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WIRELESS COMMUNICATION USING LPDA ANTENNA

ADITYA.SATTI
D.KUSHAL REDDY
E.DILIP ROY

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering


MAHATMA GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, A.P.)

Chaitanya Bharathi P.O., Gandipet, Hyderabad – 500 075

2010
WIRELESS COMMUNICATION USING LPDA ANTENNA
PROJECT REPORT
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
BY

ADITYA.SATTI (06261A0402)
D.KUSHAL REDDY (06261A0415)
E.DILIP ROY (06261A0417)

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering


MAHATMA GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, A.P.)

Chaitanya Bharathi P.O., Gandipet, Hyderabad – 500 075

2010
MAHATMA GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, A.P.)

Chaitanya Bharathi P.O., Gandipet, Hyderabad-500 075

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

CERTIFICATE

Date: 7th May 2010

This is to certify that the project work entitled


“Wireless Communication using LPDA Antenna”
is a bonafide work carried out by

ADITYA.SATTI (06261A0402)
D.KUSHAL REDDY (06261A0415)
E.DILIP ROY (06261A0417)

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF


TECHNOLOGY in ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING by the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University,
Hyderabad during the academic year 2009-10.

The results embodied in this report have not been submitted to any other
University or Institution for the award of any degree or diploma.

-------------------------- --------------------------
Mrs.D.Rajeshwari Devi
Assistant professor Dr. E.Nagabhooshanam
Faculty Advisor/Liaison Professor & Head

(i)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are highly indebted to our Faculty Liaison Mrs.D.Rajeshwari Devi,
Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, who has given us all the
necessary technical guidance in carrying out this Project.

We wish to express our sincere thanks to Dr. E. Nagabhooshanam, Head of the


Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, M.G.I.T., for permitting us
to pursue our Project and encouraging us throughout the Project.

Finally, we thank all the people who have directly or indirectly help us through
the course of our Project.

We express our deep sense of gratitude to our Guide K.V.Shruti., Hyderabad, for
his valuable guidance and encouragement in carrying out our Project.

ADITYA.SATTI
D.KUSHAL REDDY
E.DILIP ROY

(iii)
ABSTRACT

Wireless communication was a revolution over the process of communication


using wires.Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance
without the use of enhanced electrical conductors or "wires". The distances involved may
be short a few meters as in television remote control or long thousands or millions of
kilometers for radio communications. When the context is clear, the term is often
shortened to "wireless". Wireless communication is generally considered to be a branch
of telecommunications. It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable two-
way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless
networking. Other examples of wireless technology include GPS units, garage door
openers and or garage doors, wireless computer mice, keyboards and headsets, satellite
television and cordless telephones.

In our project we apply wireless communication using a LPDA antenna , log


periodic dipole array antenna . It is a log-periodic antenna (LP, also known as a log-
periodic array) is a broadband, multielement, unidirectional, narrow-beam antenna that
has impedance and radiation characteristics that are regularly repetitive as a logarithmic
function of the excitation frequency. The individual components are often dipoles, as in
a log-periodic dipole array (LPDA). Log-periodic antennas are designed to be self-
similar and are thus also fractal antenna arrays. It is normal to drive alternating elements
with 180° (π radians) of phase shift from one another. This is normally done by
connecting individual elements to alternating wires of a balanced transmission line. The
length and spacing of the elements of a log-periodic antenna increase logarithmically
from one end to the other. A plot of the input impedance as a function of logarithm of the
excitation frequency shows a periodic variation.

This antenna design is used where a wide range of frequencies is needed while still
having moderate gain and directionality. It is sometimes used for a
(VHF/UHF) television antenna.

(iv)
LIST OF FIGURES

1.2 Frequency Spectrum

2.2:Critical Angle 10

2.3:Radiation Pattern 15

4.5 Block Diagram For VSWR Measurement 22

4.6 Beam Width and Front To Back Ratio Measurement Setup


23

4.8 Gain Measurement Setup 24

5.1 Block Diagram Description

25

5.1.1 Condenser Microphone 28

5.1.2 IC LA4510 29

5.1.3 Oscillator 30

5.1.3 RF Oscillators 32

5.1.4 Amplitude Modulation 34

5.2 Regulated Power Supply 41

5.2.1 Transformer 42

5.2.3 Half Wave Rectifier 44

5.2.3(a) RC-Low Pass Filter 46

5.2.3(b) RC-High Pass Filter 47


5.3.1 LC Oscillator 50

(v)
5.3.3 AM Diode Detector 52

5.3.5 Speaker 54

6.2 LPDA Antenna 57

6.3 Radiation Pattern 65

7.1 Network Analyzer 67

7.2 . Directional coupler circuit configurations 69


(vi)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATE FROM ECE DEPARTMENT (i)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS (iii)
ABSTRACT (iv)
LIST OF FIGURES (v)

CHAPTER :1.INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 AIM OF THE PROJECT 2
1.2 METHODOLOGY 2
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE AND APPLICATIONS 2
1.4 OVERVIEW 2
1.5 WIRELESS COMMUNICATION 3
1.6 ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM 5
CHAPTER :2.ANTENNA 8
2.1 FIELD INTENSITY 8
2.2 WAVE ATTENUATION 8
2.2.1 GROUND WAVE PROPAGATION 9
2.2.2 SKY WAVE PROPAGATION 9
2.2.3 SPACE WAVE PROPAGATION 11
2.4 SPECIFICATION OF AN ANTENNA 12
2.4.1 FREQUENCY RANGE 12
2.4.2 BANDWIDTH 12
2.4.3 VOLTAGE STANDING WAVE RATIO 13
2.4.4 GAIN AND DIRECTIVITY 14
2.4.5 RADIATION PATTERN 15
2.4.6 BEAM WIDTH AND GAIN OF MAIN LOBE 16
2.4.7 POLARISATION 17
2.4.8 FRONT TO BACK RATIO 17
CHAPTER :3 TYPES OF ANTENNA 18
3.1 MF ANTENNA 18
3.2 HF ANTENNA 18
3.3 VHF ANTENNA 19
3.4 UHF ANTENNA 19

CHAPTER:4 ANTENNA TESTING PROCEDURE 20


4.1 VOLTAGE STANDING WAVE RATIO 20
4.2 VOLTAGE STANDING WAVE RATIO MEASUREMENT 20
4.3 FINDING APROPER LOCATION TO TEST ANTENNA 20
4.4 TEST THE ANTENNA 21
4.5 BANDWIDTH 22
4.6 BEANWIDTH 22
4.7 FRONT TO BACK RATIO 23
4.8 GAIN MEASUREMENT 24
CHAPTER :5 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION 25
5.1 TRANSMITTER 25
5.1.1 MICROPHONE 27
5.1.2 AUDIO AMPLIFIER 28
5.1.3 OSCILLATOR 30
5.1.4 AMPLITUDE MODULATION 33
5.1.5 MIXERS 35
5.1.6 POWER AMPLIFIERS 36
5.2 REGULATED POWER SUPPLY 41
5.2.1 TRANSFORMERS 42
5.2.2 RECTIFIERS 43
5.2.3 FILTER CIRCUITS 46
5.3 RECIEVERS 47
5.3.1 TUNED CIRCUITS 47
5.3.2 DETECTORS 51
5.3.3 AMPLIFIER DEMODULATOR 52
5.3.4 AUDIO AMPLIFIER 53
5.3.5 SPEAKER 53
CHAPTER:6 LOG PERIODIC DIPOLE ARRAY 56
6.1 INTRODUCTION 56
6.2 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF LPDA 57
6.3 DESIGN PROCEDURE 63
CHAPTER :7 LPDA ANTENNA TESTING 67
7.1 NETWORK ANALZER 67
7.2 DIRECTIONAL COUPLER 69
7.3 VOLTAGE STANDING WAVE ROTIO 69
7.4 OPERATING BANDWIDTH 71
7.5 OPERATING WAVELENGTH 71
7.6 APEX ANGLE 71
7.7 LENGTH OF ANTENNA 71
7.8 DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO ELEMENTS 72
7.9 CONCLUSION 72
REFERENCES 74
CHAPTER :1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Aim of the project:


The main objective of this project is to develop an effective wireless
communication module using LPDA antenna which has a effective gain.

1.2 Methodology:
The process of wireless communication is employed over here using a transmitter
section and a receiver section which have LPDA antennas on each side which are lined in
a matter of line of sight communication.

1.3 Significance and applications:


Automatic door opening systems using IR sensors plays a very important role in domestic
applications. The elimination of manual supervision adds up as an additional advantage
for its usage. Its significance can be proved by considering the following specialties of kit
designed by us
• Reliability: Reliability is one such factor that every communication
system should have in order to render its services without malfunctioning
over along period of time. We have designed a LPDA antenna which is
itself very reliable and also operates very efficiently under normal
condition
• Cost: The design is implemented at an economical price.
1.4 Organization of the report:
The report totally consists of seven chapters - Chapter 1 gives the introduction to the
project, Chapter 2 provides an overview of the antenna, Chapter 3 specifies the types of
antennas, Chapter 4 explains the antenna testing procedure, Chapter 5 explains in detail
about the block diagram, chapter 6 provides description of log periodic dipole array
antenna, chapter 7 describes the LPDA antenna testing procedure, and then followed by
the conclusion.

1.5 WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of
enhanced electrical conductors or "wires".The distances involved may be short (a few
meters as in television remote control) or long (thousands or millions of kilometers for
radio communications). When the context is clear, the term is often shortened to
"wireless". Wireless communication is generally considered to be a branch of
telecommunications.

It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable two-way radios,


cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other
examples of wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers and or garage
doors, wireless computer mice, keyboards and headsets, satellite television and cordless
telephones

The world's first wireless telephone conversation occurred in 1880, when


Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter invented and patented the
photophone, a telephone that conducted audio conversations wirelessly over modulated
light beams (which are narrow projections of electromagnetic waves). In that distant era
when utilities did not yet exist to provide electricity, and lasers had not even been
conceived of in science fiction, there were no practical applications for their invention,
which was highly limited by the availability of both sunlight and good weather. Similar
to free space optical communication, the photophone also required a clear line of sight
between its transmitter and its receiver. It would be several decades before the
photophone's principles found their first practical applications in military
communications and later in fiber-optic communications.

The term "wireless" came into public use to refer to a radio receiver or transceiver
(a dual purpose receiver and transmitter device), establishing its usage in the field of
wireless telegraphy early on; now the term is used to describe modern wireless
connections such as in cellular networks and wireless broadband Internet. It is also used
in a general sense to refer to any type of operation that is implemented without the use of
wires, such as "wireless remote control" or "wireless energy transfer", regardless of the
specific technology (e.g. radio, infrared, ultrasonic) that is used to accomplish the
operation. While Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun were awarded the 1909
Nobel Prize for Physics for their contribution to wireless telegraphy, it has only been of
recent years that Nikola Tesla has been formally recognized as the true father and
inventor of radio.

Handheld wireless radios such as this Maritime VHF radio transceiver use
electromagnetic waves to implement a form of wireless communications technology.

Wireless operations permits services, such as long range communications, that are
impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used
in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio
transmitters and receivers, remote controls, computer networks, network terminals, etc.)
which use some form of energy (e.g. radio frequency (RF), infrared light, laser light,
visible light, acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the use of wires.[2]
Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances.
1.6 ELECTRO MAGNETIC SPECTRUM

The electromagnetic spectrum is a vast band of energy frequencies extending from radio
waves to gamma waves, from the very lowest frequencies to the highest possible
frequencies.

The spectrum is arranged by the frequency of its waves, from the longest, lowest energy
waves to the shortest, highest energy waves.

