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CTBUH Journal

International Journal on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat

Tall buildings: design, construction, and operation | 2020 Issue II

Case Study: Trinity, Paris


Preparing High-Rises for Drones
Tall + Urban Innovation Trends of 2020
Chicago Code Changes: Structural Engineering Impacts
Double-Skin Façades for the Mediterranean Climate
Inside
CTBUH Organizational Members members.ctbuh.org

EID Architecture
News and Events
Enclos Corp.
Envision Engineering Consultant
Features
Cermak Peterka Petersen
China Architecture Design & Research Group
20
China State Construction Overseas Development Co., Ltd.
Façades
Longman Lindsey
M Moser Associates
Maeda Corporation
Improving the Energy Efficiency
Epstein Chongqing Jinke Design Research Institute Manntech
reducing energy loads, by acting as a

Of a Mediterranean High-Rise Envelope


mediator between indoor and outdoor

02
Fender This Issue 52 Tall Buildings in Numbers
conditions (Cheung, Fuller & Luther 2005;


Saroglou et al. 2017). A vital consideration in

Katsalidis Civil & Structural Engineering Consultants (Pvt) Ltd. MAURER SE


Authors
Tanya Saroglou, Post-Doctorate Researcher
Abstract
This study focuses on the building envelope as the mediator between interior and
this relationship is the climatic conditions of
the building’s location. So, by designing a
climatically responsive building envelope

Front Inc. Code Consultants, Inc. Metal Yapi exterior climatic conditions, examining its influence on energy loads. The

Daniel Safarik, Evaluating 2012’s Predictions


Isaac A. Meir, Professor that interacts appropriately with the ambient
Structural Engineering Department
Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research parameters are: climatic conditions of the building’s location (Mediterranean climatic conditions, it is possible to take
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev advantage of passive heating and cooling
climate), the thermal properties of the building envelope, and the effect of building

HALFEN USA Inc. Conrad Gargett MicroShade A/S


Sede Boqer Campus
Midreshet Ben-Gurion 84990, Israel techniques, and reduce the operational
t: +972 5 0252 3674; f: +972.8.6596881
height, on a high-rise office building with increased internal heat gains. The energy, i.e., heating and cooling (Yik 2005;
e: sakis@bgu.ac.il proposed envelope under study is a glazed curtain wall design, reflecting current

Editor-in-Chief for theCosentini


TallestAssociates
20 in 2020
in.bgu.ac.il Choi, Cho & Kim 2012).
high-rise architectural tendencies. Simulation results are in favour of a double-skin

Hill International Moelven


Theodoros Theodosiou, Associate Professor
Laboratory of Building Construction & Building
Physics, School of Civil Engineering
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
envelope design, with double low-e glazing as the exterior layer, and single-layer
clear glazing on the interior, with two exterior windows that open and close in
However, current architectural tendencies,
initiated from the mid-20th century onwards,
especially prominent in high-rise buildings,

HPP Architects Cottee Parker Architects Mori Building Company


Building E10, University Campus relation to building height, exterior environmental conditions and interior thermal
54124 Thessaloniki, Greece portray an increased transparency of the
t: +30 2310 995 818 comfort. The outcome is a dynamic building envelope that adapts and performs in envelope, and lightness of the structure,
e: tgt@civil.auth.gr
auth.gr/en/civil relation to the above parameters. resulting in high cooling and heating energy

Investa Property Group Cotter Consulting Inc. Moshe Tzur Architects Town Planners Keywords: Climatic Response, Envelope, High-Rise, Mediterranean Climate, Thermal Performance loads (Allard & Santamouris 1998). On the
Tanya Saroglou, PhD is a qualified architect in
other hand, during the last few years,

04 CTBUH Latest 54 TalkingCove


Tall: Walter Hughes
the UK (ARB) and Greece (TEE), with experience in
architectural design and project management. In double-skin façades (DSFs) have gained

Jaeger Kahlen Partners Architects Property Group Mott MacDonald Group


2003 she completed her diploma in architecture
at Kingston University. In 2006, she was awarded
Introduction translated into increased energy loads, in popularity over single-skin curtain walls, as a
the Professional Practice and Management in comparison with low-rise construction more advanced envelope scenario that leads
Architecture from the Bartlett, University College
London, and in 2013 an MSc in Sustainable Design
Although the potential of tall buildings to (Cook, Browning & Garvin 2013; Leung & Ray to improvements of the building’s energy

Jensen Hughes Cox Architecture MVRDV


from the University of Edinburgh. She has just improve the overall sustainability of urban 2013). As a result, their impact on the urban performance (Wood & Salib 2013). But,

Antony Wood, High-Rise “Vertiports” and


completed her PhD studies at Ben-Gurion in Israel,
via a thesis titled: “Design Strategies Towards More
life is strong, further research and scale is much more energy-intensive than all despite the number of built DSF built
Energy-Efficient High-Rise Buildings,” and continues experimentation is needed, in order for this other construction. According to the United projects, and the numbers of DSF studies
the research as a post-doctorate student. Her
typology to comply with current and Nations Environmental Program - Sustainable conducted, design guidelines on DSF

JLL CoxGomyl Nabih Youssef & Associates


research so far has yielded three Q1 peer reviewed
papers, and four papers published in peer-reviewed near-future regulations on embodied carbon Buildings and Climate Initiative (UNEP-SBCI), energy performance are lacking, Figure 1. Tel Aviv skyline. © Antony Wood
conference proceedings.
and carbon emissions (EU 2010; Voss, Musall the emissions produced from the especially in relation to local climate (Joe et

Chief
ToubroExecutive Officer Other Near-Future Visions
Isaac A. Meir, PhD is affiliated with the Desert & Lichtme 2011; NYC 2015). Additionally, operational energy (OE) of buildings, mainly al. 2014; Ahmed et al. 2015; Ghaffarianhoseini

Larsen & Craft Holdings Limited National Fire Protection Association


Architecture & Urban Planning Unit (since 1986), W/m2 ºC
and Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of
there is a significant gap between the used for heating, cooling and lighting, form et al. 2016). taking place in hot ones (Hamza 2008; % m/s
450 30
Engineering Sciences (since 2018) at Ben-Gurion practice of high-rise development the largest source of building-related Pomponi et al. 2016; Halawa et al. 2018).
University. Meir participates in the design of
environmentally conscious, experimental projects
worldwide, and the expertise gained on how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions This paper studies the performance of a 400
25

LeMessurier CS Group Construction Specialties Company Nikken Sekkei, Ltd.


in deserts. He is a consultant to Israel’s ministries to make these buildings more sustainable (approximately 80–90 percent), in relation to building envelope for a high-rise reference 350
of Construction and Housing, Energy, Water and
Infrastructures, the Israel Land Administration,
and energy-efficient (Donnolo, Galatro & the emissions produced by the embodied model at different heights, in the hot and Design Considerations for High-Rise 300 20
Relative Humidity (%)
and the Standards Institute of Israel. Meir heads Janes 2014; Simmonds 2015). energy (EE), used in the process of raw humid climate of Tel Aviv. The Tel Aviv Energy Efficiency 250
Wind Direction (deg)
multidisciplinary teams focusing on green

LERA Consulting Structural Engineers CSSC Complex Property Co.,Ltd Norman Disney & Young
Global Solar Radiation Rate per Area (W/m2)
technologies and sustainable development. Research
material extraction and processing (La Roche climate (in terms of dry-bulb temperature, 15
Dry-bulb Temperature (ºC)
200
interests include sustainable design in arid zones; Tel Aviv, Israel, the focus of this study, has 2012). In addition, the building sector today relative humidity, wind speed, andW/m wind
2 The Effect of Height on High-Rise ºC Wind Speed (m/s)

05 Debating Tall 58 Ask a CTBUH Expert:


post-occupancy evaluation; indoor environment % m/s 150 10
quality; life cycle energy analysis; zero-energy
experienced vibrant high-rise activity. In is the most energy-intensive sector, direction) is shown in Figure 2. Heating and Energy Loads
450 30
settlements; energy and tall buildings. He is the 2011, the city’s Planning and Construction accounting for almost 50 percent of GHG cooling load comparisons are made by A building interacts with the outdoors 100

LWK + PARTNERS Cubic Architects NORR Group Consultants International Limited


recipient of the Israel Green Building Council Award 5
for Leadership in Green Building (2016).
Committee issued the 2025 City Master Plan, emissions. So, in order to reduce these, it gradually upgrading the thermal400 properties through the envelope (walls, roof, windows) 50
setting new guidelines allowing further becomes crucial to enhance the energy of the building envelope for improving generally, and specifically with the thermal 25 0 0
Theodore Theodosiou, PhD is an associate professor 350
skyrise development (Fox 2011) (see Figure efficiency of buildings by reducing the OE. energy efficiency. Studies in hot climates are properties of the materials that make up the 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Magnusson Klemencic Associates


EmmaDaewoo E&C O’Donnell & Naccarato
at the Laboratory of Building Construction & Building

Humphreys
Months of the Year

Are Drones Ready for Façade


Physics in the Civil Engineering Department of the 1). This study considers high-rise buildings as of special importance, due to the300increased building envelope. When estimating the 20
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. His research Relative Humidity (%)
interests include building energy efficiency, building
an urban phenomenon closely related to city This study looks at improving the energy solar gains entering a glass façade, energy loads of a high-rise building, it
Wind Direction (deg)
physics, energy simulation of buildings, low-, living, and studies design strategies for efficiency of high-rise buildings, by focusing 250 In
intensifying the cooling requirements. becomes important to take into Global Solar Radiation Rate per Area (W/m2)
15

McNAMARA • SALVIA Davy Sukamta & Partners Structural Engineers OLYMPIQUE Facade Access Consulting
passive- and near-zero-energy buildings. He has
participated in various research programs, more than
advancing their energy efficiency. on the initial concept design stages, and addition, most research on double-skin
200
consideration the changing microclimate Dry-bulb Temperature (ºC)
80 national and international conferences, published more specifically on the design of the envelopes, the focus of this study, has with height, and how this affects the Wind Speed (m/s)

Mirvac Inspection? How toDCA Make a Tall Building


chapters in scientific books, has published 35 papers
in peer-reviewed scientific journals with more than
An important consideration of high-rise building envelope, considered as a passive predominantly been undertaken150 in cold and materials of the building envelope, through 10 Figure 2. Tel Aviv annual climatic data.

