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Apr 30, 2020

Introduction to Relations and functions2

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Introduction to Relations and functions2

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Introduction to Relations

Example 2

and functions

Find the domain and range of the relation

Relations {(Alabama, 7), (California, 53), (Colorado, 7),

A relation is a set of ordered pairs (x, y) where (Florida, 25), (Kansas, 4)}

x is the input value and y is the output value.

The domain is all possible inputs of a relation,

and the range is all possible outputs of a Solution:

relation.

Domain: {Alabama, California, Colorado,

For example, for the following relation, the Florida, Kansas}

input, x, is the ages of boys and the output, y, is

their corresponding height, in inches Range: {7, 53, 25, 4} (Note: The

element 7 is not listed twice.)

Skill Practice

Find the domain and range for the

relation

a) {(2, -6), (1, 4), (2, 4), (0,0), (1, -6),

(3, 0)}

b) Find the domain and range for

the table below

Finding the Domain and Range of a

Relation

x y

3 4

Example 1 7 2

0 -1

Find the domain and range of the relation -2 2

linking the ages and heights of the boys -5 0

3 3

Solution: c) {(1, 4), (2, 8), (3, 12), (4, 16)}.

Domain: {7, 8, 9, 10, 10,11,12} Set of

first coordinates

Range: {41, 45, 49, 52, 53, 55, 59}

A relation may be defined as a set of

Set of second coordinates ordered pairs.

USER 1

Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

{(1, 2), ( -3, 4), (1, -4), (3, 4)} Cartesian product

A relation may be defined by a Cartesian product is the multiplication of two

correspondence (Figure below). The sets to form the set of all ordered pairs. The

corresponding ordered pairs are {(1, 2), (1, first element of the ordered pair belong to first

-4), ( -3, 4), (3, 4)}. set and second pair belong the second set.

For example,

Suppose, A = {fox, cat}

B = {meat, milk} then,

A×B = {(Fox,meat), (Fox,milk),

(cat,meat)} (cat,milk),

EXAMPLE 1

A relation may be defined by a graph

(Figure below). Suppose two sets A = {a, b} and B = {1, 2,

3}. Find A×B and B×A.

The corresponding ordered pairs are {(1, 2),

( -3 , 4), (1, 4), (3, 4)} Here,

A = {a, b}

B = {1, 2, 3}

Now,

A×B = {(a,1), (a,2), (a,3), (b,1), (b,2), (b,3)}

B×A = {(1,a), (1,b), (2,a),(2,b), (3,a), (3,b)}

That means A x B ≠ B x A

A x B = B x A ıf and only ıf

A=B

Inverse Relations

If A = ø or B = ø, then A x B = ø

R is a relation from A to B, then the inverse

If

Example 3

R = (2, 0), (4, 9), (a,b)

R-1 = (0, 2), (9, 4), (b,a) Example 2

Domain R = range R-1 and range R = domain Express the following relatıon as a set of

R-1 order paırs. y = x+2 where

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Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

x ∈ {0 ,1,2,3,4} b) B x A

c) Graph A x B

SOLUTION 4. Let A ={1, 2} and B ={a,b, c}. Then find A x B

Y = x+2 where X ∈ {1,2,3,4} and B x A

5. If A= 1,2,3 and 𝐵=

When X = 1, y = 3

1,2,5,7,8,9 list the following

X = 2, y = 4

relations

X = 3, y = 5

R1 = (x, y): x∈ A, and y ∈ B /

X = 4, y = 6

y= 2x }

Therefore R2 = (x, y): x∈ A, and y ∈ B

{ (1,3) , (2,4) , (3,5) , (4,6)} and y = x }∈∈

following relations R4 = (x, y): x∈ A, and y ∈ B /

Africa }

6. Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {5, 7, 9}.

R2 = { (x , y) : y is height in meters of mountain x Determine (i) A × B (ii) B × A (iii) Is A × B = B

in the world } × A ? (iv) Is n (A × B) = n (B × A) ?

