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MUSIC EDUCATION
Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning

of music. It touches on all domains of learning, including the psychomotor domain

(the development of skills), the cognitive domain (the acquisition of knowledge), and,

in particular and significant ways,the affective domain, including music appreciation

and sensitivity. The incorporation of music training from preschool to postsecondary

education is common in most nations because involvement in music is considered a

fundamental component of human culture and behavior. Music, like language, is an

accomplishment that distinguishes us as humans.

Overview

In Elementary schools, children often learn to play instruments such as keyboards or

recorders, sing in small choirs, and learn about the elements of musical sound and

history of music. Although music education in many nations has traditionally

emphasized Western classical music, in recent decades music educators tend to

incorporate application and history of non-western music to give a well-rounded

musical experience and teach multiculturalism and international understanding. In

primary and secondary schools, students may often have the opportunity to perform

in some type of musical ensemble, such as a choir, orchestra, or school band:

concert band, marching band, or jazz band. In some secondary schools, additional

music classes may also be available. In junior high school or its equivalent, music

usually continues to be a required part of the curriculum.

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At the university level, students in most arts and humanities programs may receive

academic credit for taking music courses, which typically take the form of an

overview course on the history of music, or a music appreciation course that focuses

on listening to music and learning about different musical styles. In addition, most

North American and European universities have some type of music ensemble in

which students from various fields of study may participate such as a choir, concert

band, marching band, or orchestra. Many universities also offer degree programs in

the field of music education, allowing their students to become certified educators of

primary and secondary school ensembles as well as beginner music classes.

Advanced degrees can lead to university employment. These degrees come with the

completion of varied technique classes, private instruction, numerous ensembles,

and in depth observations of educators in the area. Music education departments in

North American and European universities also often support interdisciplinary

research in such areas as music psychology, music education historiography,

educational ethnomusicology, sociomusicology, and philosophy of education.

The study of Western art music is increasingly common in music education outside

of North America and Europe, including Asian nations such as South Korea, Japan,

and China. At the same time, Western universities and colleges are widening their

curriculum to include music of non-Western cultures, such as the music of Africa or

Bali (e.g. Gamelan music), as well as even rock music (see popular music

pedagogy).

Music education also takes place in individualized, life-long learning, and community

contexts. Both amateur and professional musicians typically take music lessons,

short private sessions with an individual teacher. Amateur musicians typically take

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lessons to learn musical rudiments and beginner- to intermediate-level musical

techniques.

Instructional methodologies

While instructional strategies are bound by the music teacher and the music

curriculum in his or her area, many teachers rely heavily on one of many instructional

methodologies that emerged in recent generations and developed rapidly during the

latter half of the 20th Century:

Major international music education methods

Dalcroze method

The Dalcroze method was developed in the early 20th century by Swiss musician

and educator Émile Jaques-Dalcroze. The method is divided into three fundamental

concepts - the use of solfege, improvisation, and eurhythmics. Sometimes referred to

as "rhythmic gymnastics", eurhythmics teaches concepts of rhythm, structure, and

musical expression using movement, and is the concept for which Dalcroze is best

known. It focuses on allowing the student to gain physical awareness and

experience of music through training that takes place through all of the senses,

particularly kinesthetic. According to the Dalcroze method, music is the fundamental

language of the human brain and therefore deeply connected to what human beings

are.

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Kodály method

Depiction of Curwen's Solfege hand signs. This version includes the tonal tendencies

and interesting titles for each tone.

Zoltán Kodály (1882–1967) was a prominent Hungarian music educator and

composer who stressed the benefits of physical instruction and response to music.

Although not really an educational method, his teachings reside within a fun,

educational framework built on a solid grasp of basic music theory and music

notation in various verbal and written forms. Kodály's primary goal was to instill a

lifelong love of music in his students and felt that it was the duty of the child's school

to provide this vital element of education. Some of Kodály's trademark teaching

methods include the use of solfege hand signs, musical shorthand notation (stick

notation), and rhythm solmization (verbalization). Even though most countries have

properly used their own folk music traditions to construct their own sequence of

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instruction, America primarily uses the Hungarian sequence even though Hungarian

folk music is completely different from American.

