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am I ?

CR a z Y Z o o !

made easy

How do I make decisions ?

What is my main motivation ?
What is my main fear ?
What are my leadership qualities ?
What traits do I need to strengthen ?
What tendencies do I want to control better ?
What is my way to success ?

Find out how you tick and how other types of persons tick.
Learn to maximize your inborn motivation and your strengths.
Become the champion who states with confidence: "No matter
how good I am now,
I can always be better and greater!"

F r i t z R. G l a u s
Published through Lulu Press, Inc.

All rights reserved

Copyright © 2006 by Fritz R. Glaus

Interior Book Design and Layout by

ISBN: 978-1-84728-623-9

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval

system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the
written permission of the author or publisher.
Knowledge in itself is nothing
It is understanding which is needed
To understand one must know oneself
Man has everything within him

— Gurdjieff

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................ix

PREFACE ....................................................................xi


Get involved as a reader-participant


TALENT ...................................................................... 1
The three rings of color. People's puzzlement and lack of
interest. Aislin makes acquaintances in the zoo. Aislin's
dream of a zoo without cages or fences. Aislin the
zookeeper. Aislin trains the animals.

AISLIN'S TRAINING CHART ........................................................ 8

CHAPTER 2: LEO THE “DOER” LION.........................11

Difficulties of adaptation to the new freedoms. Worries
about experts and about the public. Leo's fight to the death.
Leo's impatience. The CRazYZoo! newspaper article. Leo
learns from Eden how to be more diplomatic. Leo learns
about self-esteem. The warthog reward.

LEO'S CHART – THE IDEALIST ............................................. 32

CHAPTER 3: EDEN THE “WOOER” LION ...................33
Tendencies of unhappiness. Casimir helps Eden to identify
the causes of unhappiness. Eden's overindulgence. Reduced
team confidence. Eden learns to focus. Eden struggles with
vanity. The game session and a lesson learned. Improving
personal balance.

EDEN'S CHART – THE INSPIRATOR.........................................49


Casimir's discreetness and sensitivity. The talent of focus and
excessive detail. Casimir's coolheadedness. His fear of
emotional conflict. Coaching by Udo. Casimir learns to
balance solitude and involvement.

CASIMIR'S CHART – THE PARTNER .....................................61


Abner, the disliked Chairman of the IGRC. Udo's reputation
as a helper. The Alric case. Too many tasks given to Udo by
the unappreciative Abner. Udo's exhaustion. Urban comes
to the rescue. Living for others and the fear of attachment.
The need for everyday comforts. Establishing balance by
learning to say "no". Udo replaces Abner.

UDO'S CHART – THE SUPPORTER............................................77

CHAPTER 6: URBAN THE "WOOER" FOX ..................79

Urban's strength: ideas. His self-doubts. Ernest tells Urban
to "lighten up". The fear of lack of control. Urban learns
when to stop defending his point of view. Ernest facilitates
active listening for Urban. Urban sets stretch goals that are
attainable. Urban's strong need for change is a problem for
his team. Urban wants a team of INNOVATORS only. The
role play exercise. Urban's check list.

URBAN'S CHART – THE INNOVATOR ..................................... 93

CHAPTER 7: ERNEST THE "DOER" FOX ................... 95

Ernest examines his own unbalance. Trying too hard to get
to the truth. The committee that Ernest sent back for more
research. Ernest saves face. Over a hundred personal goal
options. Leo helps Ernest to know when analysis is required
and when not. Ernest becomes a highly effective decision

ERNEST'S CHART – THE PLANNER ................................ 106


AND LEO..................................................................109
Always look at yourself in relation to all six classic types. The
three important functions or intelligences. The "Doer" and
"Wooer" difference. The importance of learning from the
type that follows one's own.


The behaviors that turned Leo into an exceptional leader.

Knowledge about types incorporated in all training
programs. "A good knowledge of types leads to an attitude
of openness, tolerance, cooperation, readiness for change,
and a desire to continuously find improvement".


Your improved interaction with people.

ADDITIONAL STUDY ............................................................... 118

ESSENCE AND PERSONALITY.................................................119
COMBINED TYPES ....................................................................125
THE CENTER OF GRAVITY .....................................................127
CHART: THE CENTER OF GRAVITY ......................................129
THE SUNNY KIND ....................................................................132
PRACTICAL TRAINING .............................................................134

I want to thank Stephen Goldberg, President of

facilitators, who not only read the manuscript and
helped me shape the CRazYZoo! story, but who
regularly purchase my Type of Leadership and Team
Development program, which incorporates the
TYPES OF PEOPLE methodology and which they
facilitate with their clients. They have observed in
participants a quick and sometimes dramatic
improvement in team spirit resulting from the
reduced defensiveness and aggressiveness and the
greatly improved openness they gain from the
TYPES OF PEOPLE methodology. Their results are
living proof of the benefits available from using the
methodology as illustrated in the CRazYZoo! story.
My thanks go also to Bernard Berzi, President of
BEJICEL INC, Consultants in Management and
Production Enhancement, for whom I have been a
facilitator of BEJICEL's programs of Supervision
and of Teamwork for many years. In the last few
years I have, with Bernard's approval, introduced
TYPES OF PEOPLE exercises during my
x — CrazYZoo! —

facilitation, in an effort to help participants to

assimilate the BEJICEL course material more quickly
and to apply it better in practice. Bernard provided
me with invaluable feedback which confirmed the
optimistic expectations I had concerning the positive
effects of those exercises on BEJICEL clients. His
feedback helped me to continually develop the
TYPES OF PEOPLE approach and to find the
courage to start writing this book.
Special thanks go to all the members of my family
who each added their personal input, which they
gave as private citizens not involved in corporate
training or consulting. I thank my son Stephane for
his insight in connection with clarity of approach,
and my son Franz for volunteering to apply the
methodology, successfully I might add, to a special
situation. After my sister Frida read CRazYZoo!, she
helped me correct a rather embarrassing inaccuracy
about the life of lions in the wild, and my brother
Karl, the realist, pointed out the naked truth about
A huge amount of credit goes to Madeleine, my
wife for all my married life, who has always buttered
me up at the right moment and who has the knack of
telling me with precision when I should stop splitting
hairs and get to the point. She has been of invaluable
help in editing the parts of the manuscript that
required putting things in a nutshell.

I have been developing the TYPES OF PEOPLE

methodology that "CRazYZoo!" illustrates during years
of work as a trainer attempting to be as effective as he
can be. I have always felt that for my leadership and
teamwork training to be more effective I needed to find
a method that helps participants to grow in team spirit
by learning to communicate more openly and less
defensively. I had come to the conclusion that to
achieve this I needed to somehow enable participants
to gain the type of self-knowledge that leads to
improved self-worth and self-assurance and to reduced
Over the more than 25 years of facilitating
management, leadership, and team training, I have tried
out many different methods. Some of them turned out
to be excellent tools of evaluating candidates in
recruitment or promotion competitions, but none were
suitable for on-the-go learning and exchange within a
group undergoing leadership or teamwork training. I
needed an approach that would allow participants to
discover their own qualities and shortcomings step by
step and share their accumulating learning with the
xii — CrazYZoo! —

other participants. In addition, this self-learning and

learning about others needed to be complementary to
and supportive of the subject matter of the training,
namely leadership and teamwork, so that it could be
intertwined progressively with the subject matter.
The final product, as elucidated in "CRazYZoo!",
is the one now used during leadership and teamwork
training, both by me and by several of my colleague
trainers, and it turns out every bit as effective as I
hoped it would be. It addresses many of the needs
that trainers are expected to satisfy. Perhaps the most
important is the need to help participants grow their
self-esteem. The TYPES OF PEOPLE methodology
is easy and straightforward. From the word "go"
participants are made to feel at ease. As they get
involved in the first exercise, that of choosing one of
three animals, the ice is broken. In exercise after
exercise, participants learn a little more about
themselves and about others, their self-esteem keeps
growing, and by the end of the leadership or
teamwork course they have gained an overall view of
all six classic types. They realize that every type, not
just their own, has strengths and shortcomings. The
participant no longer focuses on himself alone but
has a global or holistic view of all types. He sees his
own type, with its qualities and shortcomings, as one
of six types who all have their particular qualities and
The results are nothing short of spectacular in
terms of growth of open- mindedness, tolerance,
self-esteem, and ability to work with others and to
— Preface — xiii

help each other. Communication improves, meetings

become more effective, team problem solving
becomes a reality, management-employee relations
become more productive. As well, many a participant
has reported that those improvements have carried
over into their personal life, greatly improving
communications and relations with family, friends
and personal contacts.
What's more, even clients not participating in
group training but coached individually in the
TYPES OF PEOPLE methodology are just as
enthusiastic about the positive effect their new
understanding of themselves and of other types of
people is having in their lives.
The TYPES OF PEOPLE methodology
elaborated in "CRazYZoo!" reflects some of the
same basic thoughts and approaches that are used in
other typology systems, such as the Myers-Briggs
typology, and like the latter it is influenced by the
thinking of the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung.
G.I. Gurdjieff, who was an extraordinary thinker,
also talks about different types of people in his
writings, but he does not spell out a specific system
or method of typology. However, some of
Gurdjieff's followers have done so. One of them,
Susan Zannos, provides detailed information about
the basis and the origin of the study of human types
in her book "HUMAN TYPES". She points out that
the study of human types is very ancient, in fact far
older than recorded history. Her concepts are also
reflected in "CRazYZoo!", as are the views of
xiv — CrazYZoo! —

Gurdjieff, of course, whose science belongs to the

knowledge of esoteric schools of antiquity.

This story is about unusual zoo animals trained

by an extraordinarily gifted young man named Aislin
to get along better with each other and with people.
You are being asked to play along in the story by
involving yourself in it. You do this by making
certain choices, once before starting the story and
once while reading the story.
Your first choice is as follows.

Choose which one of the three animals described

below resembles you most: the Lion, the Saint
Bernard or the Fox? According to popular
notions about animals:

• The LION occupies the role of the king of

beasts; he knows how to assert his powers
and his strengths; he also assumes his
responsibilities as a protector at all times.
xvi — CrazYZoo! —

• The SAINT BERNARD manifests

gentleness, loyalty and readiness to help.
He finds persons lost in the snow and
proffers aid and comfort to them.
• The FOX shows craftiness and slyness
and always outwits everyone. A strong
survivor and full of ideas, he demonstrates
great versatility and adaptability.

NOTE: It is important in this exercise to

consider the three animals as equals. None of
them is either superior or inferior to the other
two. The three are different, but they are equal.

