 kN/m
3.2 kN•m
1 3.2 kN•m
1 [FEF]load 1
3 8m
2.4 kN 2.4 kN
Member 1: [q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1

1 2 3 4
q1 1 12(2)/82
1.5 -0.375 1.5 d1 = 0 2.4
q2 2 1.5 8 -1.5 4 d2 = 0 3.2
200× 200
=
q3 8 3 -0.375 -1.5 0.375 -1.5 d3 = -9.433x10-3
+ 2.4
q4 4 1.5 4 -1.5 8 d4 = -1.538x10-3 -3.2

q1 8.55 kN
0.6 kN/m
q2 43.19 kN•m 6.03 kN•m
43.19 kN•m
q3 = -3.75 kN 8m 1
q4 6.03 kN•m 3.75 kN
8.55 kN
74
6 4 kN
4 4 kN•m
4 kN•m
[FEF]
2 8m 2
10 mm
3 5 2 kN 2 kN

Member 2:
3 4 5 6
q3 3 12/82
0.75 -0.1875 0.75 d3 = -9.433x10-3 2
q4 4 0.75 4 -0.75 2 d4 = -1.538x10-3 4
200× 200
=
q5 8 5 -0.1875 -0.75 0.1875 -0.75 d5 = -0.01
+ 2
q6 6 0.75 2 -0.75 4 d6 = 1.863x10-3 -4

q3 4 kN
3.75 kN
6.0 kN•m
q4 -6.0 kN•m 20 kN•m
q5 = 0.25 kN 2
q6 3.75 kN 0.25 kN
20.0 kN•m
75
4 kN
0.6 kN/m 20 kN•m
B
C
A 2EI EI
10 mm
8m 4m 4m
0.6 kN/m 4 kN
43.19 kN•m 6.03 kN•m
20 kN•m
6.0 kN•m 2
8m 1
8.55 kN 3.75 kN 3.75 kN 0.25 kN
8.55
3.75
V (kN) +
-0.25 x (m)
21 20
M 6
+
(kN•m) - x (m)

-43.19 D3 = -9.433 mm D5 = -10 mm


Deflected
Curve
D4 = -1.538x10-3 rad D6 = +1.863x10-3 rad
76
Internal Hinges
Example 6

For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:


(a) Determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
E = 200 GPa, I = 50x10-6 m4.

30 kN
9kN/m
Hinge

2EI EI
A C
B
4m 2m 2m

77
3 4
2
2EI EI
A C
1 2
1
4m B 2m 2m

θi θj
Use 2x2 stiffness matrix, Mi 4 EI / L 2EI / L 
[k ]2×2 =  
Mj  2EI / L 4 EI / L 

3 1 2 4

3 2EI EI 2 1EI 0.5EI


[k]1 = [k]2 =
1 EI 2EI 4 0.5EI 1EI
1 2
1 2.0 0.0
[K] = EI
2 0.0 1.0
78
30 kN
9kN/m
Hinge

3 4
2
A C
1 2
1 30 kN
B
12 kN•m 9kN/m 12 kN•m 15 kN•m 15 kN•m
B C
[FEF]
A 1 B 2

Global matrix:
1 2
0.0 1 2.0 0.0 D1 -12
= EI +
0.0 2 0.0 1.0 D2 15

D1 0.0006 rad

D2 = -0.0015 rad
79
3
12 kN•m 9kN/m 12 kN•m
1
A [FEF]
1 1
A B
B

Member 1:
3 1

q3 3 2EI EI d3 = 0.0 12 18
= + =
q1 1 EI 2EI d1 = 0.0006 -12 0.0

9 kN/m
A B
18 kN•m 1
22.5 kN 13.5 kN

80
4
15 kN•m 30 kN 15 kN•m
B B C
C
2
2 2

Member 2:
2 4

q2 2 1EI 0.5EI d2 = -0.0015 15 0.0


= + =
q4 4 0.5EI 1EI d4 = 0.0 -15 -22.5

30 kN
B C
22.5 kN•m
9.37 kN 20.63 kN

81
30 kN
9 kN/m
B C
A 13.5 kN 22.5 kN•m
B 9.37 kN
18 kN•m 20.63 kN
22.5 kN 13.5 kN 22.87 kN 9.37 kN

30 kN
9kN/m
Hinge

EI
2EI
θBL= 0.0006 rad θBR= -0.0015 rad
A C
B
4m 2m 2m

22.5
9.37
V (kN) + x (m)
2.5 m
-13.5
-20.63
18.75
10.13
M + +
(kN•m) -
- - x (m)
-18
-22.5 82
Example 7

For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:


(a) Determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
E = 200 GPa, I = 50x10-6 m4.

20 kN
9kN/m

2EI EI
Hinge
A B C
4m 4m

83
5 7
1 3
4 2EI EI 6
1 2
A 2 B C

4 5 1 2
4 0.375EI 0.75EI - 0.375EI 0.75EI
5 0.75EI 2EI -0.75EI EI
[k]1 = 1 -0.375EI -0.75EI 0.375EI -0.75EI 1 2 3
2 0.75EI EI -0.75EI 2EI/L
1 0.5625 -0.75 0.375

[K] = EI 2 -0.75 2.0 0


3 0.375 0.0 1.0
1 3 6 7
1 0.1875EI 0.375EI - 0.1875EI 0.375EI
3 0.375EI EI -0.375EI 0.5EI
[k]2 = 6 -0.1875EI -0.375EI 0.1875EI -0.375EI
7 0.375EI 0.5EI -0.375EI EI

84
9kN/m 20 kN
B
A C
5 7
1 3
4 2EI EI 6
1 2
A 2 B C
9kN/m
12 kN•m 12 kN•m
A 1 B
18 kN [FEM] 18 kN
Global:
1 2 3
Q1 = -20 1 0.5625 -0.75 0.375 D1 18
Q2 = 0.0 = EI 2 -0.75 2.0 0 D2 + -12
Q3 = 0.0 3 0.375 0.0 1.0 D3 0.0

