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NAME: Loriniza Paet-Mendoza TOPIC: Training and Development

a. Nature of Training and
COURSE: MBA- HRM b. Need and Importance of
Training and Development
c. Distinction Between Training
and Development
d. Management Development
e. Consideration in Administering
Management Development


An organization’s ability to learn, and

translate that learning into action
rapidly is the ultimate competitive
— Jack Welch, former General
Electric CEO-

 Training and Development is one of the main functions of the human

resource management department.
 Training and Development is a subsystem of an organization which
emphasize on the improvement of the performance of individuals and
 Training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills,
abilities and knowledge to an employee.
 Training & development is an attempt to improve current or future
employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform
through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or
increasing his or her skills and knowledge.
 The need for training & development is determined by the employee’s
performance deficiency, computed as : Training & Development need =
Standard performance – Actual performance.

Training refers to a systematic setup where employees are instructed

and taught matters of technical knowledge related to their jobs. It focuses on
teaching employees how to use particular machines or how to do specific tasks
to increase efficiency.
Whereas, Development refers to the overall holistic and educational
growth and maturity of people in managerial positions. The process of
development is in relation to insights, attitudes, adaptability, leadership and
human relations.


Training isn’t just important to any company, it is vital.

1. Improved employee performance – the employee who receives the necessary

training is more able to perform in their job. The training will give the employee a
greater understanding of their responsibilities within their role, and in turn build
their confidence. This confidence will enhance their overall performance and this
can only benefit the company. Employees who are competent and on top of
changing industry standards help your company hold a position as a leader and
strong competitor within the industry.

2. Improved employee satisfaction and morale – the investment in training that a

company makes shows employees that they are valued. The training creates a
supportive workplace. Employees may gain access to training they wouldn’t have
otherwise known about or sought out themselves. Employees who feel appreciated
and challenged through training opportunities may feel more satisfaction toward
their jobs.

3. Addressing weaknesses – Most employees will have some weaknesses in their

workplace skills. A training program allows you to strengthen those skills that each
employee needs to improve. A development program brings all employees to a
higher level so they all have similar skills and knowledge. This helps reduce any
weak links within the company who rely heavily on others to complete basic work
tasks. Providing the necessary training creates an overall knowledgeable staff with
employees who can take over for one another as needed, work on teams or work
independently without constant help and supervision from others.

4. Consistency – A robust training and development program ensures that employees

have a consistent experience and background knowledge. The consistency is
particularly relevant for the company’s basic policies and procedures. All
employees need to be aware of the expectations and procedures within the
company. Increased efficiencies in processes results in financial gain for the

5. Increased productivity and adherence to quality standards – Productivity

usually increases when a company implements training courses. Increased
efficiency in processes will ensure project success which in turn will improve the
company turnover and potential market share.

6. Increased innovation in new strategies and products – On-going training and

up skilling of the workforce can encourage creativity. New ideas can be formed as a
direct result of training and development.

7. Reduced employee turnover – staff are more likely to feel valued if they are
invested in and therefore, less likely to change employers. Training and
development is seen as an additional company benefit. Recruitment costs therefore
go down due to staff retention.
8. Enhances company reputation and profile – Having a strong and successful
training strategy helps to develop your employer brand and make your company a
prime consideration for graduates and mid-career changes. Training also makes a
company more attractive to potential new recruits who seek to improve their skills
and the opportunities associated with those new skills.



Training is meant for operatives Development is meant for executives

It is reactive process It is pro- active process

AIM: To develop additional skills AIM: To develop the total personality

It is short term process It is continuous process

OBJECTIVE: To meet the present need of OBJECTIVE: To meet the future need of an
an employee employee

Initiative is taken by the management Initiative is taken by an individual


Management development is a part of a large process of development
and learning which a significant area of human development is. In human
society there is a continuous growth which takes place through a continuous
process of exploration, discovery and acquisition of knowledge.
The main aim of this education is to increase the ability of managers for
betterment. Management development consists of all the means by which
management learn to improve their behaviour and performance.
Those in the field of organizational behaviour tend to be over conscious of
the needs for management development without – paying significant attention
to ensure that the entire segment of industrial and business activity is viewed
as a development process and is attuned to the overall objectives of the society.
The process of management development begins with top management’s
recognition of the need for MDP, Development of suitable policy guidelines and
assignment of special responsibility for executing the policy create a favourable
climate of on-the-job growth, personal improvement and development of
A special committee of senior executives will look after planning and
guiding management development. The personnel manager and special training
staff will administer the routine of MDP.



