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INSTALLATION OF MONOPILES

Analyses models

Liv Hamre
25 April 2016

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INSTALLATION OF MONOPILES

 DNV GL – This is us
 Geotechnical Design Basis
 Soil resistance to driving
 Fatigue from driving
 Vibro installation

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OFFSHORE WIND - COMBINING DNV GL COMPETENCES

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FOUNDATIONS

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Head of Section
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PhD students Other sections in marine structures Sr. Principal Engineer Senior Engineer

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WIND FARM CERTIFICATION

According to DNV GL-SE-0073


Site Conditions

Design Basis
Assessement
Type Certificate

Design Basis Evaluation

Integrated Load Analysis

Design
Wind Turbine / RNA Support Structure Design Other Installations Design
Design Evaluation Evaluation Evaluation

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turing
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lation
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sioning
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service
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GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN BASIS

 The Geotechnical Design Basis usually consists of:


– Geological Studies
– Bathymetric Investigations
– Geophysical Investigations
– Geotechnical Investigations

 A cautious estimate of the characteristic


strength would be a high value for the
driveability calculations
 The calculation models should preferably
only be used for pile dimensions and soil
conditions that they are based on

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2014-09-09
PILE INSTALLATION

 Soil Resistance to Driving, SRD, is


calculated predict the installation
challenges
 High soil strength must be
considered
 Relevant soil models must be
applied in the assessment of soil
resistance to driving
 Fatigue from driving shall be
included in the pile fatigue
evaluation
 Noise assessments and mitigation
measures may be required

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8
SOIL RESISTANCE TO DRIVING

Relevant published models:


1977 - Toolan & Fox
1981 - Semple & Gemeinhardt
1982 - Stevens et al
2001 - Alm & Hamre

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SOIL RESISTANCE TO DRIVING

1977 - Toolan & Fox


 Based on CPT
 Minimum of plugged and unplugged
resistance
 Remoulded shear strength

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SOIL RESISTANCE TO DRIVING

1981 - Semple & Gemeinhardt


 Based on static pile capacity
calculations including a “pile
capacity factor”
 Suggest that the unit friction at a
given penetration decreases with
the length of pile driven past this
depth
 OCR is an important parameter

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SOIL RESISTANCE TO DRIVING

1982 – Stevens et al
 Based on static soil capacity
applying a pile capacity factor
established from back-analyses
 Using both plugging and coring
 Include recommendation for
driving in rock

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SOIL RESISTANCE TO DRIVING

2001 – Alm & Hamre


 Based the friction fatigue concept
recommended by Jardine et al for
axial pile capacity assessment
 Assuming coring pile
 Based on back-analyses from
several North Sea sites
 Pile diameters in the database is
30” to 108 “

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FATIGUE FROM DRIVING

 According to DNV OS J101,


– DFF = 3 for WTGs and
– DFF = 10 for substations
 Normally, the characteristic shear
strength is applied
 Planned interruptions in the
driving operations must be
included in the predictions

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VIBRO INSTALLATIONS

 Noise from driving can be harmful to the


environment and several countries are
introducing limitation on noise emission
 Vibro-driving is potentially a cost-effective
and low-noise alternative to impact driving

 Limited available information on prediction


of resistance to installation
Quad Kong, 12 m diameter
 Research is ongoing with respect to lateral pile in China (apevibro.com)
pile capacity for vibro installed monopiles
compared to impact driven and drilled piles
 Less impact on fatigue than impact driving

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Thank you for your attention!

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