D1 -0.02382 m
D2 = -0.008333 rad
D3 0.008933 rad
85
5 9kN/m
1
4 2EI 2 12 kN•m 12 kN•m
1 A 1 B
A B 18 kN [FEF] 18 kN
Member 1:
4 5 1 2
q4 4 0.375EI 0.75EI - 0.375EI 0.75EI d4 = 0.0 18 44.83
q5 5 0.75EI 2EI -0.75EI EI d5 = 0.0 12 107.32
= + =
q1 1 -0.375EI -0.75EI 0.375EI -0.75EI d1 = -0.02382 18 -8.83
q2 2 0.75EI EI -0.75EI 2EI/L d2 = -0.00833 -12 0.0

107.32 kN•m 9kN/m

A B
1
8.83 kN
44.83 kN

86
7
1
EI 6
2
B 3 C

Member 2:
1 3 6 7
q1 1 0.1875EI 0.375EI - 0.1875EI 0.375EI d1 = -0.02382 0 -11.16
q3 3 0.375EI EI -0.375EI 0.5EI d3 = 0.008933 0 0.0
q6
=6 -0.1875EI -0.375EI 0.1875EI -0.375EI d6= 0.0
+ 0
=
11.16
q7 7 0.375EI 0.5EI -0.375EI EI d7= 0.0 0 -44.66

B C
44.66 kN•m
2
11.16 kN
11.16 kN

87
20 kN
9kN/m

A
θBL= -0.008333 rad B θBR= 0.008933 rad C
4m 4m

107.32 kN•m 9kN/m


B C
A B 44.66 kN•m
1 2
44.83 kN 8.83 kN 11.16 kN
11.16 kN
44.83

V (kN) + 8.83 x (m)


-
-11.16 -11.16
M
(kN•m)
x (m)
-
- -44.66

-107.32 88
Example 8

For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:


(a) Determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
40 kN•m at the end of member AB. E = 200 GPa, I = 50x10-6 m4.
30 kN
9kN/m
Hinge
A C
2EI 40 kN•m EI
B
4m 2m 2m

89
3 4
2
2EI EI
A C
1 2
1
4m B 2m 2m

θi θj
Use 2x2 stiffness matrix:
Mi 4 EI / L 2EI / L 
[k ]2×2 =  
Mj  2 EI / L 4 EI / L 

3 1 2 4

3 2EI EI 2 1EI 0.5EI


[k]1 = [k]2 =
1 EI 2EI 4 0.5EI 1EI
1 2
1 2.0 0.0
[K] = EI
2 0.0 1.0
90
30 kN
9kN/m
Hinge
A C
2EI 40 kN•m EI
3 B 4
2
A C
1 2
1 30 kN
B
12 kN•m 9kN/m 12 kN•m 15 kN•m 15 kN•m
B C
[FEM]
A 1 B 2

Global matrix:
1 2
Q1 = 40 1 2.0 0.0 D1 -12
= EI +
Q2 = 0.0 2 0.0 1.0 D2 15

D1 0.0026 rad

D2 = -0.0015 rad
91
3
12 kN•m 9kN/m 12 kN•m
1
A [FEF]
1 1
A B
B

Member 1:

3 1

q3 3 2EI EI d3 = 0.0 12 38
= + =
q1 1 EI 2EI d1 = 0.0026 -12 40

9 kN/m
A B 40 kN•m
38 kN•m
37.5 kN 1.5 kN

92
4
15 kN•m 30 kN 15 kN•m
B B C
C
2
2 2

Member 2:

2 4

q2 2 1EI 0.5EI d2 = -0.0015 15 0.0


= + =
q4 4 0.5EI 1EI d4 = 0.0 -15 -22.5

30 kN
B C
22.5 kN•m
9.37 kN 20.63 kN

93
1.5 kN
30 kN
9 kN/m
B C
A B 40 kN•m 9.37 kN 22.5 kN•m
38 kN•m 20.63 kN
37.5 kN 1.5 kN 7.87 kN 9.37 kN
30 kN
9kN/m 40 kN•m
Hinge
A C
θBR=- 0.0015 rad
θBL= 0.0026 B
rad
4m 2m 2m
37.5

1.5 9.37
V (kN) + x (m)

-20.63

M 40 18.75
(kN•m) + + x (m)
- - -
-22.5 94
-38
Example 9

For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:


(a) Determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
40 kN•m at the end of member AB. E = 200 GPa, I = 50x10-6 m4
20 kN
9kN/m

2EI EI
40 kN•m Hinge
A B C
4m 4m

95
20 kN
9kN/m

2EI EI
40 kN•m Hinge
A B C
4m 4m
5 7
1 3
4 6
A 2 C
1
2 B

9 kN/m
12 kN•m
12 kN•m
[FEM] 1

18 kN 18 kN ∆i θi ∆j θj
Vi  12 EI/ L3 6EI/ L2 − 12 EI/ L3 6EI/ L2 
Mi  
 6EI/ L
2
4 EI/ L − 6EI/ L2 2EI/ L 
[k ]4×4 = Vj 
− 12 EI/ L3 − 6EI/ L2 12 EI/ L3 − 6EI/ L2 
Mj  6EI/ L2 2EI/ L − 6EI/ L2 4 EI/ L 


96
5 7
1 3
4 2EI EI 6
A 2 C
1
2 B

4 5 1 2
4 0.375EI 0.75EI - 0.375EI 0.75EI
5 0.75EI 2EI -0.75EI EI
[k]1 = 1 -0.375EI -0.75EI 0.375EI -0.75EI
1 2 3
2 0.75EI EI -0.75EI 2EI
1 0.5625 -0.75 0.375

