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SL+ Practice for Exp & Logs [57 marks]

1. Solve the equation [5 marks]


2 − log3 (x + 7) = log 1 2x .
3

Markscheme
log3 ( x+7
9
) = log3 2x1 M1M1A1

Note: Award M1 for changing to single base, M1 for incorporating the 2 into a log and A1 for a correct equation with maximum one
log expression each side.

x + 7 = 18x M1
7
x= 17
A1

[5 marks]

Examiners report
Some good solutions to this question and few candidates failed to earn marks on the question. Many were able to change the base of
the logs, and many were able to deal with the 2, but of those who managed both, poor algebraic skills were often evident. Many
students attempted to change the base into base 10, resulting in some complicated algebra, few of which managed to complete
successfully.

2.
Let [5 marks]
f(x) = ln x . The graph of f is transformed into the graph of the function g by a translation of
3
( ), followed by a reflection in the x-axis. Find an expression for
−2
g(x), giving your answer as a single logarithm.

Markscheme
h(x) = f(x − 3) − 2 = ln(x − 3) − 2 (M1)(A1)
g(x) = −h(x) = 2 − ln(x − 3) M1
Note: Award M1 only if it is clear the effect of the reflection in the x-axis:
the expression is correct OR
there is a change of signs of the previous expression OR
there’s a graph or an explanation making it explicit

= ln e2 − ln(x − 3) M1

)
e 2
= ln( x−3 A1

[5 marks]

Examiners report
This question was well attempted but many candidates could have scored better had they written down all the steps to obtain the final
expression. In some cases, as the final expression was incorrect and the middle steps were missing, candidates scored just 1 mark.
That could be a consequence of a small mistake, but the lack of working prevented them from scoring at least all method marks.
Some candidates performed the transformations well but were not able to use logarithms properties to transform the answer and give it
as a single logarithm.

[5 marks]
3. Write

ln(x2 − 1) − 2 ln(x + 1) + ln(x2 + x) as a single logarithm, in its simplest form.


Markscheme
ln(x2 − 1) − ln (x + 1)2 + ln x(x + 1) (A1)
x(x2 −1)(x+1)
= ln (M1)A1
(x+1) 2
x(x+1)(x−1)(x+1)
= ln (A1)
(x+1) 2

= ln x(x − 1) (= ln(x2 − x)) A1

[5 marks]

Examiners report
There were fewer correct solutions to this question than might be expected. A significant number of students managed to combine the
terms to form one logarithm, but rather than factorising, then expanded the brackets, which left them unable to gain an answer in its
simplest form.

4. [5 marks]
Solve the equation

4x−1 = 2x + 8.

Markscheme
22x−2 = 2x + 8 (M1)
1 2x
4
2 = 2x + 8 (A1)

22x − 4 × 2x − 32 = 0 A1

(2 − 8)(2 + 4) = 0
x x
(M1)

2x = 8 ⇒ x = 3 A1

Notes: Do not award final A1 if more than 1 solution is given.

[5 marks]

Examiners report
Very few candidates knew how to solve this equation. A significant number guessed the answer using trial and error after failed
attempts to solve it. A number of misconceptions were identified involving properties of logarithms and exponentials.

[6 marks]
5. (a) Find the solution of the equation

ln 24x−1 = ln 8x+5 + log2 161−2x ,

expressing your answer in terms of

ln 2.

(b) Using this value of x, find the value of a for which

loga x = 2, giving your answer to three decimal places.


Markscheme
(a) rewrite the equation as

(4x − 1) ln 2 = (x + 5) ln 8 + (1 − 2x)log2 16 (M1)

(4x − 1) ln 2 = (3x + 15) ln 2 + 4 − 8x (M1)(A1)


4+16 ln 2
x= 8+ln 2
A1

(b)

x = a2 (M1)

a = 1.318 A1

Note: Treat 1.32 as an AP.

Award A0 for ±.

[6 marks]

Examiners report
A more difficult question. Many candidates failed to read the question carefully so did not express x in terms of

ln 2.

6. Solve the following system of equations. [6 marks]

logx+1 y = 2

1
logy+1 x =
4
Markscheme
logx+1 y = 2
1
logy+1 x = 4

so
(x + 1) 2 = y A1
1
(y + 1) 4 = x A1
EITHER
x4 − 1 = (x + 1) 2 M1
x = −1, not possible R1
x = 1.70,
y = 7.27 A1A1
OR
1
1
(x2 + 2x + 2) 4 − x = 0 M1
attempt to solve or graph of LHS M1
x = 1.70,
y = 7.27 A1A1
[6 marks]

Examiners report
This question was well answered by a significant number of candidates. There was evidence of good understanding of logarithms.
The algebra required to solve the problem did not intimidate candidates and the vast majority noticed the necessity of technology to
solve the final equation. Not all candidates recognized the extraneous solution and there were situations where a rounded value of
x was used to calculate the value of
y leading to an incorrect solution.

