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A useful text for First

Year Charms students,
Quintessential Magic delves
into the basic methods of
casting a spell. From
incantation to willpower,
Wand-Lighting Charm to
Severing Charm, this text
covers all the basics.

Alexander Quillmane
Alexander Quillmane
​ Chapter one

C​harms is a course that teaches

how to cast the class of spells known
as Charms. These are spells that alter
an object without changing its essential
nature. Given a teapot, the spell that
makes it tapdance across the desk
would be a charm, the spell that turns
it into a tortoise would not. This is a
core subject, required of all Hogwarts
students until at least their fifth year.
While the course is offered to sixth and
seventh year students, admission is
limited to those who have shown better
than average abilities in Charms based
on their O.W.L. grades.
All witches and wizards use charms
and spells. Even the most simple thing
like a swish of a wand to move
something (or someone) out of the way
is actually a non-verbal Locomotor
spell. It's a staple of magic! Most things
would not be possible without spells -
even potion-making requires the maker
to infuse the potion with magical
energies while it is being created.

And there are so many uses for magic.

We, as witches and wizards, are able
to do a multitude of tasks while barely
moving. Want to reenact the Muggle
short film The Apprentice? Go ahead
and animate all your mops and
brooms! Make a pear tap dance!
Charm your coat into automatically
going on you every time you walk out
the door!

Someone has recently said that there

are about 5,000 spells. In this book, we
explore 60 that you can use every day.

​Chapter two

Some of the spells are given below

Amplifying Spell – ​Sonorus

(SAWN-o-russ), touch wand to target.
Amplifies the sounds
coming from the target, can be used
instead of a megaphone.
Animating Spell – ​Res Momentum
(REZ mo-MEN-tuh’m), tap the target
with wand. The
object does what you wish it to, but its
first few times may not be very
successful, as the more it does the
task the better it gets at doing it.
Atmosphere Charm​* – ​Tempestas
Mutato​(tem-PESS-tass moo-TAH-toe),
point wand and draw
circle. Can be used to change the
weather in a small area. Became a
problem in the Ministry of Magic after
two of
these charms malfunctioned and
rained in peoples’ offices.
Bandaging Charm – ​Ferula
(feh-RULE-ah), two vertical (left to right
then right to
left) swishes over injury. Best used for
broken bones, torn muscles and ripped
tendons that cannot be healed with
(see below).
Banishing Charm – ​Depulso
(dee-PULSE-oh), swish wand.
Removes the target from the
immediate area.
Beauty Charm​* - ​Perfecta Specio
(per-FEH’CK-tah SPEE-see-oh), tap
wand against
target. A charm that makes you appear
more beautiful to everyone, for a
time. Caution: Do not use in the
of Muggles.
Bird-Conjuring Charm – ​Avis (Ay-viss),
draw two loops. Is used to summon
whatever bird you
wish from its natural habitat to you,
then it goes back once you are finished
with the spell.
Boggart-Repelling Spell – ​Riddikulus
(rid-ICK-you-luss), jab wand at target.
Works best when
you are thinking of something
humorous; the Boggart appears in a
way which
seems funny, undoing the creature’s
fear-inducing capabilities.
Bouquet-Making Spell – ​Orchideous
(or-KID-ee-uss), hold wand. Makes a
bouquet sprout from
the tip of the wand. Often used when
forgetting a birthday or anniversary.
Cheering Charm​* - ​Beatio
(BEE-tea-oh), draw a shallow U shape,
like a smile. Makes
the target unfailingly happy when cast
correctly. If overdone, the target
bursts out into a fit of hysteric giggles
until the spell wears off.
Chest-Opening Charm - ​Cistem Aperio
(SIS-teh’m ah-PEAR-eeoh), point
wand at target.
Unlocks and opens any target chests,
but just breaks the lock and hinges
when overdone.
Cleaning Charm​* -
Laventurus(​ lah-ven-TURE-uss), point
wand at target. Gets rid of
all dirt, dust and unappealing stains on
the target.
Clothing Colour-Changing Charm –
Multicorfors (mull-tea-COR-fours),
wand over target. Changes the colour
of the target clothing.
Colour-Changing Charm – ​Colovaria
(coll-oh-VAR-ee-ah), point wand at
target. Works best on
hair. Often used to prank people while
they are sleeping.
Concealing Charm​* - ​Dissimularus
(diss-sim-you-LAR-uss), point wand at
target. Makes
the target invisible and undetectable by
most means, including any magical
properties, except the ​Homonoculus
charm, the ​Homenum Reveliochar​m
Secrecy Sensors. Can be permanently
cast on objects such as the fabled
Cloak of
Invisibility. (Also, if you are an enemy,
then you can be revealed by Cave
Containment Charm​* -
Introitus(​ in-TROY-tuss), draw a line
between the target and the
container. Contains the first object
inside the second, often used for
creatures such as Boggarts.
Enemy-Revealing Charm - ​Cave
Inimicium (CAH-vay
in-ee-MISS-see-um), skyward flourish.
charm that can be used in protective
spell barriers, it reveals any enemies
that may be hiding and get touched by
the spell. Useful against ​Dissimularus.​
Engorgement Charm – ​Engorio
(en-GORE-gee-oh), jab wand at target
and flick up. Makes
the target grow. When cast incorrectly,
this can make it not grow very much if
putting too little effort in or too large if
overdoing it.
Eradication Spell – ​Deletrius
(duh-LEE-tree-uss), draw a circle
around the target.
Disintegrates the target.
Erecting Charm – ​Erecto
(eh-REH’CK-toe), swish wand
upwards. Puts up tents,
gazeboes, etc.
Explosion Spell - ​Bombarda/Bombarda
MAH’CK-sih-mah), jab wand at target.
Makes an explosion
where the caster points their wand.
Maximais a more powerful version
than the original.
Feather-Light Charm​* – ​Levisioso
(leh-vih-see-OH-soh), draw an S
shape over the target. Makes the
target lighter
and easier to carry as long as the spell
is active.
Fire Charms​ –
Incendio (in-SEN-dee-oh), slow
upward arc and jab at target. Used
for moving flames that can be directed
by the wand.
Lacarnum Inflamare (lah’ck-ARE-num
in-flam-ARE-eh), slow upward arc and
point at
target. More often used for close range
flames in short bursts, like for
lighting a candle.
Floating Charm – ​Fluito (flue-EE-toe),
jab wand at target then upward flick.
little benefits over Wingardium
as it can only move a target up and
down a few feet in the air.
Gluing Charm – ​Epoximise
(eh-poh’cks-im-EE-say), draw an X
over the target
(already where you want it to be
glued). Useful for sticking things into
It is not permanent, however, and is
therefore better for posters than ​Infinte
Angulumus(​ see below).
Gripping Charm​* – ​Confortanus
(cohn-four-TAHN-uss), downward
swish towards target.
Makes the target easier to grip and
Head Bubble Charm​* - ​Caput Nitio
(kah-PUHT NEE-tea-oh), point wand at
target. This
creates a bubble around the face that
can be used to breathe underwater, in
climates with less air or through
dungbombs. Witches and wizards with
breath beware.
Healing Charm – ​Episkey
(eh-PISS-key), draw a circle around
the injury. Used to
heal minor injuries, such as small
broken bones (toes, fingers, noses) or
Hover Charm – ​Levioso
(leh-vee-OH-soh), draw an inwards
spiral then flick up. Not
to be confused with ​Levisioso​. This
is even worse than ​Fluito,​ only
letting the target hover a few feet
above the ground without moving.
Human Presence-Revealing Spell –
Homenum Revelio
(HOH-men-uhm reh-VELL-ee-oh),
swish wand over area to be revealed.
Good if you
are keeping a secret, this spell alerts
the caster to any humans that touch
Inflating Jinx – ​Inflatus (in-FLAY-tuss),
draw an outwards spiral. Often used by
school students to pester their peers.
The size of the inflation depends on
size of the spiral that is drawn.
Levitating Charm – ​Wingardium
Leviosa (win-GAR-dee-um
lehv-ee-OH-sah), swish and flick
downwards. The closest magic has
come to flying, it lets the caster move
object anywhere in the air, but it
cannot be used on humans. The spell
has been
known to set the target on fire (and
even cause a small explosion) when
Lifting Charm – ​Ascendio
(ah-SEN-dee-oh), point wand upwards.
Shoots the caster
into the air, useful for getting out of
water quickly.
Lighting Charm – ​Baubillious
(boh-BILL-ee-uss), point wand. Sends
a bolt of
lightning from the wand tip to wherever
it is pointing. Will always go in a
straight line.
Locomotion Charm – ​Locomotor
(loh-koh-MOH-tor), point wand at
target. Allows the
caster to move the target by directing it
with their wand.
Mending Charm – ​Reparo
(reh-PAH-roh), draw an inwards spiral
with the size
depending on the object. Will only
piece together the fragments of the
object that the caster can see. It works
best when using it for repairing
shattered/ripped items, dents and
scratches not being fixed as well as
and the charm does not work on metal
objects very well – the closer to the
of breaking, the better. Multiple casts
of the spell on one object will damage
the structural soundness.
Momentum Stopping Spell - ​Arresto
Momentum (ah-RESS-toe
moh-MEN-tuhm), wave wand. Stops
target moving, useful for avoiding
crashes and/or falls.
Moving Charm – ​Mobilarbus
(moh-bill-ARE-buss), point wand at
target. Similar to Locomotor, but
slightly more powerful.
Muffling Charm – ​Muffliato
(muff-lee-AH-toe), draw a small X over
target. This makes
the target’s ears fill with white noise so
they cannot hear any conversations
going on around them. It can also be
used on objects, so that whoever
passes by
the target hears white noise. Often
found on broom cupboard doors.
Permanent Sticking Charm​* - ​Infinte
Angulumus​ (in-finn-EE-tay
aang-you-LOO-muss), tap the corners
of the object. Permanently sticks two
objects together, or one to the other.
Infuriates parents and guardians who
find that their children have used this
on posters; it is probably a better
idea to use ​Epoximise.​
Pyrography Charm – ​Flagrate
(flah-GRAH-tay), draw desired shape
over target. Burns the
drawn shape into the target. Saying
the incantation slowly gives more time
a design to be drawn, but it is still
limited, so it is more often used with
non-verbal magic, similar to ​Diffindo.​
Refilling Charm​* – ​Adimpleus
swish upwards at target. Refills any
container with what it previously
contained; it must be empty before
using the spell.
Rocket Charm – ​Alarte Ascendare
(ah-LAR-tay ah-sen-DAHR-ray), quick
swish of the
wand at the end of the spell. Is
possibly the most useless of the
flying charms, sending the target
shooting into the air for a small amount
time, heavier objects going less high.
Sealing Charm – ​Colloportus
(coll-oh-POUR-tuss), two horizontal
strokes and two vertical
strokes. Seals an object so that it can
only be opened from the inside,
many ignorant witches and wizards
without their most valuable
possessions. Like
Muffliato​, it is often found cast
upon broom cupboards.
Severing Spell – ​Diffindo
(dih-FINN-doh), draw the outline cuts
to be made. Was
originally used by clothes-makers.
Saying the incantation slowly gives
time for a design to be drawn, but it is
still limited, so it is more often
used with non-verbal magic, similar to
Silencing Charm – ​Silencio
(sih-LEN-see-oh), draw a horizontal
line over target. Disables
the target from making any sound at
Sleep Charm​* - ​Dormio (door-ME-oh),
tap wand against target. Instantly
makes the
target fall asleep, good for crying
children, but immensely hard to
Softening Charm – ​Spongify
(SPONGE-ih-fiy), S shape then point
at target. Used for
protection, mostly, it makes the target
feel spongy and soft. The effect only
lasts for about five minutes on
average, so it must be recast if it will
used for longer, but the more power
put into the spell the longer its effects
will last.
Sparks Charms – jab wand in the
direction. Sends a line of sparks from
the tip of the wand. ​Periculum is used
as a flare or signal
for help.
Green​: Sagittio Viridum
Blue:​ Sagittio Hyacinthium
Red:​ Periculum or Sagittio Rubrum
(sah-JIT-tea-oh RUE-brum)
Summoning Charm – ​Accio
(ACK-ee-oh), point wand at
target/general direction of target.
After the main incantation the object
being summoned must be said, the
specific, the better. The caster does
not necessarily need to know where
object is. Objects can also be
bewitched to ignore this spell, such as
Sword of Godric Gryffindor.
Switching Spell* – ​Commutarus
(comm-you-TAH-russ), draw a line
between the two targets.
This swaps where the targets are.
Undetectable Extension
outwards spiral then flick downwards.
This charm extends the interior of an
object, the size being determined by
the size of the drawn spiral, without
changing the exterior. It is impossible
for anyone to tell the object is
enchanted unless they are told about
it. Interestingly, the
TARDIS from the Muggle television
show Doctor Who appears to have this
Unlocking Charm – ​Alohomora
(ah-loh-hoh-MO-rah), jab forwards and
a full twist. Used to unlock things,
unable to be used against ​Colloportus
as the latter was originally a
counter-measure against thievery after
Alohomora​ was created.
Wand-Extinguishing Charm – ​Nox
(NOH’CKS), swift flick to the right.
Extinguishes the wand the caster is
holding, a counter-charm to Lumos.
Wand-Lighting Charm – ​Lumos
(LOOH-mohse), draw a single loop.
This lights the tip of the
wand. It has multiple variations, the
most notably being ​Lumos Maxima,​
where the caster can throw a bit of
light across a
large distance, ​Lumos Duo,​ where the
light shines very brightly and can
defend against ghouls, and ​Lumos
Solem,​ which summons sunlight.
Water Eruption Charm - ​Aqua Eructo
(AH-kwa ee-RUH’CK-toe), point wand.
This makes water
pour out of the tip of the wand. The
caster must be careful to focus, for the
of water is controlled by the caster.
Wound-Closing Spell – ​Vulnura
Sanentur (VUHL-nure-ah
seh-NEN-ture), wave wand over
Used for larger, piercing-weapon
wounds such as sword strikes, must
be repeated
until the wound closes or it will not
close properly.