Our ability to tune in the more exotic electromagnetic waves has grown in recent
decades. For instance, radio is part of the spectrum, and it was only in the 20th Century
that humans began to be able to use any of the electromagnetic spectrum, starting with
radio at the long-wave end of the spectrum.

Today, living and working in the 21st century, we make great use of the electromagnetic
spectrum in all of our vocations and avocations. All of the frequencies we use for
transmitting and receiving energy are part of the electromagnetic spectrum. For instance:

• RADIO. We use the radio portion of the electromagnetic spectrum


for many things, including television and radio broadcasting, telephones
and other wireless communications, navigation and radar for a variety of
measurements including police speed traps, and even microwave cooking
ovens.

Our AM broadcast stations transmit signals in what is referred to as the


medium-wave portion of the spectrum. FM music stations use very high
frequency (VHF) transmitters. Television stations use the VHF and ultra
high frequency (UHF) regions of the spectrum.
• INFRARED LIGHT. Infrared light is on the spectrum at
frequencies above radio and just below the range of human vision.
Infrared light is heat. Three-quarters of the radiation emitted by a light-
bulb is IR. We use infrared transmitters to remotely control our TV sets.
We can record infrared light on photographic film and we have equipment
that can see hot bodies in deep space in the infrared light they send out.

• VISIBLE LIGHT. Visible light, which we receive with our eyes, is


along the spectrum between infrared and ultraviolet light, which we can't
see. Of course, we can collect visible light with photographic film.

• Our eyes can detect only a tiny part of the electromagnetic


spectrum, called visible light. This means that there's a great deal
happening around us that we're simply not aware of, unless we have
instruments to detect it.
• Light waves are given off by anything that's hot enough to glow.
This is how light bulbs work - an electric current heats the lamp
filament to around 3,000 degrees, and it glows white-hot.
• The surface of the Sun is around 5,600 degrees, and it gives off a
great deal of light.
• White light is actually made up of a whole range of colours, mixed
together.
• We can see this if we pass white light through a glass prism - the
violet light is bent ("refracted") more than the red, because it has a
shorter wavelength - and we see a rainbow of colours.
• This is called 'dispersion', and allows us to work out what stars are
made of by looking at the mixture of wavelengths in the light

• ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT. On the spectrum, ultraviolet light is


above visible light. UV is dangerous to living organisms. So, it is used to
sterilize medical instruments by killing bacteria and viruses. We have
photographic film that can capture ultraviolet light. Ten percent of the
energy radiated by our star, the Sun, is ultraviolet light.

• X-RAYS. Farther along the spectrum are X-rays. Their invisible


energy is produced when gas is heated to millions of degrees. X-ray
energy is absorbed by matter it penetrates depending upon the atomic
weight of that matter. Because X-rays can change a photographic
emulsion just as visible light does, we use them to take pictures of the
insides of people and things.

GAMMA RAYS: Gamma rays are beyond X-rays on the electromagnetic spectrum.
Gamma rays that we find arriving at Earth from deep space are the result of violent
cosmic events such as supernovas, other nuclear explosions, and radioactive decay

30 3 300 30 3 30 3 3
km km m m m cm cm mm
| | | | | | | |

VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF Infrared Visible


Light
| | | | | | | |
10 100 1 10 100 1 10 100
kHz kHz MHz MHz MHz GHz GHz GHz

Fig: 1.6 Frequency spectrum

Table 1.6: Frequency Band


Frequency Band
10 kHz to 30 kHz Very Low Frequency (VLF)
30 kHz to 300 kHz Low Frequency (LF)
300 kHz to 3 MHz Medium Frequency (MF)
3 MHz to 30 MHz High Frequency (HF)
30 MHz to 144 MHz Very High Frequency (VHF)
144 MHz to 174 MHz
174 MHz to 328.6 MHz
328.6 MHz to 450 MHz
450 MHz to 470 MHz
470 MHz to 806 MHz
Ultra High Frequency (UHF)
806 MHz to 960 MHz
960 MHz to 2.3 GHz
2.3 GHz to 2.9 GHz

2.9 GHz to 30 GHz


Super High Frequency (SHF)

30 GHz and above Extremely High Frequency (EHF)


CHAPTER: 2

ANTENNA

Antennas are electric circuits of a special kind. In the ordinary circuits, the
dimensions of coils, capacitors and connections usually are small compared with the
wavelength that corresponds to the frequency in use. When this is the case, most of the
electromagnetic energy stays in the circuit itself and is either used up in performing
useful work or is converted in to heat. But when the dimensions of wiring or components
become appreciable, compared to the wavelength, some of the energy escapes by
radiation in the form of electromagnetic waves. When the circuit is intentionally
designed so that the major portion of the energy is radiated, such circuit is an
ANTENNA.

The purpose of any antenna is to convert radio frequency electric current to


electromagnetic waves, which are then radiated in to the space and vice versa. An
Antenna can transmit as well as receive signals.

2.1 Field Intensity


In free space the field intensity of the wave varies inversely with the distance of
source, once you are in radiating far field of the antenna. The energy from the propagated
wave decreases with distance from the source. This decrease in strength is caused by
spreading of the wave energy over ever-larger spheres as the distance from the source
increases.

2.2 Wave Attenuation


In free space the field intensity of the wave varies inversely
with the distance of source, once you are in radiating far field of the
antenna. For example if in field strength at 1 mile from the source is
100 milli volts per meter, it will be 50 milli volts per meter at 2 miles
and so on. The relationship between field intensity and power density
is similar to that for voltage and power in ordinary circuits. In practice
attenuation of the wave energy may be much greater than the inverse
distance. The wave does not travel in a vacuum and the receiving
antenna seldom is situated so there is a clear line of sight. The Earth
is spherical and the waves do not penetrate its surface appreciably, so
communication beyond visual distance must be by some means that
will bend the waves around the curvature of Earth.

The radio communication is carried on by means of electromagnetic waves through


the Earth’s atmosphere. It is important to understand the nature of these waves and their
behavior in the propagation medium. Most of the antennas will radiate the power or
receive the signals efficiently but no antenna will do all the things equally, well under all
circumstances. It is necessary that one needs to know how about the propagation for best
results.

2.2.1GROUND WAVE PROPAGATION


Depending upon the wave length, radio wave may be
reflected by buildings, trees, vehicles, the ground, water ionized layers
in the upper atmosphere. The radio waves are affected in many ways
by the media through which they travel. The ground wave could be
traveling in actual contact with the ground where it is called “surface
wave”. It could travel directly between transmitting and receiving
antennas, when they are high enough, so they can see each other.
This is commonly called “direct wave”. The ground wave also travels
between the transmitting and receiving antennas by reflections or
diffractions off intervening terrain between them. The ground
influenced wave may interact with direct wave to create a vector
summed resultant at the receive antenna.

2.2.2 SKY WAVE PROPAGATION


All HF antennas propagate in sky wave propagation.

The ground wave is commonly applied to propagation that is confined to lower


atmosphere. The atmosphere is a region where the air pressure is so low, that free
electrons and ions can move about for some time without getting close enough to
recombine in to neutral atoms. The lowest known ionized region called “D Layer” lies
between 60 to 92km above Earth. In this relatively low and dense part of the atmosphere,
where the ionization level is directly related to sunlight. It begins at sunrise, peaks at local
noon, and disappears as sunsets.

The frequencies between 1.5 to 4Meters having the


longest wavelength suffer the highest daytime absorption loss. They
go dead quickly in the morning but become alive in late afternoon.
This effect is less at 7MHz. or 14MHz. The ‘D’ Layer is ineffective in
bending HF Waves back to Earth and not useful in long distance
communication. During daytime 7MHz. and above are used for short
distance communication either transmit or receive.
The portion of ionosphere useful for long distance
communication is ‘E’ Layer about 100km to 115km above the Earth.
In the ‘E’ Layer the density and ionization reaches max at midday and
drops quickly after sun down. The minimum is at midnight. Most of
the long distance communication capacity stems from the tenuous
outer reaches of the Earth’s atmosphere is called ‘F’ “Layer”, situated
at 160kms to 500kms from Earth, during day and also this region has
its ability to reflect wave back to Earth even in night depending on the
season of the year, the latitudes, time of day.

Fig2.2:Critical Angle
Critical Angle
As seen above the antenna design for long distance
communication, the first three waves will do no good, they all take off
at angles high enough that they pass through the ionosphere layers
and are lost in the space. As the angle of radiation decreases the
amount of reflection or bending needed for sky wave communication
also decreases. The fourth wave from the left takes off at what is
called “critical angle”, the highest that will return the wave to Earth, at
a given density of ionization in the layer for the frequency under
consideration at a point ‘A’.

Hopping
If the antenna that radiates at a lower angle, as with 5th
wave from the left. This wave gets reflected to Earth far away than
the 4th wave at point B similarly 6th wave with its low radiation angle
comes back to Earth much farther away from point ‘B’ and so on. The
Earth itself acts as a reflector of radio waves. Often radio signals are
re-reflected from Earth at point ‘A’. This signal reflected from point ‘A’
travels through the ionosphere again to point ‘B’ Signal travel from
Earth through the ionosphere and back to the Earth is called ‘hop’.
Skip distance
When the critical angle is less than 90° there will always be a
region around the transmitter where the ionospherically propagated
signal cannot be heard or heard weakly. This area lies between the
outer limit of his ground wave range and the inner edge of energy
return from the Ionosphere. It is called “Skip Zone” or Null Zone and
the distance between the originating site and the beginning of the
ionosphere return is called “Skip Distance”.

Fading
When all the variable factors in long distance communication
are taken into account it is not surprising that signals vary in strength
during almost every contact beyond the local range, which is called
fading. These are mainly the result of changes in the temperatures
and moisture content of the air in the 1st few thousand feet above the
ground on the paths covered by ionospheric modes, the causes of
fading are very complex – constantly changing layer height and
density, random polarization shift, portions of the signal arriving out of
phase and so on.
Some immunity from fading during reception can be had by
using two or more receivers connected to separate antennas,
preferably with different polarizations and combining the receiver
outputs in what is known as “diversity receiving system”.
Reception
The strength of the signal will depend on the transmitter
power. If the far off signals are to be received, it is possible only with
high power transmitter on the other end. If the receiving antenna falls
in a skip zone, there will be no signal. Hence it is necessary to select
frequencies for reception in the full band, depending on the day
frequencies, night frequencies and also the season.

a) SPACE WAVE PROPAGATION


Space wave propagation is otherwise called as LINE OF SIGHT
COMMUNICATION. In which the transmitting antenna should see the receiving
antenna.

All VHF, UHF and Microwave frequencies antennas propagate in space wave
propagation

b) SPECIFICATIONS OF AN ANTENNA

2.4.1 Frequency Range

The frequency range of antenna is very important to calculate its wave length,
based on which an antenna can be designed. The range of frequency in which antenna
either radiates or receives signal by satisfying all other specifications is called as
frequency range.

The Frequency ranges are divided into:

1. Medium Frequencies (MF) : 300 KHZ to 3 MHZ.


2. High Frequencies(HF) : 3 MHZ to 30 MHz
3. Very High Frequencies(VHF) : 30 MHZ to 300 MHz
4. Ultra High Frequencies(UHF) : 300 MHZ to 1 GHZ
5. Microwave Frequencies : 1 GHZ and above

Calculation of a wave length:

For example if the Frequency range of an antenna is 300 MHz to 350 MHz then
its wave length is

= Speed of the electromagnetic wave

Mid frequency of the frequency range

Speed of the electromagnetic wave = Speed of the light = C = 3 x108 m/sec

Mid Frequency= Lower frequency + Higher frequency = 300+350 =650= 325 MHz
2 2 2

= 3 x108 m/sec = 300 m = 0.9 m


325 MHZ 325

By using the value of we design the antennas for /2 or /4.