Consider [5 marks]
7.
a = log2 3 × log3 4 × log4 5 × … × log31 32. Given that
a ∈ Z, find the value of a.

Markscheme
log 3 log 4 log 32
log 2
× log 3 × … × log 31 M1A1
log 32
= log 2 A1
5 log 2
= log 2 (M1)
=5 A1
hence
a=5

Note: Accept the above if done in a specific base eg


log2 x.

[5 marks]

Examiners report
[N/A]
Solve the equation [5 marks]
8.
3x
8 x−1
= 6 . Express your answer in terms of
ln 2 and
ln 3.

Markscheme
METHOD 1
23(x−1) = (2 × 3)3x M1

Note: Award M1 for writing in terms of 2 and 3.

23x × 2−3 = 23x × 33x


2−3 = 33x A1
ln(2 ) = ln(33x )
−3
(M1)
−3 ln 2 = 3x ln 3 A1
x = − ln 2
ln 3
A1
METHOD 2
ln 8x−1 = ln 63x (M1)
3
(x − 1) ln 2 = 3x ln(2 × 3) M1A1
3x ln 2 − 3 ln 2 = 3x ln 2 + 3x ln 3 A1
x = − ln 2
ln 3
A1
METHOD 3
ln 8x−1 = ln 63x (M1)
(x − 1) ln 8 = 3x ln 6 A1
ln 8
x= ln 8−3 ln 6
A1
3 ln 2
x= M1
ln( 2 )
3
63

x = − ln 2
ln 3
A1
[5 marks]

Examiners report
[N/A]
The diagram below shows a sketch of the graph of
y = f(x).

9a. Sketch the graph of [2 marks]

y = f −1 (x) on the same axes.

Markscheme
(a)

shape with y-axis intercept (0, 4) A1

Note: Accept curve with an asymptote at


x = 1 suggested.

correct asymptote
y=1 A1
[2 marks]
Examiners report
A number of candidates were able to answer a) and b) correctly but found part c) more challenging. Correct sketches for the inverse
were seen, but with a few missing a horizontal asymptote. The range in part b) was usually seen correctly. In part c), only a small
number of very good candidates were able to gain full marks. A large number used the point
(4, 0) to form the equation
4a + b = 1 but were unable (or did not recognise the need) to use the asymptote to form a second equation.

[1 mark]
9b. State the range of
f −1 .

Markscheme
range is
f −1 (x) > 1 (or ]1, ∞[) A1

Note: Also accept


]1, 10] or
]1, 10[.

Note: Do not allow follow through from incorrect asymptote in (a).

[1 mark]

Examiners report
A number of candidates were able to answer a) and b) correctly but found part c) more challenging. Correct sketches for the inverse
were seen, but with a few missing a horizontal asymptote. The range in part b) was usually seen correctly. In part c), only a small
number of very good candidates were able to gain full marks. A large number used the point
(4, 0) to form the equation
4a + b = 1 but were unable (or did not recognise the need) to use the asymptote to form a second equation.

[4 marks]
9c. Given that
f(x) = ln(ax + b), x > 1, find the value of
a and the value of
b.

Markscheme
(4, 0) ⇒ ln(4a + b) = 0 M1
⇒ 4a + b = 1 A1
asymptote at
x = 1 ⇒ a+b = 0 M1
1
⇒a= 3
, b= − 13 A1
[4 marks]

Examiners report
A number of candidates were able to answer a) and b) correctly but found part c) more challenging. Correct sketches for the inverse
were seen, but with a few missing a horizontal asymptote. The range in part b) was usually seen correctly. In part c), only a small
number of very good candidates were able to gain full marks. A large number used the point
(4, 0) to form the equation
4a + b = 1 but were unable (or did not recognise the need) to use the asymptote to form a second equation.
10a. State the set of values of a for which the function x ↦ loga x exists, for all x ∈ R+ . [2 marks]

Markscheme
a>0 A1

a≠0 A1

[2 marks]

Examiners report
[N/A]

Given that [6 marks]


10b.
logx y = 4logy x, find all the possible expressions of y as a function of x.

Markscheme
METHOD 1
ln y ln x
logx y = ln x
and logy x = ln y
M1A1

Note: Use of any base is permissible here, not just “e”.

2
( ln x ) = 4
ln y
A1

ln y = ±2 ln x A1
1
y = x2 or A1A1
x2
METHOD 2
logx x 1
logy x = logx y
= logx y
M1A1

(logx y)2 = 4 A1

logx y = ±2 A1
1
y = x2 or y= x2
A1A1

Note: The final two A marks are independent of the one coming before.

[6 marks]

Total [8 marks]

Examiners report
[N/A]

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