​Chapter three

There are Wizarding Laws that young

Witches and Wizards must be aware of
and adhere to at all times. Failure to
abide by the law can result in
punishment up to and including
forfeiture of one's wand or even
imprisonment within Azkaban.

Decree for the Reasonable Restriction

of Underage Sorcery - Est.1875 : This
Decree imposes restrictions to the use
of magic by Witches and Wizards who
are under the age of 17. Specifically,
for anyone who is underage, the use of
magic outside areas such as
Hogwarts, Hogsmeade and other
areas designated as Exception Zones
is strictly prohibited! The intentional
use of magic by an underage Witch or
Wizard in the presence of a Muggle is
expressly prohibited unless there are
exceptional circumstances, including
situations in which the life of the Witch
or Wizard, or of other Witches,
Wizards and Muggles are at risk.

The International Statute of Secrecy -

Est. 1689 : Magical-Muggle relations
had been growing steadily worse since
the beginning of the dark ages,
culminating in the international
decision to fully separate the Muggle
World and the Wizarding World in
1689. The statute was signed that year
into law but not officially established by
all international magical communities
until 1692. There is some debate in the
wizarding community about the true
establishment of this Statute, but it was
first set up on a permanent basis
(established) in 1689 and adopted by
several communities that year. It
simply took a further three years for all
communities to recognize it.

While some protested this new law,

most accepted that the danger that
Muggles posed to Magical Beings and
that Magical Beings posed to Muggles
warranted this change. The Statute
makes each magical government
responsible for hiding all evidence of
magical activity as well as the magical
flora and fauna (plants and animals)
within their jurisdictions. The text A
History of Magic explains it best:

"​Upon the signature of the International

Statute of Secrecy in 1689, wizards
went into hiding for good. It was
natural, perhaps, that they formed their
own small communities within a
community. Many small villages and
hamlets attracted several magical
families, who banded together for
mutual support and protection. The
villages of Tinworth in Cornwall, Upper
Flagley in Yorkshire, and Ottery St.
Catchpole on the south coast of
England were notable homes to knots
of Wizarding families who lived
alongside tolerant and sometimes
Confunded Muggles. Most celebrated
of these half-magical dwelling places
is, perhaps, Godric's Hollow, the West
Country village where the great wizard
Godric Gryffindor was born, and where
Bowman Wright, Wizarding smith,
forged the first Golden Snitch. The
graveyard is full of the names of
ancient magical families, and this
accounts, no doubt, for the stories of
hauntings that have dogged the little
church beside it for many centuries."

-Bathilda Bagshot, A History of

​Chapter four

It is fairly obvious that Witches and

Wizards are possessed of some trait
(Muggles may call them "genes") that
allow them to use magic and interact
with the Wizarding World in ways that
Muggles cannot. Many different
animals, plants and fungi also have
magical properties. That is, they have
either extraordinary abilities (in the
case of magical creatures) or
extraordinary properties (in the case of
magical plants and fungi).

The most obvious thing that Witches

and Wizards can do but Muggles
cannot is use magic. Muggles can
neither cast spells nor sense the
presence of magic. They also are
unable to brew potions, even if they
happen to have the proper magical
ingredients, due to the need to infuse a
potion with magical power while the
potion is being brewed. Obvious active
powers (such as spellcasting) aren't
the only thing magical folk have going
for them. There are also several
passive abilities that a Witch or Wizard
possesses that Muggles lack.