Which one of the three animals resembles you

most? You no doubt possess some characteristics of
all three; this is normal. However, you must choose
the animal with the strongest OVERALL likeness.
Make your choice by following your instincts rather
than by analyzing. Following your instincts will help
you reach the right conclusion quickly. Please tick

__ FOX

Great! You will have a better read after making

this choice.
— You and the Players in the CrazYZoo! Story — xvii

Later in the story you will be asked to make

another choice. You see, there are two different lions,
two different Saint Bernards, and two different foxes.
You will be deciding which of the two is more like

Once upon a time there lived an unusually gifted

boy called Aislin. His name is derived from Celtic
and signifies a dream, vision, inspiration. Aislin's
dream was a world where people understood each
other and lived in harmony.
Aislin's unusual gift was his inborn ability to see
three rings of color around people. The three colored
rings would be arranged in a different order for
different individuals. In some persons, the first ring
would be red, in others it would be blue, and in still
others it would be green. Aislin discovered early that
people whose first color was red would look and act
differently from those whose first color was blue or
green. He then observed that the second color was
not always the same either. For instance, some
individuals whose first color was red would have blue
as their second color, whereas in others green would
come second to red. The same kind of variation was
evident in individuals whose first color was blue or
2 — CrazYZoo! —

Aislin learned from observation that the second

color in people gave additional clues as to what they
were like. For instance, his father, whose first colored
ring was red and his second ring green, was a
policeman who strongly believed in law and order
and always defended the underdog. But when things
didn't go his way, he could become impatient and
sometimes even violent. However, Aislin's uncle,
whose first color was also red, was much different
from his father. He was a successful businessman,
liked to have parties, and had many hobbies that he
was good at. The less admirable side of his uncle was
his tendency to think too much of himself and to
treat his employees like his children. Aislin noted that
his uncle's second color was blue, not green like his
Aislin observed similar differences in blue people
whose second color was different. The same was true
for green people. Because of this insight, Aislin had a
way with people. People were amazed, because they
felt that the boy could "see through them". Aislin
was looked upon as a boy wonder. At first, Aislin
couldn't understand why people made so much fuss,
as he thought that if everybody looked at the colors
of others they would soon learn to get along better
with them. Of course, he soon learned that other
people could not see the rings of color.
People found Aislin's gift strange. While they
were amazed at his maturity in dealing with people,
they were also puzzled because of the strangeness of
it all. After all, Aislin was just a boy, and it was
— Aislin, A Boy with an Unusual Talent — 3

awkward to deal with him like with an adult. Nobody

wanted to talk much about the whole thing, because
people felt it was just a little too weird. They couldn't
understand it and felt uncomfortable with it.
Aislin would have liked people to find out about
the colors that surround each person and he was
unhappy that his ideas were being avoided by the
world. He continued to be absorbed in his thoughts
and spent most of his energy trying to make sense of
people and of the world.
Then one day Aislin's mother took him to the
zoo. Aislin was fascinated by the animals. He
discovered that animals too had three colored rings
around them! He was most taken by an imposing lion
with an abundant mane whom he named Leo. Aislin
could not stop looking at Leo sitting there
majestically and looking back at Aislin. It was as if
Leo and Aislin communicated with each other. His
mother decided to let Aislin spend some time in
front of the lion cage and sat down on the bench a
few yards away. She had brought a book to read in
case of such an eventuality.
As soon as no-one else was around, Aislin started
to talk to Leo: "Hi Leo, you are such a nice lion. Did
you know that I can see rings of color around you?
Your main color is red. The next one is green and the
third is blue. I know that when you get mad, your red
color becomes very intense and the green and blue
diminish. But when you calm down, your colors
become normal again". I know, because my dad is
like that.
4 — CrazYZoo! —

Leo seemed to listen to Aislin. His head even

went up and down and Aislin was sure that Leo was
telling him that he understood. Aislin continued:
"You know Leo, your friend over there (pointing to
the big lion not too far to the right of Leo) also has a
nice red ring around him, but his second color is
blue, not green like yours." Again Leo seemed to nod
at Aislin's remark. Leo added: "That's why you two
are different. Your friend does not get upset as easily
as you do, and he likes to have a lot of fun". As
Aislin finished talking, the other lion got up and
started moving around in a peculiar, back-and forth
circular motion as if he wanted to be amusing and
funny. Aislin was excited and started imitating the
movements and laughing out loud. He shouted: "You
are funny, Eden!" He had instinctively given the
other lion the name Eden. Names for animals
seemed to simply come to Aislin's mind from
It was difficult to pull Aislin away from the lion
cage. He wanted to stay longer, and he also wanted to
see more of the other animals. Unfortunately for
Aislin, his mother had to return home. But before
leaving, Aislin had his mother promise that they
would come back soon. His mother was very happy
about Aislin's enthusiasm.
On the way out they passed by the cage of the
foxes and Aislin saw one whose main ring of color
was a beautiful green. Its second color was blue and
the third red. Aislin imagined talking to the fox the
way he had talked to Leo the lion. But there was no
— Aislin, A Boy with an Unusual Talent — 5

time. He resolved to talk to him the next time. He

would call him Urban. As they were leaving the
foxes' cage, Aislin pointed out to his mother another
fox who also had a beautiful green ring around him
and whose second color was red rather than blue.
"Mom", he said, "you know that fox there is much
different from the first one. He plans and is well
organized, but the first one we saw is much more
curious and more innovative". His mother just
nodded, wondering where Aislin took all this
information. The name that popped into Aislin's
mind for the second fox was Ernest. He was eager to
talk to Ernest as well on his next visit.
As they got to the exit of the zoo, Aislin's mother
asked the zoo keeper about the opening and closing
hours, telling him that her boy Aislin was in love with
the lions and with the foxes and wanted to come
back soon. The zoo keeper said to Aislin: "When you
come back, Aislin, come and see me and you can ask
me questions about the lions and the foxes". Aislin
thought that was nice, but what attracted his
attention at that moment was the big Saint Bernard
dog by the side of the zoo keeper. It had such a nice
face and the main ring of color around him was of a
marvelous blue, accompanied by green and some red.
Aislin petted him and said: "Hi Udo, you have such
nice colors". The zoo keeper was surprised at the
name Udo and asked Aislin: "Why do you call him
Udo?". Aislin replied: "It's a good name for him".
The zoo keeper did not argue. He added: "Udo has a
brother who likes to keep more to himself; do you
6 — CrazYZoo! —

want to see him?" Aislin eagerly agreed. The zoo

keeper brought Aislin and his mother behind the
building where they saw another beautiful Saint
Bernard. He was a little smaller than Udo, and Aislin
noticed that his main color ring was also blue, like
Udo's, but his second color was red rather than
green. The zoo keeper asked jokingly: "What would
you call him, Aislin?" Aislin replied without
hesitation: "I call him Casimir". "Why Casimir?"
asked the zoo keeper. "Because I think that's who he
is - Casimir", replied Aislin. He thought to himself:
"Adults ask funny questions!"
Aislin went back to the zoo often. His mother
accompanied him at first, but soon Aislin returned by
himself. He helped the zoo keeper with all kinds of
chores and the zoo keeper saw in Aislin a remarkable
talent in dealing with animals. Aislin seemed to
communicate with them. The animals seemed to be
drawn to Aislin. They were expecting him and where
happy when he arrived. He not only played with
them but was also able to make them do things that
amazed even the zoo keeper. All animals listened to
him like highly trained dogs listen to their master.
The news about Aislin's unusual talents made the
rounds and when he was still a teenager he was made
assistant zoo keeper. The zoo keeper himself, who
was getting on in years, was pleased because he had
been wondering for a while who would be taking
over on his retirement in a few years. When he did
retire he was able to recommend Aislin as a highly
— Aislin, A Boy with an Unusual Talent — 7

competent replacement. Aislin became the youngest

zoo keeper in memory.
Aislin was happy, and he had a dream. His dream
was to train the animals to live in harmony with each
other and with the human visitors without being
housed in cages. No cages and no fences.
He had lengthy sessions with Leo, Eden, Casimir,
Udo, Urban and Ernest. The animals responded
positively. They could all see the color rings. They
had no trouble understanding what he was talking
about. Nor were they afraid of change as much as
people were. They learned easily. They were eagerly
awaiting the day when they would be fully trained
and allowed to live outside their cages.
Together with the animals, Aislin developed a
system of assigning leadership roles to the six animals
in accordance with their colors. He concluded that
the six animals in the group represented the six basic
types. He gave each type a name and added what
motivates each type as well as what the main fear of
each type was. He also described each type's main
qualities as well as the tendencies each type had to
watch for. He drew up a training chart and reviewed
it in detail with the six animals. The group found that
the chart summarized well what they were like and
what they had observed together. It was of great help
in working to continually improve their understanding
of themselves and of other animals as well as of
people. Here is the chart:
8 — CrazYZoo! —
— Aislin, A Boy with an Unusual Talent — 9

The animals knew that the day was near when

cages and fences would be removed and they could
move freely around the entire territory of the new
zoo. They all resolved to use and develop their
qualities and to not let their fears take over. They had
developed strong leadership abilities and Aislin was
confident that things would work out well for them.
They would be able to look after themselves as well
as after the other animals assigned to them. They
would be able to respect the territory available for the
free zoo and provide the leadership required so that
other animals would do the same.
That optimism and resolve demonstrated by
Aislin and his team were put to the test from day

Adaptation to the new freedom presented many

challenges and more than a few surprises. There was
not only the challenge of adapting to an open
environment. There was another challenge, that of
wild animals that were now drawn to the free zoo
territory. They wanted the territory for themselves as
well as the food and water. It was the task of the six
trained leaders, with the help of their teams, to keep
unwanted animals out of the zoo territory and to
accept animals willing to live by the rules of the free
zoo and be integrated into the teams. Then there was
the challenge of hunting. One of the rules of the free
zoo was that all zoo animals had to participate in
developing food autonomy through hunting, not only
in the zoo territory but also outside of it. This was
again done under the leadership of the six trained
animals. Then there was a certain risk connected with
the two Saint Bernards. They were domesticated
animals, not used to coping with animals who were
wild by nature, especially animals who had never
lived in a zoo. Aislin had insisted that they be part of
12 — CrazYZoo! —

the group of leaders. He was sure they were the best

representatives of animals with a blue color ring.
Even though some of the scientists and other experts
involved in the decision where skeptical, they were
unable to provide a meaningful opposition to Aislin's
plans, for they didn't dare to put in question Aislin's
abilities with animals.
But the thing that worried Aislin most was the
reaction of the experts and of the public. He knew
that the skeptics would pounce on every opportunity
they could find to criticize Aislin's free zoo project.
And he also knew that the public could easily be
swayed by critics and fear mongers. But Aislin would
not be deterred. He was confident that things would
work out eventually.
As was to be expected, all six animals had their
difficulties in assuming their leadership roles as
planned. However, Leo struggled most of all. He
found it particularly hard to control his strongly
aggressive nature. He had done well in training, but
in the totally free environment he seemed to forget
everything he had learned. He was now dominated
by his inborn need to be clearly in charge. Leo was
being challenged left and right, especially by some of
the animals that didn't come from the zoo. Leo's
instinctive reaction was to deal firmly with anyone
who put his leadership in question.
His main challenger was a large lion who had the
same temperament as Leo and who also wanted to be
in charge. This lion came from the wild, hadn't been
— Leo the "Doer" Lion — 13

trained, and wanted to take over. Leo confronted

him and a fight ensued.
Even though Leo had all the necessary fighting
instincts, during his life in the zoo he had not had the
opportunity to practice the skills needed in a fierce
fight. Leo was clearly the underdog in the initial
phases of the fight. He was aggressive but not careful
enough. His opponent suddenly tore a gashing
wound in Leo's left shoulder. This only made Leo
more aggressive. He jumped forward and tried to dig
his right claw into his opponent's back, but the other
lion quickly turned to avoid the attack and then
immediately ripped Leo's side open with his left claw.
Leo was now bleeding heavily and seemed to be
getting weaker. His opponent expected Leo to give
up the fight and leave. But Leo had no intention of
giving up. While the other lion momentarily let down
his guard, Leo lunged forward decisively, dug his
teeth into his opponent's throat and held on until the
struggle was over. His opponent was dead. Leo was
bleeding profusely and would have died too if it
hadn't been for the help and care of the two Saint
Bernards. Casimir quickly intervened to apply his first
aid skills by stopping the bleeding and closing the
wounds and Udo was constantly at Leo's side to
provide the liquids and plants that allowed for a
speedy recovery. Needless to say that after his
recovery Leo did not get challenged any more. He
was the master of his team, and the team had learned
from Leo how to protect the interests of the free
zoo. Leo felt and acted like the king of the beasts.
14 — CrazYZoo! —

