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The reason why the Americans came to the Philippines

1. New Lands- The US wanted new lands in Asia for their businessmen to develop and to
trade. The Philippines was close to China and Hawaii where the US had large businesses.
2. American Bases- THE US was also looking for Asian naval bases and shipping ports.
It needed these bases to refuel, repair and supply its growing navy and commercial ships.
3. The policy of “Manifest Destiny”- the Americans believed it as their mission to civilize
Filipinos, to educate and train them for democracy, and to make them better Christians.
4. The Filipino invitation-The Filipinos asked the Americans to come to help them fight
the Spaniards in the Philippines.

 MAY 1, 1898
o The Americans and the Spaniards had a war in Cuba that greatly affected
the Philippines. The Americans won the war against the Spaniards in
which the Philippines was ceded to the United States by the Spain in 1898
after a payment of US$ 20 million to Spain in accordance with the
"Treaty of Paris" ending the Spanish-American War.
 February 4, 1899
o after two American privates on patrol killed three Filipino soldiers in San
Juan, a Manila suburb. This incident sparked the Philippine-American
War, which would cost far more money and took far more lives than the
Spanish–American War. Some 126,000 American soldiers would be
committed to the conflict; 4,234 Americans died, as did 16,000 Filipino
soldiers who were part of a nationwide guerrilla movement of
indeterminate numbers. At least 34,000 Filipinos lost their lives as a direct
result of the war, and as many as 200,000 may have died as a result of the
cholera epidemic at the war's end. Atrocities were committed by both
 June 12, 1898
o Filipinos led by Emilio Aguinaldo declared independence. This
declaration was opposed by the U.S. who had plans of taking over the
colony. And this led to a guerrilla war against the Americans.
 The U.S. government formally acquired the Philippines from Spain with the signing of
the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898. 
 The U.S. government declared military rule in the Philippines on December 21, 1898. 
 Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino nationalist, proclaimed the independence of the Philippines
on January 5, 1899. 
 Emilio Aguinaldo established a rebel government in Malolos on January 23, 1899, and
Emilio Aguinaldo was named president of the rebel government. 
 U.S. troops and Filipinos clashed in Manila on February 4, 1899.  U.S. troops took
control of Jolo on the island of Sulu on May 18, 1899.

 November 1, 1899
o Emilio Aguinaldo led a rebellion against the U.S. military
government in the Philippines
 December 19, 1899
o Some 200 Filipino rebels commanded by General Licerio Geronimo
attacked U.S. troops commanded by General Henry Ware Lawton
near San Mateo on December 19, 1899, resulting in the deaths of
General Lawton and 13 other U.S. soldiers.
 April 19, 1901
o The revolution was effectively ended with the capture (1901) of
Aguinaldo by Gen. Frederick Funston at Palanan, Isabela on March 23,
1901 and was brought to Manila.
o Free trade, established by an act of 1909, was expanded in 1913.
Influenced of the uselessness of further resistance, he swore allegiance to
the United States and issued a proclamation calling on his compatriots to
lay down their arms, officially bringing an end to the war. However,
sporadic insurgent resistance continued in various parts of the Philippines,
especially in the Muslim south, until 1913.
 Civil government was established by the Americans in 1901, with William Howard Taft
as the first American Governor-General of the Philippines.
 English was declared the official language. Six hundred American teachers were
imported aboard the USS Thomas.
 The Catholic Church was disestablished, and a substantial amount of church land was
purchased and redistributed.
 Some measures of Filipino self-rule were allowed, however. An elected Filipino
legislature was established in 1907.
Consequences of the American Colonial Rule
 During the Spanish period the Spaniards had given enormous land properties to the
Catholic church.
 One of the first things the Americans did was to take care for the redistribution of these
land properties. To do so they first had to pay an amount of US $7.2 million to the
Vatican in 1904.
 The small farmers or tenants didn't get any land however. The land became property of
some large landowners.  Most of the small farmers couldn't pay the asked price or
couldn't prove that they were the former owners of the land.

Changes in Philippine Culture during the American Period

 Government- Democracy was the greatest legacy the Americans gave us. The
government has three branches: executive (president), legislative (senate and congress)
and the judiciary (department of justice).
 Education Schools were built all over the country and making English as a medium of
instructions. The first teachers were called Thomasites because they came on board the
SS Thomas. The University of the Philippines, Philippine Normal College and other
agricultural schools were established.
Changes in Philippine Culture during the American Period
 RELIGION = Protestantism was introduced. In 1918, more or less than 300,00 Filipinos
became protestant. The church the state (government) were separated. Freedom of
religion was practiced.
 Transportation and Communication was improved. Americans built roads, streets and
bridges for efficient movement of products and services. Examples: Burnham Park,
Kennon Road, Camp John Hay etc.
 Entertainment- Music and dance = Hollywood movies became popular in the country.
New kinds of music and dance were introduced like rock n roll, boogie, jazz, tango,
chacha, polka, and rhumba.
 Filipinos learned to watch and play games like table tennis, basketball, volleyball,
boxing, and football.
 The Filipinos learned the value of cleanliness and healthy practices.
 They were taught proper hygiene to make them healthy and be free from contagious
 Hospitals, clinics, and health centers were built. Public hospitals for leper victims
were also established.
 Mode of Dressing was changed. The women learned to wear dresses, high-heeled shoes
and hand bags. While the men wore suits, polo shirts, ties and jeans.
 Food like ice cream, cakes, beef steak, hotdog, hamburgers, sandwiches, cookies, and
donuts were introduced.
 American architecture are still present today. Up, PNU, Manila Hotel and PGH are
some examples.
 Boulevards, zone districts, streets, centers of leisure were also built.
 The Philippine economy was also improved due to increase agricultural production
and development of new industries.
 The English language was widely taught all over the country. Soon, some english words
became part of our vocabulary. Filipinos adopted American names like Charlie, Anna,
Francis, and Cherry.

The Negative Impact of the American Colonization

 Americanization of the Filipinos- buying of imported products instead of local ones.
 Colonial mentality- Filipinos lost self-confidence and believed that Filipinos could not
compete with the products of other countries. As a result, Filipino culture was neglected.
 Filipino values like “pagmamano” was replaced by saying hi or hello.
 Filipino food like bibingka and suman were replaced by American food like hotdog
and French fries.