Orff Schulwerk

Carl Orff was a prominent German composer. The Orff Schulwerk is considered an

"approach" to music education. It begins with a student's innate abilities to engage in

rudimentary forms of music, using basic rhythms and melodies. Orff considers the

whole body a percussive instrument and students are led to develop their music

abilities in a way that parallels the development of western music. The approach

encourages improvisation and discourages adult pressures and mechanical drill,

fostering student self-discovery. Carl Orff developed a special group of instruments,

including modifications of the glockenspiel, xylophone, metallophone, drum, and

other percussion instruments to accommodate the requirements of the Schulwerk

courses.[3]

Suzuki method

The Suzuki method was developed by Shinichi Suzuki in Japan shortly after World

War II, and it uses music education to enrich the lives and moral character of its

students. The movement rests on the double premise that "all children can be well

educated" in music, and that learning to play music at a high level also involves

learning certain character traits or virtues which make a person's soul more beautiful.

The primary method for achieving this is centered around creating the same

environment for learning music that a person has for learning their native language.

This 'ideal' environment includes love, high-quality examples, praise, rote training

and repetition, and a time-table set by the student's developmental readiness for

learning a particular technique. While the Suzuki Method is quite popular

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internationally, within Japan its influence is less significant than the Yamaha Method,

founded by Genichi Kawakami in association

The following table illustrates some notable developments from the 21 st

century:

Date Major Event Historical Importance for Music Education


The Child's Bill of A student-centered philosophy was formally espoused
1950
Rights in Music[10] by MENC.
The American School

1953 Band Directors The band movement becomes organized.

Association formed
Increased curricular focus on science, math,
1957 Launch of Sputnik
technology with less emphasis on music education.
The purpose of the project was to make contemporary

music relevant in children by placing quality


Contemporary Music
1959 composers and performers in the learning
Project
environment. Leads to the Comprehensive

Musicianship movement.
American Choral

1961 Directors Association The choral movement becomes organized.

formed
Federally supported development of arts education

focusing on quality music classroom literature.

1963 Yale Seminar Juilliard Project leads to the compilation and

publication of musical works from major historical eras

for elementary and secondary schools.


National Endowment for Federal financial support and recognition of the value
1965
the Arts music has in society.

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Establishment of a unified and ecletic philosophy of

Tanglewood music education. Specific emphasis on youth music,


1967
symposium special education music, urban music, and electronic

music.
35 Objectives listed by MENC for quality music

1969 GO Project education programs in public schools. Published and

recommended for music educators to follow.


Emphasized the impact of learning theory in music

The Ann Arbor education in the areas of: auditory perception, motor
1978
Symposium learning, child development, cognitive skills, memory

processing, affect, and motivation.


"The Wesleyan Symposium on the Perspectives of

Social Anthropology in the Teaching and Learning of


Becoming Human
Music" (Middletown, Connecticut, August 6–10,
1984 Through Music
1984). Emphasized the importance of cultural context
symposium
in music education and the cultural implications of

rapidly changing demographics in the United States.


Growing out of the awareness of the increasing

diversity of the American School population, the

three-day Symposium for music teachers was co-


Multicultural
sponsored by MENC, the Society for
1990 Symposium in Music
Ethnomusicology, and the Smithsonian Institution, in
Education
order to provide models, materials, and methods for

teaching music of the world's cultures to school

children and youth.


1994 National Standards for For much of the 1980s, there was a call for

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educational reform and accountability in all curricular

subjects. This led to the National Standards for Music

Education[11] introduced by MENC. The MENC


Music Education
standards were adopted by some states, while other

states have produced their own standards or largely

eschewed the standards movement.


The Housewright Examined changing philosophies and practices and

1999 Symposium / Vision predicted how American music education will (or

2020 should) look in the year 2020.


Reflected on the 40 years of change in music

Tanglewood II: Charting education since the first Tanglewood Symposium of


2007
the Future[12] 1967, developing a declaration regarding priorities for

the next forty years.


Music course offerings and even entire degree programs in online music education

developed in the first decade of the 21st century at various institutions, and the fields

of world music pedagogy and popular music pedagogy have also seen notable

expansion.

Standards and assessment

Standards are curricular statements used to guide educators in determining

objectives for their teaching. Use of standards became a common practice in many

nations during the 20th century. For much of its existence, the curriculum for music

education in the United States was determined locally or by individual teachers. In

recent decades there has been a significant move toward adoption of regional and/or

national standards. MENC: The National Association for Music Education, created

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nine voluntary content standards, called the National Standards for Music Education.
[1]
These standards call for:

Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music.

Performing on instruments, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music.

Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments.

Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines.

Reading and notating music.

Listening to, analyzing, and describing music.

Evaluating music and music performances.

Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside

the arts.

Understanding music in relation to history and culture.

