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# Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

Introduction to Relations
Example 2
and functions
Find the domain and range of the relation
Relations {(Alabama, 7), (California, 53), (Colorado, 7),
A relation is a set of ordered pairs (x, y) where (Florida, 25), (Kansas, 4)}
x is the input value and y is the output value.
The domain is all possible inputs of a relation,
and the range is all possible outputs of a Solution:
relation.
For example, for the following relation, the Florida, Kansas}
input, x, is the ages of boys and the output, y, is
their corresponding height, in inches Range: {7, 53, 25, 4} (Note: The
element 7 is not listed twice.)

Skill Practice
Find the domain and range for the
relation
a) {(2, -6), (1, 4), (2, 4), (0,0), (1, -6),
(3, 0)}
b) Find the domain and range for
the table below
Finding the Domain and Range of a
Relation
x y
3 4
Example 1 7 2
0 -1
Find the domain and range of the relation -2 2
linking the ages and heights of the boys -5 0
3 3
Solution: c) {(1, 4), (2, 8), (3, 12), (4, 16)}.
Domain: {7, 8, 9, 10, 10,11,12} Set of
first coordinates
Range: {41, 45, 49, 52, 53, 55, 59}
A relation may be defined as a set of
Set of second coordinates ordered pairs.

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Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

{(1, 2), ( -3, 4), (1, -4), (3, 4)} Cartesian product
A relation may be defined by a Cartesian product is the multiplication of two
correspondence (Figure below). The sets to form the set of all ordered pairs. The
corresponding ordered pairs are {(1, 2), (1, first element of the ordered pair belong to first
-4), ( -3, 4), (3, 4)}. set and second pair belong the second set.

For example,
Suppose, A = {fox, cat}
B = {meat, milk} then,
A×B = {(Fox,meat), (Fox,milk),
(cat,meat)} (cat,milk),
EXAMPLE 1
A relation may be defined by a graph
(Figure below). Suppose two sets A = {a,  b} and B = {1, 2,
3}. Find A×B and B×A.
The corresponding ordered pairs are {(1, 2),
( -3 , 4), (1, 4), (3, 4)} Here,
A = {a, b}
B = {1, 2, 3}
Now,
A×B = {(a,1), (a,2), (a,3), (b,1), (b,2), (b,3)}
B×A = {(1,a), (1,b), (2,a),(2,b), (3,a), (3,b)}
That means A x B ≠ B x A
A x B = B x A ıf and only ıf
A=B
Inverse Relations
If A = ø or B = ø, then A x B = ø
R is a relation from A to B, then the inverse
If

## of R written R-1 = { (y,x)/ (x , y) ∈R}.

Example 3
R = (2, 0), (4, 9), (a,b)
R-1 = (0, 2), (9, 4), (b,a) Example 2

Domain R = range R-1 and range R = domain Express the following relatıon as a set of
R-1 order paırs. y = x+2 where

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Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

x ∈ {0 ,1,2,3,4} b) B x A
c) Graph A x B
SOLUTION 4. Let A ={1, 2} and B ={a,b, c}. Then find A x B
Y = x+2 where X ∈ {1,2,3,4} and B x A
5. If A= 1,2,3 and 𝐵=
When X = 1, y = 3
1,2,5,7,8,9 list the following
X = 2, y = 4
relations
X = 3, y = 5
R1 = (x, y): x∈ A, and y ∈ B /
X = 4, y = 6
y= 2x }
Therefore R2 = (x, y): x∈ A, and y ∈ B
{ (1,3) , (2,4) , (3,5) , (4,6)} and y = x }∈∈

## Write 4 ordered pairs for each of the y >x}

following relations R4 = (x, y): x∈ A, and y ∈ B /

## R1 = { (x , y) : y is capital city of country x in east y= 3x + 1}

Africa }
6. Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {5, 7, 9}.
R2 = { (x , y) : y is height in meters of mountain x Determine (i) A × B (ii) B × A (iii) Is A × B = B
in the world } × A ? (iv) Is n (A × B) = n (B × A) ?