A good example of this lies with the

creature known as the Dementor.
Dementors are responsible for
guarding the Wizard Prison Azkaban,
and one of their magical talents is the
draining of happiness from their
surroundings. Witches and Wizards
are able to see a Dementor, though
Muggles and the non-magical but
wizard-born Squibs cannot*. The only
thing a Muggle can sense is the
happiness being drained from them,
and when they are incapable of
understanding why this is happening,
the experience is even more

Witches and Wizards can also

inherently use devices such as
Broomsticks while Muggles cannot.
Such things aren't necessarily powered
by magical energy, but instead may
require only the presence or
intermingling of magical power. Some
devices are magically bewitched in
such a way that being magical is not
necessary to "use" them, though in
these cases the items are typically
prank items illegally enchanted and
used against Muggles. Examples
include vicious toilets and biting
teakettles among others.

The process by which one gains

magical ability is well known. In most
cases, the child of a Witch or Wizard
will themselves have magical ability.
Rarely the offspring of a Witch and
Wizard can be a Squib, someone who
is not able to use magic nor use
magical devices, such as brooms, that
require the user to have magic.
Occasionally it's possible that two
Muggles are able to have a magical
child. There is always a Witch or
Wizard somewhere within their family
history, though they might be several
generations removed. Being the
offspring of two Muggles or having at
least one magical parent does not
appear to affect a Witch or Wizard's
aptitude for magic.

The offspring of two magical parents

who have never intermixed with
Muggles is often referred to as
"Pureblood". Those who are known to
have at least one Muggle parent,
grandparent, etc. in recent memory (as
well as at least one Witch or Wizard)
are known as "​Halfbloods​". For those
who have no documented Witches or
Wizards in their ancestry, the term
"​Muggleborn"​ (and occasionally the
highly offensive term "​Mudblood") are
used, though the offensive
representation is considered a fairly
egregious insult.

A Witch or Wizard has magic coursing

through their veins in the form of
magical blood, hence why there are
categories of blood status. The source
of the magic is unknown, though
popular theories speculate that it may
come from some unique way a magical
being processes what they eat or
drink, or perhaps even the air that they
breathe. The fact that it can exist in so
many creatures and organisms and yet
still elude Muggles is a fascinating
discussion best saved for another time.

Witches and Wizards are able to

manipulate their environment without
the use of a wand, though this is
typically the result of a young magical
child unable to control their magic in
times of emotional stress. Some find
that they can continue to use such
talent, even after they have control
over their magic, but most don't find
the need. Young students quickly learn
how to prevent magical leakage as
well as to direct their power out of
themselves, through their wand, when
casting spells. Of course, a few highly
accomplished witches and wizards can
cast spells without a wand, but this is
very rare. The next chapter deals with
the components of casting such spells.

Squibs: Almost the opposite of a

Muggle-born wizard: a Squib is a
non-magical person born to known
magical parents. Squibs are rare;
magic is a dominant and resilient gene.

*(It has been established by Rowling

that Arabella Figg was lying about
what she said in Harry Potter's
defense. Squibs know what a
Dementor is and what it feels like, but
they cannot see them.)
​Chapter five

Most spells require several different

components to work effectively.

The caster must properly speak the

incantation (unless sufficiently
advanced enough depending upon the
The caster must perform the required
wand movements.
The caster must, if the spell requires it,
properly focus and direct the spell's
initial flow of magic.
The caster must, if the spell requires it,
concentrate on the correct thoughts,
feelings and desires after the spell is
The caster must, if the spell requires it,
have enough magical willpower.
Let us approach each of these
requirements one at a time.

Almost all spells contain some form of

incantation, a series of syllables
spoken in a precise manner and in
exactly the right order. This is crucial;
an improperly spoken spell will do
nothing, if you are lucky. The spell may
also have an effect never intended by
the spellcaster. As Charms Master and
Professor Filius Flitwick is known to
say, "​Never forget Wizard Baruffio,
who said 's' instead of 'f' and found
himself on the floor with a buffalo on
his chest.​ "
Some form of wand movement is also
necessary for almost every spell. It is
believed that this helps to shape the
spell, along with the incantation,
toward achieving the desired effect.
Witches and Wizards of exceptional
renown can cast spells without their
wand, but such practiced spellcasters
are few and far between. It takes
monumentally more effort of will, focus,
and concentration to perform a spell
without a wand.

Some spells require that the user

spend some measure of their focus on
a target. One of the most elementary
of spells, the Levitation Charm,
requires that the caster choose a
target for the spell. When a target is
not properly chosen, as was the case
with the Levitation Charm's inventor
Jarleth Hobart, embarrassment is the
least of your worries. Hobart's mistake
resulted in the breaking of sixteen of
his bones as well as the ridicule of his
town, at least for a time. In some
cases, focus may also be a particular
thought, feeling, desire, or
visualization. This can be instead of or
in addition to focusing on the target,
but the key is that the focus occurs
before the spell is cast. For example, a
charm typically used to disrupt a
specific creature's shapeshifting
requires imagining the creature's
current form as somehow ridiculous
before casting the spell, while also
focusing on the creature itself. Both
visualization and focus on the target
serve to direct the spell’s initial flow of

Some spells require that the user

concentrate on a specific thought,
feeling or desire in his or her mind after
casting a spell to direct its effects. One
of the most well-known examples is
the Patronus Charm. This Charm
requires that the user recall a very
happy, very powerful memory (the
focus for the spell, as described in the
paragraph above) and keep it in their
mind even as a ​Dementor attempts to
feed upon it (the concentration). Only
by maintaining the happy memory in
his or her mind can the spellcaster
prevent the spell from dissipating. See
Ch. 3 if you are unfamiliar with

Finally, some spells simply require a

sufficient amount of willpower to cast
them. This power may come in the
form of direct magical strength, though
often it requires knowledge of obscure
magic or concepts that are difficult for
a Witch or Wizard to cast. A particular
Dark Arts spell known only as
Fiendfyre is obscure enough that only
a few know the incantation. Of those
that know, only a handful could
successfully cast the spell without
incinerating themselves by it. Such a
spell requires an incredibly strong will
and concentration..
​ Chapter six

The wand is an extension of the witch or

wizard. It is our most essential tool, and
to be without it is to be severely limited.
The most important moment in any witch
or wizard's career may be when they
obtain their own first wand. It is oft the
saying that "​The Wand chooses the
Wizard​". This is because different wands
are inclined toward different
temperaments and personalities. A Dark
Wizard would find that a wand with
Unicorn Tail Hair is extremely difficult to
use, for example, and someone with evil
in their heart is unlikely to find that such
a wand agrees with them.
Just as a wand's power may wane over
the years, it is not uncommon for the
user to change as they grow, and they
may find themselves making a trip back
to the wand shop for a more suitable

Wand Details
The following sections describe the
specific details that almost all wands
conform to. All wands are typically
classified by four parameters:

Length and Flexibility

Wood Type
Length and Flexibility
Wands are usually found within the
range of nine and fourteen inches
(twenty-three centimeters to thirty-six
centimeters). Wands shorter than this
usually only select a user in whose
character something is lacking, while
wands longer than this usually select a
user with a physical peculiarity that
demanded the excessive length (such
as a very tall or Half-Giant wizard).

A wand's flexibility or rigidity speaks to

the the degree of adaptability and
willingness to change possessed by the
wand-and-owner pair. Flexible wands
can be described various ways, such as
pliant, spongy, springy, supple, whippy,
willowy or yielding. Rigid wands can be
described as firm, inflexible, resistant,
stiff, unbending, unpliable, or unyielding.

The following description of the powers
and properties of various wand woods
are taken from notes made, over a long
career, by Mr Garrick Ollivander, widely
considered the best wandmaker in the
world. As will be seen, Mr Ollivander
believes that wand wood has almost
human powers of perception and

It is a common misconception that

wands contain more than one wood.
The wood chosen for a wand is an
expression of the wizard or witch, and
using multiple wood types would
naturally create tension that would lead
to a wand with greatly diminished power.
Mr Ollivander introduces his notes on
wand woods thus:

"​Every single wand is unique and will

depend for its character on the particular
tree and magical creature from which it
derives its materials. Moreover, each
wand, from the moment it finds its ideal
owner, will begin to learn from and teach
its human partner. Therefore, the
following must be seen as general notes
on each of the wood types I like to work
with best, and ought not to be taken to
describe any individual wand."