2.4.2 Bandwidth
The bandwidth of an antenna is a measure of its ability to radiate or receive
different frequencies. It refers to the frequency range over which operation is satisfactory
and is generally taken between the half power points in the direction of maximum
radiation. The bandwidth is the range of frequencies that the antenna can receive (or
radiate) with a power efficiency of 50% (0.5) or more or a voltage efficiency of 70.7%
(that is –3dB points). The operating frequency range is specified by quoting the upper
and lower frequencies but the bandwidth is often quoted as a relative value. Bandwidth is
commonly expressed in one of the two ways:

1. Percentage.
2. As a function or multiple of an octave.
An octave is a band of frequencies between one frequency can the frequency that is
double or half the first frequency, for instance, we have an octave between 300 MHz. and
600 MHz.). When it is expressed as a percentage bandwidth its center frequency should
be quoted and the percentage expressed in octaves its lower and upper frequency should
be also quoted.

c) Voltage Standing Wave Ratio(VSWR)


If a lossless transmission line has infinite length or terminated in the characteristic
impedance, all the power applied to the line by transmitter at one end is absorbed by the
load (antenna at the other) end. Conversely if a finite piece of line is terminated in an
impedance not equal to the characteristic impedance, only some power is absorbed in the
load and remaining power is reflected
The single cycle of a signal is launched down a transmission line
which is called the ‘incidence’ or forward wave. When it reached the
end of the transmission line if it is not totally absorbed by the antenna
then it (a part of it) will be reflected back towards the transmitter.
The incident and reflected waves are both called traveling waves. The
reflected wave represents the power that is lost and will interfere with
incident waves the resultant caused is called standing wave.
The ratio of the maximum voltage along the feeder line to the
minimum voltage, i.e. Emax to Emin is defined as voltage standing
wave ratio (VSWR)

VSWR =
max
1: 1 is the VSWR for an ideal antenna but practically 1:1
VSWR cannot be obtained, up to 2:1 is tolerated.
Similarly the ratio of maximum current to the minimum current is same as
VSWR. Either of the measurements will determine the standing wave ratio, which is
index of the mismatch existing between the transmitter and antenna, through transmission
lines.
Every Antenna used for Transmission or Reception should be properly
matched to the Trans receiver to ensure that maximum power is radiated or received for
efficient Communication. For example if a transmitter is designed to deliver 100 Watts
of RF Power output, the entire Power is to be transmitted fully but due to line losses, only
80 to 90% is transmitted. Hence the antenna efficiency is to be measured before it is
connected to the equipment, which test is otherwise called VSWR Test.
2.4.4 Gain and Directivity
d) All antennas, even simplest types, exhibits directive effects in the intensity of
radiation is not all the same in all directions from the antenna. This property
of radiating more strongly in some directions than in others is called
directivity of antenna. The ratio of the maximum power density, to the
average power density taken over the entire sphere is the directivity of the
antenna.

P
D=
Pav
Where
D = Directivity
P = Power density at its max. point
Pav = average power density
e) Gain of the antenna is closely related to directivity, so the antenna gain is
P = K Pav
G
Where

G = Gain expressed as power ratio


K = is the efficiency
The power gain of an antenna system is usually expressed in decibels for
convenience. The directive gain is defined in a particular direction is the
ratio of the power density radiated in that direction by that antenna to
the power density that would be radiated by the isotropic antenna.

© Decibel is an excellent practical unit for measuring power ratios. The number of
decibels corresponding to any power ratio is equal to 10 times the common logarithm of
the of the power ratio or dB= 10 log P1/P2
2.4.5 Radiation pattern
A graph showing the actual or relative field intensity at a fixed distance, as a function
of the direction on the Antenna system is called radiation pattern. To understand the
basis of such a graph, please see the figure. RF Power is fed to the antenna under test
and the receiver or detector, which is also called field strength meter, indicates the RF
Signal received. For convenience, the transmitting antenna under test is rotated slowly
to numerous positions. Different types of radiation patterns are appended herewith.
Fig2.3:Radiation Pattern
The radiation of RF signal is the “beam” and the width of the beam differs from
different categories of Antennas.

The antenna is a reciprocal device, means it radiates or receives electro


magnetic energy in the same way. This although the radiation pattern is identified with
an antenna that is transmitting power, the same properties would apply to the antenna
even if it was receiving power. Any difference between the received and radiated powers
can be attributed to the difference between the feed networks and the equipment
associated with the receiver and transmitter. The antenna radiates the greatest amount of
power along its bore sight and also receives power most efficiently in this direction.

The radiation pattern of an antenna is peculiar to the type of a antenna


and its electrical characteristics as well as its physical dimension. It is measured at a
constant distance in the far field. The radiation pattern of an antenna is usually plotted in
terms of relative power. The power at bore sight that it at the position of maximum
radiated power is usually plotted at 00. Thus the power in all other positions appears as a
negative value. In other words the radiated power is normalized to the power at bore
sight. The main reason for using dB instead of linear power is that the power at the nulls
is often of the order of 10,000 times less than the power on the bore sight, which means
that the scales would have to be very large in order to cover the whole range of power
values.

The radiation pattern is usually measured in the two principal planes


namely, the azimuth and the elevation planes. The radiated / received dB is plotted
against the angle that is made with the bore sight direction. If the antenna is not
physically symmetrical about each of its principal planes then one can also expect its
radiation pattern in these planes to be unsymmetrical. The radiation pattern can be
plotted using the polar or the rectangular / certesian co-ordinates.

2.4.6 The beam width and gain of main lobe

The beam width of antenna is the angular separation between the two half-power
points on the power density radiation pattern. The beam width of an antenna is
commonly defined in two ways. The most well known definition is the –3dB or half
power beam width but the 10dB beam width is also used especially for antenna with very
narrow beams the –3dB or half power beam width of an antenna is taken as the width in
degrees at the points on either side of the main beam where the radiated level is 3dB
lower than the maximum lobe value. The –10dB value is taken as the width in degrees
on either side of the main beam where the radiated level is 10dB lower than the
maximum lobe value.

The IEEE definition of gain of an antenna relates to the power radiated by the
antenna to that radiated by an isotropic antenna (that radiates equally in all direction) and
is quoted as a linear ratio or in decibels referred to an isotropic (dBi, i : for isotropic)
when we say that the gain of an antenna is for instance, 20dBi (100 in linear terms) we
man that an isotropic antenna would have to radiate 100 times more power to give the
same intensity at the same distance as that particular directional antenna.
The radiation pattern of an antenna shows the power on the bore sight as 0dB and
the power in other directions as negative values. The gain in all directions is plotted
relative to the gain on bore sight. In order to find the absolute gain in any direction the
gain on bore sight must be known. If this gain is expressed in decibels, (as is normally
the case) then this value can simply be added to the gain at any point to give the absolute
gain. The absolute gain on bore sight is measured by comparison with a standard gain
antenna, which functions as a reference antenna whose gain is calculated or measured
with a high degree of accuracy.

2.4.7 Polarization
Polarization or plane of Polarization of a radio wave can be defined by the

direction in which the electrical vector is aligned during the passage of atleast one full
cycle. Polarization refers to the physical orientation of the radiated electro
magnetic waves in space.
Polarization is a characteristic of the antenna that they radiate linearly
(Vertical or horizontal) waves. The direction of an antenna and polarization is alike i.e., if
an antenna is vertical, it will radiates vertically polarized waves and a horizontal antenna,
horizontally polarized waves.
Beside linear polarization antenna may also radiate circularly or elliptical
polarized waves. If two linearly polarized waves are simultaneously produced in the same
direction from the same antenna provided that the two linear polarizations are mutually
perpendicular to each other with a phase difference of 90º, then circularly polarized
waves are produced. Circular polarization may be right handed or left handed depending
upon the sense of rotation i.e., phase difference is positive or negative.

2.4.8 Front to back ratio


The front to back ratio is a measure of the ability of a directional antenna to
concentrate the beam in the required forward direction. In linear terms, it is defined as
the ratio of the maximum power in the main beam (foresight) to that in the back lobe. It
is usually expressed in decibels as the difference between the level on foresight and at
180 degrees off foresight. It this difference is says 35dB then the front to back ratio of
the antenna is 35dB in linear terms it would mean that the level of the back lobe is 3, 162
times less than the level of the foresight.
CHAPTER:3
TYPES OF ANTENNAS
Antennas may be classified according to their frequency range of operation:
1. M.F. Antennas
2. H.F.Antennas
3. V.H.F.Antennas
4. U.H.F.Antennas
5. Microwave Antennas

3.1M.F. Antennas:

M.F. LOCATOR BEACON

• M.F. BEACON AERIAL

• ‘T’ ANTENNA

3.2 H.F. Antennas:

H.F. MONOCONE ANTENNA


FOLDED DIPOLE ANTENNA

• CONIFAN ANTENNA

• H.F. BROAD BAND DIPOLE

• SLOPY DIPOLE ANTENNA

HF VERTICAL DIPOLE
H.F. ANTENNA OMNI DIRECTIONAL

• H.F. VERTICAL RADIATOR

• H.F. LOG PERIODIC ANTENNA

• H.F. RECEIVING SYSTEM (1.6 to 30 MHz.)


The system consists of one vertically polarised H.F. Omni Directional Antenna
covering a frequency range from 1.6 to 30 MHz. coupled with one H.F. Antenna
Multicoupler, Coupling 8 communication receivers simultaneously, each tuned to their
respective signal required for them.
3.3 V.H.F.Antennas:
• GROUND PLANE ANTENNA

• CAGE DIPOLE

• DVOR MONITOR ANTENNA

• HULA HOOP MOBILE ANTENNA

• SLEEVE MONOPOLE ANTENNA

• V.H.F. YAGI ANTENNA

• YAGI WITH FOLDED DIPOLE

• TELEMETRY ANTENNA

• LOG PERIODIC ANTENNA

3.4U.H.F.Antennas:
• HELICAL ANTENNA

• BICONICAL ANTENNA

• CORNER REFLECTOR ANTENNA

• DISCONE ANTENNA

• U H F COLLINEAR ANTENNA

• VHF / UHF CAGE DIPOLE ANTENNA

• MAGNETIC BASE ANTENNA

• YAGI ANTENNA

• MOBILE VEHICULAR JAMMER ANTENNA


• WHIP ANTENNA( TYPE : AT/271A/PRC)

CHAPTER:4
ANTENNA TESTING PROCEDURE
4.1 VSWR
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) is the ratio of the maximum voltage to the
minimum voltage in the standing wave on a transmission line. Standing waves are the
result of reflected RF energy. As the VSWR approaches 1.00:1, the reflections on the line
approach zero and maximum power may be transmitted.

Reflections occur any place where the impedance of the transmission line
changes. Inside a typical base station antenna, the impedance of the line is changed at
many places in order to distribute the RF energy across the aperture. Antenna engineers
design matching sections inside the antenna to minimize the overall impedance change
(and associated reflections) relative to a 50 ohm reference. Measuring the VSWR of the
antenna indicates the how closely the antenna is matched to 50 ohms impedance and
indicates the magnitude of the reflected energy.

4.2 VSWR measurement


The VSWR of base station antennas is measured using a device called a
network analyzer. The network analyzer is a meter that injects signals into the antenna
across a wide frequency band and measures the magnitude of the reflected signals.
Calibration standards are used to “calibrate” or “zero” the network analyzer at the end of
a test cable. This point becomes the “reference plane” to which the impedance of the
antenna under test is compared.

4.3 Finding a proper location to test antennas


When measuring VSWR, a small amount of RF energy is transmitted by the network
analyzer and radiated from the antenna under test. Any external objects (particularly
metal objects) in the field of view of the antenna will reflect that energy back into the
antenna. This reflected signal will add to or subtract from the internal reflections of the
antenna as a function of wavelength, causing ripple to be seen in the VSWR
measurement. The magnitude of this ripple can be large enough to make a “good”
antenna appear “bad.”