Whenever things went well, Leo would let things

be and wouldn't address anybody. His team knew
that when Leo was quiet, it was because things were
satisfactory for him. This was his way of
"encouraging" or "motivating" his team. No fuss, no
noise. It was to be understood that everything was
OK as long as everybody behaved as they were
supposed to. In Leo's view, no open
acknowledgment or other demonstration of approval
was necessary.
Aislin was concerned. He knew that the red color
in Leo, with green the secondary color, made him a
"doer" or a task oriented type of individual. During
training, Leo had learned what needed to be done to
become a good leader, but his dramatic and life
threatening fight with the other lion seemed to have
made him forget all the things he had learned in
training about continually improving one's
relationship skills. Leo had to develop those skills in
order to become the type of leader they had all
agreed was needed in the free zoo. He had to be less
preoccupied with accomplishing tasks and he needed
to reduce his fear of being ineffective at it. His
preoccupation with tasks and the accompanying fear
of ineffectiveness made him impatient and forgetful
about the need to provide positive feedback to his
team and to the individuals in it.
Aislin decided to have a session with Leo. He
reminded Leo about the common leadership
behavior goals that Leo had agreed to pursue. He
pointed out to Leo that although he was in control,
— Leo the "Doer" Lion — 15

he was not really looked upon as a leader but rather

as a boss to be obeyed. He was being referred to as
the "super doer", because others considered him to
be an extreme "doer" type, focusing exclusively on
tasks and neglecting relationships altogether. He
reviewed with Leo the training chart with the six
basic or classic types of individuals that they had
studied together, the differences that existed between
the different types, and the fact that each type had a
neighboring type from whom he could learn by
discovering the neighboring type's strengths and by
working to develop those strengths in himself.
Leo remembered that for him Eden was that
neighboring type. Eden belonged to the relationship
types (the "wooer" types). The strength he had and
Leo lacked was diplomacy. Leo also remembered that
the best way to acquire that strength would be to get
Eden to coach him. He promised Aislin that he
would work on that. Aislin was glad.
Leo decided to first observe Eden and his team to
find out what Eden was doing as a leader. He soon
noticed that Eden commanded respect from his
team, just like Leo did, but that in addition Eden was
popular and much liked by his team. Leo was
puzzled. It was evident to Leo that he was not as
happy as Eden in his role as a leader. Leo felt "lonely
at the top", while Eden seemed to be mixing socially
with the other animals and having quite a bit of fun
in his leadership role.
As he observed Eden, Leo found that Eden did
not deal with others the same way he did. Eden was
16 — CrazYZoo! —

not as direct or as blunt as Leo. Eden could be

critical of others in a more constructive way, as a
result of which he was not perceived as being
aggressive or hard, nor insulting and offensive, the
way Leo was. Eden, like Leo, took care of challenges
in a forceful and authoritative manner, but when
things went well, Eden would "celebrate" with the
others, roar with laughter and run around with
others in playful fashion. When little things went
wrong, Eden, instead of being irritated, would nudge
others on to find the solutions to problems
themselves and to learn by their mistakes.
Leo learned from observing Eden that as a result
of his relationship strengths Eden was maintaining
harmony in the team and was getting things done
with hardly any confrontation. He rarely was violent.
As a result Eden spent less energy than Leo on
controlling things and he achieved greater prosperity
for himself and for his team. In addition, Eden
seemed to be in a good mood much of the time and
seemed to have more time and energy to enjoy life.
Leo was ready to find out more from Eden himself.
Leo and Eden would meet occasionally, but Leo
felt a resistance inside himself to what he thought
was "having to be someone he was not". After all,
Leo thought, he was successful in his role. So what if
occasionally someone got treated roughly! Perhaps
that was necessary to keep things running smoothly.
Besides, Leo was convinced that if Eden had the
same difficult individuals in his team, Eden would
have to treat them the same way Leo did.
— Leo the "Doer" Lion — 17

Eden was aware of Leo's demanding style and

thought that it was a pity Leo worried so much about
not being effective as a ruler. He was sure that Leo
carried his need for accomplishment too far. Even
though Leo had asked him to be his coach in
developing diplomacy, Eden noticed Leo's reluctance
to change his behavior and he didn't quite know how
to broach the subject, knowing Leo's quick defensive
ways of over-reacting.
Leo and Eden kept avoiding the subject. Aislin
noticed what was going on between the two and he
decided to intervene. He wanted things to move, all
the more so since he had just read an alarmist article
with the curt title "CRazYZoo!" that had appeared in
a popular newspaper. It was written by one of the
experts who had been very skeptical about Aislin's
plans for the free zoo. It was evident to Aislin that
the writer hadn't seen for himself what had been
going on in the free zoo after the abolishing of cages
and fences. The writer was painting a picture of total
chaos, of wild animals taking over territory, stealing
water and food, killing many zoo animals, and
zookeepers and zoo animals running for cover. Aislin
concluded that the skeptical expert may have heard
about Leo's fight with the wild lion from a visitor or
tourist and had taken the opportunity to try and
prove Aislin wrong.
Aislin met with Leo and Eden and relayed to
them the contents of the "CRazYZoo!" article. He
stressed the importance to follow up on the
leadership training and to practice mutual support in
18 — CrazYZoo! —

developing individual strengths. Leo and Eden were

in total agreement and met the same day to exchange
comments about people's reactions.
Leo related to Eden how annoyed he had been at
the gawking and prying by the increasing flood of
observers, curiosity seekers, tourists and safaris of all
kinds that were passing through. He was ready to
pounce on those humans, to scare them off and get
rid of them. But Eden cautioned him about that kind
of reaction. He reminded him of the "CRazYZoo!"
article and warned that if Leo reacted too strongly,
the humans were liable to make things worse not just
for him but for everybody. The humans might decide
to change the zoo back to what it was before. Or
they might recapture him and put him in a cage in
another zoo. Or they might even conclude that he
was getting to be too unmanageable, too dangerous,
and they might eventually decide that he needed to
be shot because he had gone "crazy". After all,
similar things had happened occasionally in the
earlier zoo, for instance when animals were too
strong in expressing their displeasure at being
Eden reminded Leo about the behaviors with
humans that worked best when they were living in
cages. When you didn't like something you got a
better reaction from the human zoo keepers if you
just shook your head and then looked rather kindly at
them, begging for some understanding. Humans
would often find that way of acting very endearing
and, understanding what you wanted, they would
— Leo the "Doer" Lion — 19

change their mind about the intentions they had for

you. For instance, instead of insisting that you had
had enough to eat they would give you an extra piece
of meat, which they wouldn't do if you growled at
them and made a scene, because that would make
them stick to their idea that you didn't deserve any
more food. Eden said that this type of
accommodating behavior was a form of diplomacy
and that diplomacy was a superior approach for
getting along, not just with humans but also with the
other animals.
Leo did remember. He remembered vividly that
he had struggled with this idea of diplomacy of which
Eden was now reminding him. He had always viewed
diplomacy as a form of hypocrisy. He couldn't help
having reservations about it to this day.
Nevertheless, Leo agreed to make an effort to
change his behavior with humans. He did recall how
humans could get very extreme in their response to
animals whose behavior they considered undesirable.
Leo decided to try to follow Eden's advice and he
started to practice what Eden called "diplomacy"
with the human visitors. He would sit innocently in
front of the crowd of human onlookers, at times
shaking his big mane, at other times looking at them
kindly or holding his head at an angle as if indicating
a curious attitude toward the crowd. He found that
this latter gesture worked particularly well. Leo was
pleasantly surprised at how well he was doing with
the humans. He realized that he was not only
succeeding in entertaining humans and making them
20 — CrazYZoo! —

happy, but that he was also feeling better himself and

even enjoying his time spent with the human public.
Instead of feeling miserable as before, he was now
rather happy.
Seeing this, Eden congratulated Leo for his
"performance" and explained to him that there was a
good definition of the difference between diplomacy
and hypocrisy. Diplomacy, he said, is a way of
helping the other individual (or group of individuals)
to meet you half way. This allows for mutual
agreement, which is a positive result, because you
both end up winning; there is no loser. Hypocrisy is
different. When one is hypocritical one tries to win
and make the other side lose. Diplomacy leads to a
win-win. He then asked Leo to look at what had
happened as a result of his entertaining behavior with
the human crowd. Leo's behavior could be seen as a
form of diplomacy, as Leo had made an effort to
avoid being irritated and to prevent possible conflict.
Leo listened attentively. He started to feel better and
agreed with Eden that this was now a "winning"
situation for him, and that the crowd was also
"winning" since they appeared happy.
This realization did not come easy for Leo, as it
was hard for him to overcome the feeling of having
to force himself to behave in an insincere fashion.
Acting as an entertainer felt like hypocrisy. He shared
with Eden that he did not feel like that any longer.
He no longer considered the effort he made as
insincere, but rather as a more mature way of dealing
with a personally challenging situation. Eden
— Leo the "Doer" Lion — 21

approved and stressed that hypocrisy means trying to

hide something from the other for the purpose of
one's personal gain or advantage only, which is not
what Leo had done.
When Eden asked Leo what he thought about
using diplomacy with his team, Leo said that
diplomacy was all fine and dandy but that he still
wasn't sure that this diplomacy thing was something
to use with his team of animals. After all, he had to
keep his difficult team under control and well
organized by using a direct and decisive approach.
Noticing Eden's disapproving look, Leo paused for a
while, after which he asked Eden whether he knew of
any one specific thing that Leo could do to improve
his way of being the leader of his team, or was he,
Eden, just being lucky with his own team in that
there were no "difficult" individuals in it like there
were in Leo's team?
Eden thought to himself that Leo could at least
have thanked him for guiding him to cope better
with the human crowd! But Eden knew that Leo had
a hard time expressing approval. He knew also how
difficult it had been for Leo to change his behavior
and that deep down Leo, without saying it, was very
thankful to Eden for having helped him to improve
his outlook toward the human crowd. Eden had
learned that individuals belonging to Leo's type
consider it wise not to give praise "unduly" because
they don't like to be too "sentimental" about things!
Eden quickly overcame his momentary
disappointment at the fact that Leo expressed so little
22 — CrazYZoo! —

appreciation for his advice. He was aware that Leo

would benefit greatly if he used some diplomacy in
his dealings with his team. Eden was glad that Leo
had decided to talk about it now, because he felt that
Leo deserved to have more satisfactory relationships
as a leader. After all, Leo had such strong qualities.
Leo's sense of duty, his respect of principles and
rules, and his sense of justice and equality were
exemplary. If Leo could only not worry so much
about not being effective in making others respect
his values.
It was evident to Eden that Leo was afraid he
would be ineffective as a leader if he did not make
absolutely sure that everyone knew his job well,
carried out his responsibilities well and followed rules
to the letter. Leo also seemed to feel that he needed
to make everyone aware that he would not miss a
beat if anything went wrong. This was his idea of
proper leadership behavior. He seemed to think that
if rules were clearly and simply stated and offenders
were dealt with severely, any negative reactions
would automatically be taken care of and no
discontent would remain. In Leo's view, anybody
who was conscientious would appreciate this. If any
individual failed to cooperate, that individual showed
a wrong attitude and needed to be taken to task and
It was also evident to Eden that Leo was
convinced that it was in the natural order of things
that there would always be some individuals who are
not well intentioned, who lack the desire to
— Leo the "Doer" Lion — 23

cooperate and who don't want to follow the rules, no

matter what you do. Leo seemed to believe that one
of the main tasks of leaders was to look out for such
individuals and to put them in their place. If that
didn't help, the solution would be to "get rid" of
them one way or another.
Eden felt that even though there was some truth
to that view, he had to find a way to make Leo realize
that he tended to jump to conclusions too frequently
and too quickly when it came to individuals who did
not perform well enough at the start. He had to make
Leo see that many individuals simply need extra time,
encouragement and training to understand, to get
involved, and to become proficient.
Eden realized it was difficult to tell Leo what to
do to improve his leadership. Eden did not think it
would do any good if he told him outright. He felt
that Leo needed to discover for himself which
specific change in behavior with his group would be
the most helpful for him. Since diplomacy was
Eden's strength, he replied to Leo in the following
"It is true, Leo, that I may have fewer problem
cases in my team than you have in yours. I don't
know. I have a collection of different types of
individuals just as you have. And you remember no
doubt our long sessions about different types of
individuals. You know that every type sees things
differently. Because he sees things differently, he will
respond differently to you. So what works with one
individual does not necessarily work with another.
24 — CrazYZoo! —