Many states and school districts have adopted their own standards for music

education.

Washington State has piloted a classroom based performance assessment which

requires 5th and higher grade students to compose music on a staff and sight sing

from sheet music without the aid of instruments. It is designed to assess standards

expected to be attained by all students. [13] Sight singing is a learning requirement in

the state at the 8th grade level. Other states are evaluating possible performance

assessments as well.

Integration with other subjects

Some schools and organizations promote integration of arts classes, such as music,

with other subjects, such as math, science, or English. It is thought that by

integrating the different curricula will help each subject to build off of one another,

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enhancing the overall quality of education. Music education can play a vital role in

the development of the whole child and their scholastic journey.

One example is the Kennedy Center's "Changing Education Through the Arts"

program. CETA defines arts integration as finding a natural connection(s) between

one or more art forms (dance, drama/theater, music, visual arts, storytelling,

puppetry, and/or creative writing) and one or more other curricular areas (science,

social studies, English language arts, mathematics, and others) in order to teach and

assess objectives in both the art form and the other subject area. This allows a

simultaneous focus on creating, performing, and/or responding to the arts while still

addressing content in other subject areas. [14]

The Learning Maestros is a company whose goal is to create new interdisciplinary

musical works and educational materials that explore connections between music

and science, literature, visual arts, natural history, and issues of social conscience. It

was founded by Julian Fifer and composer Bruce Adolphe. Notable interdisciplinary

educational works they have created in collaboration with writers and scientists

include "Tyrannosaurus Sue: A Cretaceous Concerto" (for the Field Museum of

Natural History, Chicago), "Red Dogs and Pink Skies: A Musical Celebration of Paul

Gauguin" (in conjunction with an exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New

York), "Self Comes to Mind" (created with neuroscientist Antonio Damasio,

premiered by Yo-Yo Ma at the American Museum of Natural History, New York), "Let

Freedom Sing: the story of Marian Anderson" (with writer Carolivia Herron,

premiered by the Washington National Opera), "Zephyronia" (with writer Louise

Gikow, for the Imani Winds), and "Witches, Wizards, Spells, and Elves: The Magic of

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Shakespeare" (for the Chicago Chamber Musicians and the Chicago Shakespeare

Theater).

The European Union Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013 has funded three

projects that use music to support language learning. Lullabies of Europe (for pre-

school and early learners)[15], FolkDC (for primary)[16], and the recent PopuLLar (for

secondary)[17]

Significance of music education

According to the Florida Music Educators Association, “Music and the Fine Arts have

been a significant portion of every culture’s educational system for more than 3,000

years. The human brain has been shown to be “hard-wired” for music; there is a

biological basis for music being an important part of human experience. Music and

the Arts surround daily life in our present day culture. Most present day artists,

architects, and musicians acquired their interests during public school Fine Arts

classes... Education without the Fine Arts is fundamentally impoverished and


[18]
subsequently leads to an impoverished society.”

William Earhart, former president of the Music Educators National Conference,

“Music enhances knowledge in the areas of mathematics, science, geography,

history, foreign language, physical education, and vocational training." [19] Music not

only inspires creativity and performance, but academic performance over all is

seriously impacted. A research study produced by the Harris Poll has shown that 9

out of 10 individuals with post graduate degrees participated in music education. The

National Report of SAT test takers study indicated students with music performance

experience scored higher on the SAT: 57 points higher on verbal and 41 points

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higher on math.[20] Schools that have high academic performance in the US are

spending 20 to 30% of their budget in the arts with emphasis on music education. [21]

Music education also increases one's success in society. The Texas Commission on

Drugs and Alcohol Abuse Report noted that students who participated in band or

orchestra reported the lowest lifetime and current use of all substances. [22]

An education in music also increases overall brain activity. Research done at the

University of Wisconsin has indicated that students with piano or keyboard

experience performed 34% higher on tests that measure spatial-temporal lobe

activity, which is the part of the brain that is used when doing mathematics, science,

and engineering.[23]

Music also improves learning. Specifically, music aids in text recall. Wallace (1994)

studied setting text to a melody. One experiment created a three verse song with a

non-repetitive melody; each verse had different music. A second experiment created

a three verse song with a repetitive melody; each verse had exactly the same music.