Solutions

A. ( Somaliland , Hargiesa), ( Kenya,

Nairobi), ( Sudan, Khartum), Equivalence relation

( Ugunda, Kampla)

Definition: A relation is said to be

B. ( everrest, 8848) , ( Ankno, 6959) ,

equivalent relation if it satisfies the

( Maknili, 6194) , ( Antarctica, 5140)

following three properties:

Exercise Reflexive for every a ∈ S, aRa,

Symmetric If aRb, then bRa and

1. Let A = ( 2, 3 ) and B = ( 6, 7 , 8). Find the

transitive If aRb and bRc, then aRc.

product of sets

a) A x B b) B x A

2. If set A = ( 1, 2 ,3) and B = (2, 4). Reﬂexive Relations

Graph A x B In the xy coordinate

3. Let A = (2,3) and B = (6,7,8).find the A relation R on a set A is reﬂexive if aRa for

product of sets every a ∈ A, that is, if (a, a) ∈ R for every a ∈

a) A x B A. Thus R is not reﬂexive if there exists a ∈ A

such that (a, a) / ∈ R.

USER 3

Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

reﬂexive.

Consider the following ﬁve relations on the

set A ={1, 2, 3, 4}: Solutions

R1 ={(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (1, 3), (4, 4)} The relation (3) is not reﬂexive since no line

is perpendicular to itself. Also (4) is not

R2 ={(1, 1)(1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4)}

reﬂexive since no line is parallel to itself.

R3 ={(1, 3), (2, 1)} The other relations are reﬂexive; that is, x ≤

x for every x ∈ Z, A ⊆ A for any set A ∈ C,

R4 =∅, the empty relation

and n|n for every positive integer n ∈ N.

R5 = A × A, the universal relation

Symmetric and Antisymmetric

Determine which of the relations are

reﬂexive. Relations

Since A contains the four elements 1, 2, 3, A relation R on a set A is symmetric if

and 4, a relation R on A is reﬂexive if it whenever aRb then bRa, that is, if

contains the four pairs whenever (a, b) ∈ R then (b, a) ∈ R.

(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), and (4, 4). Thus only R2 Thus R is not symmetric if there exists a,b ∈

and the universal relation R5 = A × A are A such that (a, b) ∈ R but (b, a) / ∈ R.

reﬂexive. Note that R1,R3, and R4 are not EXAMPLE

reﬂexive since, for example, (2, 2) does not

belong to any of them. Consider the following ﬁve relations on the

set A ={1, 2, 3, 4}:

EXAMPLE 2

R1 ={(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (1, 3), (4, 4)}

Consider the following ﬁve relations:

R2 ={(1, 1)(1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4)}

(1) Relation ≤ (less than or equal) on the set

Z of integers. R3 ={(1, 3), (2, 1)}

of lines in the plane. Determine which of the relations are

(4) Relation ⊥ (parallel) on the set L of lines symmetric and antisymmetric.

in the plane. R1 is not symmetric since (1, 2) ∈ R1 but (2,

(5) Relation of divisibility on the set N of 1)/ ∈ R1. R3 is not symmetric since (1, 3) ∈

positive integers. (Recall x |y if there exists z R3 but (3, 1)/ ∈ R3.

such that xz = y.) The other relations are symmetric.

USER 4

Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

R2 is not antisymmetric since (1, 2) and (2, domain, there corresponds exactly one

1) belong to R2, but 1 = 2. Similarly, the element y in the range

universal relation R3 is not antisymmetric.

All the other relations are antisymmetric.

Determining Whether a Relation Is a

Transitive Relations Function

A relation R on a set A is transitive if To understand the difference between a

whenever aRb and bRc then aRc, that is, if relation that is a function and a relation

whenever (a, b), (b, c) ∈ R then (a, c) ∈ R. that is not a function, consider Example 1.