When base station antennas are tested at the factory, the antenna is placed in front
of a wall of RF absorbing material. The RF absorber dissipates the radiated energy from
the antenna and prevents reflections outside of the antenna from bouncing back into the
measurement. This allows an accurate, repeatable measure of the antenna’s VSWR and
closely simulates the free-space environment the antenna will see in the field.

Since RF absorbing walls are not generally available in the field, care must be
taken to minimize external reflections when measuring the antenna. The best test location
is one that allows a clear, unobstructed view of the sky over a wide horizontal area. Since
most base station antennas have a wide beam in the azimuth direction, care must be given
to minimize obstructions ± 60° on either side of the antenna. Testing the antenna while it
is installed on a tower will typically provide good results. If the antenna is being tested on
the ground, candidate test locations are fields, empty lots, rooftops or loading docks.
Other considerations:

1) Never test base station antennas inside a building (unless you have a wall of RF
absorber!)
2) Do not point the antenna at the ground.
3) Avoid parked cars, fences and buildings within the field of view of the antenna.
4) Do not put any part of your body in front of the antenna while performing a test. Arms
and legs in front of the antenna will cause large reflections!

Calibrate the network analyzer + test cable according to the manufacturer’s


recommended procedure.

4.4 Test the antenna


Attach the calibrated reference plane (test cable) directly to the antenna under test.
Make sure the connection is tight. Observe the maximum VSWR in the frequency range
of interest on the network analyzer. Compare the value measured to the antenna
manufacturer’s specification for that antenna to determine if the antenna is “good” or
“bad.”

Do not measure the antenna VSWR through a feed line and/or jumper cable!
Measuring the antenna + feed line and/or jumper cable will provide a measure of the
cascaded mismatch of the various transmission line components. The VSWR measured in
this manner is not an accurate measure of the antenna mismatch by itself. To determine
whether or not the antenna is functioning correctly, the reference plane of the network
analyzer must be connected directly to the antenna under test.

Fig4.5:Block Diagram for VSWR Measurement


4.5 BANDWIDTH
The circuit is connected as above and measured the VSWR value of antenna for
different frequencies in between the band for which antenna is designed and the band of
frequencies where VSWR is 1:1.5 (or required VSWR)is called its band width.
For Example if an antenna is designed for a frequency of 780 MHZ and the VSWR value
is from 750 MHz to 810 MHz then Band width
Bandwidth = F2- F1
F2= Upper band frequency
F1=lower band frequency
For above example bandwidth= 810-750 MHz=60 MHz.

4.6 BEAM WIDTH


Beam width will be measured only for directional and Bi-directional antenna.
Erect the antenna as shown in the drawing below. Switch on the sweep
generator to centre frequency of the antenna to be tested and sufficient R.F.output. One
antenna is connected to the output of sweep generator. And one more antenna of the same
type and same frequency is erected exactly opposite and at the same height as the
transmitting antenna located at a distance of 3-5 Meters. The second antenna is a
receiving antenna and should be connected to a signal strength meter or a Spectrum
Analyzer through a feeder cable . A disc with 360 º mark is kept at the bottom of the
mast of the receiving antenna which is the antenna under test and a pointer to indicate the
degrees is fixed. The direction of Rx antenna is rotated slightly on both sides to obtain the
maximum signal level as indicated on the spectrum analyzer. Then adjust the disc so that
pointer is against zero on the disc. Rotate mast Rx slowly till the signal level on
spectrum analyzer falls by 3 dB. Note the degrees on the disc opposite to the pointer.
Rotate the mast in the opposite direction till the signal strength falls by 3 dB on the other
side and note the degrees opposite to the pointer. The total degrees from one end to the
other end are the total beam width of the antenna. Test set up as shown in the below
diagram.
Fig4.6:Beamwidth and front to back ratio Measurement setup

4.7 FRONT TO BACK RATIO


Proceed as explained above and erect the Tx and Rx antennas. Adjust the Rx
antenna for maximum signal strength and set the disc to zero. Note the signal level on
spectrum analyzer of the Rx antenna. Rotate Rx antenna to 180 º . Note the signal level
on the spectrum analyzer and the difference in the levels is the Front to Back ratio in dB.
Test set up as shown in the above drawing.

4.8 GAIN MEASUREMENT


Erect the Tx and Rx antennas as shown in the below. Rotate the Rx antenna (the
antenna under test) for maximum signal level and note down the readings.
Substitute the Rx antenna with a standard dipole. The length of the dipole shall
be adjusted to the mid frequency with standard scale. Note the signal level and the
difference between the two levels is the gain of the antenna in dBd. Add 2.2 dB to obtain
dBi. Test set up as shown in the figure.
Fig4.8:Gain Measurement Setup
CHAPTER :5
BLOCK DIAGRAM DISCRIPTION

Fig5.1:Block diagram comprises of transmitter section and receiver section as


shown in figure
5.1 TRANSMITTER
A transmitter is an electronic device which, usually with the aid of an antenna, propagates
an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications.

Generally in communication and information processing, a transmitter is any object


(source) which sends information to an observer (receiver). When used in this more
general sense, vocal cords may also be considered an example of a transmitter.

In radio electronics and broadcasting, a transmitter usually has a power supply, an


oscillator, a modulator, and amplifiers for audio frequency (AF) and radio frequency
(RF). The modulator is the device which piggybacks (or modulates) the signal
information onto the carrier frequency, which is then broadcast. Sometimes a device (for
example, a cell phone) contains both a transmitter and a radio receiver, with the
combined unit referred to as a transceiver. In amateur radio, a transmitter can be a
separate piece of electronic gear or a subset of a transceiver, and often referred to using
an abbreviated form; "XMTR". In most parts of the world, use of transmitters is strictly
controlled by laws since the potential for dangerous interference (for example to
emergency communications) is considerable. In consumer electronics, a common device
is a Personal FM transmitter, a very low power transmitter generally designed to take a
simple audio source like an iPod, CD player, etc. and transmit it a few feet to a standard
FM radio receiver. Most personal FM transmitters in the United States fall under Part 15
of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations to avoid any user
licensing requirements.

In industrial process control, a "transmitter" is any device which converts measurements


from a sensor into a signal, conditions it, to be received, usually sent via wires, by some
display or control device located a distance away. Typically in process control
applications the "transmitter" will output an analog 4-20 mA current loop or digital
protocol to represent a measured variable within a range. For example, a pressure
transmitter might use 4 mA as a representation for 50 psig of pressure and 20 mA as 1000
psig of pressure and any value in between proportionately ranged between 50 and 1000
psig. (A 0-4 mA signal indicates a system error.) Older technology transmitters used
pneumatic pressure typically ranged between 3 to 15 psig (20 to 100 kPa) to represent a
process variable.

5.1.1 Microphone
A microphone (colloquially called a mic or mike )is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or
sensor that converts soundinto an electrical signal. In 1876, Emile Berliner invented the
first microphone used as a telephone voice transmitter. Microphones are used in many
applications such as telephones, tape recorders, karaoke systems, hearing aids, motion
picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, FRS radios, megaphones, in
radio and television broadcasting and in computers for recording voice, speech
recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic checking or knock
sensors. Most microphones today use electromagnetic induction (dynamic microphone),
capacitance change (condenser microphone, pictured right), piezoelectric generation, or
light modulation to produce an electrical voltage signal from mechanical vibration.

Condenser Microphones
Condenser means capacitor, an electronic component which stores energy in the form of
an electrostatic field. The term condenser is actually obsolete but has stuck as the name
for this type of microphone, which uses a capacitor to convert acoustical energy into
electrical energy.

Condenser microphones require power from a battery or external source. The


resulting audio signal is stronger signal than that from a dynamic. Condensers also tend
to be more sensitive and responsive than dynamics, making them well-suited to capturing
subtle nuances in a sound. They are not ideal for high-volume work, as their sensitivity
makes them prone to distort.
Fig 5.1.1 Condenser Microphone
How Condenser Microphones Work
A capacitor has two plates with a voltage between them. In the condenser mic, one of
these plates is made of very light material and acts as the diaphragm. The diaphragm
vibrates when struck by sound waves, changing the distance between the two plates and
therefore changing the capacitance. Specifically, when the plates are closer together,
capacitance increases and a charge current occurs. When the plates are further apart,
capacitance decreases and a discharge current occurs.

A voltage is required across the capacitor for this to work. This voltage is supplied
either by a battery in the mic or by external phantom power.

5.1.2 Audio Amplifier


An audio amplifier is an electronic amplifier that amplifies low-power
audio signals (signals composed primarily of frequencies between 20 hertzto 20,000
hertz, the human range of hearing) to a level suitable for driving loudspeakers and is the
final stage in a typical audio playback chain.

The preceding stages in such a chain are low power audio amplifiers which perform tasks
like pre-amplification, equalization, tone control,mixing/effects, or audio sources
like record players,CD players, and cassette players. Most audio amplifiers require these
low-level inputs to adhere toline levels.

While the input signal to an audio amplifier may measure only a few hundred microwatts,
its output may be tens, hundreds, or thousands of watts.

IC LA 4510

Applications
• Especially suited for use in 3V micro cassette recorder,
mini cassette recorder, headphone stereo applications.
Features
• Operating supply voltage range : 2 to 5V.
• Low current dissipation (7mA typ/VCC=3V).
• Output power :
240mW typ at VCC=3V, RL=4W, THD=10%
40mW typ at VCC=3V, RL=32W, THD=10%
• Built-in muting circuit to be operated at the time of power switch ON capable of
varying starting time and making pop noise low.

5.1.3 OSCILLATORS

Introduction
Oscillators can generally be categorised as either amplifiers with positive feedback
satisfying the wellknown Barkhausen Criteria (Ref. 1), or as negative resistance circuits
(Ref. 2). Both concepts are illustrated At RF and Microwave frequencies the negative
resistance design technique is generally favoured.

Fig 5.1.3 Oscillator


The procedure is to design an active negative resistance circuit which, under large-signal
steady-state conditions, exactly cancels out the load and any other positive resistance in
the closed loop circuit. This leaves the equivalent circuit represented by a single L and C
in either parallel (as illustrated) or series configuration. At a frequency the reactances will
be equal and opposite, and this resonant frequency is given by the standard formula;

It can be shown that in the presence of excess negative resistance in the small-signal
state, any small perturbation caused, for example, by noise will rapidly build up into a
large signal steady-state resonance given by equation Negative resistors are easily
designed by taking a three terminal active device and applying the correct amount of
feedback to a common port, such that the magnitude of the input reflection coefficient
becomes greater than one. This implies that the real part of the input impedance is
negative . The input of the 2-port negative resistance circuit can now simply be
terminated in the opposite sign reactance to complete the oscillator circuit. Alternatively
high-Q series or parallel resonator circuits can be used to generate higher quality and
therefore lower phase noise oscillators. Over the years several RF oscillator
configurations have become standard. The Colpitts, Hartly and Clapp circuits are
examples of negative resistance oscillators shown here using bipolars as the active
devices. The Pierce circuit is an op-amp with positive feedback, and is widely utilised in
the crystal oscillator industry
Fig 5.1.3 RF oscillators
This paper will now concentrate on a worked example of a Clapp oscillator, using a
varactor tuned ceramic coaxial resonator for voltage control of the output frequency. The
frequency under consideration will be around 1.4 GHz, which is purposely set in-between
the two important GSM mobile phone frequencies. It has been used at Plextek in Satellite
Digital Audio Broadcasting circuits, and in telemetry links for Formula One racing cars.
At these frequencies it is vital to include all stray and parasitic elements early on in the
simulation. For example, any coupling capacitances or mutual inductances affect the
equivalent L and C values in equation, and therefore the final oscillation frequency.
Likewise, any extra parasitic resistance means that more negative resistance needs to be
generated.
5.1.4 Amplitude Modulation

Amplitude modulation or AM as it is often called, is a form of modulation used for radio


transmissions for broadcasting and two way radio communication applications. Although
one of the earliest used forms of modulation it is still in widespread use today.