Another experiment studied text recall without music. The repetitive music produced

the highest amount of text recall; therefore, music serves as a mnemonic device. [24]

Smith (1985) studied background music with word lists. One experiment involved

memorizing a word list with background music; participants recalled the words 48

hours later. Another experiment involved memorizing a word list with no background

music; participants also recalled the words 48 hours later. Participants who

memorized word lists with background music recalled more words demonstrating

music provides contextual cues.[25]

It is important to note that "While studies show positive influences in other

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ART EDUCATION
Art education is the area of learning that is based upon the visual, tangible arts—

drawing, painting, sculpture, and design in jewelry, pottery, weaving, fabrics, etc. and

design applied to more practical fields such as commercial graphics and home

furnishings. Contemporary topics include photography, video, film, design, computer

art, etc.

Overview

Historically art was taught in Europe via the atelier Method system where artists' took

on apprentices who learned their trade in much the same way as any guild such as

the Masons (stonemasons or goldsmiths etc.). The first recorded art schools were

established in 400 BC Greece as mentioned by Plato. During the Renaissance

formal training took place in art studios. Historically, design has had some

precedence over the fine arts with schools of design being established all over

Europe in the 18th century. Education in art takes place across the life-span.

Children, youth, and adults learn about art in community based institutions and

organizations such as museums, local arts agencies, recreation centers, places of

worship, social service agencies, and prisons among many other possible venues.

Within art school's "visual arts education" encompasses all the visual and performing

arts delivered in a standards-based, sequential approach by a qualified instructor as

part of the core curriculum. Its core is the study of inseparable artistic and aesthetic

experience and learning.

Approaches

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There are thousands of arts education curricular models or models for arts or arts-

based professional development for teachers that schools and community

organizations use. Some assert that the core discipline of Western art education is

the practice of drawing, a model which has existed since the Renaissance. This is an

empirical activity which involves seeing, interpreting and discovering appropriate

marks to reproduce an observed phenomena. It can be asserted that other art

activities involve imaginative interpretation. [citation needed]


Others would assert though,

that issue based approaches, such as a visual culture approach to art education,

define K-12 art learning today.

Prominent models include:

A sixfold model divided into "Creative-Productive, Cultural-Historical and Critical-

Responsive” components in Canada

Discipline Based Art Education (DBAE) came to favor in the United States during the

1980s and 1990s, and it focused on specific skills including techniques, art criticism

and art history.

Current literature in the United states has shifted away from DBAE but many

classrooms still use this model. Others have shifted to visual culture and diversity

models.

Teaching for Artistic Behavior (TAB) is a theory that began in the 1970s in the United

States. TAB suggests that students should be the artists and so guided on their own

individual artistic interests through technique lessons and critiques, while being

exposed to art history as it relates to their own work.

In the UK the art curriculum is prescribed by the government's National Curriculum

except in public or fee paying schools.

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In most systems, “criticism” is understood to be criteria-based analysis established

on acknowledged elements of composition and principles of design which often vary

in their verbal articulation, between the different art discipline forms (applied, fine,

performing, & etc.) and their many schools. Other art educational systems include

the study of Aesthetics, ontology, semantics, studio praxis (empirical investigation)

and phenomenology. There is no set art education curriculum content – it is a

process of continual often acrimonious cultural negotiation.

Some studies show that strong art education programs have demonstrated

increased student performance in other academic areas, due to art activities'

exercising their brains' right hemispheres and delateralizing their thinking. [1] Also see

Betty Edwards' Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain. Support for art education,

however, varies greatly between communities and between schools in various

cultures.

Art education is not limited to formal educational institutions. Some professional

artists specialize in private or semi-private instruction in their own studios. One form

of this teaching style is the Atelier Method as exemplified by Gustave Moreau who

taught Picasso, Braque and many other artists. Another is an artist apprenticeship in

which the student learns from a professional artist while assisting the artist with their

work.

United Kingdom

Prince Albert was particularly influential in the creation of schools of Art in the UK.

Prince Charles has created The Prince's Drawing School in Hoxton to preserve the

teaching of academic drawing. Current UK's curriculum is focus on interdisciplinary

approach.

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The Netherlands

Art education in schools is in The Netherlands strongly improved by the founding of

the Dutch Art Teachers Association in 1880 and their Magazine (in 1881). In the

seventies of last century were national examinations common in almost all

secondary schools. Over the years struggles and problems, discussions about the

right way and fights for equal qualification supposedly coloured the history of art

education in the Netherlands as in other countries. The details however are of great

interest for who will compare these developments with those in his own country. The

painter Maarten Krabbé (1908–2005) changed the whole approach towards children

drawing and painting. With his books on how to educate children in their free

expression (Hidden possibilities | Verborgen Mogelijkheden (8 volumes | delen),

uitbeeldingsmogelijkheden voor jonge handen (Sijthoff, Leiden 1961)) he changed

the entire educational landscape. He showed how to handle the very delicate talents

of children and how to treasure these.