"​Only a minority of trees can produce

wand quality wood (just as a minority of
humans can produce magic). It takes
years of experience to tell which ones
have the gift, although the job is made
easier if Bowtruckles are found nesting
in the leaves, as they never inhabit
mundane trees. The following notes on
various wand woods should be regarded
very much as a starting point, for this is
the study of a lifetime, and I continue to
learn with every wand I make and
match.​ " *

A wand's core material is always made
from some part of another magical
being. While different materials produce
different types of wands, any Ollivander
wand in recent memory has been made
from only three: unicorn tail hair, dragon
heartstrings, and phoenix feathers.
Other material (such as kelpie mane,
veela hair, troll whiskers, dittany stalk, or
kneazle whisker) either possesses
insufficient power or have a
considerable drawback. Veela hair, for
example, produces wands that are
temperamental. Wands with these cores
are usually only found when a witch or
wizard has had to inherit it from a family
member, though some wand makers
may still use them on occasion.

Just as with the wood component, there

is almost never more than one core in a
wand. The core is, in some ways, a
representation of the creature who gave
it. A wand with multiple cores would
have multiple objectives or potentially
work to cross purposes. This not only
renders the wand weaker but, in cases
where the wand's cores are in direct
conflict, can cause the wand to violently

The following description of the powers

and properties of the three main wand
cores used by Mr Garrick Ollivander are
taken from his own notes.

"​Early in my career, as I watched my

wandmaker father wrestling with
substandard wand core materials such
as kelpie hair, I conceived the ambition
to discover the finest cores and to work
only with those when my time came to
take over the family business. This I
have done. After much experimentation
and research, I concluded that only
three substances produce wands of the
quality to which I am happy to give the
illustrious name of Ollivander: unicorn
hair, dragon heartstring and phoenix
feather. Each of these costly and rare
materials has its own distinct properties.
The following represents a short
summary of my researches into each of
the three Supreme Cores. Readers
should bear in mind that each wand is
the composite of its wood, its core and
the experience and nature of its owner;
that tendencies of each may
counterbalance or outweigh the other;
so this can only be a very general
overview of an immensely complex
subject.​ "
​Chapter seven

Wand movement is one of the most

important parts of casting a spell. All that
energy isn’t going to go very far if it
hasn’t been properly shaped and
directed. A spell spoken properly but
without the correct wand movement
usually fails, though there are some
exceptions. For this reason most First
Year students begin by learning very
simple Charms, such as the Levitation
Charm, where the consequence for
improperly casting the spell may simply
be that the user has levitated the wrong

One thing to note is that wand

movements are made regardless of
whether the witch or wizard is
right-handed or left-handed. The
Levitation Charm would require the
same "swish and flick" (with a swish to
the right followed by the flick) whether
the caster was left-handed or

You should always memorize and

practice the proper wand movements for
any spell you attempt to cast. It’s not
enough just to know the incantation! The
right words might get you an effect, but
improper wand movement will result in
an effect you didn’t intend.

The simplest backfires involve the

magical energy you were building up
just bursting away. This can take the
form of a shower of sparks, a loud bang,
or even a small explosion. None of the
Charms you will learn in your first few
years have a risk of serious damage
should they fail, but that doesn’t mean
you should just lazily wave your wand
about and mutter the spell. You could
still have minor burns or singed hair to
contend with.

Another concern is longevity. If you only

use your wand to practice your spells
and then put it away for a week, you’ll
never obtain the level of endurance
necessary to cast for more than a
handful of minutes. There may be times
when you need to cast many spells over
a longer period of time, and if your arm
or hand start to get tired you may find
your spells backfiring at the worst
possible moment.

Flexibility is another important quality

every witch or wizard should have. It is
for these reasons that every young witch
or wizard should practice wand
movements daily to build better reflexes
in the hand and arm they use for
casting. There will be a time where
dueling will present itself in a witch or
wizard’s lifetime and, depending upon
the opponent, they may have to fight for
their survival. If one of the combatants’
wand movements lack in fluidity, the
duelist who has a quicker hand will
definitely have a greater chance of
Over time you will find that you may not
need to adhere as strictly to the precise
wand motions. You will understand how
the energy should flow more intuitively
and be able to direct it without more
than a flourish of your wand. Again, this
day is several years down the road, and
in the meantime you will need to
conduct the proper wand movements.
Without them you can only hope that
your spell fails.
​Chapter eight

Most of the time, we as witches and

wizards do not take the time to consider
a very important part of casting many
spells. The particular words to speak
and the wand motions to make are what
come to mind, but for many spells we
also need to be mentally focused.
Mental focus is the ability to close off
other wandering thoughts within your
mind and focus completely upon the
task at hand.

Think of focus like cutting a birthday

cake. You don't want to cut yourself with
the knife because you were distracted
by shouting relatives. You don't want to
cut sloppy pieces or smear frosting all
over everything. Your goal is a series of
neat slices that you can just cut and
serve to all of the guests.

At its simplest, focus requires that you

are pointing your wand in the right
direction so that you don't accidentally
cast a spell upon yourself (unless that's
what you intended to do). Though rare,
sometimes students get lazy and
distracted enough to not pay attention to
where they're pointing.

You also don't want to just focus

haphazardly upon whatever you're trying
to charm. If you're trying to use the
Mending Charm but you just casually
wave your wand in a general direction
without really focusing upon what you're
trying to mend and visualizing its
unbroken appearance, you may find that
it was mended with extra pieces you
hadn't meant to fuse together or only
partially put back together.

Even if you are focusing upon the

specific target of your spell, you must
avoid letting stray thoughts get in the
way. If you are trying to perform the
Severing Charm and you suddenly
worry about cutting too deeply, you
might find that this is exactly what
happens. It is important that you focus
only upon what your spell is supposed to
do and upon what it is supposed to
affect. Some may call this Intent, but in
reality focus and intention are the same;
you want to affect a specific thing, and
you want the spell to work a certain way.

A great way to practice focusing is

through meditation. The act of clearing
your mind of thoughts and concerns can
take considerable effort, but in the long
run it will make you a much better
spellcaster. You should begin by
focusing on your breathing and how the
air moves in and out, again and again.
Should you have a thought, simply
acknowledge that it exists and let it go.
This is something that Muggles call
mindfulness. By practicing the mental
ability to simply let your wandering
thoughts go, you will be able to keep
them from popping up while you're trying
to focus on casting your spell.
​Chapter nine

Most of the time, we as witches and

wizards do not take the time to
consider a very important part of
casting many spells. The particular
words to speak and the wand motions
to make are what come to mind, but for
many spells we also need to be
mentally focused. Mental focus is the
ability to close off other wandering
thoughts within your mind and focus
completely upon the task at hand.

Think of focus like cutting a birthday

cake. You don't want to cut yourself
with the knife because you were
distracted by shouting relatives. You
don't want to cut sloppy pieces or
smear frosting all over everything.
Your goal is a series of neat slices that
you can just cut and serve to all of the

At its simplest, focus requires that you

are pointing your wand in the right
direction so that you don't accidentally
cast a spell upon yourself (unless
that's what you intended to do).
Though rare, sometimes students get
lazy and distracted enough to not pay
attention to where they're pointing.

You also don't want to just focus

haphazardly upon whatever you're
trying to charm. If you're trying to use
the Mending Charm but you just
casually wave your wand in a general
direction without really focusing upon
what you're trying to mend and
visualizing its unbroken appearance,
you may find that it was mended with
extra pieces you hadn't meant to fuse
together or only partially put back

Even if you are focusing upon the

specific target of your spell, you must
avoid letting stray thoughts get in the
way. If you are trying to perform the
Severing Charm and you suddenly
worry about cutting too deeply, you
might find that this is exactly what
happens. It is important that you focus
only upon what your spell is supposed
to do and upon what it is supposed to
affect. Some may call this Intent, but in
reality focus and intention are the
same; you want to affect a specific
thing, and you want the spell to work a
certain way.

A great way to practice focusing is

through meditation. The act of clearing
your mind of thoughts and concerns
can take considerable effort, but in the
long run it will make you a much better
spellcaster. You should begin by
focusing on your breathing and how
the air moves in and out, again and
again. Should you have a thought,
simply acknowledge that it exists and
let it go. This is something that
Muggles call mindfulness. By
practicing the mental ability to simply
let your wandering thoughts go, you
will be able to keep them from popping
up while you're trying to focus on
casting your spell​.
​Chapter ten

Typically for non-magical folk,

willpower is a measure of one's
self-discipline. That is, an individual's
ability to restrain themselves from
doing something they might be
tempted to do, to control their
emotions, and to stick to their
convictions despite distraction or other

In the magical world, however,

willpower means something a little
different. Unlike muggles, a witch or
wizard is able to use their will to shape
and control their magical ability.
Casting a spell is, aside from the
required gestures, a mental effort. The
caster must precisely speak the
incantation, focus the initial flow of
magic, and of course exert enough
pressure, or willpower, to compel a
target to act in a way it wouldn’t

Willpower, as it pertains to
spellcasting, can be thought of like
lifting a heavy object or weight-training.
When you first begin to use your will to
cast spells you'll find yourself taxed
when casting a spell that doesn't
require a minimal effort. The demand
required by your mind to focus on
several different thoughts at once as
well as direct your magic (consciously
or subconsciously) is a mentally tiring

For most spells you will naturally learn,

over time, to exert greater force of will
upon them. You will be able to produce
more spectacular fire with the
Fire-Making Charm or shoot things
higher into the air with the Rocket
Charm. The trick to giving these spells
more power is, just like lifting weights,
a matter of constant practice. When
casting a spell, you should exert
mental effort toward the result, feel and
focus upon the magic leaving your
body and will more out.
Witches and wizards do NOT exhaust
their supply of magic, though, casting
powerful magic can be mentally taxing
due to the effort of will (or sometimes
focus/concentration) required.
However you should be careful if
decide to practice with spells like the
Fire-Making Charm, where success
could mean you now have a stream of
fire to worry about. These exercises
are best when used on spells like the
Levitation Charm or the Sticking
Charm because the backfire for these
spells isn't severe and the charms can
be honed over time.