[K] = EI 2 -0.75 2.0 0


3 0.375 0.0 1.0
1 3 6 7
1 0.1875EI 0.375EI - 0.1875EI 0.375EI
3 0.375EI EI -0.375EI 0.5EI
[k]2 = 6 -0.1875EI -0.375EI 0.1875EI -0.375EI
7 0.375EI 0.5EI -0.375EI EI
97
9kN/m 20 kN

EI
5 40 kN•m 7
1 3
4 2EI EI 6
A 2 C
1 2 B
9 kN/m
12 kN•m
12 kN•m
[FEF] 1
18 kN 18 kN
Global: 1 2 3
Q1 = -20 1 0.5625 -0.75 0.375 D1 18
Q2 = 40 = EI 2 -0.75 2.0 0 D2 + -12
Q3 = 0.0 3 0.375 0.0 1.0 D3 0.0
D1 -0.01316 m
D2 = -0.002333 rad
D3 0.0049333 rad
98
5
1 9 kN/m
4 2 12 kN•m
2EI 12 kN•m
1 [FEF] 1
18 kN 18 kN

Member 1: [q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1

4 5 1 2
q4 4 0.375EI 0.75EI - 0.375EI 0.75EI d4 = 0.0 18 49.85
q5 5 0.75EI 2EI -0.75EI EI d5 = 0.0 12 87.37
= + =
q1 1 -0.375EI -0.75EI 0.375EI -0.75EI d1 = -0.01316 18 -13.85
q2 2 0.75EI EI -0.75EI 2EI d2 = -0.002333 -12 40

87.37 kN•m 2EI 40 kN•m


1
49.85 kN 13.85 kN
[q]1
99
7
1
EI 6
2 C
B 3

Member 2: [q]2 = [k]2[d]2 + [qF]2

1 3 6 7
q1 1 0.1875EI 0.375EI - 0.1875EI 0.375EI d1 = -0.01316 0 -6.18
q3 3 0.375EI EI -0.375EI 0.5EI d3 = 0.004933 0 0.0
q6
=6 -0.1875EI -0.375EI 0.1875EI -0.375EI d6= 0.0
+ 0
=
6.18
q7 7 0.375EI 0.5EI -0.375EI EI d7= 0.0 0 -24.69

24.69 kN•m
2 6.18 kN
6.18 kN
[q]2

100
20 kN
9kN/m 40 kN•m

2EI EI
A θBL= -0.002333 rad θBR = 0.004933 rad C
4m B 4m

A B B C
40 kN•m 24.69 kN•m
87.37 kN•m 49.85 kN 13.85 kN 6.18 kN 6.18 kN

49.85

V (kN) + 13.85 x (m)


-
-6.18 -6.18

M 40
(kN•m) +
- x (m)
- -24.69

-87.37 101
Temperature Effects

• Fixed-End Forces (FEF)


- Axial
- Bending

• Curvature

102
Tb − Tt ∆T
tan β = =( )
• Thermal Fixed-End Forces (FEF) d d
T Room temp = TR TR Tt β
t

FAF Tm> TR FBF ct Tt + Tb


d NA Tm =
cb 2
M AF Tb > Tt M F
Tl
A B B Tb - Tt

σaxial σaxial TR Tm

A B (∆T ) axial = Tm − TR

∆T
σy ( ∆T y ) = y ( )
Tt d
y y β

A B Tb

(∆T ) bending = Tb − Tt
103
- Axial
σaxial σaxial
Tt TR Tm
Tm> TR
FAF FBF

A Tb > Tt B (∆T ) axial = Tm − TR

FAF = ∫ σ axial dA
A

= ∫ Eε axial dA

= ∫ Eα (∆T ) axial dA

= Eα (∆T ) axial ∫ dA

= EAα (∆T ) axial


F
( Faxial ) A = α (Tm − TR ) AE

104
- Bending
∆T
σy (∆Ty ) = y ( )
Tt d
y y β

M AF M BF Tb
A B
(∆T ) bending = Tb − Tt
M = ∫ yσ y dA
F
A
A

= ∫ yEε dA

= ∫ yEα (∆Ty ) dA

∆T
= ∫ yEαy ( ) dA
d
∆T
= Eα ( ) ∫ y 2 dA
d
Tl − Tu
F
( Fbending )A = α( ) EI
d
105
• Elastic Curve: Bending O´

ρ
(dx ) = ρ ( dθ )

y ( dθ ) 1 dθ
=( )
ρ dx
ds = dx y ds´ dθ
y dx dx

Before After
deformation deformation

106
• Bending Temperature Tl > Tu
Tt

Tb
O dx

dθ ∆T = Tb - Tt
Tt + Tb Tt Tt
Tm = Tu dθ ∆T
2 ∆T y
y ct β= y d
M M d
cb
Tl > Tu Tb Tb

∆T
(dθ ) y = αy ( ) dx
d
∆T
(dθ ) = α ( )dx
d
dθ 1 ∆T M
( ) = = α( ) =
dx ρ d EI

107
Example 10

For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:


(a) Determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
Room temp = 32.5oC, α = 12x10-6 /oC, E = 200 GPa, I = 50x10-6 m4.