Thus R is not transitive if there exist a,b, c ∈

Example 1

R such that (a, b), (b, c) ∈ R but (a, c) / ∈ R.

Determine which of the relations define y as a

Example function of x

set A ={1, 2, 3, 4}:

R1 ={(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (1, 3), (4, 4)}

R2 ={(1, 1)(1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4)}

R3 ={(1, 3), (2, 1)}

R4 =∅, the empty relation

R5 = A × A, the universal relation

Determine which of the relations are

transitive.

Solution

The relation R3 is not transitive since (2, 1),

(1, 3) ∈ R3 but (2, 3)/ ∈ R3.All the other

relations are transitive.

Functions

In this section we introduce a special type

of relation called a function

Definition of a Function

Solution:

Given a relation in x and y, we say “y is a

a. This relation is defined by the set of

function of x” if for every element x in the

ordered pairs ( 1, 4), (2,-1), (3, 2)

USER 5

Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

is only one corresponding y in the range.

Therefore, this relation is a function.

When x =1, there is only one possibility for

y: y= 4 2. {(4, 2), (5, 4), (0, 0), ( )}

When x = 2, there is only one possibility for 3. {(1, 6), (8, 9), ( 1, 4), ( 3, 10)}

y: y = -1

4. {(3, 4), (7, 2), (0, -1), (-2, 2), (-5, 0), (3, 3)}

When x =3, there is only one possibility for

5. {(4, 1), (5, 2), (8, 2), (9, 8)}

y: y= 2

TYPES OF FUNCTIONS

The function can be divided into

b.This relation is defined by the set of different ways. But, one of the

ordered pairs most common types of functions

are: one- to- one, many- to- one,

When x =1, there are two possible range onto functions and one-to-one

elements: y =3 and y = 4. correspondences.

Therefore, this relation is not a function.

One- to- one function

c. This relation is defined by the set of

ordered pairs (1, 4), (2, 4), (3, 4) In a one-to-one function, given any

y there is only one x that can be

When x =1, there is only one possibility for paired with the given y.

y: y =4 Such functions are referred to as

When x = 2, there is only one possibility injective. In other words, f is one-

to-one (injective) if f maps every

for y: y= 4 element of A to a unique element in

When x = 3, there is only one possibility for B.

y: y= 4 Example 1

Because each value of x in the domain has The function below is 1-1:

only one corresponding y value, this

relation is a function.

Exercise

Determine which of the relations define y as a

function of x This function is not one-to-one.

1.

USER 6

Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

have the same number

of elements, and they can be paired off

This function is one-to-one such that one element in the first

function corresponds to one element in

the second function and vice versa.

Many-to-one and one In the figure below, A function is

one-to-one correspondence.

A function for which different inputs

can produce the same output is called

a many-to-one function. The function

below is many-to-one.

Exercise

following functions

A function f from a set A to a set

B is said to be onto (subjective) , if

and only if for every element y of B a)

, there is an element x in A such that

f(x) = y , that is, f is onto if and

only if

f( A ) = B . The function below is a

subjective function from domain X to

co- domain Y. b)

c)

One-to-one correspondence

A function is said to have a one-to-one

USER 7

Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

d)

d)

e)

f)

Function Notation

When we know that a relation is a

g) function, the “y” in the equation

can be replaced with f(x).

fm (x) is siply a notation to designate a

function. It is pronounced ‘f’ of ‘x’.