With the introduction of continuous sine wave signals, transmissions improved


significantly, and AM soon became the standard for voice transmissions. Nowadays,
amplitude modulation, AM is used for audio broadcasting on the long medium and short
wave bands, and for two way radio communication at VHF for aircraft. However as there
now are more efficient and convenient methods of modulating a signal, its use is
declining, although it will still be very many years before it is no longer used.

In order that a radio signal can carry audio or other information for broadcasting or for
two way radio communication, it must be modulated or changed in some way. Although
there are a number of ways in which a radio signal may be modulated, one of the easiest,
and one of the first methods to be used was to change its amplitude in line with variations
of the sound.

The basic concept surrounding what is amplitude modulation, AM, is quite


straightforward. The amplitude of the signal is changed in line with the instantaneous
intensity of the sound. In this way the radio frequency signal has a representation of the
sound wave superimposed in it. In view of the way the basic signal "carries" the sound or
modulation, the radio frequency signal is often termed the "carrier".
Fig5.1.4 Amplitude Modulation, AM

When a carrier is modulated in any way, further signals are created that carry the actual
modulation information. It is found that when a carrier is amplitude modulated, further
signals are generated above and below the main carrier. To see how this happens, take the
example of a carrier on a frequency of 1 MHz which is modulated by a steady tone of 1
kHz.

The process of modulating a carrier is exactly the same as mixing two signals together,
and as a result both sum and difference frequencies are produced. Therefore when a tone
of 1 kHz is mixed with a carrier of 1 MHz, a "sum" frequency is produced at 1 MHz + 1
kHz, and a difference frequency is produced at 1 MHz - 1 kHz, i.e. 1 kHz above and
below the carrier.
If the steady state tones are replaced with audio like that encountered with speech of
music, these comprise many different frequencies and an audio spectrum with
frequencies over a band of frequencies is seen. When modulated onto the carrier, these
spectra are seen above and below the carrier.

It can be seen that if the top frequency that is modulated onto the carrier is 6 kHz, then
the top spectra will extend to 6 kHz above and below the signal. In other words the
bandwidth occupied by the AM signal is twice the maximum frequency of the signal that
is used to modulated the carrier, i.e. it is twice the bandwidth of the audio signal to be
carried.

Advantages of Amplitude Modulation, AM

There are several advantages of amplitude modulation, and some of these reasons have
meant that it is still in widespread use today:

• It is simple to implement
• it can be demodulated using a circuit consisting of very few components
• AM receivers are very cheap as no specialised components are needed.

5.1.5 Mixers

The function of the mixer is to convert the receiver RF signal to a fixed frequency IF, by
mixing it with a locally-generated oscillator signal (local oscillator, or LO). This means
that selective filtering, most of the system gain, and demodulation can all be carried out
at a convenient fixed frequency. Generally, when two signals are combined in a non-
linear element, other frequencies are generated , the principal of these being the sum and
the difference between the two input frequencies. For example, if frequencies of 100MHz
and 145MHz are mixed, we get 245MHz and 45MHz at the output. Either of these could
be selected as our IF but, for receiver applications, it would be usual to choose 45MHz.
The higher frequency would selected for a transmitter (up-converter).
Usually the IF is at a lower frequency than the input RF, but this is not always the case.
Sometimes, where a very broad tuning range is required (such as in a multi-band HF
communications receiver), it is more convenient to use a first IF of 45MHz, say, and then
to convert down again in a second mixer. Using a high first IF and a second conversion
has other benefits.

5.1.6 The Power Amplifier.

The last active device in the transmitter chain is generally known as the Power Amplifier
(PA). This device (sometimes there are two, as in a balanced amplifier) provides the
specified RF output power to the antenna. Transmitter output power is generally defined
as the power fed to a resistive dummy load, connected at the antenna port. Inevitably,
there will be losses between the PA and the antenna port (PIN switch and/or
filter/duplexer). A good design will make every effort to minimize these losses, but the
actual PA power may need to be 2 - 3dB higher than the specified output power. Thus,
for 10 watts output, the PA will need to deliver 16 - 20 watts.

Matching.
In order to deliver maximum power, the device should be ‘matched’ at input and output.
Figures will be given on the manufacturer’s data sheet for input and output impedances
under different operating conditions. As these impedances are usually ‘complex’, it is
important to remember that the matching network must be the conjugate of the given
figures. For example, a transistor having a Zout = 5 + j3 needs a matching impedance of
5 - j3. The output will generally be matched to 50Ω, but sometimes it is convenient to
match the input directly to the driver impedance (non-50Ω). In calculating values for the
matching network, it is helpful to use a Smith Chart and there are several useful
programs that will do this on your PC. Another factor to be considered is the ‘Q’ of the
matching network. For a single frequency, the Q can be quite high, but where a
transmitter is required to operate over a wide band of frequencies, the Q will need to be
low. It is no use matching the transmitter at band center if there is a serious mismatch at
the band extremities. Low Q is achieved by using two or more sections] in the matching
network. The effect of this can easily be seen on the Smith Chart, when Q curves are
displayed. A link to a free program, QuickSmith, is given in section 3.17 (Appendices).
At microwave frequencies, lumped elements (capacitors, inductors) become unsuitable as
tuning] components and are used primarily as chokes and bypasses. Matching, tuning,
and filtering at microwave frequencies are therefore accomplished with distributed
(transmission-line) networks. It is common to use a transmission line between the device
and load to provide the desired matching value. A stub that is a quarter-wavelength at the
frequency of interest and open at one end provides a short circuit. Similarly, a quarter-
wavelength shorted at one end provides an open circuit. Stubs that are less than a quarter-
wavelength behave as capacitors.

Advantages:
1. Guaranteed performance.
2. Extremely compact size.
3. 50Ω input and output impedances (requires no matching).

Disadvantages:
1. May not be available for less popular frequency bands.
2. Single source manufacturer.
3. Can be more expensive than discrete equivalent.

PA Efficiency and Class of operation.


The bias conditions for the PA stages and the mode of operation are generically defined
by “class”. Definition of the various classes is as follows:

Class A.
When the active device is biased for linear operation, such that any small change at its
input causes a corresponding, but much larger change at its output, this is defined as
Class A operation. When this is applied to a PA stage, a constant high current will flow
through the device. Maximum power will be when the load equals the (resistive) output
impedance of the device and the peak-to-peak output voltage is equal to the supply
voltage (less any volt-drop across the active device itself). Maximum stage efficiency is
25% and, for good linear performance, may drop to 15 - 20%.

Class B.
For Class B operation, the active device is biased at the cut-off point (i.e. zero current)
and conducts only during the positive half of the drive cycle. In the absence of a ‘tank’
circuit, this would act like an inverting half-wave rectifier and only negative-going half
cycles would appear at the output. The tank actually comprises a matching network with
a ‘Q’ value greater than unity and preferably at least 3. To recover the missing half cycle,
the tank allows the supply voltage to over-swing by an amount equal to the negative
excursion, thus effectively doubling the supply voltage and hence the available RF output
voltage. Since the actual dc supply does not change and average current remains the
same, it follows that the PA efficiency is doubled to 50%. Again, this is an ideal figure
and actual efficiency may be more like 45%.

Class AB.
In Class AB, the active device is biased such that it is just turned on, but the quiescent
current is very much lower than for a Class A amplifier. Class AB is not linear, and so
could not be used where a linear amplifier is required. Its benefit is that it is more
efficient than a Class A stage, but requires less drive power than Class B or Class C.

Class C.
Class C operation is very similar to Class B, except that the active device is biased
beyond cut-off. With discrete silicon transistors, this condition is conveniently achieved
by simply omitting any dc bias components and returning the base-drive input to ground
through an RF choke, or resistor. The drive voltage will cause base current to flow during
the positive half-cycle and the rectifying action of the base-emitter junction will result in
a negative dc voltage on the base. The angle of conduction will depend upon the
amplitude of the drive voltage and the value of resistance in the return path. Thus, a large
value of resistor would cause a large negative bias and the transistor would conduct only
on the tips of the drive waveform, resulting in little or no output power. A low value of
resistor will result in a larger angle of conduction and, with zero ohms, the bias will
effectively be the fixed Vb-e of the transistor itself (about 0.7V). For adequate drive to
achieve the desired power output, the conduction angle should not be less than 60°, where
a PA efficiency of up to 70% is possible. See Class C output stages are quite common for
FM (or FSK) transmitters in the VHF and low UHF bands, but as the operating frequency
is increased, it becomes difficult to achieve sufficient gain in
the PA stages without using some forward bias. For very high power transmitters using
vacuum tubes, a fixed negative supply voltage is required to achieve Class C operation.
A Class C power amplifier for the 440MHz band. Self-bias is produced by conduction at
the base-emitter junction and is proportional to the drive current and the value of base
resistor. A 2-stage PA for 1.8GHz, using FET’s and transmission line matching elements.
Note that this is not operating in Class C - these devices require a negative gate voltage
for normal conduction.

Class D.
A Class D PA uses two or more transistors as switches to generate a square-wave at the
transmitter frequency. A series-tuned output filter passes only the fundamental-frequency
component to the load. Current is drawn only through the transistor that is on, resulting in
a theoretical 100% efficiency for an ideal PA. If the switching is sufficiently fast,
efficiency is not degraded by reactance in the load, but practical PA’s suffer from losses
due to saturation, switching speed, and output capacitance. Finite switching speed causes
the transistors to be in their active regions while conducting current. Output capacitances
must be charged and discharged once per RF cycle, resulting in power loss that is
proportional to, and increases directly with frequency. Class D PA’s with power outputs
of 100 W to 1 kW are readily implemented at HF, but are seldom used above lower VHF
because of the losses associated with output capacitance.

Class E.
Class E employs a single transistor operated as a switch. The load voltage waveform is
the result of the sum of the dc and RF currents charging the load shunt capacitance. For
optimum performance, the PA voltage drops to zero and has zero slope just as the
transistor turns on. The result is an ideal efficiency of 100%, elimination of the losses
associated with charging the load capacitance in class D, reduction of switching losses,
and good tolerance of component variation. Variations in load impedance and shunt
susceptance cause the PA to deviate from optimum operation, but the capability
for efficient operation in the presence of significant drain capacitance makes class E
useful in some applications. High-efficiency HF PA’s with power levels to 1 kW can be
implemented using low-cost MOSFETs intended for switching rather than RF use. Class
E has been used for high-efficiency amplification in the PA for a 900MHz CDMA
handset, using a single GaAs-HBT RFIC that includes a single-ended

Class-AB PA.
A typical PA module produces 28 dBm (631 mW) at full output with a typical PA
efficiency of 35 - 50%. A useful (free) design program may be found at
Page 70

Class F.
Class F boosts both efficiency and output by using harmonic resonators in the output
network to shape the waveforms. The voltage waveform includes one or more odd
harmonics and approximates a square wave, while the current includes even harmonics
and approximates a half sine wave. Alternately (inverse class F), the voltage can
approximate a half sine wave and the current a square wave. As the number of harmonics
increases, the theoretical efficiency increases from 50% toward 100% (e.g., 70.7, 81.65,
86.56, 90.45 for two, three, four, and five harmonics, respectively). The required
harmonics arise naturally from non-linearity and saturation in the transistor. While class
F requires a more complex output filter than other PA’s, the impedances at the “virtual
drain” must be correct at only a few specific frequencies. A variety of modes of operation
in-between classes C, E, and F are possible.
5.2 REGULATED POWER SUPPLY
The micro controller IC requires a 5v of regulated voltage for its function.
To provide regulated voltage we go for R.P.S. It consists of a step down transformer and
a rectifier circuit and a filter circuit and a regulator circuit.