You and I, just like any other leader, should ideally be

able to recognize the way every individual sees things
and we should be able to communicate differently
with each different type".
Leo interjected, "well, maybe that's true when it
comes to nuances and fine points of leadership, but
don't you think that the basic requirements are always
the same?"
Eden asked: "What sort of basic requirements are
you talking about?"
Leo said: "There are several, for instance
everyone needs to know what is expected of him and
everyone needs to be told when he is not meeting
Eden: "You are absolutely right about that.
Leaders who do not make known clearly to
individuals and teams what is required of them are
falling down on that basic responsibility of a leader.
They are also falling down on their responsibilities if
they fail to inform individuals or the team when
requirements are not being met. Such feedback needs
to be given promptly and as frequently as each
situation demands".
Leo: "I am glad you agree. I tell my team in no
uncertain terms what I expect of them and I let them
know without beating around the bush when they
don't perform."
Eden: "I know you do, and not all leaders have
those strengths. Now, let's get back to your question
as to whether there is any specific thing you could do
to create more satisfactory relationships with your
— Leo the "Doer" Lion — 25

team members. This is really quite a personal thing,

and it would be preferable if you yourself selected
what you feel is the most important first step you
could take to change the effect you are having on
your team".
Leo: "That sounds easy, but I really don't see
what that could be".
Eden: "This is always difficult at first glance. But
here is a way to begin finding an answer. We have
already talked about your strengths. One important
thing to remember about strengths is that every
strength has an accompanying weakness. As you
know, a strength can also be called a motivation. If
we summarize your many strengths, we can identify
your main strength or your main motivation as being
that of accomplishment. You are motivated to
accomplish tasks and goals. You have a strong sense
of duty and you are able to make decisions quickly
and go into action. You do this by being mindful of
the principles of equity and of rights. You make sure
to define tasks and goals clearly and explain rules and
regulations to everyone.
Now as I said, every strength has as its
counterpart a shortcoming which in effect is basically
a fear. Your main motivation, which as I said is
accomplishment, has as its counterpart a main
weakness or main fear which is ineffectiveness. You
are worried about not being effective in what you do.
And when this fear is triggered, it can take away from
your ability to assert your strengths. The more
pronounced the fear, the more your strengths give
26 — CrazYZoo! —

way to impatience, aggressiveness, violence, hurtful

directness, excessive task orientation, and even
rudeness in relationship behavior. Does this make
sense to you?"
Leo: "I guess I do get impatient easily".
Eden: "OK. So how do you usually express your
impatience, Leo?"
Leo: "I immediately growl with disapproval".
Eden: "Right. Do you think that if you did not
start to growl every time something goes wrong your
team would take that as a sign of less impatience?"
Leo: "I think so. But that would be hard to do all
the time".
Eden: "That's right, it would be. For this reason
you must set yourself a more modest goal and aim to
refrain from growling only part of the time. Would
you think it would be reasonable to refrain from
growling half the time? Or perhaps one time out of
Leo: "I guess I will start with one time out of
Eden: "That's very wise. Now, it is important that
you look at this goal as a worthwhile goal, and that
when you succeed in refraining from growling one
time out of three during all next week you give
yourself a pat on the back and recognize that you
have achieved your goal. This will help with your
self-esteem and help you stay motivated, and it will
also help you to aim for the same thing again the
following week. What's more, if in the first week you
— Leo the "Doer" Lion — 27

far exceed your goal, you might even set a higher goal
for the following week. Are we agreed on that?"
Leo agreed, although he was a bit puzzled about
the self-esteem remark. He didn't say anything but he
thought that there was nothing wrong with his self-
esteem. He continued listening to Eden who also
warned Leo that he would have to expect that his
team might at first be surprised at his changed
behavior. Perhaps some might even be a bit skeptical
about his intentions. But he said not to get
discouraged by such reaction from his team because
at first they might be unsure about how to react to
the new behavior. This was normal and the team
would soon get used to his new ways and appreciate
them. Leo nodded.
All weekend long Leo kept mumbling to himself
that every day next week he would remember not to
start growling when something didn't go quite as he
wanted. Monday came and Leo was ready. At the
beginning he found it hard to remind himself of his
resolve every time a situation came up. In addition,
and despite Eden's warning about not minding the
group's initial reaction, he was worried that his group
would find that he was not demonstrating strong
leadership if he did not behave like his usual self. But
he caught himself and kept to his resolve.
As a result he managed most of the time not to
voice his disapproval immediately when something
did not go right. Instead, he looked at the individual
concerned with an inquiring expression. Usually this
would cause the individual to start explaining, and
28 — CrazYZoo! —

Leo was surprised how often there was a valid, or at

least fairly valid, reason for the problem that had
arisen. In many cases the individual concerned would
explain how he would go about preventing the same
problem in the future, and in some cases Leo offered
his own solution based on his extensive experience.
On the whole, he thought that the week had worked
out extremely well.
At the end of the week Leo recounted to Eden
the experience of the week, including the doubts that
had arisen in him at the beginning of the week
concerning his image as a leader. Leo concluded that
despite this everything went very well, as in two cases
out of three he had responded in a manner that he
himself considered satisfactory. This was twice as
good as he had planned. Eden congratulated him and
asked him what kind of recognition he had given
himself for this achievement. Leo replied that he did
not really feel it necessary to go through that part of
the process. Eden realized immediately that Leo
hadn't understood the part about self-esteem that he
had pointed out to Leo last week. Leo hadn't
accepted the idea that self-recognition is an
important part of goal setting.
Eden asked Leo to talk a little about his initial
doubts concerning his image as a leader. Leo
explained that he had felt that by not reacting
promptly and bluntly as usual he would be giving the
impression to his group that his leadership strengths
were getting weaker. Eden then gave the following
explanation about self-esteem.
— Leo the "Doer" Lion — 29

"Self-esteem is how you feel about yourself in

your unconscious. It is based on the behavior you are
used to, both the behavior on your part and the
behavior on the part of others. Your unconscious
knows that when you behave in a certain way, others
will react in a certain way. These behaviors are
acquired over time, through repetition. They have
become automatic and familiar. They have become
habits. You have developed your self-esteem around
those habits. When you decide to change your
behavior, you are challenging your habits and your
self-esteem. That's why you found it difficult to
change at first. And don't kid yourself, your habits
have not been changed permanently yet. You haven't
repeated the new behaviors often enough, and those
initial resistances you experienced will keep coming
back until you have replaced the old habits with the
new ones you have chosen. Does that make sense to
you, Leo?"
Again, not being used to this kind of thing, Leo
was only half convinced. Eden insisted that Leo
needed to give the idea a chance by giving himself a
recompense or granting himself a favor. Leo tried to
think of some kind of self-reward but couldn't come
up with anything. Eden thought to himself: "Typical
reaction of an IDEALIST!" (Idealist is the name of
the type of individual to which Leo belongs). Eden
then asked Leo whether there was any activity that
Leo enjoyed a lot but did not find much time for.
Leo had no trouble finding such an activity. He
said he would like to spend more time roaming
30 — CrazYZoo! —

outside the zoo territory and perhaps catching a small

warthog which he could feast on. Eden thought:
"Finally!" and encouraged Leo to reward himself that
way without delay. He added that rewards, whether
for one's own achievement or for that of others, were
most effective when they were given with as little
delay as possible. Leo found Eden's reasoning
convincing enough and he took off immediately
towards the savanna. When he came back about two
hours later, after a good ramble and after having
ingested a small warthog prey, it was evident that he
was more than a little satisfied.
In the weeks that followed, Leo's attitude toward
his group continued to be more relaxed. Leo's team
responded to his new behavior and his improved
mood by being in better humor themselves. They
also opened up more to Leo by staying more around
him and by exchanging experiences. They were less
afraid of him, yet seemed to respect him just as much
as before, and showed by their own behaviors that
they were more appreciative of his leadership. Both
Leo and Eden were happy and appreciated each
other as if they had just become a "mutual
admiration society of two".
Aislin smiled as he read a new article in the
papers with the title "CRazYZoo! REVISITED!".
The writer was a journalist who had visited the zoo
after reading the previous article. He explained that
he found things surprisingly well and safe. He was
especially fond of the behavior of the lions! He
— Leo the "Doer" Lion — 31

concluded that they seemed to have turned "from

aggressiveness to mellowness".
32 — CrazYZoo! —

While helping Leo discover certain things about

himself and about others and enabling him to make
life better for himself and for his group, Eden
discovered tendencies in himself about which he was
increasingly unhappy. In his case the tendencies he
didn't like had kept creeping up on him as life in the
new zoo improved.
At first, Eden wasn't aware of what was
happening. Things sort of grew on him without
being noticed. He kept having fun in his leadership
role but felt that his team was less and less happy
with the results and they did not look up to him with
as much confidence and respect as at first. Eden had
a vague feeling that his leadership wasn't as
productive as it had been. He felt that he was more
driven than before to create opportunities for
personal pleasure and enjoyment and that he was
eating too much. He was using his talents, but he was
getting involved in too many activities and most of
them were for the purpose of pleasing his senses and
his tastes. He was indulging himself. He felt that his
34 — CrazYZoo! —

team was aware of his new state of mind and that this
bothered them somehow. They weren't as close to
their leader and they were not as forthcoming with
him. The relationships weren't as good any more.
Eden was unhappy. And he kept eating too much
and kept getting fatter.
Eden realized that he too, like Leo, had a
neighboring type with a quality Eden did not possess.
It was Casimir. Casimir was of a peaceful nature. He
was smaller than his brother Udo and kept more to
himself. He felt that the most important thing in life
was to be happy. He hated quarrels and avoided
getting involved in emotional conflicts whenever
possible. Also, he was the opposite of a show-off, as
he liked to work by himself without attracting
attention. He had a sensitive nature, was discreet,
persistent, and loyal towards his friends and
associates. When he decided on an activity or a cause,
he would stick to it and become highly proficient at
it, as he was able to pay attention to details like very
few others could. In crisis situations of a physical
nature Casimir would demonstrate an uncanny ability
to stay cool and level headed.
Eden, like the other animals, very much
appreciated Casimir for his qualities. Eden felt that
Casimir was the only one with whom he could share
his feelings of unhappiness. Later, he never regretted
opening up to Casimir, because Casimir not only
understood right away how Eden felt, but he was
able to help Eden discover the main cause of his
— Eden the "Wooer" Lion — 35