Group Architects Omrania


870 references. buildings is their vast scale, which is also design strategy that has the potential of temperate climates, with limited research heat exchange with the ambient air by Source: EnergyPlus
100
5
50
20 | Façades CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II Façades | 21

Nishkian Menninger Consulting and Structural Engineers DCI Engineers Ornamental Metal Institute of New York
0 0

“Drone-Ready”?
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Months of the Year
Journal2020_IssueII.indd 20-21 3/11/2020 2:13:59 PM

OJB Landscape Architecture Decibel Architecture Palafox Associates


06
OutokumpuGlobal News Deerns PAN Partners
PDW Architects DIALOG Pavarini McGovern

28
Highlights from the CTBUH
Pei Cobb Freed & Partners Doka GmbH Peikko
Global
Permasteelisa News archive
Group Dong Yang Structural Engineers Codes and Regulations Pepper Construction Company
Pickard Chilton Architects
PLP Architecture
CTBUH
EG
Elenberg Fraser
Perkins and Will
Chicago Building Code Modernization:
Comparison of Prototype Building Designs
Plus Architecture
The three prototype buildings examined as

“ThewindChicago
part of this research paper are shown in

Wind Climate model suggests figures 1 and 2 and a detailed description of


each is provided below.
that loading from the easterly winds is
Abstract

PNB Merdeka Ventures Sdn. Berhad Elevating Studio Pte. Ltd. Portman Architects This research paper, an abridged version of a white paper produced by the Chicago
expected to be significantly lower than
CTBUHEnstruct
on the Road
Prototype Building 1

59
Chapter of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), reviews the

PT. Gistama Intisemesta Group Pty Ltd Procore Technologies prevailing strong winds from south and west.

potential impact of changes to the city’s building code as it is adapted to the
Prototype Building 1 is a residential tower
International Building Code standard. Its main objective is to uncover the effect of with a 15-foot, 8-inch (4.8-meter) ground
IBC loading standards on the structural designs of a range of taller buildings in

Case Study
floor lobby and 36 floors at a 10-foot, 8-inch

Quadrangle Architects
CTBUHEnvironmental Systems Design Profica
John Viise Matthew Cummins Chicago that may utilize prescriptive code design methodology, to assess the cost (3.3-meter) floor-to-floor height. The building

Ramboll
events around
EPEXYL S.A.
the world R.G. Vanderweil Engineers
implications of a change in loading standards, and to assess the effect of IBC’s
seismic loading requirements on representative local building projects.
Keywords: Chicago Building Code, International Building Code, Structural Engineering,
Tall Buildings
roof has an elevation of 399 feet, 8 inches
(121.8 meters) (see Figure 1), just below
the 400-foot (121.9-meter) threshold
requirement for wind tunnel testing per IBC.
on a 30-foot (9.1-meter) grid in the
longitudinal direction with 45-foot
(13.7-meter) lease spans on each side of an
interior 40-foot (12.2-meter) bay (see Figure
inches (914 millimeters) deep and match the
thickness of the shear walls. This corresponds
to a door rough opening height of 11 feet
(3,353 millimeters). Widths used for the door
2). The floor system consists of 3-1/4-inch rough openings are 8 feet (2,438 millimeters).
The floor plate is 100 feet (30.5 meters) (83-millimeter) lightweight concrete on a

Rene Lagos Engineers Eric Parry Architects Raftery CRE, LLC


Alberto Guarise Daniel Koch
Background

For many years, local design and


building gets taller and the exposure
category increases (as specified by ASCE 7
Exposure Category B to D), wind loads can
square, with columns around the perimeter
spaced at 30 feet (9.1 meters) on center (see
Figure 2). Elevated floors are 8-inch-
3-inch (76.20-millimeter) metal deck
supported by structural steel infill framing at
15 feet (4.6 meters) on center. The lateral
Prototype Building 3

12 Trinity, Paris
Rothoblaas
60 ReviewsFINE DNC RAW Design
Authors construction industries understood there significantly increase. Additionally, the IBC (203-millimeter)-thick post-tensioned system consists of a concrete bearing Prototype Building 3 is an office building with
John Viise, Managing Principal was a need to better align Chicago’s Building requires that designs consider seismic concrete slabs. The lateral system consists of shear-wall two-bay core, centered in the a 20-foot- (6.1-meter)-high ground floor lobby
Matthew Cummins, Project Engineer
Alberto Guarise, Senior Project Engineer
Code (CBC) with more modern codes and loading, so heavier low-rise buildings may a concrete bearing shear wall core with building with overall dimensions of 60 by 40 and 9 floors at a 14-foot (4.3-meter) floor-to-

SAMOO Architects and Engineers Fletcher Priest Architects Real Estate Management (UK) Limited
Daniel Koch, Project Engineer standards used throughout the US. Through also see an increase in demand from new dimensions of 44 feet, 9 inches (13.6 meters) feet (18.3 by 12.2 meters). Concrete link floor height. The building roof has an elevation
DeSimone Consulting Engineers
collaboration with many departments within code loading. and 30 feet (9.1 meters). The core has web beams at the core wall door openings are 36 of 146 feet (44.5 meters) (see Figure 1).

Schuco Jean-Luc Crochon


150 North Wacker Drive, Suite 2660

ReviewFMofGlobal
new books in the
Chicago IL 60606 the City of Chicago, the Mayor’s Office, and walls at the elevator and stairs that are 10

Related Midwest
United States
t: +1 312 493 4100
more than 150 volunteer technical experts The study presented in this paper attempts inches (254 millimeters) thick and are
e: john.viise@de-simone.com and industry leaders, the Chicago Building to answer the following questions: included in the analysis model. Concrete link
de-simone.com
Code was comprehensively revised in 2019. beams at the core wall door rough openings

Severud Associates Consulting Engineers Forster Engineering Consultants Co., Ltd.


The revised structural requirements are

Rhode Partners
• How does the IBC loading affect the are 29 inches (737 millimeters) deep and

CTBUHFoster
Library
John Viise is the Managing Principal of
DeSimone’s Chicago office. For over 25 years, Viise based upon the International Building Code structural designs of a range of taller match the thickness of the shear walls. This
has been providing structural services for high-rise
(IBC)—the modern national standard, while buildings in Chicago that may utilize corresponds to a door opening height of 8
and special-use structures throughout the world.
He is at the forefront of technical design, through maintaining and introducing special prescriptive code design methodology? feet, 3 inches (2,514 millimeters). Widths used

Shanghai Construction (Group) General + Partners Rise Management Consulting Ltd


active participation in industry research and
Chicago-specific provisions. • How significant is the impact to for the door rough openings are 4 feet (1,219
knowledge sharing.
structural cost? millimeters) for single doors, and 8 feet
Matthew Cummins currently serves as a Project
As part of the new code adoption process, • How does seismic loading impact these (2,438 millimeters) for double doors.

Shenzhen Aube Architectural Engineering Design Co., Ltd FXCollaborative RJC Engineers
Engineer in DeSimone’s Chicago office where he
actively supports the firms Structural Engineering projects filed between 1 December 2019 and sample building designs?
and Forensics practices. Cummins has over seven
1 August 2020 will have the option of using a
years of experience in structural analysis, design,
detailing and construction administration on design methodology based on the original In order to gain insight into these questions, Prototype Building 2

Sika Services AG Gal Nauer Architects Robert A.M. Stern Architects


numerous new building and retrofit projects.

Meet the CTBUH


(pre-2019) CBC or the new 2019 CBC, which three prototype buildings were analyzed and

62
Alberto Guarise currently serves as a Senior Project references the 2018 IBC. After 1 August 2020, designed according to both CBC and IBC. Prototype Building 2 is an office building
Engineer in DeSimone’s Chicago office. Guarise has
all new designs submitted for approval will The prototype buildings considered do not with a 20-foot (6.1-meter) ground floor lobby
over eight years of experience providing design

Studio Gang GEI Consultants Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners


and construction phase services in two major need to conform to the new 2019 CBC. represent the full range of Chicago’s building and 19 floors at a 14-foot (4.3-meter) floor-to-
metropolitan areas: New York and Chicago, including
stock, but are representative of the building floor height. The building roof has an

Research
high-rise and medium-rise office, residential
types that are less than 400 feet (122 meters) elevation of 286 feet (87.2 meters) (see Figure

ShonnGERBMills
developments, and sports arenas.
Study Objective and Scope tall, and as a result can utilize prescriptive 1). An exterior windscreen extends an

Syska Hennessy Group Vibration Control Systems (USA/Germany) Ronald Lu & Partners
Daniel Koch currently serves as a Project Engineer
in DeSimone’s Chicago office where he actively code provisions for design (i.e., no wind additional 14 feet (4.3 meters) forming a
supports the firms Structural Engineering and Prototype 1 Prototype 2 Prototype 3
Structural engineers familiar with the CBC tunnel testing). Additionally, a low-rise mechanical penthouse for a total building
Forensics practices. His project experience includes:
37-story Residential Tower 20-story Office Building 10-story Office Building
commercial, education, energy, and government and IBC recognize that design lateral forces reinforced concrete office building is also height of 300 feet (91.4 meters) above grade.

Tata Realty GGLO Ronesans Holding


400 feet (121.9 meters) tall 286 feet (87.2 meters) tall 160 feet (48.8 meters) tall
facilities design.
developed by the two codes can vary considered for study, since short and 100 x 100 feet 180 x 130 feet 150 x 130 feet
(30.5 x 30.5 meters) (54.9 x 39.6 meters) (45.7 x 39.6 meters)
significantly. Low-rise buildings may realize a heavier buildings are more susceptible to The floor plate is 180 feet by 130 feet (54.9
reduction in wind loads with the IBC, but as a seismic loading. meters by 39.6 meters). Columns are spaced Figure 1. Isometric view of the prototype buildings.

TAV Construction Gilsanz Murray Steficek Royal HaskoningDHV


20 Improving theGroup
Energy 63 CTBUHGlobal
Organizational
28 | Codes and Regulations CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II Codes and Regulations | 29

Tongji Architectural Design Wind Technology Services Safdie Architects


UNStudio Glumac Sanni, Ojo & Partners
Efficiency of a Mediterranean
V & A Waterfront
Member Listing
gmp • Architekten von Gerkan, Marg und Partner GbR Sauerbruch Hutton Gesellschaft von Architekten
Walter P.High-Rise Envelope
44
Moore and Associates Goettsch Partners SECURISTYLE
WATG Urban Gradient Wind Engineering Inc. SETEC TPI
Tanya Saroglou,
Webber Design Pty Ltd
Isaac Meir & Graziani + Corazza Architects CTBUH Research Report
Shimizu Corporation
WebcorTheodoros
Builders Theodosiou Grimshaw Architects The Tallest 20 in 2020: ThenSHoP
and Now
Architects 1,000 meters (the exact height figure
remains undisclosed).

