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SL Practice for Exp Logs Key.pdf

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2 − log3 (x + 7) = log 1 2x .

3

Markscheme

log3 ( x+7

9

) = log3 2x1 M1M1A1

Note: Award M1 for changing to single base, M1 for incorporating the 2 into a log and A1 for a correct equation with maximum one

log expression each side.

x + 7 = 18x M1

7

x= 17

A1

[5 marks]

Examiners report

Some good solutions to this question and few candidates failed to earn marks on the question. Many were able to change the base of

the logs, and many were able to deal with the 2, but of those who managed both, poor algebraic skills were often evident. Many

students attempted to change the base into base 10, resulting in some complicated algebra, few of which managed to complete

successfully.

2.

Let [5 marks]

f(x) = ln x . The graph of f is transformed into the graph of the function g by a translation of

3

( ), followed by a reflection in the x-axis. Find an expression for

−2

g(x), giving your answer as a single logarithm.

Markscheme

h(x) = f(x − 3) − 2 = ln(x − 3) − 2 (M1)(A1)

g(x) = −h(x) = 2 − ln(x − 3) M1

Note: Award M1 only if it is clear the effect of the reflection in the x-axis:

the expression is correct OR

there is a change of signs of the previous expression OR

there’s a graph or an explanation making it explicit

= ln e2 − ln(x − 3) M1

)

e 2

= ln( x−3 A1

[5 marks]

Examiners report

This question was well attempted but many candidates could have scored better had they written down all the steps to obtain the final

expression. In some cases, as the final expression was incorrect and the middle steps were missing, candidates scored just 1 mark.

That could be a consequence of a small mistake, but the lack of working prevented them from scoring at least all method marks.

Some candidates performed the transformations well but were not able to use logarithms properties to transform the answer and give it

as a single logarithm.

[5 marks]

3. Write

Markscheme

ln(x2 − 1) − ln (x + 1)2 + ln x(x + 1) (A1)

x(x2 −1)(x+1)

= ln (M1)A1

(x+1) 2

x(x+1)(x−1)(x+1)

= ln (A1)

(x+1) 2

[5 marks]

Examiners report

There were fewer correct solutions to this question than might be expected. A significant number of students managed to combine the

terms to form one logarithm, but rather than factorising, then expanded the brackets, which left them unable to gain an answer in its

simplest form.

4. [5 marks]

Solve the equation

4x−1 = 2x + 8.

Markscheme

22x−2 = 2x + 8 (M1)

1 2x

4

2 = 2x + 8 (A1)

22x − 4 × 2x − 32 = 0 A1

(2 − 8)(2 + 4) = 0

x x

(M1)

2x = 8 ⇒ x = 3 A1

[5 marks]

Examiners report

Very few candidates knew how to solve this equation. A significant number guessed the answer using trial and error after failed

attempts to solve it. A number of misconceptions were identified involving properties of logarithms and exponentials.

[6 marks]

5. (a) Find the solution of the equation

ln 2.

Markscheme

(a) rewrite the equation as

4+16 ln 2

x= 8+ln 2

A1

(b)

x = a2 (M1)

a = 1.318 A1

Award A0 for ±.

[6 marks]

Examiners report

A more difficult question. Many candidates failed to read the question carefully so did not express x in terms of

ln 2.

logx+1 y = 2

1

logy+1 x =

4

Markscheme

logx+1 y = 2

1

logy+1 x = 4

so

(x + 1) 2 = y A1

1

(y + 1) 4 = x A1

EITHER

x4 − 1 = (x + 1) 2 M1

x = −1, not possible R1

x = 1.70,

y = 7.27 A1A1

OR

1

1

(x2 + 2x + 2) 4 − x = 0 M1

attempt to solve or graph of LHS M1

x = 1.70,

y = 7.27 A1A1

[6 marks]

Examiners report

This question was well answered by a significant number of candidates. There was evidence of good understanding of logarithms.

The algebra required to solve the problem did not intimidate candidates and the vast majority noticed the necessity of technology to

solve the final equation. Not all candidates recognized the extraneous solution and there were situations where a rounded value of

x was used to calculate the value of

y leading to an incorrect solution.