These are the people whose commonality is to be a part of the art education in the

country and help it go forward, flourish and spring into something very new from its

roots of rich background.

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PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Definition of Physical Education | Body Fitness and health Education

Physical Education is the process by which changes in the individual are bought

about through movements experiences. Physical Education aims not only at physical

development but is also concerned with education of the whole person through

physical activities.

Various Definitions of Physical Education are –

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1. Barrow defined Physical Education as an education of and through human

movement where many of educational objectives are achieved by means of big

muscle activities involving sports, games, gymnastic, dance and exercise.

2. According to Webster’s Dictionary Physical education is a part of education which

gives instructions in the development and care of the body randing from simple

callisthenic exercises to a course of study providing training in hygiene, gymnastics

and the performance and management of athletics games.

3. Jackson R. Sharman points out that physical education is that part of education

which takes place through activities, which involves the motor mechanism of human

body which results in an individual’s formulating behaviour patterns.

4. Charles A. Bucher defines physical education, an integral part of total education

process, is a field of endeavour which has as its aim the development of physically,

mentally, emotionally and socially fit citizens through the medium of physical

activities which have been selected with a view to realizing these outcomes.”

5. Central Advisory Board of physical Education and Recreation defines Physical

education as an education through physical activities for the development of total

personality of the child to its fullness and perfection in body, mind and spirit

Physical education (often abbreviated Phys. Ed. or P.E.) or gymnastics (gym or

gym class) is a course taken during primary and secondary education that

encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting.[1

Trends

Physical education trends have developed recently to incorporate a greater variety of

activities. Introducing students to activities like bowling, walking/hiking, or Frisbee at

an early age can help students develop good activity habits that will carry over into

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adulthood. Some teachers have even begun to incorporate stress-reduction

techniques such as yoga and deep-breathing. Teaching non-traditional sports to

students may also provide the necessary motivation for students to increase their

activity, and can help students learn about different cultures. For example, while

teaching a unit about lacrosse (in, say, Arizona, USA), students can also learn a little

bit about the Native American cultures of the Northeast and Eastern Canada, where

lacrosse originated. Teaching non-traditional (or non-native) sports provides a great

opportunity to integrate academic concepts from other subjects as well (social

studies from the example above), which may now be required of many P.E.

teachers. The four aspects of P.E. are physical, mental, social, and emotional.

Another trend is the incorporation of Health and Nutrition to the physical education

curriculum. The Child Nutrition and WIC Re-authorization Act of 2004 required that

all school districts with a federally funded school meal program develop wellness

policies that address nutrition and physical activity. [2] While teaching students sports

and movement skills, P.E. teachers are now incorporating short health and nutrition

lessons into the curriculum. This is more prevalent at the elementary school level,

where students do not have a specific Health class. Recently most elementary

schools have specific health classes for students as well as physical education class.

With the recent outbreaks of diseases such as swine flu, school districts are making

it mandatory for students to learn about practicing good hygiene along with other

health topics. Today many states require Physical Education teachers to be certified

to teach Health courses. Many colleges and Universities offer both Physical

Education and Health as one certification. This push towards health education is

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beginning in the intermediate level, including lessons on bullying, self esteem and

stress and anger management.

In the USA, the physical education curriculum is designed to allow school pupils a

full range of modern opportunities, dozens of sports and hundreds of carefully

reviewed drills and exercises, including exposure to the education with the use of

pedometer, GPS, and heart rate monitors, as well as state-of-the-art exercise

machines in the upper grades. Some martial arts classes, like wrestling in the United

States, and Pencak Silat in France, Indonesia and Malaysia, are taught to teach

children self-defense and to feel good about themselves. The physical education

curriculum is designed to allow students to experience at least a minimum exposure

to the following categories of activities: aquatics, conditioning activities, gymnastics,

individual/dual sports, team sports, rhythms, and dance. Students are encouraged to

continue to explore those activities in which they have a primary interest by

effectively managing their community resources.

In these areas, a planned sequence of learning experiences is designed to support a

progression of student development. This allows kids through 6th grade to be

introduced to sports, fitness, and teamwork in order to be better prepared for the

middle and high school age. In 1975, the United States House of Representatives

voted to require school physical education classes include both genders.[3] Some

high school and some middle school PE classes are single-sex. Requiring

individuals to participate in physical education activities, such as dodge ball, flag

football, and other competitive sports remains a controversial subject because of the

social impact these have on young children. It is, however, important to note that

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many school budgets have seen cutbacks and in some cases physical education

programs have been cut.