The ‘f’ names the function, the ‘x’ tells

h)

the variable that is being used

i)

Evaluating functions

Example1

1. If f(x) = x - 2. Find f(4):

USER 8

Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

F (4) = 4 - 2 1

d) g(-2) = (-2) -1 = -1-1 = -2

2

F (4) = 2

Example3

2. If g(s) = 2s + 3, find g (-2).

If f(k) = k2 - 3, find f(a - 1)

g (-2) = 2(-2) + 3

Solution

=-4 + 3 = -1

f(a - 1)=(a - 1)2 - 3

g (-2) = -1

=(a-1)(a-1) - 3

3. If h(x) = x2 - x + 7, find h(2c).

2

= a2 - a - a + 1 - 3

h(2c) = (2c) – (2c) + 7

2

= a2 - 2a - 2

= 4c - 2c + 7

Exercises

1. If f(x) = 6x -2, g(x) = -x2 -4x +1 and k (x) =

Example 2 4 x−2

, evaluate

1 3

Given the function defined by g(x) = x -1,

2 1

find the function values. a)g(2), b) k(2), c) g(0), d) f( ) , e) k(5) ,

2

a) g(0) b) g(2) (c) g(4) (d) g(-2) −1

f) k( ), h) g(a-1), i) g(-2) j) f(3), k) f(-3)

2

Solutions:

3 x +2

1 2. If f(x) = , calculate:

g(x) = x -1 4

2

a) f(2) b) f(8) c) f(2.5)

1

a) g(0) = (0) -1 = 0-1 = -1 d) f(0) e) f(−1.5 ¿ f) f(−6 ¿

2

1 g) f(−4 ¿ h) f(−1.6 ¿

g(x) = x -1

2

5 x−3

3. If g (x) = calculate:

1 5

b) g(2) = (2) -1 = 1-1 = 0

2

a) g(3) b) g(6) c) g(0) d)

1 g( -3)

g(x) = x -1

2

−6 x+7

1 4. If h:x , calculate:

4

c) g(4) = (4) -1 = 2-1 = 1

2

a) h(1) b) h(0) c) h(−0.2 ¿d) h(−3 ¿

1

g(x) = x -1 −5 x −7

2 5. if f(x) = calculate

−8

USER 9

Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

a) f(5) b) f(1) c) f(3) the domain is the set of all t-values that

make the radicand greater than or equal to

d) f(-1) e) f(-7)

zero:(/698.t must be greater than or

Domain of a Function equal to zero)

A function is a relation, and it is often The domain is the set of all real

necessary to determine its domain and numbers.

range. Consider a function defined by the

Exercises

equation y = f(x).The domain of f is the set

of all x-values that when substituted into Determine if the relations define y as a

the function, produce a real number. function of x

The range of f is the set of all y-values

corresponding to the values of x in the

domain.

To find the domain of a function defined by

y = f(x) keep these guidelines in mind.

• Exclude values of x that make the

denominator of a fraction zero.

• Exclude values of x that make a negative {(4, 2 ), (-5, 4 ), (0,0 ), (8,-4 )}

value within a square root. {(-1, 6), (8, 9), (-1, 4), (-3, 10)}

Example 4

Find the domain of the following functions

x +7 x −4

Inverse functions

f(x) = b) h(x) = 2

2 x−1 x +9 The inverse function for f is the unique

c) k(t) = √ t+ 4 d) g(t) = t2 -3t function f −1 that satisfies

Solutions

The function will be undefined when the Example1

denominator is zero, that is, when Find the inverse of the following functions

1 1 a) F(x) = 3x + 2

X = , the value X = must be excluded

2 2 b) F(x) = x + 3

from the domain. 3 x −5

c) F(x) =

the domain is the set of all real numbers 2

USER 10

Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

Solution 1

+5

1 3 16

a) F(x) = 3x + 2 f −1 ()

3

=

3

= ÷3

3

x−2

f −1 ( x )=

3

16

b) F(x) = x + 3 f −1 ( x )=

9

f −1 ( x )=x −3 x +5

f −1 ( x )=

3 x −5 3

F(x) = , then

2 −2+ 5 3

f −1 (−2 )= = =1

2 x−5 3 3

f −1 ( x )=

3 x +1

g−1 ( x )=

Example 2 5

3+1 4

If F(x) = 3x – 5 and g(x) = 5x – 1 evaluate g−1 ( 3 )= =

5 5

g−1 ( 2 )

