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134 RATA MATOAION vii.

Ch '^^ TTup pdXXcTai. 20. apayc drro jCtv Kap-nC>v aoTwc in^iyi liatadf
X xii so
xxi. ii ul.
auTOUS.
jf Ch. XXIV.
36, Lit. X. 21. " Oi iras 6 \iy<Jiy fioi, Kupic, Ku'pie, EiaeXeuaerai cis T^i*
These, i.
^aaiXciac TWK oupawoiv' dXX' 6 * iroidji' to

OeXrjjJia tou Traxp^s Jaoo
I Mk. ix. 38. Tou ^k* ^ oopai'ois. 22. iroXXol ^pouai p.01 iv ^ iKeiyY\ xtj rju^pa,
John i. JO. Kupi€, Kupie, ou Tw aw oi'op.aTt Trpo€<J)i]Tcu(rap.€>',^ Kal "rij) aw ocoiiaTi
13 (rifi Ti 8atp.6^'la e^ePdXop.e*', Kal tw aw 6c6p.aTi Sok'dfAeis iroXXds eiroii^-

xxiv. 14). aappec; 23. Kal totc * 6y.o\oyf\<T(3i auxois, oxi ouS^ttotc eyviav Afias *

'
t«^BC have tois before ovpavois, which T. R., following many MSS., omits.

't^BCLZ have the augment at the beginning (•'Trpo(}>.) ; adopted by modern


editors.

in Matt. xvii. 26. The yt should have name and authority in support of anti-
its fullforce as singling out for special Christian tendencies, such as anti-
attention " at least from their fruits, if
;
nomianism (avo^iav, ver. 23). Ver. 21. —
by no other means ". It implies that to 6 \iy(ov, 6 irotuv: Of all, whether disciples
know the false prophet is hard. Ver. or teachers, the principle holds good with-
22 explains why. He has so much to out exception that not saying " Lord "
say, and show, for himself: devils cast but doing God's will is the condition of
out, souls saved, spiritual if not physical approval and admittance into the king-
miracles done. What other or better dom. Saying " Lord " includes taking
" fruit " would you have ? What in Jesus for Master, and listening to His
short is the test ? Doctrine, good moral teaching with appreciation and admira-
life ? Is the false prophet necessarily a tion everything short of carrying out
;

false teacher or an immoral man ? Not His teaching in life. In connection


necessarily though not unfrequently. with such lofty thouglits as the Beati-
But he is always a self-seeking man. tudes, the precept to love enemies and
The true prophet is Christ-like, i.e., the admonition against care, there is a
cares supremely for truth, righteousness, great temptation to substitute senti-
humanity not at all for himself, his
; mental or sesthetic admiration for heroic
pocket, his position, his life. None but —
conduct. TO OeX-qfitt tov iraTpds fiov.
such can effectively preach Christ. This Christ's sense of His position as Master
repetition of the thought in ver. 16 is not or Lord was free from egotism. He
for mere poetical effect, as Carr (Camb. was simply the Son and Servant of the
G. T.), following Jebb (Sacred Litera- Father, whose will He and all who
ture, p. 195), seems to think. follow Him must obey my Father here ;

Vv. 21-23. False discipleship. From for the first time. —


Ver. 22. kv Ikcivx]
false teachers the discourse naturally T^ -^ficpq., the great dread judgment
passes to spurious disciples. Luke's day of Jehovah expected by all Jews,
version contains the kernel of this with more or less solemn awe a very ;

passage (Luke vi. 46). Something of grave reference. tu acji ovofiaxi thrice :

the kind was to be expected in the teach- repeated, the main ground of hope.
ing on the hill. What more likely than Past achievements, prophesyings, exor-
that the Master, who had spoken such cisms, miracles are recited but the ;

weighty should say to His


truths, chief point insisted on is all was done :

hearers " In vain ye call me Master,


: in Thy name, honouring Thee, as the
unless ye do the things which I say " ? source of wisdom and power. Ver 23. —
As it stands here the logion has pro- t<5t<. When they make this protesta-
bably, as Weiss suggests (Matt. Evang., tion, the Judge will make a counter-
p. 219), undergone expansion and protestation —
op.oXo'Y'qau) aviTois, I will
modification, so as to give to the title own to them. Bengal's comment is
aperte. Mzgnz potestas hujus dicti. But
" Lord," originally = "^C Teacher, the there is a certain apologetic tone in the
I
fullsense it bore when applied to Christ expression, " I will confess " (" profess,"
by the Apostolic Church, and to make A.V. and R.V.), as if to say I ought to :

the warning refer to false prophets know men who can say so much for
of the Apostolic age using Christ's themselves, but I do not. oti, recita-
— — —

20 26. EYArrEAION 135


^

1
diToxwpeiTe
ocrris
11
aKouei
dir* cfxou

jiou
\
01
\.
tous Aoyous toutous,
f
*

/i\
epYa|^<5(j,6Kot tJjk

Kai
'' di'OfiiuK.

iroiei
-<,
24. Fids
aureus, opoiwcrw
ou>' b Lk.
Acts
13.
ix. 39,
xiii.