Willow Guangdong JMA Aluminium Profile Factory (Group) Co., Ltd. Siderise
Abstract
This research paper undertakes a review of the 2012 report by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, “Tallest 20 in Seoul Light DMC Tower, Seoul
2020: Entering the Era of the Megatall,” assessing the accuracy of the predictions made at that time against the reality of the • Predicted 2020 rank in 2012: 4 (640 m)

WME Engineering Consultants Guangzhou Jianke Citiexpo Co.,Ltd SilverEdge Systems Software, Inc.
present day. It reviews the development trajectory of CTBUH’s 2012 predicted and unanticipated 20 tallest buildings in the • Actual rank in 2020: n/a
world in the year 2020, and places the results in regional, industry and historical context.

28
Woods Chicago Building Code
The predicted world’s fourth-tallest building
Keywords: Development, Economics, World’s Tallest Building in 2020 was expected to reach 640 meters. In

Bagot Guangzhou Yuexiu City Construction Jones Lang LaSalle Property Stanley D. Lindsey & Associates
In 2012, the CTBUH Journal published a crown, but construction had already begun its workers from the site until the dispute
2012, the contractor that had intended to
construct the building failed to pay for the
land plot, and the project was scrapped (Bae

Yitian Design Group Co., Ltd. Management Co., Ltd. Stantec Ltd.
Modernization:
research paper titled “Tallest 20 in 2020: Era when aviation authorities then intervened, could be settled (Sun 2019). 2015). Discussions have been ongoing since
of the Megatall—The Projected World’s concerned that future flight paths around 2015 to restart the project, potentially with a
Tallest 20 Skyscrapers in the Year 2020.” Tianhe International Airport would be Jeddah Tower, Jeddah shorter tower (Kim 2018).

Zaha Hadid Architects Hariri Pontarini Architects Steel Institute of New York
Though it was only eight years ago, the pace curtailed if towers in the city rose to that • Predicted 2020 rank in 2012: 1 (828 m)
of change in the tall building world at the height (see Figure 1). The compromise • Actual rank in 2020: n/a Signature Tower, Jakarta

Comparison of Prototype
time was such that 2020 seemed like a design, with a similar curved top but wider • Predicted 2020 rank in 2012: 4 (638 m)

HASSELL Stein Ltd.


distant lodestar in the future. The future, of proportions, will rise to 476 meters, knocking Jeddah Tower, which began construction in • Actual rank in 2020: n/a*
course, has the inconvenient habit of Wuhan Greenland Center from a 2012– 2013 and was then called Kingdom Tower,
appearing in the present far too early for the predicted number 7 rank in 2020 and out of has experienced numerous delays and The Signature Tower in Jakarta, proposed in
comfort of most. Today, the CTBUH Research “megatall” status. If completed today, the still remains under construction in 2020. News 2009, at 638 meters, was anticipated in 2012

CONTRIBUTORS Hathaway Dinwiddie Steinberg Hart


Building Designs
and Editorial teams review the projections under-construction building would be the reports peg a “topping out” by the end of to become the world’s fifth-tallest building by
we made in 2012, the assumptions that world’s 23rd-tallest building.* It is currently 2020, but it is unclear when completion 2020. However, multiple design changes and
guided them, and the roller-coaster reality of difficult to predict a final completion date, may finally happen (Gibbon 2020). If it were failed geotechnical/hydrological tests caused

AkzoNobel Heller Manus Architects Stora Enso Wood Products Oy Ltd


what has come hence. however, due to the developer’s alleged
failure to make payments to the contractor.
completed now, and for some time in the
foreseeable future, it would become the
the first round of delays (Alexander 2014). The
project eventually received design approval

Aliaxis John Viise, Matthew Cummins,


In October 2019, the contractor removed all World’s Tallest Building at more than from local authorities in 2015, and approval Figure 2. Ping An Finance Center, Shenzhen–proposed in 2008 and originally set to rise 660 meters (left), it was

Henning Larsen Architects Studco Australia Pty Ltd


Prediction 1 for construction in 2017 (Alexander 2015a, completed in 2017 at 599 meters (right), due to changes in aviation restrictions. © Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates (let);
“By 2020, we can expect that at least eight 2015b; Freycinetia & Puspa 2017). However, it Tim Griffith (right)
megatall buildings (of 600 meters’ or greater was still short some US$1.7 billion in funding,

Hilti AG SuperTEC
height) will exist worldwide.” and remains stalled (Dwijayanto 2018). Khalifa bin Zayed al-Nahyan provided Shenzhen Bao’an International Airport,

Alimak Alberto Guarise & Daniel Koch Reality


In the second quarter of 2020, there are
This is not to imply that the road had been
smooth for the three megatalls that did
financial assistance to finish the project
(Thomas 2010). It was declared the World’s
Tallest Building by the Council in March 2010
restricted its height to 600 meters,
maximum. The redesign completed the
building’s architectural expression with a

Allford Hall Monaghan Morris Hitachi, Ltd Surface Design


three megatall buildings in existence.
These are the Burj Khalifa, Dubai (828
meters); Shanghai Tower, Shanghai (632
complete, however—or for that matter, for
practically any of the buildings on the 2020
World’s Tallest List, then or now.
(CTBUH 2010).

Ping An Finance Center, Shenzhen


pyramidal crown, bringing its final height to
599 meters—and thus removing the
classification of “megatall.”

Altitude Facade Access Consulting HKA Elevator Consulting SWA Group


meters); and Makkah Royal Clock Tower
Hotel (601 meters), Mecca (CTBUH
Skyscraper Center 2020).
Burj Khalifa, Dubai
• Predicted 2020 rank in 2012: 2 (828 m)
• Predicted 2020 rank in 2012: 3 (660 m)
• Actual rank in 2020: 4 (599 m) Shanghai Tower, Shanghai
• Predicted 2020 rank in 2012: 6 (632 m)

HKS Architects Swinerton Builders


36 2020 Tall + Urban Innovation:
Alvine Engineering
• Actual rank in 2020: 1 (828 m) Like its cousin in Wuhan, Ping An Finance • Actual rank in 2020: 2 (632 m)
What Happened? Center received a “haircut” due to aviation
Five of the eight megatall buildings The Burj Khalifa, completed in 2010, became restrictions being imposed after the While Shanghai Tower didn’t break ground

HOK Architects Corporation Taisei Corporation


projected in 2012 to complete by 2020 did the World’s Tallest Building at that time and buildings had been designed. The office until 29 November 2008, plans for a tower on

AMSYSCO not achieve that goal. Here are their stories: retains the title today. Its iconic status has building was originally intended to reach the Lujiazui financial district site emerged as

Dominant Trends
driven much development around its 660 meters by way of a spire at its top (see early as 1993, with a group of three towers;
Wuhan Greenland Center, Wuhan periphery, delivering value above and Figure 2). During the design process, local Jin Mao Tower (1999) and Shanghai World

Andrew Lee King Fun & Associates Architects Ltd. Housing and Development Board Takenaka Corporation
• Predicted 2020 rank in 2012: 7 (606 m)
• Actual rank in 2020: n/a (476 m)*
beyond the building itself. Its grand opening
was in January 2010, which coincided with a
name change from “Burj Dubai” after Sheik
aviation authorities, concerned that a
building of that height might impede the
range of potential flight paths in and out of
Financial Center (SWFC) (2008) comprising
the two “sisters” of a “three sisters” tower plan.
Shanghai Tower completed in 2015, but had

ArcelorMittal Humphreys & Partners Architects, L.P. Technal Middle East


CTBUH Staff
The Wuhan Greenland Center had been Figure 1. Wuhan Greenland Center, Wuhan, was intended to be a “megatall” at 606 meters (left) but was cut down by
designed to rise to 606 meters with a curved aviation authorities, to 476 meters (right). © AS+GG (left); Baycrest (cc by-sa) (right) *
Buildings must be fully clad and ready for occupancy in order to qualify as “complete” by CTBUH criteria, and to be officially entered into height rankings.

Archilier Architecture Hutchinson Builders Tengyuan Design Institute Co., Ltd


44 | CTBUH Research Report CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II CTBUH Research Report | 45

architectsAlliance ICD Property Terracon


Journal2020_IssueII.indd 44-45 3/11/2020 2:18:32 PM

IDOM UK Ltd. Tetra Tech


44 The Design
Architectural Tallest 20 in Institute
& Research 2020: of Tsinghua University Ingrid Cloud The Harman Group
Architectus
Then
Armstrong and
Ceiling Now
Solutions Inhabit Group The Pakubuwono Development


Arney Fender Katsalidis International Code Council Vetrocare
CTBUH Staff
The significant electricity supply currently
ASHTROM GROUP LTD Interpane GmbH Vidaris, Inc.
Barker Mohandas, LLC Israeli Association of Construction and Infrastructure Engineers Voice Architecture Lab
Benoy JAHN VS-A Group

required to operate a vertiport may be an issue,


bKL Architecture Jaros, Baum & Bolles Werner Sobek Group
Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory Jotun Weston Williamson + Partners
Bouygues Batiment International JQZ wh-p Ingenieure

and early engagement with electricity providers


Broad Sustainable Building Co. KEO International Consultants WilkinsonEyre
Broadway Malyan KHP Konig und Heunisch Planungsgesellschaft WOHA Architects


Brunkeberg Systems Killa Design WTM Engineers International

would be prudent to assess viability and cost.