To practice willpower without a wand,

find something in the room you are in
to focus upon. Look at it, and perhaps
any other aspects of the object, but
keep your mind on ONLY that item for
a full minute. Do not let stray thoughts
enter your mind, and if they do,
dismiss them as quickly as possible.
You'll find that this is a somewhat
difficult activity at first, since I'm sure
several things might cross your mind
or something might distract you.

It's important to also separate the idea

of focus from the idea of willpower.
Focus is one's ability to pinpoint what
they want to affect with a spell and
how the spell should act. Willpower is
the mental muscle that drives a spell
and provides the power for it to
function. If focus determines where the
water in a hose goes, willpower is the
amount of water being forced through
the hose.
​ ​Chapter eleven

Many students find concentration to be

the hardest spellcasting component to
perfect. Speaking the incantation,
conducting the wand movements,
focusing upon a target or thought, and
having enough willpower are all
important for the spells that require
them, but managing all of this and then
concentrating upon a thought, feeling
or desire after the spell has been cast
is usually very taxing. Concentration
when casting the Dancing Lights
Charm, for example, requires
concentration on the effects of the
spell (the orbs of light that are
created). Other spells may require
concentration on some symbolic effect
of the spell (such as happiness for the
Patronus Charm below), and others
still maintaining focus on the original
target. Concentration is essentially a
way to continue feeding magic to a
spell, keeping the spell alive and
directing it after the initial casting.

The best way to discuss concentration

may be to look at the spells that
require it. The most well-known charm
that has this requirement is the
Patronus Charm. The charm is meant
to repel dementors, but it requires that
the focus upon a very happy, very
powerful memory before casting the
spell (see Ch. 8 for more information
about the "focus" spellcasting
component). The memory then shapes
the magic to create a non-living
embodiment of happiness that a
Dementor cannot handle, but the spell
will only remain in place as long as
concentration on the happy, powerful
memory is maintained. Thus,
concentration can be summarized as
"focus over time” or “continued focus
after a spell has been cast”.

The Floating and Levitation Charms

also require focus to be maintained
after the spell is cast (i.e. they require
concentration). While the required
concentration is low, focus must be
maintained on the object after casting
these charms. Maintaining more than
minimal concentration makes casting
another spell simultaneously
extraordinarily difficult.
In many cases, a spell's focus and
concentration components are not the
same, as they were in the Patronus
Charm. The Tattoo Charm you will
learn about in third year, for example,
requires you to focus on the target you
wish to tattoo but concentrate on the
appearance of the tattoo. You must
begin visualizing the tattoo
immediately after casting the spell.
This concentration must be maintained
from the moment you cast the spell
until the tattoo is fully formed; losing
concentration before then would cut off
the magic and leave you with an
incomplete tattoo.
Some spells, like the Severing Charm,
are "one and done" spells that require
no sustained magical energy since
their effect is instantaneous. Others,
like the Locomotion Charm and
Softening Charm, require very little
concentration after casting; their
continued operation depends primarily
on the focus and willpower you charge
them with at the start, which also
means they cannot be sustained
indefinitely with concentration.

As a general rule, concentration is

required when ALL three of the
following criteria have been met and
NOT required if any criterion is not

1. The spell’s magic is sustained

beyond the initial casting; AND

2. The caster or the caster’s wand is

NOT touching the target; AND

3. The spell can be ended at any

time without a counter-charm.

There are exceptions to this rule, of

course, as there are for every rule. The
Tattoo Charm, for example, still
requires a concentration component
even though the wand must touch the
skin to be tattooed. However, the rule
holds true in the vast majority of cases.
As demonstrated, concentration can
mean several things. While it usually
appears only in more advanced magic,
there are some good practice spells
the beginner witch or wizard can use to
understand the required mindset.
These spells, modifications of the
Wand-Lighting Charm, can be found in
Chapter 17. Understanding how they
work will help you significantly when
casting such spells in the future.
​ ​Chapter twelve

One of the most important bits of

magic for the aspiring witch or wizard
to learn is the ​Wand-Lighting Charm​.
Useful in a wide range of activities,
easy to pronounce and with a simple
wand motion, this charm is one that
every single witch or wizard should
master and remember.

The Wand-Lighting Charm

Incantation​: ​Lumos (pronounced
Wand Movement​: Single
counter-clockwise loop
Focus​: None
Willpower​: Low; determines the color
of the light
Concentration​: None

The first known use of the

Wand-Lighting Charm was in the 18th
century despite how easy it is to use.
Magical historians credit Levina
Monkstanley, a Ministry of Magic
employee, for its invention. It was first
demonstrated in 1772 when Ms.
Monkstanley had dropped her quill on
the ground and used the spell to find it.

Its uses far exceed simply lighting the

tip of the wand. It can provide an easy
and endless source of amusement for
young witches and wizards who
usually enjoy watching the color
change. In government it makes for a
safe and easy method for casting a
vote. It can even be used to repel
incorporeal threats such as the
Gytrash (a vicious spectral hound) and
other malevolent spirits.

Depending upon the amount of charge

(the amount of willpower you throw
behind the spell) the light might
change from a soft pearly white to a
lemon-yellow (which indicates
sufficient energy, or charge, has been
applied), or even scarlet if the caster
has put too much into it. It is also
possible to modify the effect of the
spell with additional incantation words,
and these are detailed in different
chapters of this text.

Since the magic for the ​Wand-Lighting

Charm never leaves the tip of your
wand, the flow of magical energy does
not need to be directed (no focus is
required to cast the spell) or
consciously maintained (no
concentration, or continued focus after
the spell is cast, is required). However,
if you let go of your wand while this
charm is in effect, the light will go out.
No text describing the ​Wand-Lighting
Charm would be complete without its
equally-simple counter, the
Wand-Extinguishing Charm.​ This spell
has a singular purpose, and that is to
counter the ​Wand-Lighting Charm.​ It is
a personal charm, which means it will
only work for your own wand, or the
wand you happen to be holding should
it be lit.

The Wand-Extinguishing Charm

Incantation​: ​Nox (pronounced
Wand Movement​: Swift (fast) flick
Focus​: None
Willpower​: None
Concentration​: None

The Wand-Extinguishing Charm can

be quickly cast and its effect is
immediate. There is no harm of
backlash, making it as safe as the
charm it counters.
​Chapter thirteen

Magical and non-magical folk alike

have dreamed of the desire to fly since
antiquity. Muggles have managed it
recently, finding a way to make giant
metal birds airborne, but Witches and
Wizards have been flying for over a
millenium thanks to such enchanted
objects as the broom and flying carpet
(the latter of which is currently illegal in
Britain). While such devices are
effective, as diverse in make and
model as cars and relatively fast, even
the most dedicated of Experimental
Charmers has yet to find a spell that
can allow the caster to fly unaided.

One notable exception involves

eyewitness recounting directly from the
Boy Who Lived of You-Know-Who
being able to fly without the aid of any
magical device, though it is not clear
whether or not he had managed to
develop some sort of spell to do so.
Some believe that he may have found
a way to do so through his power
alone (without the aid of spell), though
such idle speculation is not worth
dwelling upon. The late Professor
Severus Snape was also able to use
this magic, no doubt taught by his
master, though the secret has died
with them.

Several spells have been developed

that allow for limited forms of
off-ground movement. This chapter
focuses on three fairly basic Charms
that offer some modicum of flight and
the most-used one that allows for the
directed movement of non-living
objects. They are presented in order of
discovery below.

The Hover Charm

Incantation​: ​Levioso (pronounced
Wand Movement​: Inward Spiral then
Focus​: None
Willpower​: Moderate; determines how
heavy an object can be lifted
Concentration​: None

One of the earliest known spells that

allowed Witches and Wizards to
magically move something off the
ground is known as the Hover Charm.
Once cast upon an object that the
caster is physically touching in some
way, it allows the caster to move that
object up and down. Due to its
impractical nature and the advent of
more efficient charms that use
concentration rather than touch to
control the flow of magical energy, the
Hover Charm does not see much use.
Due to its impractical nature and the
advent of more efficient charms, the
Hover Charm does not see much use.