»^2^C^•i
auTOJ' acopi•*
'
<|>pocip,b),
1 ' <^ r
ooris u»KooofAT]CT6 TT)f oiKiaK auTou
\ , r >»<i,».C
^ €Tri Tr)i/
Ch. Xxvi.
la
jreTpaj'- 25. Kai KaW^i] i^ ^poxt) Kal tJXOo*' ot iroTafAol Kal 41. ijahn
eirv€ucrav oi di/6)xot, Kai ' •jrpoore-ircoroi'
rfj oiKia ckeiio], koI ouk eireae •
e Ch.^x. 16;
xxiv. 45
TcfieiieXtwTO ydp em tt)k Trerpak. 26. Kal irSs 6 dKOuuK |Jioo toos XXV. 2, 4.
;

Xoyous TOUTOUS Kal *"


fi^ iroiwi' outous, 6fjioiu8T)o-eTat dkSpl • p,u>pw, h
f here only
in sense of beat against. g Ch. xxiii.17, ig; xxv. z, 8.

' B omits TovTo«s, which is bracketed by W.H. It seems needed, and may have
fallen out by homcEOt.
^ t^BZ have opioio>0T)<rcTai for opLoiucrbi avrov. So W.H.
* ovTou before rqv oikiuv in fc^BCZI, so giving the pronoun due emphasis hii
house.

tive, the exact words directly reported. of legalism and Pharisaism.— 6(1010)671-
ovSeTTOTe, never: at no point in that (TCTai: not at the judgment day (Meyer),
remarkable career when so many wonder- but, either shall be assimilated by his
ful things were done in my name. ownaction (Weiss), or the future passive
a-n-oxcop£iT€, etc. an echo of Ps. vi. 9,
: to be taken as a Gerund = comparandus
and sentence of doom, like Matt. xxv. 41. est (Achelis). (|>povip.a> —
perhaps the best :

Vv. 24-27. Epilogue (Lk. vi. 47-49, rendering is " thoughtful ". The type of
which see for comparative exegesis). man meant considers well what he is
ovv, ver. 24, may be taken as referring to about, and carefully adopts measures
the whole discourse, not merely to w. suited to his purpose. The undertaking
21-23 (Tholuck and Achelis). Such a on hand is building a house a serious —
sublime utterance could only be the —
business a house not being meant for
grand finale of a considerable discourse, show, or for the moment, but for a
or series of discourses. It is a fit ending lasting home. A well-selected emblem
of a body of teaching of unparalleled of religion. ttjv nirpav the article used :

weight, dignity, and beauty. The toi5- to denote not an individual rock, but a
rovs after Xoyotjs (ver. 24), though —
category a rocky foundation.
omitted in B, therefore bracketed in Ver. 25. What follows shows his
W. H., is thoroughly appropriate. It wisdom, justified by events which he had
may have fallen out through similar anticipated and provided for not abstract ;

ending of three successive words, or have possibilities, but likely to happen every
been omitted intentionally to make the —
year certain to happen now and then.
statement following applicable to the Therefore the prudence displayed is not
whole of Christ's teaching. Its omission exceptional, but just ordinary common
weakens the oratorical power of the sense. Kal — observe the five Kal in
:

passage. It occurs in ver. 26. —


succession an eloquent polysyndeton,
Ver. 24. rias ooTTis. Were the read- as grammarians call it; note also the
ing 6)ioiu<r<i> adopted, this would be a rhythm of the sentence in which the war
case either of attraction iras for -sravTa of the elements is described: down came
to agree with So-ris (Fritzsche), or of a the rain, down rushed the rivers, blew
broken construction nominative, with-
: the winds— sudden, fell, terrible. Trpotr^ —
out a verb corresponding, for rhetorical ireaov, they fell upon that house ; rain on
effect. (Meyer, vide Winer, § Ixiii., 2, d.) root, river on foundation, wind on walls.
— ciKovei, iroici hearing and doing, both
: And what happened ? Kal ovk tTretrev.
must go together vide James i. 22-25, ^O''
; The elements fell on it, but it did not
a commentary on this logion. " Doing " fall. —
reOefieXieuTo yap for a good reason, :

points generally to reality, and what it it was founded on the rock. The
means specifically depends on the nature builder had seen to that.
of the saying. " Blessed are the poor in Vv. 26-27. |X(i>p&j, Jesus seems here to
spirit " doing in that case means being
; offend against His own teaching, v. 22,
poor in spirit. To evangelic ears the but He speaks not in passion or con-
word has a legal sound, but the doing tempt, but in deep sadness, and with
Christ had in view meant the opposite humane intent to prevent such folly.