Fig5.2 Regulated Power supply


Working:
Power supply circuit provides a required constant voltage to a load. The circuit
consists of step down transformer which takes the input from AC mains and down
converts it to 12V (which is required). The bridge rectifier circuit converts AC signal to
DC signal of 12V. IC 78XXis a three terminal positive voltage regulator and XX
indicates the output voltage of the regulator. The capacitor acts as filter that allows only
DC signal to pass. IC 7812 regulates the voltage of 12V which is required by the stepper
motor to overcome initial torque. IC 7805 regulates the voltage to 5V.when the switch is
ON, the LED glows and 5V is given to the load. A resistor placed in series with the LED
in order to protect the LED, which requires only 2V.The remaining 3V is dropped across
the resistor. The final 5V is given to 31st and 40Th pin of 8051 microcontroller, stepper
motor and LCD display.
5.2.1 Transformer

A transformer makes use of Faraday's law and the ferromagnetic properties of an


iron core to efficiently raise or lower AC voltages. It of course cannot increase power so
that if the voltage is raised, the current is proportionally lowered and vice versa.

Fig5.2.1 Transformer

Transformers with primary and secondary windings of identical inductance, give


approximately equal voltage and current levels in both circuits. Equality of voltage and
current between the primary and secondary sides of a transformer, however, is not the
norm for all transformers. If the inductances of the two windings are not equal, something
interesting happens:
This is a very useful device, indeed. With it, we can easily multiply
or divide voltage and current in AC circuits. Indeed, the transformer has made long-
distance transmission of electric power a practical reality, as AC voltage can be "stepped
up" and current "stepped down" for reduced wire resistance power losses along power
lines connecting generating stations with loads. At either end (both the generator and at
the loads), voltage levels are reduced by transformers for safer operation and less
expensive equipment. A transformer that increases voltage from primary to secondary
(more secondary winding turns than primary winding turns) is called a step-up
transformer. Conversely, a transformer designed to do just the opposite is called a step-
down transformer.

5.2.2 RECTIFIERS

A d.c. power supply is used for operating all digital circuit applications using BJTS ,or
FETS .The d.c voltage needed are in the range of +18V to -18V.In digital circuits,
particularly for the TTL gates the d.c voltage required is +5V. Use batteries is an solution
for supplying power to the transistor circuits, and in fact in large number of applications
they are .Unfortunately batteries run down very fast when currents are drawn and the
only convenient source of power is the 230V, 50Hz a.c supply mains. The a.c. signal is
stepped down, rectified, filtered and regulated to give the required d.c voltage.
Semiconductor diodes are invariably used as rectifiers for lower voltages in the transistor
circuits.
HALF WAVE RECTIFIER

The circuit consists of a diode with the load resistance R in series

Fig5.2.3 Half Wave Rectifier

The 230V,50Hz a.c is stepped down to Vac by a transformer and applied to the
diode. The diode conducts only when the voltage at its anode is positive with respect to
the cathode. In most of the analysis to follow we shall neglect the small cut-in voltage of
the diode in comparison to the Vac.the diode current Id ,is positive and unidirectional.
The output voltage Vo across the load resistance will be IdR. The output voltage will
have the same wave shape as the signal for the positive half cycle and zero otherwise.
FULLWAVE RECTIFIER

The circuit arrangement in the half wave rectifier is such that the current is driven into
the load only during half the cycle. By the full wave rectifier arrangement it is possible to
get this difficulty and drives the load during the positive and negative half cycles of the
input. The circuit consists of a centre tapped transformer. During the positive half cycle,
the diode D1 conducts and the current flows into the load R. The voltage at the anode of
diode D2 is negative throughout this positive cycle and hence it is cut-off. During the
negative half cycle the voltage at the anode of D2 is positive and it conducts. Thus, the
load current and hence the voltage across R is unidirectional.

Between the two rectifier circuits, the half wave and the full wave –the voltage output,
ripple factor and the efficiency of the full wave rectifier is superior. An additional factor
in favour of the full wave rectifier circuit is that equal current flows through the two
halves of the centre tapped secondary of the transformer and consequently d.c.
saturation of the core is avoided. Half wave rectifier has the advantage of a simpler
circuitry and lower cost.

The frequency components other than the zero frequency must be reduced by some
method in order to provide a useful d.c. voltage at the output .The simplest technique will
be to filter out the unwanted frequencies by a low pass filter.

BRIDGE RECTIFIER

As the name suggests the four diodes are connected in a bridge and circuit is a full wave
rectifier. One of the main feature of the bridge rectifier is that it does not require a centre
tap transformer. On the positive half of the cycle, the current flows from A through
D1,R,D2 and back to B. During the negative half cycle the current flows from B through
D3,R,D4 and back to A. The current through the load R is in the same direction the two
half cycles. When D1 and D2 conduct the diodes D3 and D4 are reverse biased and vice-
versa. The peak inverse voltage across the diode is Vm only whereas it was 2Vm in the
full wave rectifier circuit. The current flows all the time in the secondary of the
transformer of the bridge rectifier , as against the full wave rectifier where the current
flows half the time in each winding of the centre-tapped transformer. The current rating
of the transformer in the bridge rectifier is thus about 2/3 of the rating of the same
transformer in the full wave circuit.

5.2.3 FILTER CIRCUIT


Low-Pass Filter

Figure 3.2 shows one possible low-pass filter. The circuit is essentially a
frequency-sensitive voltage divider. At high frequencies the output behaves as if it
is shorted while at low frequencies the output appears as an open circuit.

Fig5.2.3 (a)RC low-pass filter

Mathematically we have
High-Pass Filter

Fig 5.2.3 (b): RC high-pass filter.

At low and high frequencies

At the corner frequency we have

5.3 RECEIVER

5.3.1 TUNED CIRCUIT


To understand tuned circuits, we first have to understand the phenomenon of self-
induction. And to understand this, we need to know about induction.The first discovery
about the interaction between electric current and magnetism was the realization that an
electric current created a magnetic field around the conductor. It was then discovered that
this effect could be enhanced greatly by winding the conductor into a coil. The effect
proved to be two-way: If a conductor, maybe in the form of a coil was placed in a
changing magnetic field, a current could be made to flow in it; this is called induction.
So imagine a coil, and imagine that we apply a voltage to it. As current starts to flow, a
magnetic field is created. But this means that our coil is in a changing magnetic field, and
this induces a current in the coil. The induced current runs contrary to the applied current,
effectively diminishing it. We have discovered self-induction. What happens is that the
self-induction delays the build-up of current in the coil, but eventually the current will
reach its maximum and stabilize at a value only determined by the ohmic resistance in the
coil and the voltage applied. We now have a steady current and a steady magnetic field.
During the buildup of the field, energy was supplied to the coil, where did that energy
go? It went into the magnetic field, and as long as the magnetic field exists, it will be
stored there.

Now imagine that we remove the current source. Without a steady


current to uphold it, the magnetic field starts to disappear, but this means our coil is again
in a variable field which induces a current into it. This time the current is in the direction
of the applied current, delaying the decay of the current and the magnetic field till the
stored energy is spent. This can give a funny effect: Since the coil must get rid of the
stored energy, the voltage over it rises indefinitely until a current can run somewhere!
This means you can get a surprising amount of sparks and arching when coils are
involved. If the coil is large enough, you can actually get an electric shock from a low-
voltage source like an ohmmeter.
Self-inductance is measured in henry (H or Hy). A henry is almost as enourmous value as
a Farad, and coils are often measured in milli, micro and even nanohenry.

An LC circuit is a resonant circuit or tuned circuit that consists of an


inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C. When
connected together, an electric currentcan alternate between them at the circuit's resonant
frequency.

LC circuits are used either for generating signals at a particular


frequency, or picking out a signal at a particular frequency from a more complex signal.
They are key components in many applications such as oscillators, filters, tuners and
frequency mixers. An LC circuit is an idealized model since it assumes there is no
dissipation of energy due to resistance. For a model incorporating resistance see RLC
circuit.
Operation:
An LC circuit can store electrical energy vibrating at its resonant frequency. A capacitor
stores energy in the electric field between its plates, depending on the voltage across it,
and an inductor stores energy in itsmagnetic field, depending on the current through it.
If a charged capacitor is connected across an inductor, charge will start to flow through
the inductor, building up a magnetic field around it, and reducing the voltage on the
capacitor. Eventually all the charge on the capacitor will be gone and the voltage across it
will reach zero. However, the current will continue, because inductors resist changes in
current, and energy will begin to be extracted from the magnetic field to keep it flowing.
The current will begin to charge the capacitor with a voltage of opposite polarity to its
original charge. When the magnetic field is completely dissipated the current will stop
and the charge will again be stored in the capacitor, with the opposite polarity as before.
Then the cycle will begin again, with the current flowing in the opposite direction
through the inductor.

The charge flows back and forth between the plates of the
capacitor, through the inductor. The energy oscillates back and forth between the
capacitor and the inductor until (if not replenished by power from an external circuit)
internal resistance makes the oscillations die out. Its action, known mathematically as a
harmonic oscillator, is similar to a pendulum swinging back and forth, or water sloshing
back and forth in a tank. For this reason the circuit is also called a tank circuit. The
oscillations are very fast, typically hundreds to billions of times per second.

LC Tuned Circuit
An LC circuit is a resonant circuit or tuned circuit that consists of an inductor,
represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C. When connected
together, an electric currentcan alternate between them at the circuit's resonant frequency.
LC circuits are used either for generating signals at a particular frequency, or picking out
a signal at a particular frequency from a more complex signal. They are key components
in many applications such as oscillators, filters, tuners and frequency mixers. An LC

Fig5.3.1 LC oscillator

circuit is an idealized model since it assumes there is no dissipation of energy due


to resistance. For a model incorporating resistance

An LC circuit can store electrical energy vibrating at its resonant frequency. A capacitor
stores energy in the electric field between its plates, depending on the voltage across it,
and an inductor stores energy in itsmagnetic field, depending on the current through it.

If a charged capacitor is connected across an inductor, charge will start to flow through
the inductor, building up a magnetic field around it, and reducing the voltage on the
capacitor. Eventually all the charge on the capacitor will be gone and the voltage across it
will reach zero. However, the current will continue, because inductors resist changes in
current, and energy will begin to be extracted from the magnetic field to keep it flowing.
The current will begin to charge the capacitor with a voltage of opposite polarity to its
original charge. When the magnetic field is completely dissipated the current will stop
and the charge will again be stored in the capacitor, with the opposite polarity as before.
Then the cycle will begin again, with the current flowing in the opposite direction
through the inductor.

The charge flows back and forth between the plates of the capacitor,
through the inductor. The energy oscillates back and forth between the capacitor and the
inductor until (if not replenished by power from an external circuit)
internal resistance makes the oscillations die out. Its action, known mathematically as
a harmonic oscillator, is similar to a pendulum swinging back and forth, or water sloshing
back and forth in a tank. For this reason the circuit is also called a tank circuit. The
oscillations are very fast, typically hundreds to billions of times per second.

5.3.2 DETECTOR

A detector is a device that recovers information of interest contained in


a modulated wave. The term dates from the early days of radio when all transmissions
were in Morse code, and it was only necessary to detect the presence (or absence) of a
radio wave using a device such as a coherer without necessarily making it audible. A
more up-to-date term is "demodulator", but "detector" has a history of many decades of
use, even if it is a misnomer.