Calatrava International Kinemetrics Inc. WZMH Architects
Canary Wharf Group Kinetica Y. A. Yashar Architects
Canderel Management Kobi Karp
Careys Civil Engineering Koltay Facades PARTICIPANTS/ACADEMIC & MEDIA INSTITUTES
Cary Kopczynski & Company KS Ingenieure ZT GmbH There are an additional 389 members of the Council at the
CB Engineers LCI Australia Pty Ltd. Humphreys,
Participant/Academic Institute/Media Institute level. page Please58see
CCD / Cheng Chung Design LCL Builds Limited online for the full member list: members.ctbuh.org.
CCL Lendlease Corporation
Cerami & Associates Liberty OneSteel

2 | Supporting
CTBUH Contributors
Journal are those
| 2020 Issue II who contribute $10,000; Patrons: $6,000; Donors: $3,000; Contributors: $1,500; Participants: $750; AcademicCTBUH
& Media Institutes:
Journal $500.
| 2017 Issue
Inside
xx | 3
Global News Visit the daily-updated online resource for all the latest news on tall buildings,
urban development, and sustainable construction from around the world at: ctbuh.org/news

Americas In the always-busy New York City, the memory care units. In Detroit, the David
cantilevered, glass-clad H Hotel W39 is Stott Building, an Art Deco skyscraper, has
An investment from the Canadian federal progressing, with an estimated delivery date been fully renovated. Purchased in 2015 for
government will support an affordable of 2021. The 65-room hotel is rising from a US$14.9 million, it had been undergoing
housing component with CA$130 million narrow plot below Bryant Park, and will renovations for the past several years, which
(US$99 million) in downtown London, eventually top out at 132 meters. Uptown, a included replacing windows, terra cotta and
Ontario. Consisting of two residential proposed hospital tower redevelopment, the approximately 60,000 bricks on its exterior.
buildings at 495 Talbot Street and 110 Lenox Hill Hospital Complex, has gone Despite two delays, Lakeview Tower, a
Fullarton Street, the development is slated through a change to its design, which may 15-story residential building, is slated for
to designate a quarter of its 420 units toward include amending or eliminating the Duluth’s downtown, delivering 204
affordable housing. 41-story residential tower that was to apartments and commercial space on the
accompany the hospital campus. ground floor. Construction is expected to
In Toronto’s Liberty Village, a 16-year-long start in the winter of 2020.
redevelopment project draws to a close with A permit has been filed for a high-rise tower
the launch of the 28-story, mixed-use Liberty to replace a parking garage on Boston’s Over on the United States’ West Coast, the
Market Tower. The building will complete waterfront. The Pinnacle at Central Wharf Planning Commission in San Francisco has
the Liberty Market Complex, which includes would be a 42-story, 182-meter tower, with a approved a new 61-story, 246-meter
the Liberty Market Building and Liberty mix of retail and dining, offices, and mixed-use tower at Transbay Center. Located
Market Lofts. residential programs, according to plans. at 542–550 Howard Street, the high-rise is
anticipated to potentially be the last
Further down the lakefront from Toronto, Along Chicago’s popular lakefront, a creative significant tower in the Transbay district.
Mississauga is set to be the site of a massive, plan was unveiled to bring 500 units to a Further south in Los Angeles, Park Fifth, a
37-tower megaproject, called The Square corner site just west of the city’s Lake Shore 24-story high-rise building, along with a
One District, which just received phase-one Drive. The proposed project, 640 West Irving seven-story mid-rise building called
approval and will unfold over multiple Park Road, would convert the multi-building Trademark, have reached completion in the
decades. The development is planned to campus of a former high school into 275 city’s downtown. Park Fifth offers 347
host 18,000 residential units, as well as office, residential units. A 23-story tower, which apartments, as well as a 360-degree-view
retail, and entertainment space over its 1.6 would replace the existing parking lot, would rooftop deck, an infinity pool, and other
million square meters of programming. add 220 senior living, assisted living, and amenities. It is located near the Pershing

Liberty Market Tower, Toronto. © Lifetime Developments / Mel Pearl Park Fifth, Los Angeles. © MacFarlane Partners

6 | Global News CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II


Toranomon Hills Business Tower, Tokyo. © Mori Building Co., Ltd. Kokusai Akasaka Building, Tokyo. © Terri Meyer Boake

Square Metro Station, in order to increase and a 90-residence apartment component, space and 288 apartments. In San José,
commuter convenience. slated for a 2024 opening. Costa Rica, the second tower in the Azenza
Towers residential complex has commenced
In Atlanta, a 46-story mixed-use tower is set Two residential complexes are making construction. It will be the same height as
to rise, potentially up to 168 meters, at 1138 headway in Guatemala City. Parque Mateo, the existing tower in the complex: 23 stories
Peachtree Street. If completed, the tower a planned three-tower complex, is part of a and 78 meters.
would feature 317 luxury apartments, as revitalization of the city’s Zone 7, and will
well as 3,000 square meters of retail space, deliver a total of 450 apartments in two-
and a nine-story parking deck. bedroom and three-bedroom configurations. Asia & Oceania
The four towers that comprise Céntrico, a
In Charlotte, North Carolina, 700–722 complex in the city’s Zone 5, will each reach In Tokyo, projects continue apace, as
North Smith Street is a 37-story residential 14 stories, and contain 497 apartments total Toranomon Hills Business Tower wraps up
tower coming to the fast-growing city. The between them. Construction will consist of construction. The 36-story tower is part of
project has been permitted to have up to four phases, with each one focusing on the the mixed-use Global Business Hub at
603 square meters of commercial space and completion of a tower. The project’s Toranomon Hills Complex, which is planned
350 condo or apartment units on the site. aesthetic was inspired by Europe’s urban to deliver five towers, some exceeding 50
landscape. In Zone 4, Granat, a mixed-use, stories. Over in Asakusa, a 1970s Tokyo icon,
A site in the Symphony Park District of Las 16-story building is topped out, and set for a the 26-story Kokusai Akasaka Building is to
Vegas could host a 20-story residential completion in 2020. The tower, which
tower by 2024. The City Council granted features greenery on its exterior, has two
approval to the project’s developer to commercial levels, four levels of offices, one THEY SAID
proceed with building 400 units in the boutique hotel story, and nine stories


downtown area at 600–798 West of apartments.
Miracles and dreams can


Symphony Park Avenue.
An environmental impact study was become real.
In another metro region with a growing submitted to the Panama Ministry of
high-rise living market, Frisco, Texas, part of Environment for a planned development in Helmut Jahn, Principal, JAHN.
Letter to Illinois Governor J.B. Pritzker to
the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the new the San Francisco district of Panama City.
save the Thompson Center, Chicago,
19-hectare Gate development will contain The two-tower, mixed-use complex, called from demolition.
Gate Tower with a 231-room luxury hotel Le Parc Residences, will have commercial

CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II Global News | 7


Case Study: Trinity, Paris

Bridging Communities, Building Serendipity


Abstract
The Trinity tower, located in the Paris La Défense business district, is a 32-story,
140-meter tower, whose most outstanding feature is its construction upon a
concrete slab, which itself is suspended above a seven-lane road, a first in France.
A major feat of civil engineering, the slab is planted, providing 3,500 square
meters of landscaped public space, linking the previously disconnected
Jean-Luc Crochon neighborhoods of the CNIT (National Center of Industries and Techniques) and
Coupole-Regnault: a concrete solution for enhancing the quality of life of its users
Author
Jean-Luc Crochon, Partner
on an urban scale. Furthermore, Trinity is La Défense’s first tower to develop an
Cro&Co Architecture offset core, yielding a “heart of life,” with exterior glass-walled elevators running
13 rue Gracieuse
75005 Paris along the façade. Diverging from the traditional office building format, Trinity is a
France
t: +33 1 5543 3131
tower conceived to facilitate open interaction with its environment, and
e: ebieber@croandco.archi
croandco.archi
promotes a new way of working.
Keywords: High-Rise, Office, Urban Design, Social Engineering, Structural Engineering
Jean-Luc Crochon was born in Paris, where he also
graduated from the École Nationale Supérieure des
Beaux-Arts. He quickly founded his own agency,
whilst also working as consultant architect for RFR Introduction separate pedestrian from vehicular flows, so
Peter Rice. In 1998, he created a joint agency with
Cuno Brullmann. For over six years, they worked on as to create a more functional city, inspired by
high-prestige projects, such as the restructuring of In 2019, Paris’ La Défense ranked fourth Le Corbusier’s Plan Voisin, La Défense has
the Centre of New Industries and Technologies (CNIT)
at La Défense, and the extension of the hospital Foch among the most attractive business districts overcome and reconstituted the
in Suresnes. The agency continues its development worldwide, after the City of London, Midtown morphological constraint of its raised plinth,
on different projects, research buildings, housing,
offices and academic buildings. In 2018 Crochon New York, and Marunouchi in Tokyo which once made it difficult for users to
set up CroMe Studio, another architecture studio (Lhermitte et al. 2017). Built on an artificial understand and navigate (see Figure 1).
dedicated to international projects, with Nayla
Mecattaf. Crochon is a member of the Board of slab 60 years ago on the western edge of
Directors of the Architecture et Maîtres d’Ouvrage Paris, La Défense, which had once benefited It has been a goal of the developer to make
(AMO) and a member of the Architectes Français à
L’Export (AFEX). from cheap land, must today reinvent its La Défense more urbane and more human-
model. Originally designed to vertically scaled. Over the last 10 years, several
projects have been launched to sew the
a Centre of New Industries and Technologies (CNIT)
j
circular boulevard around the La Défense
b Grande Arche de la Défense
c Laslab more
Défense tightly
Metro Stationtogether, creating a real
d Les Quatrecontinuity
urban Temps Department
that Store
extends beyond La
i e Notre-Dame de Pentecôte Church
Grande
f Tour Areva Arche, reinventing the office park,
and
g Tour especially,
Total Coupole infusing the district with
h Trinity
new uses.
i Tour Sequoia
j Avenue de la Division Leclerc

h
a g
b
f
a Centre of New Industries and Technologies (CNIT)
j b Grande Arche de la Défense
e c La Défense Metro Station
c d Les Quatre Temps Department Store
i e Notre-Dame de Pentecôte Church
f Tour Areva
g Tour Total Coupole
h Trinity
i Tour Sequoia
j Avenue de la Division Leclerc
d
Figure 1. Site plan showing the location of Trinity Tower and its immediate neighbors.

h
12 | Case Study: Trinity, Paris a g CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II
b
f
At the base of the new, ultra-modern office
towers are restaurants, bars, shops and
public spaces that have the potential to
transform La Défense into a 24-hour-a-day
district, a destination for white-collar
workers and all Parisians, on weekdays but
also on weekends.

If it is to become more urban and claim its


rightful place as a desirable destination in
“Le Grand Paris,” La Défense must not lose
sight of its goal to become the top European
business center. Its particularly low office
vacancy rate reflects the dynamism of the
French business center.

Trinity was designed as a comprehensive


and contextual urban project for La
Défense (see Figure 2). In order to
successfully integrate into an atypical site,
it combines three major axes in a single
construction program: the erection of a
building, the creation of major urban link,
and a large-scale intervention to enclose
highways. In other words, Trinity is at once a
work of architecture and urbanism, with
public benefits.

An Urban Project

Trinity was designed for a narrow site and a


need to span a highway, but also for its
immediate surroundings, which include
several architectural icons: the CNIT and Tour
Areva, smaller buildings such as Notre-Dame
de la Pentecôte Church, and residential
buildings. The tower was sculpted to slip into
this dense urban context, keeping a
27-meter minimum distance from Tour
Areva, while conserving views and
perspectives for its neighbors, notably
between Tour Total Coupole and the CNIT.
Continuous exchange with the
neighborhood via public consultation
meetings throughout development
enabled the project to mature and meet
residents’ expectations.