It should be noted that Casimir had always liked

Eden's passive and positive attitude. Eden, like
Casimir, wasn't looking to change the world. In
addition, Eden had the knack of enjoying the world
the way it was, which attracted Casimir because he
often found it difficult to enjoy things as much as
Eden did. Casimir preferred Eden's lion nature to
that of Leo, whom he found too intent on changing
things. It's not that Casimir did not like to improve
things. He was very good at perfecting whatever he
was doing, but he felt that one didn't have to be as
driven and as directive with others as Leo was. Many
animals felt the same way as Casimir, considering Leo
to be pushing himself and others too hard to
accomplish things.
As mentioned earlier, Leo the action type was
nicknamed "the doer lion", whereas Eden was known
as "the wooer lion" because of his good relationship
abilities, his diplomacy, and his general ability to
effectively "woo" others. The two expressions
became so popular that soon enough all the
relationship type animals were known as "wooers"
and all the task oriented types as "doers". That's how
it came to be that in addition to "doer lions" and
"wooer lions", there were "doer Saint Bernards" and
"wooer Saint Bernards" as well as "doer foxes" and
"wooer foxes", etc.
When Eden confided his unhappiness to him,
Casimir pointed out something Eden already knew
but did not apply to himself. He told him that Eden
had many strengths and that every strength is
36 — CrazYZoo! —

accompanied by a corresponding shortcoming or

weakness. Eden thanked Casimir for that reminder
and explained to Casimir how he had helped Leo to
identify his main strength or main motivation, as well
as his main weakness or main shortcoming, or main
Casimir replied: "OK. Let's explore your main
motivation, which is pleasure. What does pleasure
mean for you?"
Eden replied: "There are all kinds of things. I
don't know where to start."
Casimir then asked: "Do you enjoy to celebrate
with your group?"
Eden replied: "Doesn't everybody?"
Without answering Eden's question, Casimir then
asked: "Do you enjoy eating and many other
"Of course!" said Eden.
Casimir then asked: "Do you enjoy using your
many talents to create harmony in your group, to be
a diplomat, to protect your group, and to help them
to have all they need and be well off?"
"I do, Casimir. My group is doing well. By the
way, as far as diplomacy is concerned, I helped out
Leo who, as you know, used to be quite
undiplomatic, but he has much improved lately
following my dialogue with him".
"There you go, Eden, said Casimir. You have
great strengths. We can say that your main strength
or main motivation, are the pleasures that we just
— Eden the "Wooer" Lion — 37

reviewed, and that you want pleasures both for

yourself and for others."
Eden answered: "You are so right. It's amazing
how much easier it is sometimes to understand
yourself during a dialogue with someone else rather
than trying to understand your unhappiness all by
yourself. You have just helped me to be much clearer
in my mind about what my strengths are, even
though I thought that I knew exactly what motivated
me." He reflected for a moment and then said:
"Come to think of it, my dialogue with Leo had a
similar effect on Leo. I was able to help him to better
understand his own strengths of which he was well
aware already".
Casimir said: "As mentioned earlier, our main
strength or main motivation has as its counterpart a
main weakness or shortcoming, or a main fear. Did
you say that you also identified Leo's main fear?"
Eden said: "Yes, we did. It is the fear of
ineffectiveness, which tends to make Leo impatient,
aggressive, insulting, violent and excessively task
oriented". After a moment, he added: "I know the
next thing you are going to ask me. You will want me
to talk about my own main fear, that of physical
privation. I learned in our training that physical
privation is my main fear, but how do I know that it's
the cause of my unhappiness?"
Casimir then asked: "Perhaps one way to find the
answer is to ask yourself : What are the things I am
doing that I would like to change, and: What are the
things my team is doing that make me unhappy?"
38 — CrazYZoo! —

Eden: "Well, my team seems to rely less than

before on me as a leader and they keep more to
themselves. Mind you, they are comfortable and well
fed and seem quite satisfied. It is just that they don't
look up to me as much".
Casimir: "What about you? You look quite
comfortable and well off yourself – and well fed
Eden: "Actually, this is something I am not too
happy with. I mean my looking well fed, because I
am too well fed. And now that we are talking about it
I must admit that I have become a bit overindulgent
in food and in other pleasures. I think this makes me
more lethargic than I should be. Come to think of it,
I have been taking things too easy lately and I have
gotten out of shape."
Casimir: "When you say that you are lethargic, out
of shape, and overindulging in food, you are
probably also saying that you are not as sharp as you
used to be. Could this be the reason your team does
not look at you with as much admiration as they used
Eden: "Yes, I am sure it is. I am simply too much
into the pleasure of eating and I am slowly going
Casimir: "Could it be then that it is your fear of
physical privation which makes you overindulge in
pleasure in a certain way?"
Eden: "Of course! I am enjoying the pleasures I
have and I don't want to miss any of them because I
am afraid they may not last. This has turned into a
— Eden the "Wooer" Lion — 39

real compulsion, a compulsion to eat and to have

Casimir: "I am afraid so. Remember in the
training we identified this as the danger your type, the
INSPIRATOR, runs into. You are successful
yourself and your team is successful. Thanks to your
many talents and your ability to inspire others, your
group has turned into an excellent team of hunters.
There is always plenty of food for everyone as well as
extra time and the other comforts. And you have not
only gotten used to the pleasures and comforts but
you want them so much that you have developed an
unconscious fear that all of a sudden they might
disappear. As a result, you are driven to enjoy them
as much as possible while they last. That's more or
less the conclusion you have reached yourself, isn't it:
you have become addicted, as it were, to pleasures
and to comforts".
Eden: "Yes, that's how it feels, and now I am no
longer comfortable with it. I can't afford to keep
doing that. I can see now that my leadership is in
jeopardy. My team may be worried that hunting will
continue to fall off. Now I understand what was
happening lately when I was having problems with
two growing male lions. There were two young turks
who tried to challenge my decisions. I realize now
that they were testing me and trying to find an
opportunity to dethrone me. They are getting bigger
and stronger, and if I don't get back into shape one
of them will soon force me out and take over. I can
see clearly now that excessive pleasures reduce my
40 — CrazYZoo! —

ability and that of my team to continue acquiring the

things we want, and those needs feed my fear of
physical privation rather than reducing it."
Casimir: "I think that's right, Eden. You may also
find yourself being at times immodest or vain about
all the things you are able to do, whereas others may
see you as not very accomplished in any of them or
as superficial. You get involved in so many things
that you tend to become superficial, unable to
explore fully any of your talents. This is known as
being a dilettante. In that state, you can furthermore
become indecisive. Your addictive behavior may also
turn your natural generosity into a "calculating" one.
This means that you could be trying to ensure that
your generosity is always repaid in kind.
These are the real challenges you are facing,
Eden. The reduced confidence the team is showing
in your leadership and the challenge thrown at you by
the young males are the symptoms, not the causes of
your problem. It is those personal shortcomings that
you need to work on. This does not mean that all
these weaknesses have become pronounced in you. It
is up to you to determine which one of them applies
most to you at this time so you can work against it
and start to manage better the main fear that you
have, the fear of physical privation."
Eden: "I understand perfectly now. What I need
to do is learn to focus better and not disperse my
attention. I must select an activity that I want to
pursue in depth and then I must master it. This will
allow me to not squander my energies, to develop a
— Eden the "Wooer" Lion — 41

strong interest, to get a high level of satisfaction from

the chosen activity and not to have as much of a
craving for food and for the other pleasures."
Casimir: "I could not have put it any better. You
want to establish a balance between having things
and pleasures and not having them to excess. Being
more focused will help you to cultivate that balance.
You now need to identify the preferred activity that
you want to focus on. After that, as you already
know, you will need to set a goal that is both clear
and measurable."
Eden: "I think I know what I want to concentrate
on. I have a lot of talent for teaching, and the area of
teaching that appeals to me a lot is showing our
young lions and other youngsters how to grow up
properly and develop their strengths. Now that we
have examined the question of focus in life, I am
learning a lot in that area, and I will start helping the
young to develop focus. I know that many of them
have the same tendencies I have and they too do not
explore things seriously enough and tend not to
develop mastery of anything. I will be able to share
with them how to overcome such tendencies."
Casimir was very approving of Eden's decision.
Together they worked out a teaching plan and a
schedule for Eden to use in organizing his future
teaching activity with the many youngsters in his
large team.
In a very short time, the results of Eden's
approach became visible. Eden lost most of his
excess weight, was more focused, and his teaching
42 — CrazYZoo! —

was appreciated both by the young and by their

parents. Eden was spreading among his group the
philosophy of balance. In his definition, balance
meant striving for possessions and pleasures only to
the extent that this did not compromise the ability to
fully assert the qualities of one's type.
When Casimir inquired how Eden was rewarding
himself at the successive stages of success with his
teaching goals, Eden said that he had discovered
something highly rewarding. Whenever he reached
the "celebration" stage in his goal setting, he would
get members of his group together for a session of
games. He enjoyed games immensely because he was
good at games. He invited Casimir to participate in
Casimir thought Eden was doing the right thing
involving himself in something he was good at, and
he told him so. Casimir was also glad that Eden
invited him to participate in games. Not that Casimir
had a particular liking for games, but he wanted to
see how Eden was doing in relation to vanity, a trait
that many INSPIRATORS are unaware of and have a
hard time to overcome. Casimir noted vanity in Eden
just by the way Eden had explained to him how he
had helped Leo to identify and deal with his strengths
and weaknesses. Vanity can translate into an
irresistible need to show one's worth, to show how
good one is. It reduces the INSPIRATOR'S
effectiveness as a leader, and Casimir felt it his
obligation as Eden's counselor to make sure Eden
was OK on that score.
— Eden the "Wooer" Lion — 43

When Casimir arrived at the game session, Eden

already occupied the platform. The question of which
game should be played was being talked about. Eden
was at his jovial best with the group, and even
though those present seemed to want to play cards,
Eden, who excelled at Monopoly, sold the group on
Monopoly. Some suggested to have a vote on it, but
Eden adroitly asserted his "mentor" role for the
games activity and managed to avoid the vote. Of
course, Eden won handily at Monopoly and was in
an excellent mood. Casimir noticed that some players
were a bit miffed at the way Eden went about things.
Eden told the group proudly that when the time was
right he would show them how to win at Monopoly.
One of the discontents asked Eden: "Why not show
us right now?" Eden replied: "Let's just play some
games to-day. I'll show you another game right now
that's great fun as well, Pebbles."
Pebbles was another of Eden's favorite games,
because he always won at it. Eden explained to the
group what the rules of the game were. He
demonstrated how players take turns in placing and
moving their pebbles in the different squares on the
ground and showed the various moves that were
allowed. He played several practice games with the
other players, and when everyone was ready, he
decided to start a tournament. Eden won the
tournament, and he was having a party.
It was evident to Casimir that not everyone was
as pleased as Eden about the games session. A fox in
particular, who seemed to have some IDEALIST in
44 — CrazYZoo! —

him, clearly resented Eden's way of running things.

He came second in the Pebbles tournament and he
was sure he only lost the game to Eden because he
was too new at it. He didn't like the way Eden was
basking in his winner's glory and he challenged Eden:
"You think you are so great because you won at a
game we are not familiar with. If you are so good at
games, why are you so scared to play a game we all
know and like? You are supposed to organize games
for us, not for you. We didn't come here to watch
how good you are".
Swallowing his pride and trying to be diplomatic
about the whole situation, Eden replied: "Listen, my
intention was to have you enjoy games and have fun.
I don't mind playing the games you want to play. I
tell you what, let's decide together right now what
games we are going to play next time".
Suggestions were made, votes were taken, and a
number of games were chosen. Monopoly and
Pebbles were not in the list!
Eden then thanked everyone for attending and
congratulated them on their collective choices.
Embarrassed and humiliated, Eden left the gathering
immediately after.
Eden went to see Casimir the day after,
complaining about the gall of that fox. "I could have
killed him", he said. He added: "That fox is jealous
and a bad loser. Everybody else was perfectly happy
with the way things were going, but this brat of a fox
had to spoil things".
— Eden the "Wooer" Lion — 45

Casimir thought: 'Typical reaction of an

INSPIRATOR with strong vanity! He is not even
aware of it. Eden didn't seem to realize that he had
'organized' things in order to make sure he would win
and could show everyone how good he was!"
Casimir knew that in such cases, INSPIRATORS
need to be confronted in no uncertain terms about
their lack of humility. You can't reason it out with
them, because they will 'diplomatically' fail to see the
point. That's why Casimir thought he had to devise a
confrontational approach that would work. Here is
what he replied to Eden:
"I can see that you are upset about the way the
fox confronted you. You feel that he had no business
talking to you the way he did. You believe you did
your best in trying to have a good session of games
for everyone. However, as you know I was there and
I lived through the entire session. I agree that the fox
was aggressive in his reaction. But I don't think that
being jealous and a bad loser was the principal cause
of his frustration. I observed all the other players,
and I also was aware of my own reaction. There is a
trait in your leadership behavior that rubs others the
wrong way. I hate to say it, but I do it for your sake,
and because you asked me to help you perfect your
leadership qualities. You have the trait that your type,
the INSPIRATOR, has great difficulty with. We dealt
with it in our training with Aislin. You may not
remember which trait I am talking about, and that
too would be typical of an INSPIRATOR, because
it's hard for you to realize that you have it. I am
46 — CrazYZoo! —

talking about vanity. Some call it exaggerated pride.