Exercise

g−1 ( 13 ) Find the inverse of the following functions

F (x) = 6x + 4

f −1 (−2 )

1

g−1 ( 3 ) F (x) = x−3

2

Solution F (x) = 6(x + 5)

f ( x )=3 x−5 , then 1

G (x) =

3x+4

x +5

f −1 ( x )=

3 G (x) = 3(x – 6)

g ( x )=5 x−1 , then

Composite function

−1 x +1

g ( x )= The composite function f 0 g is defined by

5

( f 0 g)(x) = f (g(x)).

x +1

g−1 ( x )=

5 The notation f 0 g is read “f follows g” or

“the composition of f and g.”

2+1 3

g−1 ( 2 )= =

5 5 Example 1

x +5 If f (x) = x2 and g (x) = x + 2

f −1 ( x )=

3

Find

USER 11

Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

gf (x) Fg(-2) b) gf(2) c) fg(6) d) gf(x) e)

fg-1(x)

fg (3)

If f(x) = 3x +2 and fg(x) = 6x-1 , find g(x)

gf (3)

If g(x) = 2x +3 and fg(x) = 2x +5, find f(x)

Solution

2

fg (x) = f(x + 2) If F(x) = 2x – 5 a n d g(x) = 2x – 1. Find the

values of

fg (x) = ( x +2 )2

g(f(-3)) fg (√ 2), gf(2) , ff(5), fg(a-1)

gf (x) = g(x)2

If f(x) = 3x-2 and g(x) = 2x+1, evaluate

gf (x) = x2 + 2

(a) fg(x)

2

fg (x) = ( x +2 )

.Fg(2)

2 2

fg (3) = ( 3+2 ) =5 =25

Fg(-2)

2

gf (x) = x + 2 gg(1.5)

gf (x) = 32 + 2 = 9 + 2 = 11

Exercise

find fg (3) and gf (3), if f (x) = x + 2 and g (x)

=x–2

1 1

f (x) = and g(x) = , find fg (x), fg

x+2 x−2

(4)

fg (x) = 8 , gf (x) = 8

x−4

f (x) = , g (x) = 2x

2

Find fg( x) , gf (x) , ff (x), gg (x)

Given h(x) = 2x – 3 ,find

hh-1(x) b) hh-1(2)

USER 12

Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

R3 = 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 1, 4 , 2, 1 , 3, 3 , 4, 1

, 4, 4 ,

R4 = { (2, 1), (3, 1), (3, 2), (4, 1), (4, 2),

(4, 3) },

R5 = { 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 1, 3 , 1, 4 , 2, 2 , 2, 3

, 2, 4 , 3, 3 , 3, 4 , 4, 4 }

R6 = 3, 4 ,

R7 = { 1, 1 , 2, 2 , 3,1 , 1, 3 , 1, 4 , 4,

1 , 2, 4 , 4, 4 , 4, 2 }

Examples of reflexive relations include: Solution:

the relation are reflexive because they

"is equal to" (equality) all contain all pairs of the form

"is a subset of" (set inclusion) (a ,a), namely, (1, 1)1(2, 2), (3, 3), and

(4, 4).

"divides" (divisibility)

The other relation are not reflexive

"is greater than or equal to"

because they do not contain all of these

"is less than or equal to" ordered pairs. In particular , R1

Examples of irreflexive relations include: , R2 , R4 and R6 are not reflexive.

Symmetric

"is not equal to" A relation R on a set A is symmetric if

"is coprime to" (for the integers>1, given aRb then bRa

since 1 is coprime to itself) Example 2.

"is a proper subset of" If set A = {1, 2, 3, 4}. Which of the

relation are symmetric?