Consider [5 marks]

7.

a = log2 3 × log3 4 × log4 5 × … × log31 32. Given that

a ∈ Z, find the value of a.

Markscheme

log 3 log 4 log 32

log 2

× log 3 × … × log 31 M1A1

log 32

= log 2 A1

5 log 2

= log 2 (M1)

=5 A1

hence

a=5

log2 x.

[5 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

Solve the equation [5 marks]

8.

3x

8 x−1

= 6 . Express your answer in terms of

ln 2 and

ln 3.

Markscheme

METHOD 1

23(x−1) = (2 × 3)3x M1

2−3 = 33x A1

ln(2 ) = ln(33x )

−3

(M1)

−3 ln 2 = 3x ln 3 A1

x = − ln 2

ln 3

A1

METHOD 2

ln 8x−1 = ln 63x (M1)

3

(x − 1) ln 2 = 3x ln(2 × 3) M1A1

3x ln 2 − 3 ln 2 = 3x ln 2 + 3x ln 3 A1

x = − ln 2

ln 3

A1

METHOD 3

ln 8x−1 = ln 63x (M1)

(x − 1) ln 8 = 3x ln 6 A1

ln 8

x= ln 8−3 ln 6

A1

3 ln 2

x= M1

ln( 2 )

3

63

x = − ln 2

ln 3

A1

[5 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

The diagram below shows a sketch of the graph of

y = f(x).

Markscheme

(a)

x = 1 suggested.

correct asymptote

y=1 A1

[2 marks]

Examiners report

A number of candidates were able to answer a) and b) correctly but found part c) more challenging. Correct sketches for the inverse

were seen, but with a few missing a horizontal asymptote. The range in part b) was usually seen correctly. In part c), only a small

number of very good candidates were able to gain full marks. A large number used the point

(4, 0) to form the equation

4a + b = 1 but were unable (or did not recognise the need) to use the asymptote to form a second equation.

[1 mark]

9b. State the range of

f −1 .

Markscheme

range is

f −1 (x) > 1 (or ]1, ∞[) A1

]1, 10] or

]1, 10[.

[1 mark]

Examiners report

A number of candidates were able to answer a) and b) correctly but found part c) more challenging. Correct sketches for the inverse

were seen, but with a few missing a horizontal asymptote. The range in part b) was usually seen correctly. In part c), only a small

number of very good candidates were able to gain full marks. A large number used the point

(4, 0) to form the equation

4a + b = 1 but were unable (or did not recognise the need) to use the asymptote to form a second equation.

[4 marks]

9c. Given that

f(x) = ln(ax + b), x > 1, find the value of

a and the value of

b.

Markscheme

(4, 0) ⇒ ln(4a + b) = 0 M1

⇒ 4a + b = 1 A1

asymptote at

x = 1 ⇒ a+b = 0 M1

1

⇒a= 3

, b= − 13 A1

[4 marks]

Examiners report

A number of candidates were able to answer a) and b) correctly but found part c) more challenging. Correct sketches for the inverse

were seen, but with a few missing a horizontal asymptote. The range in part b) was usually seen correctly. In part c), only a small

number of very good candidates were able to gain full marks. A large number used the point

(4, 0) to form the equation

4a + b = 1 but were unable (or did not recognise the need) to use the asymptote to form a second equation.

10a. State the set of values of a for which the function x ↦ loga x exists, for all x ∈ R+ . [2 marks]

Markscheme

a>0 A1

a≠0 A1

[2 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

10b.

logx y = 4logy x, find all the possible expressions of y as a function of x.

Markscheme

METHOD 1

ln y ln x

logx y = ln x

and logy x = ln y

M1A1

2

( ln x ) = 4

ln y

A1

ln y = ±2 ln x A1

1

y = x2 or A1A1

x2

METHOD 2

logx x 1

logy x = logx y

= logx y

M1A1

(logx y)2 = 4 A1

logx y = ±2 A1

1

y = x2 or y= x2

A1A1

Note: The final two A marks are independent of the one coming before.

[6 marks]

Total [8 marks]

Examiners report

[N/A]

International Baccalaureate® - Baccalauréat International® - Bachillerato Internacional®

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