136 KATA MATOAION VII. 27 — 29.


h Lt. ii. 34. ooTis WKo86p.Tja€ rfjv oiKiaf aoTou ^ 27. Kal KaWPir]
eirl rriv ap|io»' •

" T PpoX'l '*'*'^ rjXflok' ol iroTaixol Kal eivieuo-aK 01 akciAOt, Kal irpoa^-
.

I
i^l;
Ch.
33. ML.
..
xxii.
i. Kovj'a*'' TTJ
.»->/,,
oiKia CKeifTi, Kal e-ireac Kal 'icin
r- '

^iTTwais auTtis ueYdXri."


1

2a ; xi. 18.
\ , / «
Lk. iv. 31 28. Kai iyiycTo ore CTUk'crAeae*' ^ 6 'ItictoJs tous Xovous tootous,
(all
toChrist's
in ref. (,>», <"\
cleTrXi^cro'Ok'TO 01 0^X01
\~
iiTiTn SiSaxfl auTou •
20. rtv vap SiS(i(TKb>i»
doctrine). > r , i ,1 t „ ^ ,
j Mk. i.22. auTous W9 «50UCTiai' ex<^^> •^'*'' oux ws 01 ypO'H'P'ttTeis.*

^ avTov before ttiv oiKiav in ^BZZ as in ver. 24.


' Some copies have -Trpoo-cppTjIav.
» CTcXetrtv in ^^BCZZ.
After Ypa|x(xaT£is
* have avTwr ^BAI (W.H. and other editors). Some copies
add Kai 01 ^xipicraioi (\V.H. margin).

Wherein lay the second builder's folly ? doing as others do, and to be seen of
Not in deliberately selecting a bad others (Matt. vi. i). Children build
foundation, but in taking no thought of houses on the sea sand below high-tide
foundation in beginning to build at
; mark, not thinking of the tide which will
haphazard and anywhere on loose sand ; in a few hours roll in and sweep away
(afiftog) near the bed of a mountain their houselet. There are men who have
torrent. His fault was not an error in religion for to-day, and think not of the
judgment, but inconsiderateness. It is trial to-morrow may bring.
not, as is commonly supposed, a question Ver. 28. Concluding statement as to
of two foundations, but of looking to, the impression made by the discourse.
and neglecting to look to, the foundation. A similar statement occurs in Mk. i. 22,
In the natural sphere no man in his 27, whence it may have been transferred
senses commits such a mistake. But by Matthew. It may be assumed that
utterly improbable cases have to be so unique a teacher as Jesus made a pro-
supposed in parables to illustrate human found impression the very first time He
folly in religion. Ver. 27. Kal avcfioi: — . . . spoke in public, and that the people
exactly the same phrases as in ver. 25, to would express their feelings of surprise
describe the oncome of the storm. and admiration at once. The words
irpo<r€'ico\j/av a different word for the
: Mark puts into the mouth of the audience
assault on the house— struck upon it in the synagogue of Capernaum are to
with immediate fatal effect. It was not the life (vide comments there). They
built to stand such rough handling. The saw, and said that Christ's way of speak-
builder had not thought of such an ing was new, not like that of the scribes
eventuality. —
cirto-ev, Kai f\v -q -jmlia-is to which they had been accustomed.
aiiTvjs p-rYdXi] not necessarily implying
: Both evangelists make the point of
that it was a large building, or that the difference consist in "authority".
disaster was of large dimensions, like the Ver. 29. (1)9 cfovaiav ty^tiiv Fritzsche :

collapse of a great castle, but that the supplies, after «x*^''> '•"''^ Si8oorK«iv, and
ruin was complete. The fool's house renders, He taught as one having a right
went down like a house of cards, not one to teach, because He could do it well,
stone or brick left on another. "scite et perite," a master of the art.
Allegorising interpretation of the rain, The thought lies deeper. It is an ethical,
rivers and winds, and of the foundations, not an artistic or aesthetical contrast that
is to be avoided, but it is pertinent to is intended. The scribes spake by
ask, what defects of character in the authority, resting all they said on tradi-
sphere of religion are pointed at in this tions of what had been said before.
impressive parabolic lof^ion ? What kind Jesus spake with authority, out of His
of religion is it that deserves to be so own soul, with direct intuition of truth;
characterised ? The foolish type is a and, therefore, to the answering soul of
religion of imitation and without fore- His hearers. The people could not quite
thought. Children play at building explain the difference, but that was what
houses, because they have seen their they obscurely felt.
seniors doing it. There are people who Chapters VIII., IX. The Healing
play at religion, not realising what Ministry of Jesus. These two chap-
religion is for, but following fashion, ters consist mainly of miracle narratives,