Solutions
A. ( Somaliland , Hargiesa), ( Kenya,
Nairobi), ( Sudan, Khartum), Equivalence relation
( Ugunda, Kampla)
Definition: A relation is said to be
B. ( everrest, 8848) , ( Ankno, 6959) ,
equivalent relation if it satisfies the
( Maknili, 6194) , ( Antarctica, 5140)
following three properties:
Exercise Reflexive for every a ∈ S, aRa,
Symmetric If aRb, then bRa and
1. Let A = ( 2, 3 ) and B = ( 6, 7 , 8). Find the
transitive If aRb and bRc, then aRc.
product of sets
a) A x B b) B x A
2. If set A = ( 1, 2 ,3) and B = (2, 4). Reﬂexive Relations
Graph A x B In the xy coordinate
3. Let A = (2,3) and B = (6,7,8).find the A relation R on a set A is reﬂexive if aRa for
product of sets every a ∈ A, that is, if (a, a) ∈ R for every a ∈
a) A x B A. Thus R is not reﬂexive if there exists a ∈ A
such that (a, a) / ∈ R.

USER 3
Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

## EXAMPLE Determine which of the relations are

reﬂexive.
Consider the following ﬁve relations on the
set A ={1, 2, 3, 4}: Solutions
R1 ={(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (1, 3), (4, 4)} The relation (3) is not reﬂexive since no line
is perpendicular to itself. Also (4) is not
R2 ={(1, 1)(1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4)}
reﬂexive since no line is parallel to itself.
R3 ={(1, 3), (2, 1)} The other relations are reﬂexive; that is, x ≤
x for every x ∈ Z, A ⊆ A for any set A ∈ C,
R4 =∅, the empty relation
and n|n for every positive integer n ∈ N.
R5 = A × A, the universal relation
Symmetric and Antisymmetric
Determine which of the relations are
reﬂexive. Relations
Since A contains the four elements 1, 2, 3, A relation R on a set A is symmetric if
and 4, a relation R on A is reﬂexive if it whenever aRb then bRa, that is, if
contains the four pairs whenever (a, b) ∈ R then (b, a) ∈ R.

(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), and (4, 4). Thus only R2 Thus R is not symmetric if there exists a,b ∈
and the universal relation R5 = A × A are A such that (a, b) ∈ R but (b, a) / ∈ R.
reﬂexive. Note that R1,R3, and R4 are not EXAMPLE
reﬂexive since, for example, (2, 2) does not
belong to any of them. Consider the following ﬁve relations on the
set A ={1, 2, 3, 4}:
EXAMPLE 2
R1 ={(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (1, 3), (4, 4)}
Consider the following ﬁve relations:
R2 ={(1, 1)(1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4)}
(1) Relation ≤ (less than or equal) on the set
Z of integers. R3 ={(1, 3), (2, 1)}

## (3) Relation ⊥ (perpendicular) on the set L R5 = A × A, the universal relation

of lines in the plane. Determine which of the relations are
(4) Relation ⊥ (parallel) on the set L of lines symmetric and antisymmetric.
in the plane. R1 is not symmetric since (1, 2) ∈ R1 but (2,
(5) Relation of divisibility on the set N of 1)/ ∈ R1. R3 is not symmetric since (1, 3) ∈
positive integers. (Recall x |y if there exists z R3 but (3, 1)/ ∈ R3.
such that xz = y.) The other relations are symmetric.

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Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

R2 is not antisymmetric since (1, 2) and (2, domain, there corresponds exactly one
1) belong to R2, but 1 = 2. Similarly, the element y in the range
universal relation R3 is not antisymmetric.
All the other relations are antisymmetric.
Determining Whether a Relation Is a
Transitive Relations Function
A relation R on a set A is transitive if To understand the difference between a
whenever aRb and bRc then aRc, that is, if relation that is a function and a relation
whenever (a, b), (b, c) ∈ R then (a, c) ∈ R. that is not a function, consider Example 1.
Thus R is not transitive if there exist a,b, c ∈
Example 1
R such that (a, b), (b, c) ∈ R but (a, c) / ∈ R.
Determine which of the relations define y as a
Example function of x

## Consider the following ﬁve relations on the

set A ={1, 2, 3, 4}:
R1 ={(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (1, 3), (4, 4)}
R2 ={(1, 1)(1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4)}
R3 ={(1, 3), (2, 1)}
R4 =∅, the empty relation
R5 = A × A, the universal relation
Determine which of the relations are
transitive.