In Korea, it is mandatory for pupils to take 3 hours of PE through primary and

secondary schools.

In Portugal, pupils from primary school could optionally join PE as an extra-curricular

activity. From middle school to secondary school pupils must participate in PE

classes 2 hours per week.

In Singapore, pupils from primary school through junior colleges are required to have

2 hours of PE every week, except during examination seasons. Pupils are able to

play games like football, badminton, captain's ball, and basketball during most

sessions. Unorthodox sports such as touchball, fencing, and skateboarding are

occasionally played. In more prestigious secondary schools and in junior colleges,

sports such as golf, tennis, shooting, and squash are played. A compulsory fitness

exam, NAPFA, is conducted in every school once every year to assess the physical

fitness of the pupils. Pupils are given a series of fitness tests (Pull-ups/Inclined pull-

ups for girls, standing broad jump, sit-ups, sit-and-reach and 1.6 km for primary [10-

12 year-olds]/2.4 km for secondary and junior college levels [13-18 year-olds]).

Students are graded by gold, silver, bronze or fail. NAPFA for pre-enlistees serves

as an indicator for an additional 2 months in the country's compulsory national

service if they attain bronze or fail.

In the Philippines, some schools have integrated martial arts training into their

Physical Education curriculum.

In England, pupils are expected to do two hours of PE a week in Year 7, 8 and 9 and

at least 1 in year 10 and 11.[13]

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In Wales, pupils are expected to do only one hour of PE per fortnight. [14]

HEALTH EDUCATION

Health education is any combination of learning experiences designed to help

individuals and communities improve their health, by increasing their knowledge or

influencing their attitudes.

WHAT IS HEALTH EDUCATION?

• Health education is a social science that draws from the biological, environmental,

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psychological, physical and medical sciences to promote health and prevent

disease,

disability and premature death through education-driven voluntary behavior change

activities.

• Health education is the development of individual, group, institutional, community

and

systemic strategies to improve health knowledge, attitudes, skills and behavior.

• The purpose of health education is to positively influence the health behavior of

individuals

and communities as well as the living and working conditions that influence their

health.

WHY IS HEALTH EDUCATION IMPORTANT?

• Health education improves the health status of individuals, families, communities,

states, and

the nation.

• Health education enhances the quality of life for all people.

• Health education reduces premature deaths.

• By focusing on prevention, health education reduces the costs (both financial and

human)

that individuals, employers, families, insurance companies, medical facilities,

communities,

the state and the nation would spend on medical treatment.

WHO PROVIDES HEALTH EDUCATION?

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• Some people specialize in health education (trained and/or certified health

education

specialists). Others perform selected health education functions as part of what they

consider

their primary responsibility (medical treatment, nursing, social work, physical therapy,

oral

hygiene, etc.). Lay workers learn on the job to do specific, limited educational tasks

to

encourage healthy behavior.

• Para-professionals and health professionals from other disciplines are not familiar

with the

specialized body of health education knowledge, skills, theories, and research, nor is

it their

primary interest or professional development focus. This will limit their effectiveness

with

clients and communities, and their cost-effectiveness.

• Health education requires intensive specialized study. Over 250 colleges and

universities in

the US offer undergraduate and graduate (Masters and Doctorate) degrees in school

or

community health education, health promotion and other related titles.

• Nationally, voluntary credentialing as a Certified Health Education Specialist

(CHES) is

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available from the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing, Inc

(NCHEC).

• CHES competencies (health education needs assessment; program planning,

implementation

and evaluation; service coordination; and Health Education needs, concerns,

resource

communication) are generic to the practice of health education, whether it takes

place in

schools, colleges, workplaces, medical care settings, public health settings or other

educational settings of the community. CHES are re-certified every five years based

on

documentation of participation in 75 hours of approved continuing education

activities.

The Aim of Health Education should be -

1. Help students to assimilate the body if knowledge appropriate to health education.

2. Expose students to a variety of activities and experience related to health

education.

3. Help individuals develop a sound understanding of their total development and

enable them to attain positive self-images.

4. Provide opportunities for students make personal decisions related to their

intellectual, physical and emotional development.

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5. Allow students to experience social relations that will encourage desirable

behaviour, leadership and co-operation with others.

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