Envelope detector

One major technique is known as envelope detection. The simplest form of envelope
detector is the diode detector that consists of a diode connected between the input and
output of the circuit, with a resistor and capacitor in parallel from the output of the circuit
to the ground. If the resistor and capacitor are correctly chosen, the output of this circuit
will approximate a voltage-shifted version of the original signal.

An early form of envelope detector was the cat's whisker, which was used in the crystal
set radio receiver.
Product detector
A product detector is a type of demodulator used for AM and SSB signals. Rather than
converting the envelope of the signal into the decoded waveform like an envelope
detector, the product detector takes the product of the modulated signal and a local
oscillator, hence the name. At least partially, it multiplies the signal by the output of the
local oscillator. This can be accomplished by heterodyning. The received signal is mixed,
in some type of nonlinear device, with a signal from the local oscillator, to produce
an intermediate frequency, referred to as the beat frequency, from which the modulating
signal is detected and recovered.

5.3.3 Amplitude demodulation

Amplitude modulation, AM, is one of the most straightforward ways of modulating a


radio signal or carrier. The process of demodulation, where the audio signal is removed
from the radio carrier in the receiver is also quite simple as well. The easiest method of
achieving amplitude demodulation is to use a simple diode detector. This consists of just
a handful of components:- a diode, resistor and a capacitor.

Fig5.3.3 AM Diode Detector


In this circuit, the diode rectifies the signal, allowing only half of the alternating
waveform through. The capacitor is used to store the charge and provide a smoothed
output from the detector, and also to remove any unwanted radio frequency components.
The resistor is used to enable the capacitor to discharge. If it were not there and no other
load was present, then the charge on the capacitor would not leak away, and the circuit
would reach a peak and remain there.

5.3.4 AUDIO AMPLIFIER


An audio amplifier is an electronic amplifier that amplifies low-power
audio signals (signals composed primarily of frequencies between 20 hertzto 20,000
hertz, the human range of hearing) to a level suitable for driving loudspeakers and is the
final stage in a typical audio playback chain.

The preceding stages in such a chain are low power audio amplifiers which perform tasks
like pre-amplification, equalization, tone control,mixing/effects, or audio sources
like record players,CD players, and cassette players. Most audio amplifiers require these
low-level inputs to adhere toline levels.

While the input signal to an audio amplifier may measure only a few hundred microwatts,
its output may be tens, hundreds, or thousands of watts.

5.3.5 SPEAKER

A speaker driver is an individual transducer that converts electrical energy to sound


waves, typically as part of a loudspeaker, television, or other electronics device.
Sometimes the transducer is itself referred to as a speaker, particularly when a single one
is mounted in an enclosure or as surface-mounted device (as in a wall-mounted
speaker, car audio speaker, and so on). There are many different types of speaker drivers.
The most common ones are the woofer, mid-range and tweeter, as well
as subwooferswhich are becoming very common. Less common types of speaker drivers
are supertweeters and rotary woofers, a new technology that is
still proprietary of Eminent Technology.
Description and operation

Cut-away view of a dynamic loudspeaker

Fig5.3.5 Speaker

Speaker drivers include a diaphragm that moves back and forth to create pressure
waves in the air column in front, and depending on the application, at some angle to the
sides. The diaphragm is typically in the shape of a cone or, less commonly, a ribbon or a
dome, and is usually made of coated or uncoated paper or polypropylene plastic.[1] More
exotic materials are used on some drivers, such as woven fiberglass, carbon
fiber, aluminum, titanium, and a very few use PEI, polyimide, PET film plastic film as
the cone, dome or radiator.
All speaker drivers have a means of electrically inducing back-and-forth motion.
Typically there is a tightly wound coil of insulated wire (known as a voice coil) attached
to the neck of the driver's cone. In a ribbon speaker the voice coil may be printed or
bonded onto a sheet of very thin paper, aluminium, fiberglass or plastic. This cone, dome
or other radiator is mounted to a rigid chassis which supports a permanent magnet in
close proximity to the voice coil. For the sake of efficiency the relatively lightweight
voice coil and cone are the moving parts of the driver, whereas the much heavier magnet
remains stationary. Other typical components are a spider or damper, used as the rear
suspension element, simple terminals or binding posts to connect the audio signal, and
possibly a compliant gasket to seal the joint between the chassis and enclosure.

Drivers are almost universally mounted into a rigid enclosure of wood, plastic, or
occasionally metal. This loudspeaker enclosure or speaker box isolates the acoustic
energy from the front of the cone from that of the the back of the cone. A horn may be
employed to increase efficiency and directionality. A grille, fabric mesh, or other
acoustically neutral screen is generally provided to cosmetically conceal the drivers and
hardware, and to protect the driver from physical damage.

In operation, a signal is delivered to the voice coil by means of electrical wires. The
current creates a magnetic field that causes the diaphragm to be alternately attracted to,
and repelled by, the fixed magnet as the electrical signal varies. The resulting back-and-
forth motion drives the air in front of the diaphragm, resulting in pressure differentials
that travel away as sound waves.

Speaker drivers may be designed to operate within a broad or narrow frequency range.
Small diaphragms are not well suited to moving the large volume of air that is required
for satisfying low frequency response. Conversely, large drivers may have heavy voice
coils and cones that limit their ability to move at very high frequencies. Drivers pressed
beyond their design limits may have high distortion. In a multi-way loudspeaker system,
specialized drivers are provided to produce specific frequency ranges, and the incoming
signal is split by a crossover.[1] Drivers can be sub-categorized into several types: full-
range, tweeters, super tweeters, mid-range drivers, woofers, and subwoofers.
CHAPTER: 6
LOG PERIODIC DIPOLE ARRAY (LPDA)

6.1 INTRODUCTION

The log-periodic dipole array (LPDA) consists of a system of driven elements, but not all
elements in the system are active on a single frequency of operation. Depending upon its
design parameters, the LPDA can be operated over a range of frequencies having a ratio
of 2:1 or higher, and over this range its electrical characteristics — gain, feed-point
impedance, front-to-back ratio, etc. - will remain more or less constant. This is not true of
any Multielement Directive Array Antenna, for either the gain factor or the front-to-back
ratio, or both, deteriorate rapidly as the frequency of operation departs from the design
frequency of the array. And because the antenna designs discussed earlier are based upon
resonant elements, off-resonance operation introduces reactance which causes the SWR
in the feeder system to increase.

The log-periodic array consists of several dipole elements which each are of different
lengths and different relative spacings. A distributive type of feeder system is used to
excite the individual elements. The element lengths and relative spacings, beginning from
the feed point for the array, are seen to increase smoothly in dimension, being greater for
each element than for the previous element in the array. It is this feature upon which the
design of the LPDA is based, and which permits changes in frequency to be made
without greatly affecting the electrical operation. With changes in operating frequency,
there is a smooth transition along the array of the elements which comprise the active
region.
A good LPDA may be designed for any band, hf to uhf, and can be built to meet the
amateur’s requirements at nominal cost: high forward gain, good front-to-back ratio, low
VSWR, and a boom length equivalent to a full sized three-element Yagi. The LPDA
exhibits a relatively low SWR (usually not greater than 2 to 1) over a wide band of
frequencies. A well-designed LPDA can yield a 1.3-to-l SWR over a 1.8-to-1 frequency
range with a typical directivity of 9.5 dB. (Directivity is the ratio of maximum radiation
intensity in the forward direction to the average radiation intensity from the array.
Assuming no resistive losses in the antenna system, 9.5 dB directivity equates to 9.5 dB
gain over an isotropic radiator or approximately 7.4 dB gain over a half-wave dipole.

6.2 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE LPDA

The design principles of the LPDA are well established. The LPDA is an array of dipoles
connected to a common transmission line fed from the apex of the array.
The transmission line from the feed must alternate which side of the line
connects to which side of the dipole in order to get the correct phasing to create an
antenna that radiates in the direction of the array apex. The transmission line consisted of
two strip conductors, one on
either side of the board. By putting one half of each dipole on either side of the board and
connecting it to the transmission line strip, and alternating which half dipole went on
which
side of the board, the alternating feed connection was obtained.
Fibre-glass board (ε r = 4.5) 1/16 inch thick was used to construct the LPDA.
The required frequency range of the LPDA was 900 MHz to 3GHz which meant that the
dipole elements, based on a free space wavelength could easily be accommodated on the
200 mm by 300 mm printed circuit board used.
Fig 6.2 . LPDA Antenna
The LPDA is frequency independent in that the electrical properties such as the mean
resistance level, RO , characteristic impedance of the feed line ZO , and driving-point
admittanceYO , vary periodically with the logarithm of the frequency. As the frequency f1
is shifted to another frequency f2 within the passband of the antenna, the relationship is f2

= f1 / τ .

τ = a design parameter, a constant; τ <l.0. Also

f1= lowest frequency


 fn= highest frequency
The design parameter τ is a geometric constant near 1.0 which is used to determine the
element lengths, l , and element spacings, d , as shown in Fig. That is,

Where ln= shortest element length, and

Where = spacing between elements 2 and 3.

Where , l = element length


h = element half length
d = element spacing
τ = design constant
σ = relative spacing constant
S = feeder spacing
Zo = characteristic impedance of antenna feeder
Each element is driven with a phase shift of 180° by switching or alternating element
connections, as shown in Fig. 1. The dipoles near the input, being nearly out of phase and
close together nearly cancel each others’ radiation. As the element spacing, d, expands
there comes a point along the array where the phase delay in the transmission line
combined with the 180° switch gives a total of 360°. This puts the radiated fields from
the two dipoles in phase in a direction toward the apex. Hence a lobe coming off the apex
results.
This phase relationship exists in a set of dipoles known as the “active region.” If we
assume that an LPDA is designed for a given frequency range, then that design must
include an active region of dipoles for the highest and lowest design frequency. It has a

bandwidth which we shall call β ar (bandwidth of the active region).


Assume for the moment that we have a 12-element LPDA. Currents flowing in the
elements
are both real and imaginary, the real current flowing in the resistive component of the
impedance of a particular dipole, and the imaginary flowing in the reactive component.
Assume that the operating frequency is such that element number 6 is near to being
halfwave
resonant. The imaginary parts of the currents in shorter elements 7 to 12 are capacitive,
while those in longer elements 1 to 6 are inductive. The capacitive current components in
shorter elements 9 and 10 exceed the conductive components hence, these elements
receive little power from the feeder and act as parasitic directors. The inductive current
components in longer elements 4 and 5 are dominant and they act like parasitic reflectors.
Elements 6, 7 and 8 receive most of their power from the feeder and act like driven
elements. The amplitudes of the currents in the remaining elements aresmall and they
may be ignored as primary contributors to the radiation field. Hence, we have a
generalized Yagi array with seven elements comprising the active region. It should be
noted that this active region is for a specific set of design parameters (τ = 0.93, σ =
0.175). The number of elements making up the active region will vary with τ and σ .
Adding additional elements on either side of the active region cannot significantly modify
the circuit or field properties of the array.
This active region determines the basic design parameters for the array, and sets the
bandwidth for the structure, β s. That is, for a design frequency coverage of bandwidth
β , there exists an associated bandwidth of the active region such that

fig:6.3
β ar varies with τ and σ
as shown in Fig. 2. Element
lengths which fall
outside β ar play an
insignificant role in the
operation of the array. The
gain of an LPDA is
determined by the design
parameter τ and the relative element spacing constant σ . There exists an optimum
value for σ , σ opt , for each τ in the range 0.8 < τ < 1.0, for which the gain is
maximum; however, the increase in gain achieved by using σ opt and τ near 1.0 (i.e.,
τ = 0.98) is only 3 dB above isotropic (3 dBi) when compared with the minimum σ (σ
min = .05) and τ = 0.9, shown in Fig.
An increase in τ means more elements and optimum σ means a long boom. A high-
gain (8.5
dBi) LPDA can be designed in the hf region with τ = 0.9 and s = .05. The relationship
of τ , σ , and α is as follows:

where α = 1/2 the apex angle


τ = design constant
σ = relative spacing constant

The method of feeding the antenna is rather simple. As shown in Fig. , a balanced feeder
is required for each element, and all adjacent elements are fed with a 180° phase shift by
alternating element connections. In this section the term antenna feeder is defined as that
line which connects each adjacent element. The feed line is that line between antenna and
transmitter. The characteristic impedance of the antenna feeder, Z O, must be determined
so that the feed-line impedance and type of balun can be determined. The antenna-feeder
impedance Z O depends on the mean radiation resistance level R O (required input
impedance of the active region elements - see Fig. 4) and average characteristic
impedance of a dipole, Z a. ( Z a is a function of element radius a and the resonant element
half length, where h = λ / 4. The relationship is as follows:
where Z O = characteristic impedance of feeder
R O = mean radiation resistance level or required input impedance of the active
region.
Z O = average characteristic impedance of a dipole

h = element half length


a = radius of element

From Fig. we can see that R O decreases with increasing τ and increasing α . Also the
VSWR with respect to R O has a minimum value of about 1.1 to 1 at σ optimum, and a
value of 1.8 to 1 at σ = .05. These SWR values are acceptable when using standard
RG8/U 52-ohm and RG-11/U 72-ohm coax for the feed line. However, a one-to-one
VSWR match can be obtained at the transmitter end using a coax-to-coax Transmatch. A
Transmatch will enable the transmitter low-pass filter to see a 52-ohm load on each
frequency within the array passband. The Transmatch also eliminates possible harmonic
radiation caused by the frequency-independent nature of the array.
Once the value of Z O has been determined for each band within the array
passband, the
balun and feed line may be chosen. That is, if Z O = 100 ohms, a good choice for the
balun would be 1 to 1 balanced to unbalanced, and 72-ohm coax feed line. If Z O = 220
ohms, choose a 4 to 1 balun, and 52-ohm coax feed line, and so on. The balun may be
omitted if the array is to be fed with an open-wire feed line.
The terminating impedance, Z t , may be omitted. However, if it is used, it should
have a length no longer than λ max/8. The terminating impedance tends to increase the
front-tobac ratio for the lowest frequency used. For hf-band operation a 6-inch shorting
jumper wire may be used for Z t . When Z t is simply a short-circuit jumper the longest
element behaves as a passive reflector. It also might be noted that one could increase the
frontto- back ratio on the lowest frequency by moving the passive reflector (No. 1
element) a distance of 0.15 to 0.25 λ behind element No. 2, as would be done in the case
of an ordinary Yagi parasitic reflector. This of course would necessitate lengthening the
boom. The front-to-back ratio increases somewhat as the frequency increases. This is
because more of the shorter inside elements form the active region, and the longer
elements become additional reflectors.

6.3 DESIGN PROCEDURE


A systematic step-by-step design procedure of the LPDA follows. This procedure may be
used for designing any LPDA for any desired bandwidth.
1) Decide on an operating bandwidth β between f1, lowest frequency and fn, highest
Frequency.
2) Choose τ and σ to give a desired gain

The value of σ opt may be determined

3) Determine the apex half-angle α


4) Determine the bandwidth of the active group β ar

5) Determine the structure (array) bandwidth β s

6) Determine the boom length, L, number of elements, N, and longest element length, l1.

where λ max = longest free-space wavelength = 984/ƒ1. Examine L, N and l1, and
determine whether or not the array size is acceptable for your needs. If the array is too
large, increase α by 5° and repeat steps 2 through 6.

7) Determine the terminating stub Z t . (Note: For hf arrays short out the longest

element with a 6-inch jumper. For vhf and uhf arrays use: Z t = λ / max 8

8) Once the final values of τ and σ are found, the characteristic impedance of the
feeder Z O must be determined so the type of balun and feed line can be found. Determine
R O from Fig. , Z a from Fig. and σ . Note: Values for h /a, Z a, and Z O must be
determined for each amateur band within the array passband. Choose the element half-

length h nearest h = λ /4, at the center frequency of each amateur band. Once Z O is
found for each band, choose whatever combination of balun and feed line will give the
lowest SWR on each band.
9) Solve for the remaining element lengths

l0) Determine the element spacing from

and the remaining element-to-element spacings

FIGURE 6.3 RADIATION PATTERN


Fig. — Measured radiation pattern for the lowest frequency band (14 MHz) of a 12-
element 13-30 MHz log-periodic dipole array. For its design parameters, τ = 0.9 and σ
= .05. The measured front-to-back ratio is 14.4 dB at 14 MHz, and increases to 21 dB at
28 MHz. This completes the design. The measured radiation pattern for a 12-element
LPDA is shown in Fig.
There are several high-gain array possibilities using this type of antenna as a basis.
Tilting the elements toward the apex will increase the gain 3 to 5 dB. Adding parasitic
directors and a reflector will increase both gun and front-to-back ratio for a specific
frequency within the passband. The LPDA-Yagi combination is very simple. Use the
LPDA design procedures within the set of driven elements, and place parasitic elements
at normal Yagi spacings from the LPDA end elements. Use standard Yagi design
procedures for the parasitic elements. An example of a single-band high-gain LPDA-Yagi
would be a twoor three- element LPDA for 21.0 to 21.45 MHz with the addition of 2 or 3
parasitic directors and one parasitic reflector. The combinations are endless.
CHAPTER: 7
LPDA Antenna Testing
7.1 Network analyzer

A network analyzer is an instrument used to analyze the properties of electrical


networks, especially those properties associated with the reflection and transmission of
electrical signals known as scattering parameters (S-parameters).

Fig 7.1 Network analyser

Network analyzers are used mostly at high frequencies; operating frequencies can range
from 9 kHz to 110 GHz.[1] Special types of network analyzers can also cover lower
frequency ranges down to 1 Hz. These network analyzers can be used for example for the
stability analysis of open loops or for the measurement of audio and ultrasonic
components.[2]
The two main types of network analyzers are

• Scalar Network Analyzer (SNA) — measures amplitude properties only


• Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) — measures both amplitude and phase
properties

A VNA may also be called a gain-phase meter or an Automatic Network Analyzer. An


SNA is functionally identical to a spectrum analyzer in combination with a tracking
generator. As of 2007, VNAs are the most common type of network analyzers, and so
references to an unqualified “network analyzer” most often mean a VNA

A microwave network analyzer (HP 8720A) showing a Smith chart

A new category of network analyzer is the Microwave Transition Analyzer (MTA) or


Large Signal Network Analyzer (LSNA), which measure both amplitude and phase of
the fundamental and harmonics. The MTA was commercialized before the LSNA, but
was lacking some of the user-friendly calibration features now available with the LSNA
7.2 DIRECTIONAL COUPLER

A directional coupler separates signals based on the direction of signal propagation.


These devices are used to unequally split the signal flowing in the mainline and to fully
pass the signal flowing in the opposite direction. In an ideal situation some portion of the
signal flowing into port A will appear at Port C. Likewise any signal flowing into port C
will be coupled fully to port A. However ports B and C are isolated in that any signal
flowing into port B will not appear at port C but will feed through to port A. The generic
RF directional coupler symbol, shown in Figure 1(a), is usually realized by two
transformers connected as shown in Figure 1(b). Directional couplers of

Fig7.2 . Directional coupler circuit configurations

7.3 VSWR
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) is the ratio of the maximum voltage to the
minimum voltage in the standing wave on a transmission line. Standing waves are the
result of reflected RF energy. As the VSWR approaches 1.00:1, the reflections on the line
approach zero and maximum power may be transmitted.
VSWR READINGS FOR ANTENNA : I

Frequency MHz VSWR


400 2.2
450 1.4
500 1.3
550 1.6
600 1.3
650 2.0
700 1.3
750 1.3
800 1.4
850 1.8
900 2.4
950 2.5
1000 2.5

VSWR READINGS FOR ANTENNA : II

Frequency MHz VSWR


400 1.5
450 1.6
500 1.5
550 1.5
600 1.6
650 1.7
700 1.5
750 1.9
800 1.5
850 2.1
900 2.2
950 1.7
1000 2.3

7.5 OPERATING WAVELENGTH

λmax =c/f(min) = 0.75 m or 75 Cm

σ = 0.08 τ = 0.82
7.6 APEX ANGLE( α)
Cot (α) = 4σ / (1- τ) = 1.77

α = 29.55˚
7.7 LENGTH OF ANTENNA

L1 (length of first element) = λ / 2 = 75 / 2 = 37.5 Cm ( on both sides)

(On one side)l1 = L1/2 = 18.75Cm

(length of second element on one side) = l2 = τ* l1

7.8 DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO ELEMENTS

d12 (Distance between 1 st


and 2nd element) = ½ (L1 - L2)cotα = 5.9 Cm

d23 (Distance between 2 nd


and 3rd element) = d12*τ = 4.8 Cm
7.9 CONCLUSION

In this report, we have provide an overview of some important issues on wireless


communication using LPDA antenna. Miniaturization is expected to progress until
saturation, which usually occurs after the third or fourth iteration. Additional iterations
provide little benefits when compared to the design effort and to the printed circuit board
fabrication accuracy. As with most antennas, miniaturization comes at an expense. Here,
this expense is reflected upon a) a slightly higher cross-polarization field component,
mostly at nonboresight directions, b) a higher VSWR which is enhanced by the loading
of the feedline and the few elements in the antenna’s active region, and c) a gain reduced
by 0.3 dBi due to the slightly larger beamwidth and the increased VSWR.

The miniaturization concept of such antennas, however, was shown and can be
extended to more wideband and/or directive designs using more radiating elements. Such
designs will have similar levels of cross-polarization (i.e., around 20 dB or less) and
always very low at boresight (around 30 dB or less). Even with these shortcomings, the
miniaturized LPDA performs well and covers the entire frequency range with constant
gain, as expected from a conventional LPDA. This concept enables investigations on
more compact LPDAs. Meander and “zig-zag” dipoles that fill more efficiently the
antenna volume are candidate elements that give potential to this letter. The structure of
the LPDA is planar and relatively simple to fabricate using standard PCB fabrication
techniques. It can also be directly integrated with planar microwave circuits. The design
concept can easily be scaled for applications with different bandwidth and/or directivity
requirements by adjusting the angle and by adding more elements, which shall also
improve the VSWR.

We have keeping in mind the various hurdles in antenna design have


achieved our aim to create a working module of a wireless communication system using
LPDA antenna with the required specifications of high gain and increased bandwidth.
REFERNCES

1.Antenna Theory (3rd edition), by C. Balanis, Wiley, 2005, ISBN 0-471-66782-X;

2.Antenna Theory and Design (2nd edition), by W. Stutzman and G. Thiele, Wiley,
1997, ISBN 0-471-02590-9;

3.Antennas (3rd edition), by J. Kraus and R. Marhefka, McGraw-Hill, 2001, ISBN 0-072-
32103-2;
4.Antennenbuch, by Karl Rothammel, publ. Franck'sche Verlagshandlung Stuttgart,
1991, ISBN 3-440-05853-0; other editions (in German)

5.Antennas for portable Devices, Zhi Ning Chen (edited), John Wiley & Sons in March
2007

6.Broadband Planar Antennas: Design and Applications, Zhi Ning Chen and M. Y. W.
Chia, John Wiley & Sons in February 2006

7.The ARRL Antenna Book (15th edition), ARRL, 1988, ISBN 0-87259-207-5