Solution
The relation R3 is not transitive since (2, 1),
(1, 3) ∈ R3 but (2, 3)/ ∈ R3.All the other
relations are transitive.

Functions
In this section we introduce a special type
of relation called a function
Definition of a Function
Solution:
Given a relation in x and y, we say “y is a
a. This relation is defined by the set of
function of x” if for every element x in the
ordered pairs ( 1, 4), (2,-1), (3, 2)

USER 5
Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

## Notice that for each x in the domain there

is only one corresponding y in the range.
Therefore, this relation is a function.
When x =1, there is only one possibility for
y: y= 4 2. {(4, 2), (5, 4), (0, 0), ( )}
When x = 2, there is only one possibility for 3. {(1, 6), (8, 9), ( 1, 4), ( 3, 10)}
y: y = -1
4. {(3, 4), (7, 2), (0, -1), (-2, 2), (-5, 0), (3, 3)}
When x =3, there is only one possibility for
5. {(4, 1), (5, 2), (8, 2), (9, 8)}
y: y= 2
TYPES OF FUNCTIONS
The function can be divided into
b.This relation is defined by the set of different ways. But, one of the
ordered pairs most common types of functions
are: one- to- one, many- to- one,
When x =1, there are two possible range onto functions and one-to-one
elements: y =3 and y = 4. correspondences.
Therefore, this relation is not a function.
One- to- one function
c. This relation is defined by the set of
ordered pairs (1, 4), (2, 4), (3, 4) In a one-to-one function, given any
y there is only one x that can be
When x =1, there is only one possibility for paired with the given y.
y: y =4 Such functions are referred to as
When x = 2, there is only one possibility injective. In other words, f is one-
to-one (injective) if f maps every
for y: y= 4 element of A to a unique element in
When x = 3, there is only one possibility for B.
y: y= 4 Example 1
Because each value of x in the domain has The function below is 1-1:
only one corresponding y value, this
relation is a function.

Exercise
Determine which of the relations define y as a
function of x This function is not one-to-one.

1.

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Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

## correspondence (bijection) if they each

have the same number
of elements, and they can be paired off
This function is one-to-one such that one element in the first
function corresponds to one element in
the second function and vice versa.
Many-to-one and one In the figure below, A function is
one-to-one correspondence.
A function for which different inputs
can produce the same output is called
a many-to-one function. The function
below is many-to-one.

Exercise

## Onto Functions 1. State the kind of the

following functions
A function f from a set A to a set
B is said to be onto (subjective) , if
and only if for every element y of B a)
, there is an element x in A such that
f(x) = y , that is, f is onto if and
only if
f( A ) = B . The function below is a
subjective function from domain X to
co- domain Y. b)

c)

One-to-one correspondence
A function is said to have a one-to-one

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Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

d)

d)

e)

f)

Function Notation
When we know that a relation is a
g) function, the “y” in the equation
can be replaced with f(x).
fm (x) is siply a notation to designate a
function. It is pronounced ‘f’ of ‘x’.
The ‘f’ names the function, the ‘x’ tells
h)
the variable that is being used

i)

Evaluating functions
Example1
1. If f(x) = x - 2. Find f(4):