The concrete slab built over the highway


provides real solutions for creating urban Figure 2. Trinity was a significant site-repair project, resolving grade changes for pedestrians and bridging over an
connections and enhancing the quality of active highway. © Laurent Zylberman

CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II Case Study: Trinity, Paris | 13


Façades

Improving the Energy Efficiency of a


Mediterranean High-Rise Envelope
Abstract
Authors
Tanya Saroglou, Post-Doctorate Researcher
This study focuses on the building envelope as the mediator between interior and
Isaac A. Meir, Professor exterior climatic conditions, examining its influence on energy loads. The
Structural Engineering Department
Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research parameters are: climatic conditions of the building’s location (Mediterranean
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Sede Boqer Campus climate), the thermal properties of the building envelope, and the effect of building
Midreshet Ben-Gurion 84990, Israel
t: +972 5 0252 3674; f: +972.8.6596881
height, on a high-rise office building with increased internal heat gains. The
e: sakis@bgu.ac.il proposed envelope under study is a glazed curtain wall design, reflecting current
in.bgu.ac.il
high-rise architectural tendencies. Simulation results are in favour of a double-skin
Theodoros Theodosiou, Associate Professor
Laboratory of Building Construction & Building envelope design, with double low-e glazing as the exterior layer, and single-layer
Physics, School of Civil Engineering
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
clear glazing on the interior, with two exterior windows that open and close in
Building E10, University Campus relation to building height, exterior environmental conditions and interior thermal
54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
t: +30 2310 995 818 comfort. The outcome is a dynamic building envelope that adapts and performs in
e: tgt@civil.auth.gr
auth.gr/en/civil relation to the above parameters.

Tanya Saroglou, PhD is a qualified architect in


Keywords: Climatic Response, Envelope, High-Rise, Mediterranean Climate, Thermal Performance
the UK (ARB) and Greece (TEE), with experience in
architectural design and project management. In
2003 she completed her diploma in architecture
at Kingston University. In 2006, she was awarded
Introduction translated into increased energy loads, in
the Professional Practice and Management in comparison with low-rise construction
Architecture from the Bartlett, University College
London, and in 2013 an MSc in Sustainable Design
Although the potential of tall buildings to (Cook, Browning & Garvin 2013; Leung & Ray
from the University of Edinburgh. She has just improve the overall sustainability of urban 2013). As a result, their impact on the urban
completed her PhD studies at Ben-Gurion in Israel,
via a thesis titled: “Design Strategies Towards More
life is strong, further research and scale is much more energy-intensive than all
Energy-Efficient High-Rise Buildings,” and continues experimentation is needed, in order for this other construction. According to the United
the research as a post-doctorate student. Her
research so far has yielded three Q1 peer reviewed
typology to comply with current and Nations Environmental Program - Sustainable
papers, and four papers published in peer-reviewed near-future regulations on embodied carbon Buildings and Climate Initiative (UNEP-SBCI),
conference proceedings.
and carbon emissions (EU 2010; Voss, Musall the emissions produced from the
Isaac A. Meir, PhD is affiliated with the Desert & Lichtme 2011; NYC 2015). Additionally, operational energy (OE) of buildings, mainly
Architecture & Urban Planning Unit (since 1986),
and Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of
there is a significant gap between the used for heating, cooling and lighting, form
Engineering Sciences (since 2018) at Ben-Gurion practice of high-rise development the largest source of building-related
University. Meir participates in the design of
environmentally conscious, experimental projects
worldwide, and the expertise gained on how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
in deserts. He is a consultant to Israel’s ministries to make these buildings more sustainable (approximately 80–90 percent), in relation to
of Construction and Housing, Energy, Water and
Infrastructures, the Israel Land Administration,
and energy-efficient (Donnolo, Galatro & the emissions produced by the embodied
and the Standards Institute of Israel. Meir heads Janes 2014; Simmonds 2015). energy (EE), used in the process of raw
multidisciplinary teams focusing on green
technologies and sustainable development. Research
material extraction and processing (La Roche
interests include sustainable design in arid zones; Tel Aviv, Israel, the focus of this study, has 2012). In addition, the building sector today
post-occupancy evaluation; indoor environment
quality; life cycle energy analysis; zero-energy
experienced vibrant high-rise activity. In is the most energy-intensive sector,
settlements; energy and tall buildings. He is the 2011, the city’s Planning and Construction accounting for almost 50 percent of GHG
recipient of the Israel Green Building Council Award
for Leadership in Green Building (2016).
Committee issued the 2025 City Master Plan, emissions. So, in order to reduce these, it
setting new guidelines allowing further becomes crucial to enhance the energy
Theodore Theodosiou, PhD is an associate professor
at the Laboratory of Building Construction & Building
skyrise development (Fox 2011) (see Figure efficiency of buildings by reducing the OE.
Physics in the Civil Engineering Department of the 1). This study considers high-rise buildings as
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. His research
interests include building energy efficiency, building
an urban phenomenon closely related to city This study looks at improving the energy
physics, energy simulation of buildings, low-, living, and studies design strategies for efficiency of high-rise buildings, by focusing
passive- and near-zero-energy buildings. He has
participated in various research programs, more than
advancing their energy efficiency. on the initial concept design stages, and
80 national and international conferences, published more specifically on the design of the
chapters in scientific books, has published 35 papers
in peer-reviewed scientific journals with more than
An important consideration of high-rise building envelope, considered as a passive
870 references. buildings is their vast scale, which is also design strategy that has the potential of

20 | Façades CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II


reducing energy loads, by acting as a
mediator between indoor and outdoor
conditions (Cheung, Fuller & Luther 2005;
Saroglou et al. 2017). A vital consideration in
this relationship is the climatic conditions of
the building’s location. So, by designing a
climatically responsive building envelope
that interacts appropriately with the ambient
climatic conditions, it is possible to take
advantage of passive heating and cooling
techniques, and reduce the operational
energy, i.e., heating and cooling (Yik 2005;
Choi, Cho & Kim 2012).

However, current architectural tendencies,


initiated from the mid-20th century onwards,
especially prominent in high-rise buildings,
portray an increased transparency of the
envelope, and lightness of the structure,
resulting in high cooling and heating energy
loads (Allard & Santamouris 1998). On the
other hand, during the last few years,
double-skin façades (DSFs) have gained
popularity over single-skin curtain walls, as a
more advanced envelope scenario that leads
to improvements of the building’s energy
performance (Wood & Salib 2013). But,
despite the number of built DSF built
projects, and the numbers of DSF studies
conducted, design guidelines on DSF
energy performance are lacking, Figure 1. Tel Aviv skyline. © Antony Wood
especially in relation to local climate (Joe et
al. 2014; Ahmed et al. 2015; Ghaffarianhoseini
W/m2 ºC
et al. 2016). taking place in hot ones (Hamza 2008; % m/s
450 30
Pomponi et al. 2016; Halawa et al. 2018).
This paper studies the performance of a 400
25
building envelope for a high-rise reference 350

model at different heights, in the hot and Design Considerations for High-Rise 300 20
humid climate of Tel Aviv. The Tel Aviv Energy Efficiency 250
climate (in terms of dry-bulb temperature, 15
200
relative humidity, wind speed, andW/m wind
2 The Effect of Height on High-Rise ºC
% m/s 150 10
direction) is shown in Figure 2. Heating and Energy Loads
450 30
cooling load comparisons are made by A building interacts with the outdoors 100
5
gradually upgrading the thermal400 properties through the envelope (walls, roof, windows) 50
of the building envelope for improving generally, and specifically with the thermal 25 0 0
350
energy efficiency. Studies in hot climates are properties of the materials that make up the 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Months of the Year
of special importance, due to the300increased building envelope. When estimating the 20
Relative Humidity (%)
solar gains entering a glass façade, energy loads of a high-rise building, it
Wind Direction (deg)
250 In
intensifying the cooling requirements. becomes important to take into Global Solar Radiation Rate per Area (W/m2)
15
addition, most research on double-skin
200
consideration the changing microclimate Dry-bulb Temperature (ºC)
envelopes, the focus of this study, has with height, and how this affects the Wind Speed (m/s)

predominantly been undertaken150 in cold and materials of the building envelope, through 10 Figure 2. Tel Aviv annual climatic data.
temperate climates, with limited research heat exchange with the ambient air by Source: EnergyPlus
100
5
50
CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II Façades | 21
0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Codes and Regulations

Chicago Building Code Modernization:


Comparison of Prototype Building Designs
Abstract
This research paper, an abridged version of a white paper produced by the Chicago
Chapter of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), reviews the
potential impact of changes to the city’s building code as it is adapted to the
International Building Code standard. Its main objective is to uncover the effect of
IBC loading standards on the structural designs of a range of taller buildings in
John Viise Matthew Cummins Chicago that may utilize prescriptive code design methodology, to assess the cost
implications of a change in loading standards, and to assess the effect of IBC’s
seismic loading requirements on representative local building projects.
Keywords: Chicago Building Code, International Building Code, Structural Engineering,
Tall Buildings

Background building gets taller and the exposure


Alberto Guarise Daniel Koch category increases (as specified by ASCE 7
For many years, local design and Exposure Category B to D), wind loads can
Authors construction industries understood there significantly increase. Additionally, the IBC
John Viise, Managing Principal was a need to better align Chicago’s Building requires that designs consider seismic
Matthew Cummins, Project Engineer
Alberto Guarise, Senior Project Engineer
Code (CBC) with more modern codes and loading, so heavier low-rise buildings may
Daniel Koch, Project Engineer standards used throughout the US. Through also see an increase in demand from new
DeSimone Consulting Engineers
150 North Wacker Drive, Suite 2660
collaboration with many departments within code loading.
Chicago IL 60606 the City of Chicago, the Mayor’s Office, and
United States
t: +1 312 493 4100
more than 150 volunteer technical experts The study presented in this paper attempts
e: john.viise@de-simone.com and industry leaders, the Chicago Building to answer the following questions:
de-simone.com
Code was comprehensively revised in 2019.
The revised structural requirements are • How does the IBC loading affect the
John Viise is the Managing Principal of
DeSimone’s Chicago office. For over 25 years, Viise based upon the International Building Code structural designs of a range of taller
has been providing structural services for high-rise
(IBC)—the modern national standard, while buildings in Chicago that may utilize
and special-use structures throughout the world.
He is at the forefront of technical design, through maintaining and introducing special prescriptive code design methodology?
active participation in industry research and
Chicago-specific provisions. • How significant is the impact to
knowledge sharing.
structural cost?
Matthew Cummins currently serves as a Project
As part of the new code adoption process, • How does seismic loading impact these
Engineer in DeSimone’s Chicago office where he
actively supports the firms Structural Engineering projects filed between 1 December 2019 and sample building designs?
and Forensics practices. Cummins has over seven
1 August 2020 will have the option of using a
years of experience in structural analysis, design,
detailing and construction administration on design methodology based on the original In order to gain insight into these questions,
numerous new building and retrofit projects.
(pre-2019) CBC or the new 2019 CBC, which three prototype buildings were analyzed and
Alberto Guarise currently serves as a Senior Project references the 2018 IBC. After 1 August 2020, designed according to both CBC and IBC.
Engineer in DeSimone’s Chicago office. Guarise has
all new designs submitted for approval will The prototype buildings considered do not
over eight years of experience providing design
and construction phase services in two major need to conform to the new 2019 CBC. represent the full range of Chicago’s building
metropolitan areas: New York and Chicago, including
stock, but are representative of the building
high-rise and medium-rise office, residential
developments, and sports arenas. types that are less than 400 feet (122 meters)
Study Objective and Scope tall, and as a result can utilize prescriptive
Daniel Koch currently serves as a Project Engineer
in DeSimone’s Chicago office where he actively code provisions for design (i.e., no wind
supports the firms Structural Engineering and
Structural engineers familiar with the CBC tunnel testing). Additionally, a low-rise
Forensics practices. His project experience includes:
commercial, education, energy, and government and IBC recognize that design lateral forces reinforced concrete office building is also
facilities design.
developed by the two codes can vary considered for study, since short and
significantly. Low-rise buildings may realize a heavier buildings are more susceptible to
reduction in wind loads with the IBC, but as a seismic loading.