And in order to illustrate to you how your vanity
came through yesterday I would like to go through
yesterday's session with you".
Casimir continued: "The way I want to do this is
by asking you to play the role of the observer. I will
play the part of Eden. I will do what you did
yesterday, to the best of my memory. I want you to
be as neutral an observer as possible and feed back to
me what you see in the behavior of the Eden I will
be re-enacting. Tell me if you see any humility in
Eden's behavior, or do you see the opposite, vanity? I
want you to be honest, because I am not looking to
hurt you. I am your friend. Are we agreed?"
Eden was not very happy about Casimir's remarks
and felt uncomfortable about going through the
games session in the way Casimir suggested. But he
trusted Casimir and reluctantly agreed to the exercise.
Well, if Eden felt uncomfortable about Casimir's
suggestion, he felt much worse watching Casimir's re-
enactment. He even protested that Casimir was
overacting. Casimir then asked Eden to re-enact
himself the part he found overacted, after which
Casimir again imitated Eden's re-enactment as
faithfully as possible. After several such exercises
Eden finally realized that he should indeed show
more humility, and that his leadership effectiveness
would increase as a result of it.
After the next games session, which Casimir did
not attend, he heard from one of the participants that
everyone liked the games they played and enjoyed the
— Eden the "Wooer" Lion — 47

session. Casimir also found out that there were

several winners and that Eden only won once.
Casimir was very pleased.
When Casimir told Eden about the comments by
the participant, Eden was happy and confirmed that
there had indeed been a lot of fun at the session and
that he, Eden, enjoyed seeing the others happy. He
said that his greatest enjoyment actually came when
he let others win and when he saw them enjoy
winning. He thanked Casimir for helping him to
recognize the vanity trait in him.
Casimir was impressed with the maturity that
Eden had reached in his change in leadership
behavior and he congratulated Eden, reminding him
at the same time how important it had been for Eden
to select by himself what he needed to change. It had
been essential that he himself recognize what he
needed most, which was to focus on one thing he
liked rather than dispersing his talents and energies.
After observing the results of Eden's efforts,
Casimir concluded that Eden had regained his team's
recognition as their undisputed leader and that he
had achieved this by working successfully on two
things: having too many irons in the fire and wanting
to show how good he was.
Eden had learned to reduce his fear of physical
privation, turning it instead into a sort of protective
mechanism. He realized that while the tastes and
temperament of the INSPIRATOR require that he
have plenty of material things and sensuous
pleasures, this need can become excessive. He
48 — CrazYZoo! —

concluded that it was necessary for him, the

INSPIRATOR, to continually strive for balance,
making sure, on the one hand, that he had enough to
satisfy his rich tastes adequately and, on the other
hand, that he avoid excessive material striving and
over-indulgence in sensuous pleasures. He managed
to do this through a continuous effort to focus and
to avoid dispersing his energies.
Eden's second achievement in leadership
development was to become conscious of the need
to continually strive for more humility and less
vanity. He had developed a constant awareness of the
tendency to want to be admired for his many talents.
He realized that vanity can lead to paternalism, to
treating all others like juniors, which is a negative
trait, whereas having genuine pride in one's talents
and achievements is not dependent on the
admiration by others and is positive.
Eden was content and thanked Casimir for
listening and for his guidance. He asked Casimir not
to hesitate to turn to him to share similar matters, if
Casimir should ever find a need for it.
Casimir assured Eden that he would, although he
knew that the type to counsel him was not the
INSPIRATOR, but the SUPPORTER, and that he
would turn to Udo when the time was right. But as
he was of a sensitive nature, he didn't mention it to
Eden for fear of hurting Eden's pride.
— Eden the "Wooer" Lion — 49

Casimir's brother Udo had noticed that Casimir

had often been with Eden in the last while and he
knew that Casimir had been helping Eden with some
personal objectives. Casimir had proudly shown Udo
the details of the teaching schedule he was helping
Eden to prepare. It was evident to Udo that Eden
was doing much better lately, because he knew that
Eden had been down earlier, had gained weight and
had not been his usual self.
Udo, who liked to work with others and listen to
others, would periodically ask Casimir how things
were going, and Casimir would fill him in, but only in
a very general way. Udo understood Casimir's
reluctance to tell him anything too personal about his
dealings with Eden. He understood, because he knew
his brother' discreetness and sensitivity, so he would
not pry but rather wait for Casimir to share more if
and when Casimir decided that the time was right for
Udo loved his brother and he felt that others
sometimes judged Casimir too quickly. Casimir could
52 — CrazYZoo! —

be willful, refuse to cooperate and isolate himself.

But often others did not understand his need to
make up his own mind, to not be pressured, and to
be left to concentrate on a task without being
disturbed. Casimir's type was that of a PARTNER.
Partners are "doer" types and are appreciated for
their loyalty and their conscientiousness because they
can be relied upon to carry out the responsibilities
they have agreed upon with another individual no
matter how much or how long that individual is
absent or otherwise unavailable. PARTNERS will do
their job with devotion and with attention to detail
and they prefer working alone without attracting
attention. They aim to be happy and they hate
conflict. Happiness is their main motivation and
emotional conflict their main fear.
Udo was thinking of Casimir's exemplary
devotion and detailed attention to Eden's training
goals. He was aware that Casimir had gone into so
much detail that Udo had to ask him at the time not
to overdo it. Udo had helped Casimir to remove a lot
of details from the plans and Casimir had thanked
Udo for his advice, because when Casimir had
removed the many detailed steps in Eden's training
plans Eden seemed relieved about the changes. The
details he removed included notes about when Eden
was to make certain gestures, such as when to move
forward toward the class and when to move back,
when to address one or the other side of the class,
etc. Udo knew that Casimir was aware himself of his
tendency to go into too much detail, which would
— Casimir the "Doer" St-Bernard — 53

make him lose sight of the overall picture. Udo

realized that this tendency came from Casimir's main
fear, emotional conflict. Because of this fear, Casimir
was in the habit of isolating himself by spending a lot
of time on details. This was his unconscious attempt
to reduce contact with others and diminish the
likelihood of meeting with emotional conflict.
Udo had concluded a while ago that Casimir's
main fear, emotional conflict, was getting too strong.
Casimir was not only being highly individualistic but
he was also seeing the external world too much as a
dangerous and a menacing place. It was not physical
danger that Casimir feared. Casimir was the first to
come to the aid of others when accidents happened.
He was cool and levelheaded in emergencies such as
those caused by falling branches, fires, sand storms
and torrential rains. What he was unconsciously
afraid of was getting involved in relationships with
others, even work relationships or game
relationships, because in his eyes they might become
the source of emotional conflict. It was evident that
to Casimir, emotional conflict was the equivalent of
loss of happiness. As a result, he kept too much to
himself and was obstinate about not participating.
Udo felt he had to talk to him. And now appeared to
be a good time, since Casimir was experiencing an
excellent relationship with Eden.
Udo asked Casimir: "It seems like you keep
getting along well with Eden, are you?"
Casimir replied: "You know Udo, he is about the
only real friend I have".
54 — CrazYZoo! —

Udo: "You say 'real' friend, Casimir. You mean

like bosom friend, close friend. How about some
other friends, such as normal friends, just friends or
Casimir: "Can't think of any. But that's OK. Who
cares, anyway."
Udo figured that Casimir was being defensive.
But knowing Casimir's sensitivity and dislike of being
pressured, he simply said: "It doesn't matter. I am
glad you are doing real fine with Eden".
Udo knew that he had to wait for Casimir to take
the initiative to share. He new that PARTNER types
like Casimir need to let an idea or a suggestion sink in
and be digested, after which they themselves often
come up with the very same idea or suggestion.
Casimir's happy relationship with Eden was such
that it didn't take Casimir too long to feel the need to
talk to Udo about relationships in general. He said:
"You remember I told you recently that I didn't give
a damn about not having friends or buddies. But
Eden again talked to me about the fun he was having
with other lions and I began thinking. "What's wrong
with me? I could have more fun with others. Others
have even been telling me that I am isolating myself
too much. But I thought that I have always been that
way and that it's the fault of others."
Udo was glad his brother had started to share and
said: "There is nothing 'wrong' with you, Casimir" (he
was putting the accent on the word "wrong"). You
already know that your type is that of a PARTNER,
and you also know that the PARTNER'S main
— Casimir the "Doer" St-Bernard — 55

strength or motivation is happiness and his main fear

is emotional conflict. You tend to worry about
getting into emotional conflict when dealing with
Casimir: "I guess you are right. But I wonder why
lately, all of a sudden?"
Udo: "Maybe it just appears to have been only
lately. But it does not matter. As you know from your
experience with different types, especially your latest
experience with Eden, the important thing is to
recognize the way in which your own behavior is
affected by your main fear, so you can start to get
more control over the fear. Among the tendencies
that are common for PARTNERS who have a
pronounced fear of emotional conflict are the
following: too much attention to detail, lack of ability
to see the whole picture, being obstinate, isolating
oneself, and experiencing the external world as a
dangerous and menacing place. It's up to you,
Casimir, to pinpoint the tendency that seems most
applicable to you at the present time".
Casimir found that difficult to do. He wondered
out loud whether there was a way to change his
feelings about emotional conflict. After all, Eden too
had emotional conflicts with some individuals and
that didn't stop him from continuing to develop new
Udo congratulated Casimir for that observation.
He explained to Casimir that he was probably just
too sensitive about emotional conflict. He told him
that he knew of an exercise in four steps that could
56 — CrazYZoo! —

help to improve his ability to deal with emotional

conflict and he asked Casimir whether he wanted to
go through those steps right now. Udo knew very
well that the PARTNER in Casimir would first want
to know what the steps were and then he would want
to "see", which meant that he would want to digest
the information first and then decide what to do
next. So, in order to get Casimir to reflect, Udo
introduced the four steps as follows:

Step 1: Look at conflict as something positive,

because conflict is a kind of problem and
problems can be solved.
Step 2: Attend someone else's conflict resolution
session to learn how it's done.
Step 3: Start a new relationship and expect conflict
situations to arise.
Step 4: Practice what you have learned in Step 2
to resolve your relationship conflict.