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F (4) = 4 - 2 1
d) g(-2) = (-2) -1 = -1-1 = -2
2
F (4) = 2
Example3
2. If g(s) = 2s + 3, find g (-2).
If f(k) = k2 - 3, find f(a - 1)
g (-2) = 2(-2) + 3
Solution
=-4 + 3 = -1
f(a - 1)=(a - 1)2 - 3
g (-2) = -1
=(a-1)(a-1) - 3
3. If h(x) = x2 - x + 7, find h(2c).
2
= a2 - a - a + 1 - 3
h(2c) = (2c) – (2c) + 7
2
= a2 - 2a - 2
= 4c - 2c + 7
Exercises
1. If f(x) = 6x -2, g(x) = -x2 -4x +1 and k (x) =
Example 2 4 x−2
, evaluate
1 3
Given the function defined by g(x) = x -1,
2 1
find the function values. a)g(2), b) k(2), c) g(0), d) f( ) , e) k(5) ,
2
a) g(0) b) g(2) (c) g(4) (d) g(-2) −1
f) k( ), h) g(a-1), i) g(-2) j) f(3), k) f(-3)
2
Solutions:
3 x +2
1 2. If f(x) = , calculate:
g(x) = x -1 4
2
a) f(2) b) f(8) c) f(2.5)
1
a) g(0) = (0) -1 = 0-1 = -1 d) f(0) e) f(−1.5 ¿ f) f(−6 ¿
2
1 g) f(−4 ¿ h) f(−1.6 ¿
g(x) = x -1
2
5 x−3
3. If g (x) = calculate:
1 5
b) g(2) = (2) -1 = 1-1 = 0
2
a) g(3) b) g(6) c) g(0) d)
1 g( -3)
g(x) = x -1
2
−6 x+7
1 4. If h:x , calculate:
4
c) g(4) = (4) -1 = 2-1 = 1
2
a) h(1) b) h(0) c) h(−0.2 ¿d) h(−3 ¿
1
g(x) = x -1 −5 x −7
2 5. if f(x) = calculate
−8

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Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

a) f(5) b) f(1) c) f(3) the domain is the set of all t-values that
make the radicand greater than or equal to
d) f(-1) e) f(-7)
zero:(/698.t must be greater than or
Domain of a Function equal to zero)

A function is a relation, and it is often The domain is the set of all real
necessary to determine its domain and numbers.
range. Consider a function defined by the
Exercises
equation y = f(x).The domain of f is the set
of all x-values that when substituted into Determine if the relations define y as a
the function, produce a real number. function of x
The range of f is the set of all y-values
corresponding to the values of x in the
domain.
To find the domain of a function defined by
y = f(x) keep these guidelines in mind.
• Exclude values of x that make the
denominator of a fraction zero.
• Exclude values of x that make a negative {(4, 2 ), (-5, 4 ), (0,0 ), (8,-4 )}
value within a square root. {(-1, 6), (8, 9), (-1, 4), (-3, 10)}

Example 4
Find the domain of the following functions
x +7 x −4
Inverse functions
f(x) = b) h(x) = 2
2 x−1 x +9 The inverse function for f is the unique
c) k(t) = √ t+ 4 d) g(t) = t2 -3t function f −1 that satisfies

## ( f 0 f −1)(x) = ( f −10 f) (x) = x.

Solutions
The function will be undefined when the Example1
denominator is zero, that is, when Find the inverse of the following functions
1 1 a) F(x) = 3x + 2
X = , the value X = must be excluded
2 2 b) F(x) = x + 3
from the domain. 3 x −5
c) F(x) =
the domain is the set of all real numbers 2

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Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