28 | Codes and Regulations CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II


The three prototype buildings examined as


part of this research paper are shown in
figures 1 and 2 and a detailed description of
each is provided below.
The Chicago Wind Climate model suggests
that wind loading from the easterly winds is
Prototype Building 1 expected to be significantly lower than
Prototype Building 1 is a residential tower
with a 15-foot, 8-inch (4.8-meter) ground
floor lobby and 36 floors at a 10-foot, 8-inch
(3.3-meter) floor-to-floor height. The building
prevailing strong winds from south and west.

roof has an elevation of 399 feet, 8 inches on a 30-foot (9.1-meter) grid in the inches (914 millimeters) deep and match the
(121.8 meters) (see Figure 1), just below longitudinal direction with 45-foot thickness of the shear walls. This corresponds
the 400-foot (121.9-meter) threshold (13.7-meter) lease spans on each side of an to a door rough opening height of 11 feet
requirement for wind tunnel testing per IBC. interior 40-foot (12.2-meter) bay (see Figure (3,353 millimeters). Widths used for the door
2). The floor system consists of 3-1/4-inch rough openings are 8 feet (2,438 millimeters).
The floor plate is 100 feet (30.5 meters) (83-millimeter) lightweight concrete on a
square, with columns around the perimeter 3-inch (76.20-millimeter) metal deck
spaced at 30 feet (9.1 meters) on center (see supported by structural steel infill framing at Prototype Building 3
Figure 2). Elevated floors are 8-inch- 15 feet (4.6 meters) on center. The lateral
(203-millimeter)-thick post-tensioned system consists of a concrete bearing Prototype Building 3 is an office building with
concrete slabs. The lateral system consists of shear-wall two-bay core, centered in the a 20-foot- (6.1-meter)-high ground floor lobby
a concrete bearing shear wall core with building with overall dimensions of 60 by 40 and 9 floors at a 14-foot (4.3-meter) floor-to-
dimensions of 44 feet, 9 inches (13.6 meters) feet (18.3 by 12.2 meters). Concrete link floor height. The building roof has an elevation
and 30 feet (9.1 meters). The core has web beams at the core wall door openings are 36 of 146 feet (44.5 meters) (see Figure 1).
walls at the elevator and stairs that are 10
inches (254 millimeters) thick and are
included in the analysis model. Concrete link
beams at the core wall door rough openings
are 29 inches (737 millimeters) deep and
match the thickness of the shear walls. This
corresponds to a door opening height of 8
feet, 3 inches (2,514 millimeters). Widths used
for the door rough openings are 4 feet (1,219
millimeters) for single doors, and 8 feet
(2,438 millimeters) for double doors.

Prototype Building 2

Prototype Building 2 is an office building


with a 20-foot (6.1-meter) ground floor lobby
and 19 floors at a 14-foot (4.3-meter) floor-to-
floor height. The building roof has an
elevation of 286 feet (87.2 meters) (see Figure
1). An exterior windscreen extends an
additional 14 feet (4.3 meters) forming a
Prototype 1 Prototype 2 Prototype 3
mechanical penthouse for a total building
37-story Residential Tower 20-story Office Building 10-story Office Building
height of 300 feet (91.4 meters) above grade. 400 feet (121.9 meters) tall 286 feet (87.2 meters) tall 160 feet (48.8 meters) tall
100 x 100 feet 180 x 130 feet 150 x 130 feet
(30.5 x 30.5 meters) (54.9 x 39.6 meters) (45.7 x 39.6 meters)
The floor plate is 180 feet by 130 feet (54.9
meters by 39.6 meters). Columns are spaced Figure 1. Isometric view of the prototype buildings.

CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II Codes and Regulations | 29


CTBUH Special Report: Tall + Urban Innovation

2020 Tall + Urban Innovation: Dominant Trends


Abstract
Providing a global overview of tall building development, design and construction, the CTBUH Awards Program annually
survey projects, technologies, and approaches currently reshaping skylines and urban spaces. As much as skyscrapers are
celebrated for their iconic presence on the skyline, the projects showcased here, all recipients of a CTBUH Award of Excellence in
the 2020 program, attest to the growing investment the tall building industry has made in city-making. The singular focus on
skyline presence and attribution to an individual architect or financial mastermind has served the mythology of the skyscraper
well, but the reality is something altogether different.
Keywords: Best Tall Buildings, CTBUH Awards, Innovation, Sustainability, Urban Habitat

In this paper, innovations in the constituent Urban Allure In Miami’s downtown, long known for its
disciplines that bring tall buildings to life, and arts, shopping and dining, One Thousand
even extend their lives— architecture, New design-forward residential projects are Museum (Best Tall Building, 200–299 meters)
construction, renovation, the engineering of cropping up on dense urban corners all over dubbed the “Scorpion Tower” due to its
façades, fire & risk, geotechnical engineering, the world, some of them in neighborhoods exterior bracing that resembles an
interior space, MEP, and structural in major cities not typically known for their arthropod, makes a splash on the residential
engineering—are all explored. By diving into domestic offerings. But as demand for market with its futuristic façade.
such details, a comprehensive portrait of the uncompromising homes in downtown cores
tall building world emerges, and a number of continues to gather momentum, giving the The striking silhouette of OMNITURM (Best
trends, some summarized below, come into “suburban ideal” a run for its money, these Tall Building, 100–199 meters) brings new life
focus. Here, we gather together the projects projects boast lavish amenities, impeccably to a cluster of corporate headquarters in
that are most representative of the designed interiors, and sculptural, downtown Frankfurt. The slender and
dominant trends in, as well as the highest evocative morphology. rationally stacked tower is interrupted by
aspirations achieved by the tall building sculptural shift in its mid section, where its
industry in 2020. program changes to residential. The floor

One Thousand Museum, Miami. © Alëna Graff ARO, New York. © CetraRuddy Architecture DaiyaGate Ikebukuro, Tokyo. © NIKKEN SEKKEI LTD.

36 | CTBUH Special Report: Tall + Urban Innovation CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II
plates slide out in a spiralling movement,
creating terraces and overhangs for
enhanced city living.

A layered building skin with solar refracting


properties adds visual intrigue to ARO (Best
Tall Building, 200–299 meters), a slender,
residential tower in New York City’s theater
district. The building’s unconventional
shaping distributes unit size, mix, and
program from top to bottom, as well as
providing a generous suite of amenities.

Making Way

As urban environments continue to densify,


finding spacious, undeveloped sites on
Leeza SOHO, Beijing. © Cao Baiqiang 271 Spring Street, Melbourne. © ISPT Pty Ltd
which to build new vertical projects
becomes increasingly challenging without
costly demolitions that produce disruption
and debris. Then there is the matter of
pre-existing infrastructure or heritage
projects that are an indelible part of the
neighborhood, both of which may require
innovative workarounds, resulting in the
slotting of complex projects into
compact sites.

This is exemplified in dense Asian cities like


Tokyo, where projects such as DaiyaGate
Ikebukuro (Structural Engineering),
creatively use unconventional spaces. By
hovering over the tracks of the Seibu line, it
provides a connection between two sections
of the busy Ikebukuro Station, helping to
consolidate busy commuter flows for a more
streamlined experience, and stitching
together two sides of a divided InterContinental Shanghai Wonderland Hotel, Shanghai. © Shimao Group
neighborhood. Space is also particularly
tight in China’s capital city, where the two preserved buildings, and an the outskirts of the city gave it a completely
soaring, full-height atrium of Leeza SOHO archeological overlay—to build a new, blank slate, except for the pockmarked
(Best Tall Building, 200–299 meters) unites cantilevered office tower with façade screen canyon it had to transform into a resort. But
the tower’s two volumes, split diagonally by elements that reinterpret the heritage roof transform it did, using the quirks of the
a new underground rail line. geometry below. quarry to give the hotel a distinctive setting.
Further, it confronted a huge and nearly
In one of Melbourne’s historic precincts, In another example of turning spatial unprecedented obstacle to evacuation,
271 Spring Street (Best Tall Building, under quandaries into remarkable designs, literally turning “upside down” most of the
100 meters) deftly navigates around a bevy Shanghai’s InterContinental Shanghai conventions of tall building egress.
of site-specific challenges on its already Wonderland Hotel (Fire & Risk Engineering)
limited plot—underground rail loop tunnels didn’t have to contend with existing rail or In some cases, making way might mean
through the center of the site, an electricity utility lines; in fact it had a quite particular finding a method for removing defunct
sub-station, two high-voltage easements, problem: building into the side of quarry on infrastructure that is inhibiting useful

CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II CTBUH Special Report: Tall + Urban Innovation | 37
CTBUH Research Report

The Tallest 20 in 2020: Then and Now


Abstract
This research paper undertakes a review of the 2012 report by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, “Tallest 20 in
2020: Entering the Era of the Megatall,” assessing the accuracy of the predictions made at that time against the reality of the
present day. It reviews the development trajectory of CTBUH’s 2012 predicted and unanticipated 20 tallest buildings in the
world in the year 2020, and places the results in regional, industry and historical context.
Keywords: Development, Economics, World’s Tallest Building