T2 = 40oC
182 mm
2EI EI
A T1 = 25oC C
B
4m 4m

108
T2 = 40oC
182 mm
2EI EI
A T1 = 25oC C
B
4m 4m
2 3
1

1 2

Mean temperature = (40+25)/2 = 32.5


Room temp = 32.5oC
19.78 kN•m a(∆T /d)EI = 19.78 kN•m
+7.5 C
o
FEM
-7.5 oC

∆T 40 − 25
F
Fbending =α( )(2 EI ) = (12 × 10 −6 )( )(2 × 200 × 50) = 19.78 kN • m
d 0.182

109
2 3
1
19.78 kN•m 19.78 kN•m
182 mm A C
1 2EI 2 EI
B
4m 4m

Element 1: [q] = [k][d] + [qF]


2 1
M2 2 2 1 q2 -1.978
M1
= EI
1 1 2 q1
+ 1.978
(10-3) EI

Element 2:
1 3
M1 1 1 0.5 q1 0
M3
= EI
3 0.5 1 q3
+ 0
0
[M1] = 3EIθ1 + (1.978x10-3)EI

θ1 = -0.659x10-3 rad
110
2 3
1
19.78 kN•m 19.78 kN•m
182 mm A C
1 2EI 2 EI
B
4m 4m
Element 1:
2 1
M2 2 2 1 q2 = 0 -19.78 -26.37 kN•m
M1
= EI
1 1 2 q1 = -0.659x10-3
+ 19.78 = 6.59 kN•m

Element 2:
1 3
M1 1 1 0.5 q1 = -0.659x10-3 0 -6.59 kN•m
M3
= EI
3 0.5 1 q3 = 0
+ 0
= -3.30 kN•m

26.37 kN•m 6.59 kN•m 6.59 kN•m 3.3 kN•m


A B B C
4.95 kN 4.95 kN 2.47 kN 2.47 kN 111
26.37 kN•m +7.5 oC
A -7.5 oC B C
2.47 kN 3.3 kN•m
4.95 kN 2.47 kN
4m 4m

V (kN)
x (m)
- -
-2.47
-4.95

26.37
M 6.59
+
(kN•m)
- x (m)
-3.30

Deflected θB = -0.659x10-3 rad


curve x (m)

112
Example 11

For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:


(a) Determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
Room temp = 28 oC, a = 12x10-6 /oC, E = 200 GPa, I = 50x10-6 m4,
A = 20(10-3) m2

T2 = 40oC
182 mm
2EI, 2AE EI, AE
A T1 = 25oC C
B
4m 4m

113
6 9
5 T2 = 40oC 3 8
2
A
1 2 EI 7
4 2EI 1
T1 = 25oC C
B
4m 4m
Element 1:

(2 AE ) 2(20 ×10 −3 m 2 )(200 ×106 kN / m 2 )


= = 2(106 ) kN / m
L ( 4 m)

4(2 EI ) 4 × 2(200 ×106 kN / m 2 )(50 ×10 −6 m 4 )


= = 20(103 ) kN • m
L ( 4 m)

2(2 EI ) 2 × 2(200 ×106 kN / m 2 )(50 ×10 −6 m 4 )


= = 10(103 ) kN • m
L ( 4 m)

6(2 EI ) 6 × 2(200 ×106 kN / m 2 )(50 ×10 −6 m 4 )


2
= 2
= 7. 5(10 3
) kN
L ( 4 m)

12(2 EI ) 12 × 2(200 ×106 kN / m 2 )(50 ×10 −6 m 4 )


3
= 3
= 3.75(10 3
) kN / m
L ( 4 m)
114
T2 = 40oC
182 mm
2EI, 2AE EI, AE
A T1 = 25oC C
B
4m 4m

Fixed-end forces due to temperatures

∆T 40 − 25
F
Fbending =α( )(2 EI ) = (12 × 10 −6 )( )(2 × 200 × 50) = 19.78 kN • m
d 0.182

Mean temperature(Tm) = (40+25)/2 = 32.5 oC ,


TR = 28 oC
F
Faxial = α (∆T ) AE = (12 × 10 −6 )(32.5 − 28)(2 × 20 × 10 − 3 m 2 )(200 × 10 6 kN / m 2 ) = 432 kN

19.78 kN•m 19.78 kN•m


+12 oC
432 kN 432 kN
A -3 oC
B

115
6 9
5 T2 = 40oC 3 8
2
182 mm 2
1 2EI, 2AE 1 EI, AE 7
4 T1 = 25oC
A B C
4m 4m
Element 1: FEM
19.78 kN•m 19.78 kN•m
+12 oC
432 kN 432 kN
A -3 oC
B
[q] = [k][d] + [qF]

4 5 6 1 2 3
q4 4 2x106 0.00 0.00 - 2x106 0.00 0.00 0 432
q5 5 0.00 3750 7500 0.00 -3750 7500 0 0.00
q6 6 0.00 7500 20x103 0.00 -7500 10x103 0 -19.78
= +
q1 1 -2x106 0.00 0.00 2x106 0.00 0.00 d1 -432
q2 2 0.00 -3750 -7500 0.00 3750 -7500 d2 0.00
q3
3 0.00 7500 10x103 0.00 -7500 20x103 d3 19.78
116
6 9
5 T2 = 40oC 3 8
2
182 mm 2
1 2EI, 2AE 1 EI, AE 7
4 T1 = 25oC
A B C
4m 4m
Element 2:

[q] = [k][d] + [qF]

1 2 3 7 8 9
q1 1 1x106 0.00 0.00 - 1x106 0.00 0.00 d1 0
q2 2 0.00 1875 3750 0.00 -1875 3750 d2 0
q3 3 0.00 3750 10x103 0.00 -3750 5x103 d3 0
= +
q7 7 -1x106 0.00 0.00 1x106 0.00 0.00 0 0
q8 8 0.00 -1875 -3750 0.00 1875 -3750 0 0
q9
9 0.00 3750 5x103 0.00 -3750 10x103 0 0
117
6 9
5 T2 = 40oC 3 8
2
182 mm 2
1 2EI, 2AE 1 EI, AE 7
4 T1 = 25oC
A B C
4m 4m
Global:
1 2 3
Q1 = 0.0 1 3x106 0.0 0.0 D1 -432
Q2 = 0.0 = 2 0.0 5625 -3750 D2 + 0.0
Q3 = 0.0 3 0.0 -3750 30x103 D3 19.78