Solution 1
+5
1 3 16
a) F(x) = 3x + 2 f −1 ()
3
=
3
= ÷3
3
x−2
f −1 ( x )=
3
16
b) F(x) = x + 3 f −1 ( x )=
9
f −1 ( x )=x −3 x +5
f −1 ( x )=
3 x −5 3
F(x) = , then
2 −2+ 5 3
f −1 (−2 )= = =1
2 x−5 3 3
f −1 ( x )=
3 x +1
g−1 ( x )=
Example 2 5
3+1 4
If F(x) = 3x – 5 and g(x) = 5x – 1 evaluate g−1 ( 3 )= =
5 5
g−1 ( 2 )
Exercise
g−1 ( 13 ) Find the inverse of the following functions
F (x) = 6x + 4
f −1 (−2 )
1
g−1 ( 3 ) F (x) = x−3
2
Solution F (x) = 6(x + 5)
f ( x )=3 x−5 , then 1
G (x) =
3x+4
x +5
f −1 ( x )=
3 G (x) = 3(x – 6)
g ( x )=5 x−1 , then
Composite function
−1 x +1
g ( x )= The composite function f 0 g is defined by
5
( f 0 g)(x) = f (g(x)).
x +1
g−1 ( x )=
5 The notation f 0 g is read “f follows g” or
“the composition of f and g.”
2+1 3
g−1 ( 2 )= =
5 5 Example 1
x +5 If f (x) = x2 and g (x) = x + 2
f −1 ( x )=
3
Find

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Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

## fg (x) f(x) = 2x - 5 and g(x) = x2 - 3x, evaluate

gf (x) Fg(-2) b) gf(2) c) fg(6) d) gf(x) e)
fg-1(x)
fg (3)
If f(x) = 3x +2 and fg(x) = 6x-1 , find g(x)
gf (3)
If g(x) = 2x +3 and fg(x) = 2x +5, find f(x)
Solution
2
fg (x) = f(x + 2) If F(x) = 2x – 5 a n d g(x) = 2x – 1. Find the
values of
fg (x) = ( x +2 )2
g(f(-3)) fg (√ 2), gf(2) , ff(5), fg(a-1)
gf (x) = g(x)2
If f(x) = 3x-2 and g(x) = 2x+1, evaluate
gf (x) = x2 + 2
(a) fg(x)
2
fg (x) = ( x +2 )
.Fg(2)
2 2
fg (3) = ( 3+2 ) =5 =25
Fg(-2)
2
gf (x) = x + 2 gg(1.5)
gf (x) = 32 + 2 = 9 + 2 = 11

Exercise
find fg (3) and gf (3), if f (x) = x + 2 and g (x)
=x–2
1 1
f (x) = and g(x) = , find fg (x), fg
x+2 x−2
(4)

## f (x) = x – 4 and g (x) = 2x. find x if

fg (x) = 8 , gf (x) = 8
x−4
f (x) = , g (x) = 2x
2
Find fg( x) , gf (x) , ff (x), gg (x)
Given h(x) = 2x – 3 ,find
hh-1(x) b) hh-1(2)

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Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

 R3 = 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 1, 4 , 2, 1 , 3, 3 , 4, 1
, 4, 4 ,
 R4 = { (2, 1), (3, 1), (3, 2), (4, 1), (4, 2),
(4, 3) },
 R5 = { 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 1, 3 , 1, 4 , 2, 2 , 2, 3
, 2, 4 , 3, 3 , 3, 4 , 4, 4 }
 R6 = 3, 4 ,
 R7 = { 1, 1 , 2, 2 , 3,1 , 1, 3 , 1, 4 , 4,
1 , 2, 4 , 4, 4 , 4, 2 }
Examples of reflexive relations include:  Solution:
 the relation are reflexive because they
 "is equal to" (equality) all contain all pairs of the form
 "is a subset of" (set inclusion)  (a ,a), namely, (1, 1)1(2, 2), (3, 3), and
(4, 4).
 "divides" (divisibility)
 The other relation are not reflexive
 "is greater than or equal to"
because they do not contain all of these
 "is less than or equal to" ordered pairs. In particular , R1
Examples of irreflexive relations include:  , R2 , R4 and R6 are not reflexive.
 Symmetric
 "is not equal to"  A relation R on a set A is symmetric if
 "is coprime to" (for the integers>1, given aRb then bRa
since 1 is coprime to itself)  Example 2.
 "is a proper subset of"  If set A = {1, 2, 3, 4}. Which of the
relation are symmetric?
 "is greater than"
 R1 = 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 2,1 , 2, 2 , 3, 4 , 4.1 ,
 "is less than"
4, 4 ,
 Equivalence relation  R2 = 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 2, 1 ,
 Definition: A relation is said to be  R3 = 1, 1 , 1, 3 , 1, 4 , 3, 1 , 3, 3 , 4, 1
equivalent relation if it satisfies the , 4, 4 ,
following three properties.  R4 = { (2, 1), (3, 1), (3, 2), (4, 1), (4, 2),
 Reflexive (4, 3) },
 A relation R on a set A is said to be  R5 = { 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 1, 3 , 1, 4 , 2, 2 , 2, 3
reflexive if every element of A relation , 2, 4 , 3, 3 , 3, 4 , 4, 4 }
to itself. In  R6 = 3, 4 ,
 notation aRa for all at A  R7 = { 1, 1 , 2, 2 , 2,1 , 1, 2 , 1, 4 , 4,
 Example 1: Consider the following 1 , 2, 4 , 4, 4 , 4, 2 }
relations on {1, 2, 3, 4}: 
 Which of these relations are reflexive? 
 R1 = 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 2,1 , 2, 2 , 3, 4 , 4.1 ,  Solution
4, 4 ,  The relation R2
 R2 = 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 2, 1 ,