The Rocket Charm

Incantation​: ​Alarte Ascendare
(‘A-lar-tay a-SEN-day-ray’)
Wand Movement​: Quick Swish at the
Focus​: The target object
Willpower​: High; determines how high
the object will ascend before falling
Concentration​: None
This charm does not require that the
caster be touching the target, which is
a significant improvement. However, it
is only capable of propelling an object
straight up into the air and back down
again. The height obtained is
somewhat controllable depending
upon the effort that is put into it, but the
height is not very significant and it
again becomes a fairly impractical
charm with limited use, and heavier
objects tend to move less.

The Floating Charm (u)

Incantation​: Fluito (‘flew-EE-toe’)
Wand Movement​: Jab and Upward
Focus​: The target object
Willpower​: High to very high,
depending on the weight and distance
of the object.
Concentration​: Moderate.
Concentration should be maintained
on the target object.

Unlike the ​Hover Charm​, this spell can

target a distant object rather than
requiring physical contact. Unlike the
Rocket Charm​, this spell involves
vertical movement controlled by wand
motions, and requires continued
concentration on the object being
levitated. However, the charm is not
without its limitations. Objects can only
be levitated a handful of feet into the
air, and they cannot be directed to
move any other way besides up and
down. This charm still found some
practical use however since
shopkeepers and the occasional witch
or wizard doing some spring cleaning
could move an object long enough to
then clean what was underneath it.

The Levitation Charm

Incantation​: Wingardium Leviosa
(‘wing-GAR-dee-um lehvee-O-sa’)
Wand Movement​: Swish and flick,
then moving with the object as if
pulling it by a string
Focus​: The target object
Willpower​: Moderate to very high,
depending on the weight and distance
of the object.
Concentration​: Moderate.
Concentration should be maintained
on the target object.

The Levitation Charm is the closest the

Wizarding World has come to true
flight. The charm is well-known and
reliable, an essential spell to a Witch or
Wizard of any age. It allows the caster
to control not only the vertical
movement of an object with wand
motion, but its movement back and
forth or side to side. Height is also less
of a restriction, though levitating or
maintaining levitation on something
very far away can be difficult and
requires extra concentration. The
charm even allows the caster to lift
objects normally too heavy for them to
lift themselves, though this also
requires some effort of will.
The only known limitation of the
Levitation Charm is that it fails to work
on humans. A Witch or Wizard can
charm the clothing that a person is
wearing, but (since the cloth is so
close to the person) the charm allows
them only to hover slightly with no
controlled movement.
​ ​Chapter fourteen

The Unlocking Charm

Incantation​: ​Alohomora
Wand Movement​: Backward S
curving up at the end
Focus​: Visualization of yourself,
unlocking the lock.
Willpower​: None for simple
mechanical locks; minimal to very
high for locks ranging from complex
mechanical to complex magical.
Concentration​: None

The history of the ​Unlocking Charm

begins with words so famous that
almost all Muggles know them.Open
Sesame, which I will refer to as the
“​Undooring Charm​”, splinters the
door into firewood. For safety
reasons the wand movement for this
charm will not be provided.

After a time another charm was

developed that was a bit more
advanced but still had its problems.
The incantation for this one is
Portaberto,​ though I refer to it as the
“​Lock-blasting Charm​” because its
use was to either melt through locks
or blast them off the door they were
attached to.
The Unlocking Charm, ​Alohomora,​
hails from Africa and was brought to
Britain in the 17th century where it
was used in a string of burglaries.
The incantation does not follow the
standard for typical spells (which
usually present with ​Latin origins). It
is an example that demonstrates how
new spells can be found anywhere
language has developed. The words
themselves possess a meaning that
is understood by many, and it is this
association between the words and
the spell that is important.

As demonstrated, the charm’s wand

movement is a backward S that
curves back upward at the end. The
caster must focus upon the lock to be
undone, whether it is just a physical
lock or of magical design. It's
important to begin the wand
movement as you begin saying the
spell and end it as you finish saying
the spell, regardless of how quickly
you say the spell or perform the
movement. Depending upon the
particular spell used to create the
lock, the ​Unlocking Charm may prove

Assuming the ​Unlocking Charm will

work on your target at all, the
complexity of the physical or magical
lock must also be taken into account.
Complex physical locks aren’t much
more of a challenge than simple
ones. A magical lock, on the other
hand, takes extra willpower to
overcome. The power and skill used
to make the lock as well as the age of
the spell may all affect how difficult
the task is. Especially important locks
may even be sealed with multiple
magical defenses, each designed to
make breaking through more difficult,
and typically a lock made with this
level of detail will have the
Anti-Alohomora Charm applied
This spell is typically taught to
first-year students to demonstrate the
need for proper wand movements.
The spell is fairly easy to pronounce;
the difficulty is in making sure that
you move your wand in a precise
manner and that it is directed toward
the target lock upon completion.
Students should practice not only
with simple physical locks but with
various forms of Locking Charms
provided by your professor.

The Mending Charm

Incantation​: ​Reparo​ (‘reh-PAH-roh’)
Wand Movement​: Inward pointed
spiral, continued until the object is
fully repaired
Focus​: A visualization of the object
Willpower​: Minimal
Concentration​: High. Visualization
should be maintained until the object
is repaired.

The Mending Charm can repair most

mundane (non-magical) items simply
enough, though depending upon the
level of damage a sustained effort
may be necessary or multiple
applications of the charm. The caster
must visualize the target of the spell
as it would be fully repaired. This
gives the magic, through you, an idea
of what repairs to make. This
visualization must then be maintained
until the repair is completed; let this
visualization slip and you risk the
spell unraveling, in which case you’ll
have to start again. The caster must
also continue the wand movement
after casting the spell until the effects
are complete.

This charm originated from a witch

who used it to repair damage that
had befallen the famed ​Colloseum in
Rome​. It proved so basic yet effective
that the witch was able to teach it to
several Ministers of Magic and get
the repairs finished promptly.

It’s important to remember that only

non-magical fixes can be made with
this spell. A broomstick repaired with
this spell will not have the magical
properties that had allowed it to fly
previously. A wand fares even worse;
the spell will mend the wand back
together, but the moment the
Mending Charm is complete the
wand will simply fall apart again.
Also, obviously, the magical spells
that were once laid upon an object
cannot be mended if they unravel
due to age or force.

The spell also cannot restore

something utterly destroyed or
transformed. It cannot turn the ashes
of a chair back into the chair. A
half-burned candle cannot have its
expended wax renewed (at least not
via this spell). Especially large
repairs, such as sections of a
structure, require additional power
and effort typically only seen in
graduate students.

Despite these limitations, this charm

is one of the easiest to cast and will
allow you to fix the results of small
magical mishaps with ease. It is
recommended to always keep this
charm in your ​repertoire​.
​ ​Chapter fifteen

The Fire-Making Charm

Incantation​: Incendio
Wand Movement​: Curved flick up
and down (as a flame)
Focus​: The target to be ignited
Willpower​: Low to very high,
depending on the distance of the
target and the difficulty of igniting the
Concentration​: None for a simple
ignition; moderate concentration on
the target should be maintained for a
continuous stream.
The Fire-Making charm is one of the
oldest-known spells​, its incantation
and wand movement both simple and
elegant. The ​incantation is a direct
word found in the ancient ​Latin
language, a precursor to many
modern-day languages including
English, Spanish, French and Italian,

to name a few. Few spells
demonstrate such direct ties to their
origin language, and fewer have a
wand movement so symbolic of its

One challenge to casting the

Fire-Making charm is that it requires
a fair bit of willpower and experience
in addition to just the wand
movement and the words. Other
elementary charms, such as the
Levitation Charm​, produce the same
effect for a first-year as it does for an
accomplished wizard; the only real
difference is how much they can
levitate. The Fire-Making charm​, on
the other hand, grows in finesse and
power as the user does. Anything
from a faint puff of smoke to a
controlled ignition at distance are

The first-year student should be able

to light a candle with this spell from
several inches away. Early attempts
might produce a bit of smoke or heat,
and for this reason it's best to
practice in an open area away from
flammable materials.

With more experience and practice,

the user can typically make a small
stream of fire flow from the tip of their
wand, like a ​flamethrower.​ The
distance this stream can travel is
usually dependent upon just how
much willpower is applied. This
usage of the charm causes the air
itself to be set alight in the direction
specified though it still isn't very
A fully-experienced witch or wizard is
able to target a distant object or
location for the ignition and avoid
excessive use of magic to achieve
their goals. It's still difficult to target
someone or something on the move,
and as the counter for this charm is
easy and takes but a moment, it has
fallen out of favor in combat in recent

The Locomotion Charm

Incantation​: ​Locomotor
Wand Movement​: Full circle with an
upward flick toward the target at the
end, then pointed where the object
should go.
Focus: The target object
Willpower​: Moderate to very high,
depending on the distance and
weight of the object.
Concentration​: Minimal
concentration should be maintained
on the object.

