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Aim :- To perform parallel operation of two single phase

transformer & observe the load sharing between them.


Apparatus :-
S.N
Meter Rang Type Quantit
o.
e y
1. Voltmeter 0-300V Ml 2
2. Ammeter 0-20A Ml 2
3. Ammeter 0-10A Ml 2
4. Variac 1-0, 260 V/15A 1
Resistiv
5. Load 1-0, 230V/13A 1
e
they must satisfy the following conditions:
When two transformers are to be operated in parallel the
following conditions are to be fulfilled.
1. Their transformation ratios must be equal.
2. The voltage rating of both the transformers must be same.
3. The equivalent impedance of each transformer must be
inversely proportional to its current ratings.
4. The ratio of equivalent resistance to equivalent reactance
should be same for each transformer.
5. Percentage impedance of the two transformers should be
equal.
Of these conditions, (1) is easily comprehended;
condition (2) is essential. There is some latitude possible with
conditions (3) and (4). If condition (3) is not exactly satisfied
i.e. the two transformers have slightly different transformation
or voltage ratios, even then parallel are possible. But due to
inequality of induced e.m.f's in secondaries, there will be
even on no-load, some circulating current between them when
secondary terminals are connected in parallel.
If condition (4) is not exactly satisfied i.e. impedance
triangles are not identical in shape and size, parallel operation
will still be possible, but the power factors at which the two
transformers operate will be different from the power factor of
the common load.
It should be noted that the impedances of the two
transformers may differ in magnitude and in quality. It is
worthwhile to distinguish between the percentage and
numerical value of impedance. For parallel operation, the
regulation must be the same, this condition being enforced by
the very fact of their being connected in parallel. It means that
the currents carried by the two transformers are proportional to
these ratings and their percentage impedances are
identical.
If the quality of the two percentage impedances is
different , then this will result in divergence of phase angle of
the two currents, with the result that one transformer will be
operating with a higher and the other with a lower power factor
than that of the combined load.

It’s a total incomplete lab manual


Procedure :-
1. Connect the two single-phase transformers in parallel as
shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Apply the rated voltage on the primary side using 1-d
variac and note the load readings of all meters.
3. The load on the transformers is increased step by step
until the transformers are fully loaded. Measure the
readings of meters for each step and tabulate the results.
4. Verify that the readings of the load currents of the two
transformers (A & B) are equal or not and plot graphs of I A
versus IL & IB versus IL.
Observation: -
Primary Terminal Supply T/R A T/R B Load
S.No. Voltage Voltage Current IS Circuit Circuit Curren
Vp VT IA IA t IL

Model Graphs : -

IL IL

IA I
O O B

Precautions: -

1. Remove the entire load on the transformers before


switching off the supply.
2. Take care, such that the load current does not
exceed the transformers rated current.
3. The condition for parallel operation should be
strictly established before transformers are
operated
4. Connections should not be loose.
5. Meter Readings should be taken without parallax
error.

Result: -
Performed the parallel operation of two single-phase
transformers and verified that the load is equally
shared by the transformers.