Udo emphasized the importance of Step 1. He

asked Casimir to push himself and give the benefit of
the doubt to the idea that conflict is part of life, that
it's normal, and that it's bad only when it's not being
dealt with. He reminded Casimir of the example of
Eden's relationships. Eden is not afraid to deal with
conflicts, he settles them, and his team has
cohesiveness and team spirit because they face their
— Casimir the "Doer" St-Bernard — 57

Udo added that when the moment arrived, he

would be ready to help Casimir solve the conflict if
Casimir asked him.
As Udo had expected, Casimir wanted to think
about it. Nevertheless, Udo was a little worried that
Casimir might decide to forget the whole thing.
However, only two days later Casimir got back to
Udo saying that Eden had invited him to observe a
conflict resolution session the day before with four
members of his team who were fighting over an
insignificant disagreement involving transportation of
carcasses after the kill of prey in a successful hunt.
Casimir did attend and said that he was surprised
how emotional the four participants had been in
defending their respective points of view and how
simple the solution was once everyone had listened
to the others. As an aside, Casimir mentioned that he
was very happy to have Eden as a friend because
Eden was such a good facilitator and teacher, having
diplomatic and problem solving skills that were much
appreciated by his team.
Casimir said he might go back to another conflict
resolution session with Eden's team and participate
in it, but if none came up, he was so enthusiastic
about it all that he was ready for Step 2 with any
It turned out that Eden held another conflict
resolution session on a different matter a few days
later. Casimir was invited to express his point of view
and he was very happy with the outcome of the
session. The conflict had to do with the pecking
58 — CrazYZoo! —

order in Eden's team. Emotions were running high

because one young lion was aggressively looking for
higher seniority in the team whereas most agreed that
he should wait his turn. Although he was very young
he was strong for his age and he managed to get
some members of the team to side with him, as they
probably expected favors from him later. Again,
everyone was given a chance by Eden to express his
or her view, but things nevertheless got very heated
because many felt that the challengers were using
power tactics to gain an advantage and they told
them so in no uncertain terms.
Then Eden asked Casimir do state his view.
Casimir first thanked the team for letting him
participate, and then he did a very astute thing: he
told the challengers that it was good to be ambitious
and to try to improve their position. He also
congratulated them and all the others for stating their
views and for listening to all opinions, and he said he
felt privileged to give his point of view to such a fair
minded and dynamic group. He then said that he was
sure the challengers now realized that there was
strong opposition to their initiative because many
considered that the initiative had come before its
time. They were still young and their time would
come. Casimir added that since he was not part of
the team but was looking in from the outside, he
could be neutral, and as a neutral outsider he felt that
those opposed were correct in their insistence that
traditional rules of the team should be respected. He
also said that he was sure that those opposed were in
— Casimir the "Doer" St-Bernard — 59

no way against the others personally but simply

wanted to ensure that fairness continued to prevail in
the team.
Casimir's statement was presented with such
reasonableness and composure that the emotional
tension got diffused and everyone soon agreed to
observe the traditional rules of the team. Casimir had
used his ability to remain levelheaded during conflict
After the session Eden congratulated Casimir for
his intervention and told him he was happy to have
him as a friend. This pleased Casimir no end.
Casimir continued to manage well his fear of
emotional conflict. Thanks to his brother he had
acquired a helpful reflex which he applied in the
following way. Whenever Casimir noticed that he
was being reluctant to participate in a group activity
or respond positively to someone else's desire to
exchange views with Casimir about something
controversial, he would ask himself: "Am I reluctant
because of the possibility of conflict, yes or no?"
Unless he could answer with a definite "no", which
happened seldom, he would push himself to
participate and to exchange with others. This new
habit of his turned out to be very beneficial for
Casimir, as his involvement with others became a
source of happiness for him. Conflict seldom arose
as a result of such involvement, and when it did arise
it was most often very mild and was easily resolved.
Nevertheless, Casimir always needed to push
himself to participate or to meet with people. He
60 — CrazYZoo! —

realized how true it was that a type's main motivation

and main fear were a permanent personal feature.
They never disappear entirely. They are the principal
reason why each type has a lack of balance, and why
each type needs to try to achieve greater balance by
continually making a conscious effort to hold his
main fear in check.
Being aware of this permanent challenge helped
Casimir to understand what better balance meant for
him. He realized that he was experiencing satisfying
interaction with others when he made an effort to
participate, but he was also aware that he was no
longer experiencing his fear of emotional conflict as a
fear but as a needed protective mechanism. This
enabled him to ensure that in addition to reasonable
involvement with others he could enjoy frequent
solitude and regular opportunities for sustained
concentration, something needed by the PARTNER
type more than by any other type.
Casimir's friendship was being increasingly
coveted because of his great depth of feeling and his
exceptional ability to concentrate, regardless of the
subject or activity. Nevertheless, it was still difficult
to become Casimir's friend because of his natural
secretiveness and cool distance, but those who had
gained his friendship felt highly rewarded by his
loyalty and his sensitivity.
— Casimir the "Doer" St-Bernard — 61

Udo was a valued member of the IGRC, the

Inter-Group Relationship Committee. Abner, the
chairman of the committee, was an Inspirator like
Eden, but extremely ambitious. He was a very
pronounced kind of "wooer lion", full of hype and
optimism and always ready to get groups together to
celebrate any success he could identify for a group.
He might even throw a party if the only result of a
full day's team hunt was a tiny rabbit! It was obvious
to the astute observer that Abner had political
ambitions. Some did not like him at all. They saw
him as having too much vanity and as trying to be
noticed like a cock on a dunghill that's trying to
compete for a powerful position.
Abner knew how to delegate all the
organizational and administrative tasks to others,
concentrating his energies and talents on defining
what should be done and on animating, with a lot of
pizzazz and diplomatic skill, the many meetings,
parties and other get-togethers for which the various
64 — CrazYZoo! —

committee members made the necessary

arrangements and preparations.
There was one task that Abner recognized was of
key importance to the reputation of his committee,
and that was the task of helping individuals who had
special problems. Abner was aware that Udo had
extraordinary abilities in providing such help and he
made sure that any such special problem cases got
referred to Udo, because his work scored a lot of
approval points for the committee.
Udo was happy in this work. There were many
animals who were getting help from him. After Leo
there was Alric whom he was helping to lick his
wounds after being unexpectedly dethroned by an
unusually strong and smart young lion. Alric, an able
Idealist, was forced into early retirement, which is no
joking matter in the world of lions. He lost his
position, his power and his access to his female
companions, he no longer shared in the spoils, and
for all intents and purposes he was in the category of
has-beens who are no longer considered an asset to
the community. It was a tough world for Alric and
Udo felt for him. There was not much Udo could do,
but everyone knew about the "Alric case", because
Udo had saved Alric from certain suicide when he
brought Alric back from a far removed area of the
savanna to which he had retreated with the intention
of starving himself to death. Alric was connecting
frequently with Udo and was able to keep up his
morale and stay content. He was also being helped by
— Udo the "Wooer" St-Bernard — 65

several other individuals who made sure that he was

comfortable and had enough to eat.
By far the majority of cases referred to Udo were
those of animals hurt in conflicts with others, mainly
conflicts that ended up in nasty fights causing injury,
such as an ear or a tail being bitten off, an eye being
lost, or other wounds suffered from which it was
hard to recover. In many such cases Casimir would
be asked to administer first aid, after which he would
refer them to Udo for continued support. Udo was
known for his help and his kindness, and often
animals ran to Udo without being directed to him.
Abner was very pleased, of course. He knew he could
rely on Udo, who never complained and never said
"no", regardless of how many cases he was asked to
Being appreciated gave Udo the energy to carry a
load that was getting heavier as the population grew
and as the number of incidents requiring his
assistance increased. At times he felt exhausted, as he
spent more and more of his free time helping others
and was unable to enjoy the routine comforts that
were part of the essential requirements of his type.
But he was sure that other committee members were
aware of his work load and that they were doing their
best in trying not to overload him unnecessarily.
That's why Udo was puzzled when Abner asked him
to take on another area of responsibility, that of
looking after the cases of stubborn lack of team
spirit. Those were individuals who just wouldn't pull
their weight, despite all the cheering and motivating
66 — CrazYZoo! —

done by Abner and by team leaders. They would

simply not share in the efforts during a hunt, whether
in the tracking down, cornering and killing of prey, or
in the moving of carcasses. When it came to sharing
in the spoils, however, they would eagerly participate.
Udo was baffled and at first felt disappointed at
having been given the additional task. Abner did not
seem to realize that Udo was carrying a heavy load.
On the spur of the moment, Udo wanted to refuse,
to say "no". But that impulse was outweighed by his
feeling that his help was needed and that it wouldn't
be right to refuse. He was wondering whether in the
end he was really overloaded or whether he was
simply not using the right work methods. Maybe by
setting priorities better and doing better time
management he could handle more. So he accepted
without reservation, which met with Abner's praise
for Udo's loyalty to the committee and his
outstanding work on behalf of those in need. As
usual, Abner didn't ask Udo how he was doing on a
personal level or whether adding the new
responsibility would make his work load too heavy.
Udo was incapable of realizing that all Abner was
interested in was himself. Everyone else did not really
exist for Abner.
What happened next was unavoidable. In a short
while Udo became totally exhausted and suffered a
serious health breakdown. He couldn't function for
weeks. Casimir jumped into the void to look after the
more serious cases of injury. Abner referred the cases
of stubborn lack of team spirit back to the team
— Udo the "Wooer" St-Bernard — 67

leaders. They gradually learned to deal with such

individuals as all team leaders became more and more
involved in the study of types and were able to
improve their ability to recognize and better deal with
the fears that caused individuals to develop negative
tendencies in their behavior.
When Udo recovered, he slowly regained his
interest in handling his traditional cases. Abner didn't
quite realize what had happened, but he was
concerned about Udo's health and he often told him
to "take it easy" or to "do what you can – tomorrow
is another day", and similar mechanical signs of
encouragement. Udo regained his old form and
Abner never again gave him additional areas of
responsibility. But Udo was still struggling with his
work load. There were so many cases, and he just
couldn't say "no" to any of them!
Urban, one of the foxes, had been observing the
two Saint Bernards. He was fascinated by the
differences that existed between Casimir and his
brother Udo. While Casimir was happy working
alone, Udo was always out meeting others! Urban
found Udo very vulnerable, always ready to help,
without seeming able to make a distinction between
those who appreciated his help and those who were
taking advantage of him. Urban found Udo too
gullible. He was convinced that Udo's main fear had
gotten too strong and that it unduly reduced Udo's
ability to assert his qualities.
Urban was knowledgeable enough about types to
realize that Udo was a SUPPORTER type, whose
68 — CrazYZoo! —

main motivation is liking. Udo appreciates the world

around him and likes everything in it. He loves nature
and all living things it contains and he likes to help
others. The main fear of Udo's type is attachment. It
had taken Urban quite a while to understand what
that meant. He learned that SUPPORTERS are born
"wooer" types, but what happens is that they tend to
live for others and even live the lives of others. For
instance, they may like someone's family so much
that they forget about starting their own. They have
great virtues that come naturally to them and that
other types should practice intentionally, such as
personal warmth and the ability to accept this
difficult life, and most particularly to accept others
and to help others, as well as the ability to find
pleasure in the small comforts and familiar routines
of everyday existence. Those virtues are in short
supply, but in the case of the SUPPORTER they can
turn into personal obstacles or shortcomings, as they
cause the SUPPORTER to become fearful of getting
attached. The way it works is as follows.
Being lovers of small comforts, SUPPORTERS
tend to be satisfied with what they've got. Even if a
SUPPORTER knows there are better things to enjoy,
he prefers to continue his present enjoyments more
than the time and effort it would take to make a
change. He considers his cup at least half full and is
afraid of losing the enjoyments this provides for him.
If the food is not all that good, he will say "at least
we are not starving". If the living quarters are rather
poor, he will think "but it's home". Even if he doesn't
— Udo the "Wooer" St-Bernard — 69

really like what he is doing all that much, he likes to

continue doing it more than he likes the effort it
would take to make a change. If he doesn't really like
the role he plays in his team, he might respond "at
least I am well accepted and that makes me feel
The SUPPORTER likes to languish and enjoy
rather than to be active. In his thinking, getting
attached too strongly to something or somebody new
might upset things. When the SUPPORTER does get
involved, it is usually not on his own initiative, but
because he wants to please someone or to render a
Every type's main fear starts as a protective
mechanism designed to provide adequate
opportunities to satisfy one's main motivation. The
fear of attachment of the SUPPORTER is a fear of
taking too strong a liking to something new or
someone new, because he is justifiably concerned
that he might put at risk the little everyday
enjoyments and comforts that he already has. His
type needs those comforts. Udo, in his work for the
committee, was incapable of making use of this
protective mechanism. He went overboard with
providing help to individuals in need. He did not
protect the personal time he needed for everyday
comforts, and he put his health at risk. He ignored
the balance he needed as a SUPPORTER type.
When a SUPPORTER manages to maintain a
reasonable balance, he is able to protect his own time
and peace of mind and to provide help and assistance
70 — CrazYZoo! —