The Locomotion Charm, not to be

confused with other charms typically
classified as "​Flight​" Charms, is
functionally similar but theoretically
very different from other similar
charms. The charm creates a thin
barrier only a few inches (several
centimeters) between whatever is
targeted and the ground. The main
purpose of the charm is to move its
target from one location to another.

The Locomotion Charm has very

interesting linguistic roots. It is the
combination of two word from ancient
Latin. "​Loco​" means place or location,
while "​motor​" means to move. Taken
together it means "​move to a place​",
which is exactly what the charm

It is usually useful to specify the

target of the spell verbally as well. If
you want to target a nearby trunk, as
most students do when moving theirs
around, you can say Locomotor
Trunk to make the target clearer.
Some students find the spell not
working for them when it was simply
that they did not focus enough on
their target and ended up moving
dust or something else around that
they had not intended.

The ​Locomotion Charm is also useful

because it can remain active with
very little concentration. The caster
must spend a small bit of effort
keeping the charm going, but
otherwise they could cast another
spell without having to recast the
Locomotion Charm afterward. After
the target is chosen, the caster
simply points toward the direction
where the object should go. Of
course, in the beginning the object
may swerve and shudder as it
moves. With a bit of practice and
finesse, it usually becomes a rather
trivial matter, much like moving a
shopping trolley around a store.

​ ​Chapter sixteen

The Severing Charm

Incantation​: ​Diffindo​ (‘deef-IN-doe’)
Wand Movement​: “V-Shaped down
and up, ending with a swish in the
direction to cut.”
Focus​: The place to cut and the
depth of the slice.
Willpower​: Low
Concentration​: None

The Severing Charm, invented at

some point in the 1400s by a
seamstress named Delfina Crimp,
allows the caster to precisely cut the
target they are focused upon. The
caster should finish saying the spell
while performing a swish in the
direction of the cut. At this point the
spell is cast, and the target is cut
along the desired path.
Of course there are many possible
mishaps that can occur. The simplest
is, of course, that nothing happens.
The thing you are attempting to cut
may also be only partially severed. In
this case you may have to cast the
spell again to finish the job. Your cut
could also be a bit ragged as the
magic tears through the material
rather than severing it.

In other cases, you may accidentally

cut something you had not intended.
If your goal was to precisely cut a
single flower stem, you might find
that you have instead sliced all of its
neighbors if you aren't careful. If you
are attempting to cut a piece of cloth,
you might find that you've also cut
into the material behind or
underneath it. For these reasons it's
best to practice this spell in an open
area where a mistake means that
you've cut neighboring blades of
grass and not chopped up your
clothing or walls.

With practice it gets easier to

determine precisely where to cut,
how deep, and to prevent unintended
items from being cut. It's worth noting
that this spell isn't nearly as effective
against animals and other such
complex life forms. Despite
appearances, living things are made
of layers and layers of very small
moving things called cells, and the
magic of this Charm does not interact
well with them.

You can chop down trees or cut

plants because their cells are very
slow-moving and relatively simple.
You may be able to give someone a
scratch or papercut, or perhaps even
something a little deeper, but doing
serious harm with this spell requires
years of practice and by this time it is
easily overcome with a Shield
The Softening Charm
Incantation​: Spongify
Wand Movement​: “S-Shaped with a
small swish half-way through”
Focus​: The target object
Willpower​: Moderate
Concentration​: None

The ​Softening Charm temporarily

modifies the properties of the target
object, making it a bit squishy and
slightly bouncy like some plush toys,
but not soft the way a stuffed animal
is. When cast, the spell looks like a
pink light coming out of the end of
your wand. The object it strikes
grows slightly lighter, but it's closer to
the consistency of a rubber ball than
anything else. If cast upon a book
you could sink your finger into the
cover a bit or throw it on the ground
and watch it bounce back up a little,
but the cover still feels like a book
cover if you run your hand lightly
across it.

This spell is much less devastating

than the ​Severing Charm can be if
improperly cast. An improper
Softening Charm will usually (instead
of only occasionally) result in nothing
happening. If you don't give the spell
enough charge when casting, you
may find that the charm wears off
almost instantly or that the item you
are attempting to soften is only very
slightly softened and doesn't bounce
when dropped; it will also lose its
softness far more quickly.

The charm is also useless against

living matter. Attempting to cast it
upon a living thing causes nothing to
happen to their living cells, though
hair, nails and fur might be a little
softer for a short time. Other
materials, depending upon their
hardness and density, may remain
unaffected as well.
Metal and stone typically don't
"absorb" the magic well enough for a
noticeable effect, though an
accomplished witch or wizard may be
able to temporarily soften these
materials if strong enough
(depending upon the material, some
cannot be softened at all by this
charm). Such things are beyond most
students of any grade at Hogwarts,
​ ​Chapter seventeen

The Sticking Charm (u)

Incantation​: Astrictus (‘a-strik-toose’)
Wand Movement​: The infinity
symbol starting and ending in the
center, encircling the two objects. (IE:
Focus​: The two parts that should be
stuck together.
Willpower​: High; determines how
long the objects will remain stuck and
how hard they are to separate
Concentration​: None

Not to be confused with the

Permanent-Sticking Charm, this
charm's effects are long-lasting but
by no means permanent. Often
taught to first-year students as an
excercise in willpower, the ​Sticking
Charm's strength and longevity
depend upon the amount of will the
caster puts into the spell.

The caster's wand should begin and

end pointed toward the target. As the
incantation is spoken, the wand is
moved in a loop upward to the left,
down and back to center, then
upward to the right, down and back to
the center. The caster must focus
upon the two parts that they wish to
stick together or the spell may fail.
At its simplest, the ​Sticking Charm
holds two objects, that are already
touching when the spell is cast,
together. It doesn't work on living
animals, though you could certainly
stick a flower to a book cover, for
instance. The spell can also be used
to hold two halves of a box together
or a lock to the door it is attached to,
though again the willpower employed
by the caster determines how difficult
this is to overcome.

Spell failure for the Sticking Charm

may result in the two objects not
sticking, the wrong objects sticking
together, or a backfire which usually
results in the caster being stuck to
the floor (their shoes and the floor
sticking together) or other odd
instances (such as the caster's hair
being stuck together). It's better to
seek help from a skilled witch or
wizard in these cases.

The first time the

m was employed, according to

historical record, it was used aboard
roman battle vessels around
approximately ​100 B.C.​ Witches and
wizards would use this spell to keep
objects from falling off ships during
storms and to help fasten loose doors
closed. It was also used to stick fiery
debris to enemy ships or prevent
cannons from firing.

Of course the ​Sticking Charm

eventually began losing popularity to
more permanent solutions and spells,
particularly after the ​Unlocking
Charm proved an effective
counterspell to the ​Sticking Charm.​
This is another reason why the
Sticking Charm is good for first-year
practice; not only is it a good practice
of a witch or wizard's willpower, but it
provides a means for practicing the
Unlocking Charm on more than just
physical locks.
​Chapter eighteen

Wand-Lighting Charm Modifiers

A modifier is a word or short phrase
added to the end of a spell to modify
the target or effect. The Locomotion
Charm, for example, can be modified
by including the name of the target.
The Wand-Lighting Charm is another
example of a spell that can be
modified in several ways, though the
chosen modifier changes what the
spell does, not what the target is.
Two such modified spells, the
Sunlight Charm and the Dancing
Lights Charm, both provide good
practice concentrating.
The Sunlight Charm

Incantation​: ​Lumos Solem

(‘LOO-mos so-LEM’)
Wand Movement​: Single
counter-clockwise loop ending with
the wand pointed toward the target.
Focus​: Target of light
Willpower​: Low to very high;
determines color and intensity of light
Concentration​: High; Target of light

The Sunlight Charm produces a

beam of intense light often compared
with sunlight and possibly a
concentrated form of it. The charm is
affected by several factors. The
amount of willpower put into the spell
determines how powerful the effect
is. The spell requires focus to
precisely target the beam. It also
requires concentration to keep the
spell from simply flickering out just
after being cast.

Depending upon how much willpower

you put into the spell, the beam will
range in intensity from a faint white
like a flashlight (but visible) to a
brilliant light golden yellow at its
maximum. Unlike with the unmodified
version (IE the Wand-Lighting
Charm), this charm does not turn
scarlet if over-charged. Care must
still be taken as an intense beam can
be a danger to your vision, though
you should never point your wand
toward your own face to begin with.