Components or Ingredients of Management Development Programme:

The essential components or steps of a comprehensive management
development programme are discussed below under the following heads:
(i) Looking at organisation’s objectives;
(ii) Ascertaining development needs;
(iii) Appraisal of present management talents;
(iv) Preparation of Manpower Inventory;
(v) Planning of individual development programmes;
(vi) Establishment of training and development programmes;
(vii) Programme evaluation.

(i) Looking at Organisations’ Objectives. This is the first step in executive

development programme. The objects tell “where we are going” and will
develop a framework from which the executive need can be determined.
(ii) Ascertaining Development Needs calls for organisational planning and
forecast of its needs for present and future growth. This is generally
based upon a comprehensive job description, job specification and job
analysis with particular reference to the kind of management work
performed, the kind of executives needed, and the kind of education,
experience, training, special knowledge, skills, personal traits, etc.,
required for such work. Most companies train their own executives,
except when they experience a critical shortage of specialised high-level
talent. In the latter case, executives are hired from outside.
(iii) An Appraisal of Present Management Talent is made with a view to
determining qualitatively the type of personnel that is available within an
organisation itself. The performance of a management individual is
compared with the standard expected of him. His personal traits are also
analysed so that a value judgment may be made of his potential for
(iv) A management Manpower Inventory is prepared for the purpose of
getting complete information about each management individual’s bio-
data and educational qualifications, the results of tests and performance
appraisal. It may also be maintained on replacement tables or charts.
From these, it can be known that several capable executives are available
for training for higher positions.
(v) The Planning of Individual Development Programmes is undertaken
to meet the needs of different individuals, keeping in view the differences
in their attitudes and behaviour, and in their physical, intellectual and
emotional qualities. The weak and strong points of an individual are
known from his performance appraisal reports; and, on the basis of
these, tailor-made programmes are framed and launched. Such
programmes give due attention to the interests and goals of the
subordinates as well as the training and development opportunities
which exist within an organisation.
(vi) Establishment of Training and Development Programmes this job is
done by the personnel department. A comprehensive and well-conceived
programme is generally prepared, containing concentrated brief courses
(often called crash programmes). Such courses may be in the field of
human relations, time and motion study, creative thinking, memory
training, decision-making, leadership courses, and courses in
professional or academic institutions, depending on organisational needs
and the time and the cost involved.
(vii) Evaluating Development Programmes evaluation is the systematic
collection and assessment of information for deciding how best to utilise
available training resources in order to achieve organisational objectives.

The evaluation of training has been defined by Hamblin as “any attempt to

obtain information (feedback) on the effects of a training programme and to
assess the value of training in the light of that information.”
According to him, the objectives of evaluating development programmes are:
a) Reactions objectives, that is, objectives intended to “stimulate a high
level of involvement and interest.”
b) Learning objectives that are those objectives which are concerned with
acquiring knowledge, skills and attitudes.
c) Job behaviour objectives, which are concerned with achieving over-all

Other authorities are of the opinion that an evaluation of training is helpful


a) It discloses the relevance of programmes to an organisation’s needs, i.e.,

what changes are to be made in existing programmes to make them more
b) It reveals whether programmes have contributed to the effectiveness of
an organisation; and
c) It tells us whether programmes need to be continued or replaced by other
relevant activities, which might aid in the achievement of an
organisation’s goals.
According to Tracey, the most important means of evaluating development
programmes are:

a) Observation that is, observing the behaviour of people. Such observation

must be specific, systematic, quantitative, recorded and expert;
b) Ratings, under which various elements of the training system should be
rated independently by several raters. The elements of rating are the
trainees, instructors, equipment, materials, training aids and facilities;
c) Trainee surveys, concerned with knowing the opinion of the trainees
about the programmes;
d) Trainee interviews, at which ideas and views of the trainees are elicited.

Two other methods may be added to this test. One, measuring the score
secured by a trainee in tests and examination; two, measuring changes that
might have taken place in such areas as costs, quality, quantity of work,