D1 0.000144 m
D2 = -0.0004795 m
D3 -719.3x10-6 rad

118
Element 1:
4 5 6 1 2 3
q4 4 2x106 0.00 0.00 - 2x106 0.00 0.00 0 432
q5 5 0.00 3750 7500 0.00 -3750 7500 0 0.00
q6 6 0.00 7500 20x103 0.00 -7500 10x103 0 -19.78
= +
q1 1 -2x106 0.00 0.00 2x106 0.00 0.00 d1 = 144x10-6 -432
q2 2 0.00 -3750 -7500 0.00 3750 -7500 d2 = -479.5x10-6 0.00
q3
3 0.00 7500 10x103 0.00 -7500 20x103 d3 = -719.3x10-6 19.78
6
q4 144.0 kN 3
5 2
q5 -3.60 kN
A 4 B 1
q6 -23.38 kN•m
=
q1 -144.0 kN 23.38 kN•m 9 kN•m
q2 3.60 kN
q3 144 kN 144 kN
9.00 kN•m A B
3.60 kN 3.60 kN
119
Element 2:
1 2 3 7 8 9
q1 1 1x106 0.00 0.00 - 1x106 0.00 0.00 d1 = 144x10-6 0
q2 2 0.00 1875 3750 0.00 -1875 3750 d2 = -479.5x10-6 0
q3 3 0.00 37500 10x103 0.00 -3750 5x103 d3 = -719.3x10-6 0
= +
q7 7 -1x106 0.00 0.00 1x106 0.00 0.00 0 0
q8 8 0.00 -1875 -3750 0.00 1875 -3750 0 0
q9
9 0.00 3750 5x103 0.00 -3750 10x103 0 0
3
q1 144 kN 9
2 8
q2 -3.6 kN
B 1 C 7
q3 -9 kN•m
=
q7 -144 kN 9 kN•m 5.39 kN•m
q8 3.6 kN
q9 144 kN 144 kN
-5.39 kN•m B C
3.60 kN 3.60 kN
120
Isolate axial part from the system
T2 = 40oC
RA RC
2EI EI
A T1 = 25oC B C
4m 4m

RA
RA = RC
+

Compatibility equation: dC/A = 0

R A (4) RA ( 4)
+ + 12 × 10 −6 (32.5 − 28)(4) = 0
2 AE AE

RA = 144 kN

RC = -144 kN

121
T2 = 40oC

2EI EI
A T1 = 25oC B C
4m 4m

23.38 kN•m 9 kN•m 9 kN•m 5.39 kN•m

144 kN 144 kN 144 kN 144 kN


A B B C
3.60 kN 3.60 kN 3.60 kN 3.60 kN
V (kN)
x (m)
-
-3.6
23.38
M 8.98
+
(kN•m) x (m)
-
-5.39
D2 = -0.0004795 mm D3 = -719.3x10-6 rad
Deflected
curve x (m)
122
Skew Roller Support

- Force Transformation
- Displacement Transformation
- Stiffness Matrix

123
• Displacement and Force Transformation Matrices


y´ 5´
6´ 4´
j

2´ m

3´ 1´
i

y
6

5
4
j
3 θy m
θx
2
1 x
i
124
Force Transformation
6´ λx λy

q4 = q4' cos θ x − q5' cos θ y
θy
5´ 4´ q5 = q4' cos θ y − q5' cos θ x

j θx
θy q6 = q6'
2´ θx
x j − xi q 4  λx − λy 0 q4' 
λx =
3´ 1´ L q  =  λy λx 0  q 
i y j − yi  5  5' 
λy = q 6   0 0 1  q6' 
L

q 1   λ x − λy 0 0 0 0  q 1' 
y     
6
q 2   λy λx 0 0 0 0  q 2' 
5 q 3   0 0 1 0 0 0  q 3' 
 =  
4 q 4   0 0 0 λx − λy 0  q 4' 
j
q 5   0 0 0 λy λx 0  q 5' 
3 m     
q 6   0 0 0 0 0 1  q 6' 
2
1
i x [q ] = [T ]T [q ']
125
Displacement Transformation
y λx λy
6 x´
d ' 4 = d 4 cos θ x + d 5 cos θ y
5 5´ s θx
co d' 5 = −d 4 cos θ y + d 5 cos θ x
4 d4
j 6´ θx4´ d4 d '6 = d 6
j θy
s θy
θy c o
θx d4 d 4'   λx λy 0 d 4 
d  = − λy λx 0  d 
 5'   5
x d 6'   0 0 1  d 6 

y s θx
co d 1'   λ x λy 0 0 0 0  d 1 
θx d     
0  d 2 
5

d5 d 2'  − λy λx 0 0 0
θy θy d 3'   0 0 1 0 0 0  d 3 
cos  =  
d 5 d 4'   0 0 0 λx λy 0  d 4 
θy d 5'   0 0 0 − λy λx 0  d 5 
    
θx d 6'   0 0 0 0 0 1  d 6 

x [d '] = [T ][d ]
126
[q ] = [T ]T [q ']
[ ]
= [T ] ([k' ][d' ] + q 'F )
T

= [T ] [k' ][d' ] + [T ] [q ' ]


T T F

[q ] = [T ] [k' ][T ][d ] + [T ] [q' ] = [k ][d ] + [q ]


T T F F

Therefore, [k ] = [T ]T [k '][T ]
[q ] = [T ] [q ' ]
F T F

[q ] = [T ]T [q ']
[d '] = [T ][d ]
[k ] = [T ]T [k '][T ]

127
Stiffness matrix
6* 3´ 6´
2* 5* 5´
3* 1 2´

1* θi 4* θj 1´
i j i j

λix = cos θi λjx = cos θj


λiy = sin θi λjy = sin θj

[q*] = [T]T[q´]