In 2012, the CTBUH Journal published a crown, but construction had already begun its workers from the site until the dispute
research paper titled “Tallest 20 in 2020: Era when aviation authorities then intervened, could be settled (Sun 2019).
of the Megatall—The Projected World’s concerned that future flight paths around
Tallest 20 Skyscrapers in the Year 2020.” Tianhe International Airport would be Jeddah Tower, Jeddah
Though it was only eight years ago, the pace curtailed if towers in the city rose to that • Predicted 2020 rank in 2012: 1 (828 m)
of change in the tall building world at the height (see Figure 1). The compromise • Actual rank in 2020: n/a
time was such that 2020 seemed like a design, with a similar curved top but wider
distant lodestar in the future. The future, of proportions, will rise to 476 meters, knocking Jeddah Tower, which began construction in
course, has the inconvenient habit of Wuhan Greenland Center from a 2012– 2013 and was then called Kingdom Tower,
appearing in the present far too early for the predicted number 7 rank in 2020 and out of has experienced numerous delays and
comfort of most. Today, the CTBUH Research “megatall” status. If completed today, the still remains under construction in 2020. News
and Editorial teams review the projections under-construction building would be the reports peg a “topping out” by the end of
we made in 2012, the assumptions that world’s 23rd-tallest building.* It is currently 2020, but it is unclear when completion
guided them, and the roller-coaster reality of difficult to predict a final completion date, may finally happen (Gibbon 2020). If it were
what has come hence. however, due to the developer’s alleged completed now, and for some time in the
failure to make payments to the contractor. foreseeable future, it would become the
In October 2019, the contractor removed all World’s Tallest Building at more than
Prediction 1
“By 2020, we can expect that at least eight
megatall buildings (of 600 meters’ or greater
height) will exist worldwide.”

Reality
In the second quarter of 2020, there are
three megatall buildings in existence.
These are the Burj Khalifa, Dubai (828
meters); Shanghai Tower, Shanghai (632
meters); and Makkah Royal Clock Tower
Hotel (601 meters), Mecca (CTBUH
Skyscraper Center 2020).

What Happened?
Five of the eight megatall buildings
projected in 2012 to complete by 2020 did
not achieve that goal. Here are their stories:

Wuhan Greenland Center, Wuhan


• Predicted 2020 rank in 2012: 7 (606 m)
• Actual rank in 2020: n/a (476 m)*

The Wuhan Greenland Center had been Figure 1. Wuhan Greenland Center, Wuhan, was intended to be a “megatall” at 606 meters (left) but was cut down by
designed to rise to 606 meters with a curved aviation authorities, to 476 meters (right). © AS+GG (left); Baycrest (cc by-sa) (right)

44 | CTBUH Research Report CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II


1,000 meters (the exact height figure
remains undisclosed).

Seoul Light DMC Tower, Seoul


• Predicted 2020 rank in 2012: 4 (640 m)
• Actual rank in 2020: n/a

The predicted world’s fourth-tallest building


in 2020 was expected to reach 640 meters. In
2012, the contractor that had intended to
construct the building failed to pay for the
land plot, and the project was scrapped (Bae
2015). Discussions have been ongoing since
2015 to restart the project, potentially with a
shorter tower (Kim 2018).

Signature Tower, Jakarta


• Predicted 2020 rank in 2012: 4 (638 m)
• Actual rank in 2020: n/a*

The Signature Tower in Jakarta, proposed in


2009, at 638 meters, was anticipated in 2012
to become the world’s fifth-tallest building by
2020. However, multiple design changes and
failed geotechnical/hydrological tests caused
the first round of delays (Alexander 2014). The
project eventually received design approval
from local authorities in 2015, and approval Figure 2. Ping An Finance Center, Shenzhen–proposed in 2008 and originally set to rise 660 meters (left), it was
for construction in 2017 (Alexander 2015a, completed in 2017 at 599 meters (right), due to changes in aviation restrictions. © Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates (let);
2015b; Freycinetia & Puspa 2017). However, it Tim Griffith (right)
was still short some US$1.7 billion in funding,
and remains stalled (Dwijayanto 2018). Khalifa bin Zayed al-Nahyan provided Shenzhen Bao’an International Airport,
financial assistance to finish the project restricted its height to 600 meters,
This is not to imply that the road had been (Thomas 2010). It was declared the World’s maximum. The redesign completed the
smooth for the three megatalls that did Tallest Building by the Council in March 2010 building’s architectural expression with a
complete, however—or for that matter, for (CTBUH 2010). pyramidal crown, bringing its final height to
practically any of the buildings on the 2020 599 meters—and thus removing the
World’s Tallest List, then or now. Ping An Finance Center, Shenzhen classification of “megatall.”
• Predicted 2020 rank in 2012: 3 (660 m)
Burj Khalifa, Dubai • Actual rank in 2020: 4 (599 m) Shanghai Tower, Shanghai
• Predicted 2020 rank in 2012: 2 (828 m) • Predicted 2020 rank in 2012: 6 (632 m)
• Actual rank in 2020: 1 (828 m) Like its cousin in Wuhan, Ping An Finance • Actual rank in 2020: 2 (632 m)
Center received a “haircut” due to aviation
The Burj Khalifa, completed in 2010, became restrictions being imposed after the While Shanghai Tower didn’t break ground
the World’s Tallest Building at that time and buildings had been designed. The office until 29 November 2008, plans for a tower on
retains the title today. Its iconic status has building was originally intended to reach the Lujiazui financial district site emerged as
driven much development around its 660 meters by way of a spire at its top (see early as 1993, with a group of three towers;
periphery, delivering value above and Figure 2). During the design process, local Jin Mao Tower (1999) and Shanghai World
beyond the building itself. Its grand opening aviation authorities, concerned that a Financial Center (SWFC) (2008) comprising
was in January 2010, which coincided with a building of that height might impede the the two “sisters” of a “three sisters” tower plan.
name change from “Burj Dubai” after Sheik range of potential flight paths in and out of Shanghai Tower completed in 2015, but had

*
Buildings must be fully clad and ready for occupancy in order to qualify as “complete” by CTBUH criteria, and to be officially entered into height rankings.

CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II CTBUH Research Report | 45


Tall Buildings in Numbers

The Tallest 20 in 2020: Predictions vs. Reality


In the first edition of the 2012 Journal, CTBUH published a Tall Buildings in Numbers study titled Tallest 20 in 2020: Era of the Megatall—The
Projected World’s Tallest 20 Skyscrapers in the Year 2020. Now that we have arrived at the second edition of 2020, we look back on the fates of
each of the buildings predicted to be the tallest in existence this year—and those that actually did make the list. This report serves as a
companion to the research paper beginning on page 44, which provides more background. For an interactive version, and a link to the
original article, visit skyscrapercenter.com/tallest-in-2020.

The 20 Tallest Buildings in 2020


In this graphic, the 20 tallest buildings in 2020 are shown in the foreground, while the skyline that was originally predicted in 2012 is
shown in gray in the background.

1. Jeddah Tower (2012 Name: Kingdom Tower)


Jeddah, 1,000+ m

2. Burj Khalifa 5. Signature


Dubai Tower Jakarta
828 m Jakarta
3. Ping An Finance 638 m 8. Makkah Royal
Center 6. Shanghai
Clock Tower Hotel
Shenzhen Tower 7. Wuhan Makkah
660 m Shanghai Greenland
4. Seoul Light 601 m
632 m Center 9. Goldin Finance 117
DMC Tower
Wuhan Tianjin
Seoul
606 m 597 m
640 m
10. Lotte World
Tower
Seoul
555 m

1. Burj Khalifa 2. Shanghai 3. Makkah Royal 4. Ping An 5. Lotte World 6. One World =7. Guangzhou CTF =7. Tianjin CTF 9. CITIC 10. TAIPEI 101
Dubai Tower Clock Tower Finance Center Tower Trade Center Finance Centre Finance Centre Tower Taipei
828 m Shanghai Mecca Shenzhen Seoul New York City Guangzhou Tianjin Beijing 508 m
632 m 601 m 599 m 555 m 541 m 530 m 530 m 528 m

Three of the 20 buildings If each building had The Burj Khalifa


on the original 2012 list been constructed in began life as the “Grollo
were not completed as sequence, the Tallest Tower”—a 1990s
planned, due in part to 20 in 2020 would development concept,
aviation restrictions after the have taken 126 years originally proposed for
projects had already begun. to complete. Melbourne, Australia.

52 | Tall Building in Numbers CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II


What Happened
Key: # to the current
Completed, 2012rankPredicted
Under Tallest
Construction 20 Skyline?
Proposal

While the timeline below shows the progress of each building between 2012 and 2020, some buildings completed prior to 2012.
Key: # Completed, current rank Under Construction Proposal

1. Jeddah Tower (Kingdom Tower)


2. Burj Khalifa (2010) 1

1. Jeddah Tower (Kingdom3.Tower)


Ping An Finance Center Height changes from 660m to 599m 4
4. Seoul Light
2. Burj Khalifa (2010) 1 DMC Tower
5.
3. Ping An Finance CenterSignature Tower Jakarta Height changes from 660m to 599m 4
4. Seoul Light DMC Tower 6. Shanghai Tower 2

5. Signature Tower7.Jakarta
Wuhan Greenland Center Proposal height changes from 606m to 636m Height changes from 636m to 476m On hold

8. Makkah
6. Shanghai Tower Royal Clock Tower 3 2
9. Goldin Finance 117
7. Wuhan Greenland Center
On hold
Proposal height changes from 606m to 636m Height changes from 636m to 476m On hold
10. Lotte World Tower 5
8. Makkah Royal Clock Tower 3
11. Doha Convention Center Tower Never completed
9. Goldin Finance 117 On hold
12. One World Trade Center 6
10. Lotte World Tower 5
=13. Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre =7
11. Doha Convention Center Tower Never completed
(Chow Tai Fook Guangzhou)
12. One World Trade CenterCTF Finance Centre
=13. Tianjin 6
(Tianjin Chow Tai Fook Binhai Center)
=7
=13. Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre =7
(Chow Tai Fook Guangzhou)
15. Dalian Greenland Center On hold
=13. Tianjin CTF Finance Centre 16. Pentominium Tower On hold =7
(Tianjin Chow Tai Fook Binhai Center)
17. Busan Lotte Town Tower
15. Dalian Greenland Center On hold
18. TAIPEI 101 (2004) 10
16. Pentominium Tower On hold
19. Kaisa Feng Long Centre 500m proposal redesigned into a 250m building
17. Busan Lotte Town Tower
20. Shanghai World Financial Center (2008) 11
18. TAIPEI 101 (2004) 10
19. Kaisa Feng Long Centre 2012 2013 redesigned into
500m proposal 2014
a 250m building 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020