"is greater than"

R1 = 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 2,1 , 2, 2 , 3, 4 , 4.1 ,

"is less than"

4, 4 ,

Equivalence relation R2 = 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 2, 1 ,

Definition: A relation is said to be R3 = 1, 1 , 1, 3 , 1, 4 , 3, 1 , 3, 3 , 4, 1

equivalent relation if it satisfies the , 4, 4 ,

following three properties. R4 = { (2, 1), (3, 1), (3, 2), (4, 1), (4, 2),

Reflexive (4, 3) },

A relation R on a set A is said to be R5 = { 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 1, 3 , 1, 4 , 2, 2 , 2, 3

reflexive if every element of A relation , 2, 4 , 3, 3 , 3, 4 , 4, 4 }

to itself. In R6 = 3, 4 ,

notation aRa for all at A R7 = { 1, 1 , 2, 2 , 2,1 , 1, 2 , 1, 4 , 4,

Example 1: Consider the following 1 , 2, 4 , 4, 4 , 4, 2 }

relations on {1, 2, 3, 4}:

Which of these relations are reflexive?

R1 = 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 2,1 , 2, 2 , 3, 4 , 4.1 , Solution

4, 4 , The relation R2

R2 = 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 2, 1 ,

USER 13

Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

, R3 and R7 are symmetric, because in 3,1), (4, 1), and (4, 2) belong to R4.

each case (b, a) belongs to the relation The reader should verify that R5 and

whenever (a, b) does. For R2 the only R6 are transitive.

thing to check is that both (2, 1) and (1, Conclusion

2) are in the relation. For R3, it is

A relation (R7)is equivalent relation

necessary to check that both (1, 2) and

since it is reflexive, symmetric and

(2, 1) belong to the relation, and (1, 4)

transitive

and (4, 1) belong to the relation. The

reader should verify that none of the

other relation is symmetric. This is done

by finding a pair (a, b) such that it is in Best Answer: Let there be 2x science

the relation but (b. a) is not and 5x art books

science books sold = 2x × 0.2 = 0.4x

Transitive science books unsold = 2x – 0.4x =

A relation R on a set A is transitive if 1.6x

given aRb and bRc then aRc

Example 3. art books sold = 5x × 0.2 = x

art books unsold = 5x – x = 4x

If set A = {1, 2, 3, 4}. Which of these

relations are transitive?

total books unsold = 1.6x + 4x = 5.6x

R1 = 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 2,1 , 2, 2 , 3, 4 , 5.6x = 2240

4.1 , 4, 4 , x = 400

R2 = 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 2, 1 ,

R3 = 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 1, 4 , 2, 1 , 3, 3 , 2x science = 800

4, 1 , 4, 4 , and 5x art books = 2000

R4 = { (2, 1), (3, 1), (3, 2), (4, 1), (4, _s = S + (5/2)S = (7/2)S

2), (4, 3) },

R5 = { 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 1, 3 , 1, 4 , 2, 2 , and in terms of art books:

2, 3 , 2, 4 , 3, 3 , 3, 4 , 4, 4 }

R6 = 3, 4 , T_s = (2/5)A + A = (7/5)A

R7 = { 1, 1 , 2, 2 , 3,1 , 1, 3 , 1, 4 ,

If 20% of science and art books are

4, 1 , 2, 4 , 4, 4 , 4, 2 , (3, 3)}

sold that leaves 0.8S and 0.8A so that

Solution

the new total at the end is:

R4, R5, R6 and R7 are transitive. For

each of these relation, we can show T_e = 0.8(S + A) = 0.8T_s = 2240

that it I transitive by verifying that if

(a, b) and (b, c) belong to this In terms of science books at the start

relation, then (a, c) also does. For this number is: 8

instance, R4 is transitive, because (3,

2) and (2, 1) , (4, 2) and (2, 1), (4, (0.8)(7/2)S = 2240

=> S = 800

the only such sets of pairs, and )

USER 14

Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

(0.8)(7/5)A = 2240

USER 15

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