USER 13
Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

 , R3 and R7 are symmetric, because in 3,1), (4, 1), and (4, 2) belong to R4.
each case (b, a) belongs to the relation The reader should verify that R5 and
whenever (a, b) does. For R2 the only R6 are transitive.
thing to check is that both (2, 1) and (1,  Conclusion
2) are in the relation. For R3, it is
 A relation (R7)is equivalent relation
necessary to check that both (1, 2) and
since it is reflexive, symmetric and
(2, 1) belong to the relation, and (1, 4)
transitive
and (4, 1) belong to the relation. The
reader should verify that none of the
other relation is symmetric. This is done
by finding a pair (a, b) such that it is in Best Answer:  Let there be 2x science
the relation but (b. a) is not and 5x art books
science books sold = 2x × 0.2 = 0.4x
 Transitive science books unsold = 2x – 0.4x =
 A relation R on a set A is transitive if 1.6x
given aRb and bRc then aRc
 Example 3. art books sold = 5x × 0.2 = x
art books unsold = 5x – x = 4x
 If set A = {1, 2, 3, 4}. Which of these
relations are transitive?
total books unsold = 1.6x + 4x = 5.6x
 R1 = 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 2,1 , 2, 2 , 3, 4 , 5.6x = 2240
4.1 , 4, 4 , x = 400
 R2 = 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 2, 1 ,
 R3 = 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 1, 4 , 2, 1 , 3, 3 , 2x science = 800
4, 1 , 4, 4 , and 5x art books = 2000
 R4 = { (2, 1), (3, 1), (3, 2), (4, 1), (4, _s = S + (5/2)S = (7/2)S
2), (4, 3) },
 R5 = { 1, 1 , 1, 2 , 1, 3 , 1, 4 , 2, 2 , and in terms of art books:
2, 3 , 2, 4 , 3, 3 , 3, 4 , 4, 4 }
 R6 = 3, 4 , T_s = (2/5)A + A = (7/5)A
 R7 = { 1, 1 , 2, 2 , 3,1 , 1, 3 , 1, 4 ,
If 20% of science and art books are
4, 1 , 2, 4 , 4, 4 , 4, 2 , (3, 3)}
sold that leaves 0.8S and 0.8A so that
 Solution
the new total at the end is:
 R4, R5, R6 and R7 are transitive. For
each of these relation, we can show T_e = 0.8(S + A) = 0.8T_s = 2240
that it I transitive by verifying that if
(a, b) and (b, c) belong to this In terms of science books at the start
relation, then (a, c) also does. For this number is: 8
instance, R4 is transitive, because (3,
2) and (2, 1) , (4, 2) and (2, 1), (4, (0.8)(7/2)S = 2240

## 3)and (3, 1) and (4, 3) and (3,2) are

=> S = 800
the only such sets of pairs, and )

USER 14
Al-khair Secondary School form3 note

## In terms of art books at the start:

(0.8)(7/5)A = 2240

USER 15