1 2 3 4 5 6
q 1*  1*  λix − λiy 0 0 0 0 q 1' 
q  2* λ λix 0 0 0 0  q 
 2*   iy  2' 
q 3*  3* 0 0 1 0 0 0 q 3' 
  =    
q 4 *  4* 0 0 0 λ jx − λ jy 0 q 4' 
q 5*  5* 0 0 0 λ jy λ jx 0 q 5' 
     
q 6 *  6*  0 0 0 0 0 1  q 6' 
[ T ]T
128
1 2 3 4 5 6
1  λix λiy 0 0 0 0
2 − λ 0 
 iy λix 0 0 0
3  0 0 1 0 0 0
[T ] =  
4  0 0 0 λ jx λ jy 0
5  0 0 0 − λ jy λ jx 0
 
6  0 0 0 0 0 1 

1 2 3 4 5 6
1  AE/ L 0 0 − AE/ L 0 0 
 
2  0 12 EI / L3
6EI/ L2 0 − 12 EI/ L3 6EI/ L2 
3  0 6EI/ L2 4 EI/ L 0 − 6EI/ L2 2EI/ L 
[k '] =  
4 − AE/ L 0 0 AE/ L 0 0 
5  0 − 12 EI/ L3 − 6EI/ L2 0 12 EI/ L3 − 6EI/ L2

 
6  0 6EI/ L2 2EI/ L 0 − 6EI/ L2 4 EI/ L 
129
[ k ] = [ T ]T[ k´ ][T] =

Ui Vi Mi Uj Vj Mj

AE 12EI AE 12EI 6EI AE 12EI AE 12EI 6EI


Ui ( λix2 + λiy2 ) ( - ) λixλiy - λiy -( λixλjx + λiyλjy ) -( λixλjy - λiyλjx ) - λiy
L L3 L L3 L2 L L3 L L3 L2

AE 12EI AE 12EI 6EI AE 12EI AE 12EI 6EI


Vi ( - ) λixλiy ( λiy2 + λix2 ) λix -( λiyλjx - λixλjy ) -( λiyλjy + λixλjx ) λix
L L3 L L3 L2 L L3 L L3 L2

6EI 6EI 4EI 6EI 6EI 2EI


Mi - λiy λix λjy - λjx
L2 L2 L L2 L2 L

AE 12EI AE 12EI 6EI AE 12EI AE 12EI 6EI


Uj -( λixλjx + λiy λjy) -( λiyλjx - λixλjy) λjy ( λjx2 + λjy2 ) ( - ) λjxλjy λjy
L L3 L L3 L2 L L3 L L3 L2

AE 12EI AE 12EI 6EI AE 12EI AE 12EI 6EI


Vj - ( λixλjy- λiyλjx ) -( λiyλjy + λix λjx ) - λjx ( - ) λjxλjy ( L λjy2 + λjx2 ) - λjx
L L3 L L3 L2 L L3 L3 L2

6EI 6EI 2EI 6EI 6EI 4EI


Mj - λiy λix λjy - λjx
L2 L2 L L2 L2 L

130
Example 12

For the beam shown:


(a) Use the stiffness method to determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative free-body diagram of member.
(c) Draw the quantitative bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
Take I = 200(106) mm4, A = 6(103) mm2, and E = 200 GPa for all members.
Include axial deformation in the stiffness matrix.

40 kN

4m 4m 22.02 o

131
40 kN

4m 4m 22.02o

6 3´ 6´
5 2* 2´ 5´
Global 1 3* Local 1
1* x´
i 4 j 22.02 o i 1´ j 4´
λix = cos 0o = 1, x*
λiy = cos 90o = 0 λjx = cos 22.02o = 0.9271,
λjy = cos 67.98o = 0.3749

40 kN
40 kN•m
40 kN•m [ q´F ]
[FEF] 20sin22.02=7.5
20cos22.02=18.54 20 kN
20 kN
132
• Transformation matrix
6 3´ 6´
5 2* 2´ 5´
Global 1 3* Local 1
1* x´
4 i 1´ j 4´
λix = cos 0o = 1, x * λix − λiy 0 0 0 0
λjx = cos 22.02o = 0.9271, λ
λiy = cos 90o = 0
 iy λix 0 0 0 0
λjy = cos 67.98o = 0.3749
0 0 1 0 0 0
[T ]T = 
0 0 0 λ jx − λ jy 0
0 0 0 λ jy λ jx 0
Member 1: [ q ] = [ T ]T[q´]  
 0 0 0 0 0 1
1´ 2´ 3´ 4´ 5´ 6´
q 4  4 1 0 0 0 0 0  q 1' 
  0  
q5  5  1 0 0 0 0  q 2' 
q 6  6 0 0 1 0 0 0  q 3' 
  =   
q 1*  1* 0 0 0 0 . 9271 − 0 . 3749 0  q 4' 
q 2*  2* 0 0 0 0 . 3749 0 . 9271 0  q 5' 
    
q 3*  3* 0 0 0 0 0 1  q 6' 
133
3´ 6´
• Local stiffness matrix
2´ 5´
Local 1

i 1´ j 4´

δi ∆i θi δj ∆j θj
Ni  AE/ L 0 0 − AE/ L 0 0 
Vi  0 12 EI / L3
6EI/ L2 0 − 12 EI/ L3

6EI/ L2 

Mi  0 6EI/ L2 4 EI/ L 0 − 6EI/ L2 2EI/ L 
[k ]6×6 =  
Nj − AE/ L 0 0 AE/ L 0 0 
Vj  0 − 12 EI/ L3 − 6EI/ L2 0 12 EI/ L3 − 6EI/ L2