20. Shanghai World Financial Center (2008) 11


11. Doha Convention =13. Guangzhou CTF
Center and Tower2012 2013Finance Centre
2014 2015 15. Dalian Greenland 2017
2016 2018 2019 2020
Doha (2012 Name: Center
=13. Tianjin CTF 17. Busan Lotte 19. Kaisa Feng
551 m Chow Tai Fook Dalian
Finance Centre Town Tower Long Centre
Guangzhou) 518 m
12. One World (2012 Name: Busan Shenzhen
Guangzhou 510 m 500 m
Trade Center Tianjin Chow
530 m 16. Pentominium
New York City Tai Fook Binhai 18. TAIPEI 101 20. Shanghai World
Dubai
541 m Center), Tianjin Taipei Financial Center
516 m
530 m 508 m Shanghai
492 m

11. Shanghai World 12. International 13. Lakhta 14. Vincom 15. Changsha IFS =16. Petronas Twin 18. Suzhou IFS 19. Zifeng 20. The Exchange
Financial Center Commerce Centre Center Landmark 81 Tower T1 Towers 1 & 2 Suzhou Tower 106
Shanghai Hong Kong St. Petersburg Ho Chi Minh City Changsha Kuala Lumpur 450 m Nanjing Kuala Lumpur
492 m 484 m 462 m 461 m 452 m 452 m 450 m 445 m

In 2012, South Korea was


The sum of heights of the

Δ 1,501
predicted to have three of the The Goldin Finance
actual 20 Tallest Buildings
world’s tallest buildings by 2020. 117 tower was
in 2020 is 10,452 meters,
Instead it has only one—but modeled after a
Lotte World Tower, Seoul, is walking stick. meters compared to 11,953 for
the 2012 projection.
the world’s fifth-tallest building.

CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II Tall Building in Numbers | 53


Talking Tall: Walter Hughes

High-Rise “Vertiports” and Other Near-Future Visions


For several years, Dallas-based architecture firm Humphreys & Partners has been
involved in numerous forward-looking design projects that anticipate the
increasing presence, if not ubiquity, of manned and autonomous flying vehicles,
such as drones and “air taxis.” These include a technologically advanced high-rise
called “Pier 2” as well as a “skyport” for Uber Elevate, the ride-sharing company’s
air-taxi venture. Walter Hughes, Chief Innovation Officer at Humphreys, spoke with
Walter Hughes Daniel Safarik about the firm’s future high-rise visions.
Interviewee
How did your firm become interested and about 1 percent per month. These were
Walter Hughes, Chief Innovation Officer/
Vice President involved in architecture around flying taxis conventional truck deliveries, of course, but
Humphreys & Partners Architects and drones? then we saw that Amazon and others were
5339 Alpha Road
Suite 300 We started looking at that many years ago. developing drone delivery, and realized this
Dallas, TX 75240 We did a building in Dubai in the early 2000s, was something we needed to look into.
United States
t: +1 972 701 9636 and placed some landing structures on it
f: +1 972 701 9639 without thinking too much about it. But So, in 2016 we started planning for it. In
e: kay@humphreys.com
humphreys.com then, in 2016, we did the first “apartment of 2018, we did the apartment building Pier 2 in
the future.” For that project, we not only had New York as a speculation, and it had the
Walter Hughes possesses over 27 years of flying taxis or electric vertical-takeoff-and- landing pads and everything else more
experience in the architectural and planning
field, bringing a wide range of design knowledge landing vehicles (eVTOLs), but also drone sorted out (see Figure 1). Both manned flying
and insight to Humphreys & Partners. Currently, deliveries. We thought, “how would it change vehicles and drone deliveries were taken into
he serves as Chief Innovation Officer, where he
leads a team of architectural and 3D experts to tall buildings when drones start delivering account. That got noticed, and we started
identify, evaluate, and assess the future potential packages?” We had already started to see the growing our drone-based designs, and that
of new technologies, designs, and processes. He
consistently demonstrates a unique ability to impact of the huge growth of package led us to being invited to a large competition
bridge the understanding between conceptual deliveries in our projects, which would organized by Uber to design “mega-skyports.”
ideas and real architectural form, producing
revolutionary solutions and forward-thinking typically have a small storage space inside These were to be structures able to handle
designs used and lauded worldwide. the leasing area, that were becoming 1,000 takeoffs and landings per hour, on a
overwhelmed daily due to volume growth of space of 3 acres (1.2 hectares). We were
selected as one of the four finalists and
invited to present our concept at Uber
Elevate in Los Angeles in May 2018—that’s
when we really started getting into it (see
Figure 2). We got all the regulations, models
and requirements, so we really learned about
what was going on and what needed to
happen. We learned what we, as a firm,
would need to do to be ready for such a
development. Uber ran the competition
again in 2019, and we were again selected to
present at Uber Elevate 2019 in
Washington, DC.

Is this entirely speculative, or are you


hearing from your client base that they
want to have high-rises developed that
incorporate provisions for VTOL vehicles
and drones?
I think there’s a lot of curiosity and people are
asking about it. Most people I talk to seem
skeptical about the whole thing, and they
Figure 1. Pier 2, a speculative high-rise project set in lower Manhattan, combines numerous drone- and flying-vehicle- don’t realize that it’s something that’s going
related facilities. © Humphreys & Partners

54 | Talking Tall: Walter Hughes CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II


to hit us in the next 10 to 15 years. We have
not built any building yet with landing
capabilities for drones in the sense that Uber
is planning on doing. We have heliports, and
similar structures, but there are still a lot of
issues to overcome before developers start
planning to have them in their buildings.
Everybody’s asking about them, but they’re
not building them. There’s a lot of “waiting
and seeing.”

Does that have more to do with the flying


technology or the buildings?
The technology, for the most part, is there
already. The biggest issue is regulation,
which one of the biggest hurdles to these
machines becoming an everyday part of
your life. Regulating these vehicles is a very
complex issue that falls under the jurisdiction
of several agencies—and rightly so; safety is
priority number one. The other issue is
affordability. The dollars per mile are coming
down every year, but they’re still
noncompetitive at this point. Drone Figure 2. Volary is a “skyport” designed for Uber Elevate, the ride-hailing company’s aviation division.
© Humphreys & Partners
deliveries are strictly regulated, and we have
provided landing pads for them in some
cases, but that is not as cost-intensive as add the cost of a pilot to operate the vehicle, every time you land. You have to have one
building a platform that can handle 150 then the cost goes up exponentially, through platform for charging and another for active
flights an hour, and not only that—it also the roof. At this point, the population isn’t takeoffs and landings.
needs to move several hundred people an ready yet for flying in an electrically powered,
hour through a building and connect to all automatically piloted vehicle. Public On the autonomous side, you have the issue
other urban mobility systems, including acceptance is not there yet. It might be a few of cyber security and the threat of someone
traditional modes. years before people get into one of those. taking control of these vehicles, of which
Initially, in the first few years we will see thousands could be flying through the city’s
So, there are drones delivering packages to eVTOLs that are flown by highly trained airspace. The technology for unmanned
your buildings, but not people? pilots, transporting four or five people, which flying vehicles is ready—it’s just everything
Correct. While drones delivering people will is outrageous in terms of cost. This is else around it that’s not. So, yes, packages are
take a few more years to become a reality, compounded by the fact that there is already starting to be delivered by drones, but not
package delivery via either surface or air is a pilot shortage in the aviation industry, people, just yet.
already here. There are several companies certifications need to be issued, and
working on this, including UPS, Wing (an coordination with air traffic control needs to What are the accommodations you
offshoot of Google’s parent company be undertaken. have made for package deliveries? Are
Alphabet), Amazon, and Uber. Some of them there specialized trays or landing pavilions
have recently received clearance from the And it is more complicated to design for the for drones?
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in newer vehicles than with traditional The answer varies depending on building
certain parts of the United States. helicopters and helipads, because the types, but essentially, they all have a few
current battery endurance for eVTOLs is not things in common. They all need to handle
There is more difficulty around carrying where we would like it to be. They have to be everything from traditional online packages,
passengers to and from tall buildings. Safety recharged fairly frequently. It’s not like you to groceries and dry cleaning on a daily basis.
and regulations are prime concerns, but cost can charge an eVTOL and take it out in the We start by providing a drone landing pad,
is an issue as well. These vehicles that are morning and fly the whole day—they hold a meeting certain regulations regarding
being developed right now have the charge for less than an hour on average. clearances, etc. This could be on-grade or
capacity for four or five passengers. If you Essentially this means you have to charge high up on the building. In tall buildings,

CTBUH Journal | 2020 Issue II Talking Tall: Walter Hughes | 55


About the Council
The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat
(CTBUH) is the world’s leading resource for
professionals focused on the inception, design,
construction, and operation of tall buildings and
future cities. Founded in 1969 and headquartered
at Chicago’s historic Monroe Building, the CTBUH
is a not-for-profit organization with an Asia
Headquaters office at Tongji University, Shanghai,
a Research Office at Iuav University, Venice, Italy,
and an Academic Office at the Illinois Institute of
Technology, Chicago. CTBUH facilitates the exchange
of the latest knowledge available on tall buildings
around the world through publications, research,
events, working groups, web resources, and its
extensive network of international representatives.
The Council’s research department is spearheading
the investigation of the next generation of tall
buildings by aiding original research on sustainability
and key development issues. The Council’s free
database on tall buildings, The Skyscraper Center, is
updated daily with detailed information, images,
data, and news. The CTBUH also developed the
international standards for measuring tall building
height and is recognized as the arbiter for bestowing
such designations as “The World’s Tallest Building.”

CTBUH Headquarters
104 South Michigan Avenue, Suite 620
Chicago, IL 60603, USA
Phone: +1 312 283 5599
Email: info@ctbuh.org
www.ctbuh.org
www.skyscrapercenter.com

CTBUH Asia Headquarters


College of Architecture and Urban
Planning (CAUP)
Tongji University
1239 Si Ping Road, Yangpu District
Shanghai 200092, China
Phone: +86 21 65982972
Email: china@ctbuh.org

CTBUH Research Office


Iuav University of Venice
Dorsoduro 2006
30123 Venice, Italy
Phone: +39 041 257 1276
Email: research@ctbuh.org

CTBUH Academic Office


S. R. Crown Hall
Illinois Institute of Technology
3360 South State Street
Chicago, IL 60616
Phone: +1 312 283 5646
Email: academic@ctbuh.org

ISSN: 1946 - 1186