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Consumer behaviour reflects the totality of consumer decisions

with respect to the acquisition, consumption and disposition of
goods, services, time and ideas by (human) decision making units
(overtime) .

An important part of the marketing process is to understand why

a customer or buyer makes a purchase.

With such an understanding, businesses find it hard to respond to

the customer’s needs and wants.

Marketing theory tradionally splits analysis of buyer or customer

behaviour into two brad groups for analysis – consumer buyers and
industrial Buyers.


If you were an ancient Greek or Roman, you cleaned yourself by

rubbing olive oil and sand or pumice on yourself and then scraping it
off. Eventually, various cultures learned to make and use soaps, but
bathing was often done for social or ritual reasons, not to become
clean. The majority of cultures, however, bathed in water and most
of them heated the water.

Water bathing was practiced by the ancient Babylonians,

Egyptians, and Romans. The first of the famous Roman baths was
built about 312 BC. These wonderful public bathing facilities (large
communal “hot tubs”) were supplied with water from aqueduct
systems. There were both hot and cold rooms, and medium-
temperature rooms for lounging. which had a variety of services such
as food and wine, massage and “personal training”.

We cannot say for sure who first made soap. A soapy material has
been found in Babylonian clay cylinders dating from as early as 2800
BC. (Did you know Babylon is now Iraq?) An Egyptian papyrus from
about 1500 BC describes a soap making process.

A commonly accepted story for how soap was discovered comes

from a Roman legend according to which rain would wash down
through the ashes and animal fat of the burnt animal sacrifice area of
Mount soap into the clay banks of the Tiber River where the local
women washed their clothing, and they noticed that this clay
mixture made their wash cleaner. It is most likely, however, that the
process of making soap was discovered independently in many
places around the world, as news did not travel quickly in the early
eras of mankind

At any rate, we know that public baths had become very popular
as a social gathering place in Europe by the Middle Ages. Criers ran
through the streets to announce that the water was hot. Food and
drink were served on floating wooden tables and entertainment was
provided. A good time was had by many. Too good a time by too
many, in the eyes of the Church, which saw it as overindulgence in
pleasures of the flesh.

Although bathing remained a healthy custom in places like Japan

and Iceland, it fell out of favour in Europe due to deadly
misperceptions and religious beliefs, and thus filth was a strong
contributors to the horrible European plagues such as the Black
Death of the 14th century. Cities were built without water-delivery or
waste-removal systems, and garbage, human waste and rats were
ubiquitous. Change was not facilities by the fact that the Church was
adamantly against bathing, declaring not only that it was sinful but
that it opened the body to the plague and other diseases. Filthiness
was considered a sign of holiness. Members of some holy orders
bragged that they washed only the tips of their fingers. Even doctors
believed that a layer of filth on one body protected one from
disease. It was also believed that odors caused disease and that
smelling to high heaven yourself would protect you, if you could
“outstink” the odors around you. Not until the 17th century did
bathing become common again in Europe. The discovery of germs in
the mid 1800s certainly encouraged people to get and stay clean.

Italy, Spain and France were early European soap-manufacturing

centers. By the end of the 12th century, English soap guilds were also
making soap from olive oil, animal fats and plants ashes, using secret
recipes. Sixteen and 17th century housewifery texts contained recipes
for mixing cut-up guild-made soap with scenting agents to form a
pleasant-smelling soap for personal use. Cleanliness standards
improved significantly when the high taxes that several countries had
placed on soap as a luxury were removed in the 19th century.

Although some commercial soap making in the American colonies

began with the arrival of several soap makers on the second ship
from England in 1608, for many years soap making was essentially a
household chore, with colonies Americans making their own soap
from animal fats and wood ashes.

The colonists boiled animal fats to render them into oil. Lye
solution was prepared by pouring water through ashes, and
considered to be right strength when a potato or egg would floats in
it with an area about the size of a quarter above the surface. What
experience had proven to be about the right amount of lye was
added to some of the oil and the mixture was boiled until it frothy
and had a bite to it if tasted. Upon cooling, the resulting jelly-like
soap was stored in a wooden barrel and dipped out as needed. Hard
soap could be made by adding salt, but salt, was precious to use just
for making soap. Most of the colonists soap was used to wash
clothing, rather than to wash colonists.

Since then, “we have come a long way, baby.” Today, very few of
us stink, and we have “soaps” in a previously unimaginable variety of
shapes, colors and scents, both solid and liquid. But just what are
they made of, and is this a matter of concern? It should be.


Showering and bathing is an important part of our daily routine.

Most of us wake up in the morning, take a bath and set out to start
our day. It is important to know about the bathing soaps and
products, which we use on a daily basis. Choosing the right bath
product is very important because they regularly come into contact
with our skin.

Bathing soaps come in the form bar and liquid. The main purpose
of bath soap is to cleanse, nourish and soften the skin and keep it
healthy. Majority of these cleaning agents available in the market
today are designed to address specific skin issues, such as dry skin,
blemishes, itches, black heads, pimples, prickly heat and oily skin.
Apart from nourishing the skin, these products are also good for
scalp and hair. Further, most of the bath products are scented.
Fragrance of these products stays with you all day long.

Bathing soaps are generally composed of two main ingredients,

alkali and vegetable or animal fat. Most of the soaps available in the
market today also contain alcohols, harsh chemicals and other
synthetic ingredients. Some of these chemicals present in these
soaps have several side effects on skin. The bath care products
containing harsh chemicals and synthetic ingredients are not suitable
for those with sensitive skin.

People with sensitive skin can go for organic soaps. Bathing with
natural organic soaps is a very pleasurable experience. Using organic
bath care products can help you to prevent your skin from getting
exposed to harsh chemicals present in synthetic products. It will
allow you to enjoy pleasant fragrance without worrying about skin
irritation or allergies. The organic soaps contain natural ingredient.
These natural components do not have any side effects.

Some of the natural ingredients present in the organic bathing

soaps are extracts, natural oils, olive oil, lavender, citrus, rose and
goat milk. The flower essence and natural oils give soothing
properties and pleasant fragrances to the soaps. These natural bath
products exhibit several healing and beautifying properties. These
natural products provide several benefits to your skin. Goat milk
present in the organic soaps re-hydrates dry skin. The organic soaps
also show toning and soothing properties. Further, they protect your
skin from environmental damages. Using these products can also
give you some relief from muscular aches and other health ailments.

Organic bathing soaps can be easily bought from health food

stores, vitamin stores and bath supply stores. Also, you can prepare
these soaps at home. Handmade soaps are suitable for those who
prefer to use bath care products completely organic in nature.