This charm is also a great way to

practice your ability to concentrate. If
you cast the spell but are not
concentrating upon maintaining the
spell to achieve the desired effect,
the light will quickly fade out. The
spell will only last 5-6 seconds no
matter how hard you concentrate, but
if you don't concentrate enough the
spell won't last for even a second.
Managing all of the requirements to
cast the spell are what make it a
great spell to practice with.
The Dancing Lights Charm(u)

Incantation​: ​Lumos Numerosa

(‘LOO-mos Noom-air-O-sa’)
Wand Movement: Single
counter-clockwise loop, then several
rapid counter-clockwise loops.
Focus​: None
Willpower​: None
Concentration​: High. Concentration
should be maintained on all the orbs,
and determines how many can be

An experimental charm that has

shown incredible promise, the
Dancing Lights Charm produces
several spheres of light that can
wander directed by the caster's will.
Each orb casts about as much light
as a candle. The user doesn't have to
focus on a particular target, though
they need to mentally direct the orbs
toward a particular area.
Concentration is a key component of
the spell.

The caster must concentrate upon

each orb that is conjured. The
number of orbs that can be conjured
by the spell is limited by the caster's
ability to concentrate upon them,
though the most skilled caster can
only maintain about a dozen at a
time. Preliminary testing has
determined that a first-year should be
able to conjure three to five orbs at a

The caster must also concentrate to

move the orbs and keep them from
simply winking out of existence.
Keeping them clustered together is
the easiest way to move them all at
the same time, though an
experienced spellcaster can control
them on a more individual level.
Typically the caster must choose
between more orbs or more control,
though practicing concentration
increases either of them.
​Chapter nineteen

These two charms have just recently

left experimental stage. Developed
by the noted Magical Theorist
Arameus Szareko, the charms work
in a similar manner and provide great
practice for concentration over a
protracted period of time.

The Warming Charm(u)

Incantation​: ​Focillo​ (‘foh-Sill-oh’)

Wand Movement​: Slow clockwise
circles that continue while you
Focus​: Target of warmth.
Willpower​: Moderate
Concentration​: Moderate.
Concentration should be maintained
on the thought of warmth and heat.

The Warming Charm produces gentle

warmth that radiates outward from
the tip of the wand in a small cone.
The caster must focus upon the
object they are warming with this
charm as the spell is cast. This
determines the width of the cone of
heat. The caster can make the heat a
bit more intense with an effort of
willpower, though the heat is never
hot enough to be dangerous. The
caster must concentrate upon the
thought of warmth and heat while
casting the spell. The caster can
maintain the spell indefinitely as long
as they continue to concentrate on
the spell and warm thoughts.

The Chilling Charm(u)

Incantation​: ​Infrigido
Wand Movement​: Slow
counter-clockwise circles that
continue while you concentrate.
Focus​: Target of cold.
Willpower​: Moderate
Concentration​: Moderate.
Concentration should be maintained
on the thought of cold and chill.
The Chilling Charm produces the
opposite effect to the Warming
Charm, producing gentle chill air that
radiates outward from the tip of the
wand in a small cone. The caster
must focus upon the object they are
chilling with this charm as the spell is
cast. This determines the width of the
chilling cone. The caster can make
the spell a bit colder through an effort
of willpower, though the spell is never
cold enough to be dangerous. The
caster must concentrate upon the
thought of cold and chill while casting
the spell. The caster can maintain the
spell indefinitely as long as they
continue to concentrate on the spell
and cold thoughts.
​ ​Chapter twenty

Professor Quilmane has added a few

example spells that, while
non-functional, demonstrate
acceptable answers for his "​Create A
Spell​" assignment.

Grade:​ 100% (O)

Charm Name: ​The Tarot-Organizing
Charm (also known as Trelawney’s
Incantation​: ​Ordino (Or-DEE-noh)
(from ​Latin​ ‘ordinare; to organize)

Wand Movement​: Point wand above

the tarot and drag down whilst
pronouncing ​‘Or’,​ as you reach the
bottom, one pronounces ​‘DEE’,​ and
then drags back up, saying ​‘noh’.​

Focus Component​: You must focus

upon the deck of tarot cards you want
to be affected. It can be simply Major
Arcana, then Minor ​Arcana,​ or ​Major​,
then ​Swords,​ ​Cups​, ​Wands​,
Pentacles,​ or a different variation,
depending on how one wants their
cards to be structured. Personally, I
prefer to have them mixed, to focus
on a mixed tarot deck.

Willpower Component​: You must

will the spell to set the deck in the
desired order and channel enough
magical energy to make sure it
happens. If you don't, the cards won’t
all shuffle correctly and you could
end up with a pile on the floor.

Concentration Component​: One

must concentrate upon how they
wish for the deck to be organised.
Should one’s mind wander - even a
tiny bit - the spell will fail. Stressing
the ​‘dee’ in the incantation is vital. If
one doesn’t, one could end up with
the opposite of the desired effect!

Summary/Description​: As the name

suggests, this charm is used to
organise a set of tarot cards into a
deck in they way in which you wish
for them to be organised. It is not a
complex spell, but requires attention
to detail, a clear throat, and a steady
hand. Casting the spell correctly will
cause the cards to fly upward, flying
around as they jumble themselves
depending upon the casters will, and
then come back down in a neat stack
ready for use. The cards ordering is
considered magically divined
because it’s impossible to cause the
cards to be ordered in a specific
pattern, though you can focus upon
the deck being organized ​Ace to ​King
in each suite with the ​Major ​Arcana in
order (basically completely

Grade​: 90% (O) - The descriptions

are too short and the spell is a bit

Charm Name:​ ​The Snowflake Charm

Incantation​: ​Descenditis Nix

(deh-sen-dih-tis nicks) The words
roughly mean "falling snow".
Wand Movement: Gentle downward
spiral movement, mimicking snowfall.

Focus​: The focus for the spell is the

area where you want the snow to fall.

Willpower​: Determines the amount

of snow generated.

Concentration​: Determines the

duration of snowfall. The spell can
last up to half an hour.

Summary​: As its name suggests,

this charm generates genuine snow
by condensing and freezing the air
and pulling moisture into the target
area. The spell doesn't work as well
when it's extremely hot or extremely
dry as it also has to chill the air and,
when necessary, conjure the water to
make it work.

Grade​: 85% (E) - There are a few

spelling/grammar mistakes and the
focus and concentration seem
reversed. I would expect that
focusing upon the needles and fabric
as the spell is cast is the Focus
component while maintaining focus
on the needles and the shifting
patterns (a thought) are
concentration components. The goal
is to properly note all parts of the

Spell Name​: The Knitting Charm

Incantation​: Knacocio (nah-co-CI-O)

Wand Movement: Starting from the

top right hand corner, draw a V,
ending at the top left corner, then
making a U shape curve back to the
top right hand corner. (Incantation
said after the wand movement)

Focus Component​: The caster must

focus closely on the knitting needles
and how each stitch is made. As
there are different types of ​stitchings,​
the caster needs to constantly focus
on the type of stitching they would
like to use during the knitting. The
caster needs to visualise the knitting
design in their minds and if they were
to lose focus, they will end up having
a messy ball of yarn.

Will Power Component: The spell

requires minimal will power as there
is no backfiring effect if the spell is
casted wrongly. The caster will
merely have a problem unstitching
the yarn. More willpower will be
needed if the design is complex and
constantly changing. Also, varying
willpower is needed when knitting
different types of product. For
example, knitting a scarf would
definitely need less willpower than
knitting a sweater.

Concentration Component​: Knitting

requires two knitting needles and
thus it will be a challenge to split the
concentration into two parts that are
actively happening concurrently.

Summary/Description:​This spell is
a necessary spell as it is use for
common activities. The spell cast
may seem like an easy task however,
there is still some minimal complexity
in terms of concentration when it
comes to controlling both needles at
the same time. When spell is
successfully casted, the caster would
be able to knit things such as ​scarf,
sweats, mittens, hats etc.


I hope you have enjoyed this textbook and that it has helped you to
understand the basics of spellcasting in the Wizarding World! I wrote this
text over two years ago when the Hogwarts is Here site was brand new, along
with the Charms lessons for Year One, most of Year Two, and half of Year
Three. I hope you enjoy the class and that it helps to fill in the gaps of
your magical knowledge in a coherent and cogent manner.

Though this text may vanish within the next few days or week, or its author
credits moved to someone who did not in fact write it, I'd like you all to
know that it has been a pleasure and a great opportunity to serve you all. I
know many will remember who truly wrote this text, and who truly created the
lessons that it accompanied for two and a half wild years.

I leave you with a great quote from a wise man.

“The ones who love us never really leave us, you can always find them in
- Albus Dumbledore

Your devoted Professor,

Alexander M. Quilmane