 
Mj  0 6EI/ L2 2EI/ L 0 − 6EI/ L2 4EI/ L 

1´ 2´ 3´ 4´ 5´ 6´
1´ 150.0 0.000 0.000 -150.0 0.000 0.000
2´ 0.000 0.9375 3.750 0.000 -0.9375 3.750
3´ 0.000 3.750 20.00 0.000 -3.750 10.00
[k´]1 = 103 4´ -150.0 0.000 0.000 150.0 0.000 0.000
5´ 0.000 -0.9375 -3.750 0.000 0.9375 -3.750
6´ 0.000 3.750 10.00 0.000 -3.750 20.00 134
6 3´ 6´
5 2* 2´ 5´
Global 1 3* Local 1
1* x´
4 i 1´ j 4´
Stiffness matrix [k´]: x*
1´ 2´ 3´ 4´ 5´ 6´
1´ 150.0 0.000 0.000 -150.0 0.000 0.000
2´ 0.000 0.9375 3.750 0.000 -0.9375 3.750
3´ 0.000 3.750 20.00 0.000 -3.750 10.00
[k´]1 = 103 4´ -150.0 0.000 0.000 150.0 0.000 0.000
5´ 0.000 -0.9375 -3.750 0.000 0.9375 -3.750
6´ 0.000 3.750 10.00 0.000 -3.750 20.00
Stiffness matrix [k*]: [ k* ] = [ T ]T[ k´ ][T]
4 5 6 1* 2* 3*
4 150.0 0.000 0.000 -139.0 -56.25 0.000
5 0.000 0.9375 3.750 0.351 -0.869 3.750
6 0.000 3.750 20.00 1.406 -3.750 10.00
[k*]1 = 103 1* -139.0 0.351 1.406 129.0 51.82 1.406
2* -56.25 -0.869 -3.750 51.82 21.90 -3.476
135
3* 0.000 3.750 10.00 1.406 -3.476 20.00
6
40 kN 5 2*
1 3*
1* x´
4
4m 4m 22.02 o x*
40 kN
40 kN•m
40 kN•m [ q´F ]
20sin22.02=7.5
Global Equilibrium: 20cos22.02=18.54 20 kN
20 kN

[Q] = [K][D] + [QF]

1* 3*
Q1 = 0.0 1* 129 1.406 D1* -7.5
Q3 = 0.0 = 103 3* 1.406 20.0 D3* + -40

D1* 36.37x10-6 m
=
D3* 0.002 rad
136
6
40 kN 5 2*
1 3*
1* x´
4
40 kN
4m 4m 22.02 o 40 kN•m x*
40 kN•m

7.5
Member Force : [q] = [k*][D] + [qF] 20 kN 18.54

4 5 6 1* 2* 3*
q4 4 150.0 0.000 0.000 -139.0 -56.25 0.000 0 0 -5.06
q5 5 0.000 0.9375 3.750 0.351 -0.869 3.750 0 20 27.5
q6 6 0.000 3.750 20.00 1.406 -3.750 10.00 0 40.0 60
q1* = 103
1* -139.0 0.351 1.406 129.0 51.82 1.406 36.4x10-6 + -7.54
= 0
q2* 2* -56.25 -0.869 -3.750 51.82 21.90 -3.476 0 18.54 13.48
q3* 2x10-3
3 0.000 3.750 10.00 1.406 -3.476 20.00
* -40.0 0
60 kN•m 40 kN

5.06 kN
27.5 kN 13.48 kN 137
40 kN
40 kN
60.05 kN•m

4m 4m 5.05 kN
22.02 o 27.51 kN 13.47 kN

50.04
+
-

-60.05

Bending moment diagram


(kN•m)

0.002 rad

Deflected shape
138
Example 13

For the beam shown:


(a) Use the stiffness method to determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative free-body diagram of member.
(c) Draw the quantitative bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
Take I = 200(106) mm4, A = 6(103) mm2, and E = 200 GPa for all members.
Include axial deformation in the stiffness matrix.

40 kN
6 kN/m

2EI, 2AE EI, AE


22.02o
8m 4m 4m

139
40 kN
6 kN/m

2EI, 2AE EI, AE


22.02 o
8m 4m 4m AE (0.006 m 2 )(200 ×106 kN / m 2 )
=
L (8 m)
= 150 ×103 kN • m
6 3
5 2 4 EI 4(200 ×106 kN / m 2 )(0.0002 m 4 )
8* =
9* L (8 m)
1 1 2 7* = 20 ×103 kN • m
4
Global 2 EI
= 10 ×103 kN • m
L
3´ 6´
3´ 6´ 6 EI 6(200 ×106 kN / m 2 )(0.0002 m 4 )
2´ 5´ 5´ =
2´ 2
L (8 m) 2
1´ 1 4´ 1´ 2 4´ = 3.75 ×103 kN
Local 12 EI 12(200 ×106 kN / m 2 )(0.0002 m 4 )
=
L2 (8 m) 3
= 0.9375 ×103 kN / m 140
6 3
5 2 8*
9*
1 1 2 7*
4
Global
Local : Member 1
6 3 3´ 6´
5 2 2´ 5´
[ q] [ q´]
4 1 1 1´ 1 4´
[q] = [q´]
Thus, [k] = [k´]
4 5 6 1 2 3
4 150.0 0.000 0.000 -150.0 0.000 0.000
5 0.000 0.9375 3.750 0.000 -0.9375 3.750
6 0.000 3.750 20.00 0.000 -3.750 10.00
[k]1 = [k´]1 = 2x103 1 -150.0 0.000 0.000 150.0 0.000 0.000
2 0.000 -0.9375 -3.750 0.000 0.9375 -3.750
3 0.000 3.750 10.00 0.000 -3.750 20.00

141
6 3
5 2 8*
9*
1 1 2 7*
3 4
2 3´ 6´
[ q* ] 8* [ q´ ] 5´
9* 2´
7* x´
1 2 1´ 2 4´
λix = cos 0o = 1, x*
λiy = cos 90o = 0 λjx = cos 22.02o = 0.9271,
λjy = cos 67.98o = 0.3749

Member 2: Use transformation matrix, [q*] = [T]T[q´]

1´ 2´ 3´ 4´ 5´ 6´
q1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 q1´
q2 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 q2´
q3 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 q3´
q7*
= 7* 0 0 0 0.9271 -0.3749 0 q4´
q8* 8* 0 0 0 0.3749 0.9271 0 q5´
q9* 9* 0 0 0 0 0 1 q6´
142
3 3´ 6´
2 8* 5´
[ q* ] 9* 2´ [ q´ ]
7* x´
1 2 1´ 2 4´
x*
Stiffness matrix [k´]:
1´ 2´ 3´ 4´ 5´ 6´
1´ 150.0 0.000 0.000 -150.0 0.000 0.000
2´ 0.000 0.9375 3.750 0.000 -0.9375 3.750
3´ 0.000 3.750 20.00 0.000 -3.750 10.00
[k´]2 = 103 4´ -150.0 0.000 0.000 150.0 0.000 0.000
5´ 0.000 -0.9375 -3.750 0.000 0.9375 -3.750
6´ 0.000 3.750 10.00 0.000 -3.750 20.00
Stiffness matrix [k*]: [k*] = [T]T[k´][T]
1 2 3 7* 8* 9*
1 150.0 0.000 0.000 -139.0 -56.25 0.000
2 0.000 0.9375 3.750 0.351 -0.869 3.750
3 0.000 3.750 20.00 1.406 -3.477 10.00
[k*]2 = 103 7* -139.0 0.351 1.406 129.0 51.82 1.406
8* -56.25 -0.869 -3.477 51.82 21.90 -3.476
143
9* 0.000 3.750 10.00 1.406 -3.476 20.00
6 3
5 2 8*
9*
1 1 2 7*
4
4 5 6 1 2 3
4 150.0 0.000 0.000 -150.0 0.000 0.000
5 0.000 0.9375 3.750 0.000 -0.9375 3.750
6 0.000 3.750 20.00 0.000 -3.750 10.00
[k]1= 2x103 1 -150.0 0.000 0.000 150.0 0.000 0.000
2 0.000 -0.9375 -3.750 0.000 0.9375 -3.750
3 0.000 3.750 10.00 0.000 -3.750 20.00

1 2 3 7* 8* 9*
1 150.0 0.000 0.000 -139.0 -56.25 0.000
2 0.000 0.9375 3.750 0.351 -0.869 3.750
3 0.000 3.750 20.00 1.406 -3.477 10.00
[k*]2 = 103 7* -139.0 0.351 1.406 129.0 51.82 1.406
8* -56.25 -0.869 -3.477 51.82 21.90 -3.476
9* 0.000 3.750 10.00 1.406 -3.476 20.00
144
6 3
40 kN 9*
6 kN/m 5 2 8*

1 1 2 7*
4
40 kN
6 kN/m 40 kN•m
32 kN•m 40 kN•m
32 kN•m
1
7.5
24 kN 24 kN 20 kN 18.54

Global: 1 3 7* 9*
0 1 450 0 -139 0 D1 0
0 3 0 60 1.406 10 D3 -32 + 40 = 8
0 = 103 7* +
-139 1.406 129 1.406 D7* -7.5
0 9* 0 10 1.406 20 D9* -40

D1 18.15x10-6 m
D3 -509.84x10-6 rad
D7* = 58.73x10-6 m
D9* 0.00225 rad
145
6 3
5 2 6 kN/m
32 kN•m
32 kN•m
4 1 1 1

24 kN 24 kN
Member 1: [ q ] = [k ][d] + [qF]
4 5 6 1 2 3
q4 4 150.0 0.000 0.000 -150.0 0.000 0.000 0 0
q5 5 0.000 0.9375 3.750 0.000 -0.9375 3.750 0 24
q6 6 0.000 3.750 20.00 0.000 -3.750 10.00 0 32
q1 = 2x103 0.000 d1=18.15x10-6
+ 0
1 -150.0 0.000 0.000 150.0 0.000
q2 2 0.000 -0.9375 -3.750 0.000 0.9375 -3.750 0 24
q3
3 0.000 3.750 10.00 0.000 -3.750 20.00 d3=-509.84 -32
x10-6
q4 -5.45 kN
q5 20.18 kN 6 kN/m
21.80 kN•m 52.39 kN•m
q6 21.80 kN•m
= 5.45 kN 5.45 kN
q1 5.45 kN
q2 27.82 kN 20.18 kN 27.82 kN
q3 -52.39 kN•m 146
40 kN
2 3 8* 40 kN•m
9* 40 kN•m [ q´F ]
7* x´
20sin22.02=7.5
1 2 2
x* 20cos22.02=18.54 20 kN
20 kN
Member 2: [ q ] = [k ][d] + [qF]
1 2 3 7* 8* 9*
q1 1 150.0 0.000 0.000 -139.0 -56.25 0.000 18.15x10-6 0
q2 2 0.000 0.9375 3.750 0.351 -0.869 3.750 0 20
q3 3 0.000 3.750 20.00 1.406 -3.750 10.00 -509.84x10-6 40
q7* = 103 7* -139.0 0.351 1.406 129.0 58.73x10-6
+ -7.5
51.82 1.406
q8* 8* -56.25 -0.869 -3.750 51.82 21.90 -3.476 0 18.54
q9* 0.00225 -40
9* 0.000 3.750 10.00 1.406 -3.476 20.00
q1 -5.45 kN 40 kN
52.39 kN•m
q2 26.55 kN
q3 52.39 kN•m
q7*
= 0 kN 5.45 kN
q8* 14.51 kN 14.51 kN
26.55 kN
q9*
0 kN•m 147
40 kN
6 kN/m 52.39 kN•m
21.80 kN•m 52.39 kN•m

5.45 kN 5.45 kN
5.45 kN 14.51 kN
20.18 kN 27.82 kN 14.51cos 22.02o
26.55 kN
=13.45 kN
40 kN
21.80 kN•m 6 kN/m

5.45 kN
54.37 kN 22.02o
20.18 kN
8m 4m 4 m 14.51 kN

20.18 26.55
V (kN) +
+ x (m)
3.36 m - -
-27.82 -13.45
53.81
M 12.14 +
(kN•m) - x (m)
-
-21.8
-52.39 148