to others without being taken advantage of. The

absence of balance in a SUPPORTER manifests
itself in one of two ways. Some SUPPORTERS who
are not in sufficient balance suppress their fear of
attachment and yield totally to the urge to help. They
become unable to say "no", take on too much,
neglect their need to quietly enjoy the little everyday
comforts, let others take advantage of them, and they
eventually suffer a breakdown of their health. That's
what happened to Udo.
Other SUPPORTERS who lack balance will yield
totally to the fear of attachment and try to find total
satisfaction from their little enjoyments and
comforts. They become neglectful, negligent, and
resistant to change. They function in a kind of
vegetative state, paying only superficial attention to
the needs of others.
Thinking back and recalling some of Udo's more
typical behaviors, Urban found that life in the free
zoo had been harder for Udo than for his brother
Casimir. Before being in the free zoo, Udo had been
more dependent on people's kind attention than
Casimir. And while the other animals liked the two
Saint Bernard brothers and protected them well in
the free zoo, the wild animals were not as kind and
attentive to the Saint Bernards as the zoo keepers had
been. Urban knew that Udo was missing some of
those gestures of kindness that he used to receive
from the zoo keepers, most of whom liked Udo for
his gentle and helping nature. It seemed to Urban
that Udo was now bending backward to earn the
— Udo the "Wooer" St-Bernard — 71

attention of the other animals, and he was ready to

do anything asked of him. He did not seem to be
aware that some were clearly taking advantage of his
good nature. Urban found that Udo was not being
assertive enough, unable to say "no", and too much
of a follower. This made Udo incapable of making
good use of his relationship strength, that of not only
helping others but also of asserting himself in
relationship matters and of advising others on such
Udo was a secret admirer of Urban. He was
amazed at how easily Urban handled crowds, how
well he put his ideas across with his ease of
expression and his charm. What impressed him most
was that Urban never allowed others to get the better
of him. Urban seemed able somehow to sense when
an individual was harboring hidden motives or was
insincere in some other way and he was able to deal
effectively with such an individual.
Urban and Udo got to talking about types one
day after Urban had been challenged by another fox.
That fox had criticized Urban's recommendations
about improving the way the different groups cache
the surplus food near their denning area, to be eaten
later. Urban was head of the FCC, the Food Cache
Committee, mandated exclusively to deal with this
important aspect of the food supply. The challenger
maintained that Urban's recommendations were
incomplete and should be voted down, because they
should include ideas about the types of food the
groups should hunt for. He argued that Urban
72 — CrazYZoo! —

interpreted the description of his committee's

responsibilities in too narrow a fashion. According to
him, the type of food to hunt for was covered in that
description, and he proposed that Urban prepare a
new report in which this other aspect was included.
Urban knew that if one stretched the meaning of
the description of responsibilities, one could make a
case for inclusion of the kind of food to hunt for.
But he was convinced that the committee already
had its hands full and was unable to assume the
suggested new responsibilities. There were many
groups represented on the committee and the
committee members were already spending
inordinate amounts of time consulting with the
groups and helping them to organize their own
research. It just was not reasonable for the
committee to accept any new tasks. By skillfully
outlining the recommendations in his report and the
scope of activities of the committee, Urban proved
to all present that the question of the type of food to
hunt for must be considered as something entirely
different and should be looked at by a new
committee. Urban succeeded admirably in making
sure that the challenger's proposal met with a
resounding "no" when the time came to vote.
After observing the whole episode, Udo
congratulated Urban for his talent of presenting a
polished and effective refusal to an unreasonable
request. Udo added that he wished he could express
such an effective "no" when the situation requires it.
— Udo the "Wooer" St-Bernard — 73

Because of the empathy he felt for Udo, Urban

was happy to connect with Udo about the subject of
one's talent and stated:
"Thanks, Udo. Dealing effectively with
unreasonable requests comes natural to me because,
as you know, expressing ideas effectively is the main
motivation of my type, the INNOVATOR. Your
main motivation being that of liking, you like to do
things for others, to be helpful to others, and
sometimes you do this to a fault. I know from
observing you that learning to be assertive and to say
"no" when required would be of great value to you.
Perhaps I could work with you so that you could
practice this skill."
Udo was pleased and said: "I would really like
that. I think learning to 'be assertive and able to say
no' is a good way of putting it. I occasionally get
remarks to the effect that I let others take advantage
of me or even 'walk all over' me. I often have a hard
time saying "no" when I should say "no". Also, I let
others change my mind when I shouldn't. I don't
know why I do that."
Urban replied: "That's exactly the right question
to ask: Why do I act the way I do? I say that's the
right question to ask because we both have learned
that every type's main motivation is accompanied by
a main fear. And it is when this fear grows too
prominent that we experience difficulties in asserting
our qualities. Your question will help identify what
your main fear is. Are you with me, Udo?"
74 — CrazYZoo! —

Udo reacted by saying: "Of course, Urban. I

forgot to fall back on my knowledge of types! I use
that knowledge when I try to help others and I
neglect it when it comes to dealing with my own
problems. It is now obvious to me that my main fear,
that of attachment, has played tricks on me. I have
not used my fear of attachment as a protection of my
need to enjoy everyday comforts, which is a necessity
for my type. Instead, I have ignored that need and
overused my emotional urge to help others. That
urge seems to have taken the form of an almost
desperate attempt to get approval from others. I am
trying to please at all costs which diminishes my
ability to provide genuine help. I must keep in mind
that providing genuine help includes refusing
requests that are inappropriate, or setting an
individual straight when he is mistaken, unreasonable
or simply tries to take advantage of me. That's the
explanation, isn't it?"
Urban: "You got it!"
Udo: "Now I need to go about trying to adjust
my behavior. Where do I start?"
Urban: "That depends on what is, in your own
view, your most pressing undesired behavior at this
time. You know what the SUPPORTER'S negative
tendencies are of two kinds: either showing a lack of
concern, being neglectful, negligent, accepting the
status quo and resisting change, or being a follower
instead of being assertive, and being unable to say no.
Which of these applies to you most?"
— Udo the "Wooer" St-Bernard — 75

Udo: "I see what you mean. I think my priority is

that of not being assertive enough, unable to say no.
I'll set as a goal to be more assertive. Can you help
me make that goal concrete and measurable?"
Urban: "Let's see. Are there situations, or was
there a situation in the recent past, when it was most
important that you be assertive and you failed to do
Udo did not have to reflect for long and
immediately told Urban about the breakdown of his
health after he failed to refuse new tasks given to him
by Abner. He added: "I guess what's most important
for me at this time is to learn to say "no" whenever
Urban: "Exactly. Now, you already know how to
set a goal and follow up on it. You also know that
none of us can change overnight. You need to set a
goal that is both a stretch goal and an achievable
Udo: "Yes, you're right. I know it won't be an
easy task. And I know that in order to succeed with
this goal I need to be reasonable in my initial
expectations about the number of times I will
succeed with my new behavior. I will set myself a
success rate of 50 % for the first week."
Both Urban and Udo were happy about the
conclusion of their exchange. Udo felt better about
himself and about his future involvement with
others, and Urban was looking forward to seeing
Udo become more able to say "no" and more
assertive in defending his type's needs.
76 — CrazYZoo! —

As time passed, Udo succeeded beyond all

expectations. He went on to become not only the
chief of the IGRC, replacing Abner, but also the
chief advisor to all group committees on matters of
individual and collective compensation and rewards.
Incidentally, other group leaders of Abner's ilk also
got replaced by individuals who were not as
boastfully vain, as full of pride, and as paternalistic.
Udo would be called in frequently to discuss a
group's compensation policy or to explain its
intricacies, such as how to weigh the benefits going
to the one killing a prey as against those for the one
carrying home the carcass over a long distance. He
was also much sought after for advice on coaching
team leaders on how to deal with individuals who
had stubborn morale problems, for instance in the
case of those who felt demotivated because they were
inept at hunting, since being an effective hunter was
a basic requirement in the free zoo.
Udo managed to do all this because he had
learned to judge correctly when to say "no" and how
to do it effectively. This allowed him to delegate
better and to protect his personal time so he could
enjoy the little everyday comforts that are important
to his type, the SUPPORTER.
— Udo the "Wooer" St-Bernard — 77

Urban's career in the free zoo was never in

jeopardy. He was not only a born idea producer, but
also a highly appreciated presenter, performer and
entertainer. However, he was always plagued by self-
doubt, a frequent characteristic of his type, the
INNOVATOR. Despite the approval and
acclamation he usually received, he always had
doubts as to whether he was really liked. He was also
afraid of being left out or abandoned. After a
presentation or a performance he would often leave
early rather than stay on, because he wanted to avoid
the possibility that others might start leaving before
him and abandon him. Whenever Urban got involved
in a discussion, he had to have the last word for fear
of losing control over the subject and of letting
someone else's idea dominate. Urban knew from the
reactions of others that there were those who did not
appreciate this aspect of his behavior. He had a hard
time coping with that because in his view, he had to
be careful about individuals with ulterior motives,
80 — CrazYZoo! —

individuals who were looking to control things and

take over the spot light.
His friend Ernest, a fox belonging to the
PLANNER type, had told Urban recently to "lighten
up". It happened after a public debate which Ernest
attended as an observer. A proposal was presented
which was critical of a recommendation made by
Urban. True to his type, Urban skillfully manoeuvred
against the other proposal, even though it was
basically well thought out. The proposal contained
only minor shortcomings, but Urban failed to
acknowledge any of its merits and exaggerated the
importance of its minor flaws. After the discussion,
when talking to Ernest about it, Urban complained
that the other presenter was not only a weak debater
but was also unwilling to admit the flaws in his
Ernest knew, of course, that Urban was not only
a "wooer fox" and that he had charm and a quick
mind, but that he had a pronounced fear of lack of
control. Urban always had to be right and always had
to have the last word. Urban often did have bright
ideas and many times his ideas proved to be superior
to those of others. But this was by no means always
the case, and Ernest found that Urban's strong fear
of not being in control sometimes made Urban
behave in a rather obnoxious manner. Ernest felt that
it behooved on him as a good friend to confront
Urban head on about this matter.
Ernest responded as follows to Urban's
complaints about the other presenter:
— Urban the "Wooer" Fox — 81

"Urban, you need to lighten up."

Urban resented that remark, even though he
valued Ernest's friendship. Since he didn't want to
lose Ernest whom he knew to be a serious minded
and fair individual, he did not say anything. Ernest,
noticing that Urban's feelings were hurt, continued as
"Look, Urban, we've been friends for a long time
and I think you will agree that we should be frank
with each other. We have talked before about the
tendencies of different types of individuals and we
have reviewed together both your type and mine."
Urban: "You mean I am not being objective in
this case?"
Ernest: "Well, listen to yourself. You are
criticizing the minor aspects of your opponent's
proposal, the lack of polish in his presentation and
the slight imperfections of some of the details. But
when you look at the fundamental arguments in the
proposal, the ideas behind them are sound, and you
should have acknowledged them in front of
They reviewed together the main ideas in the
opponent's proposal, after which Urban said: "I
guess you are right, Ernest. I wasn't being fair to the
presenter. I don't know why I did that."
Ernest replied: "Maybe you and I should talk
about that. I might be able to help you to find the
answer to your question".
Urban was eager to get Ernest's help.
82 — CrazYZoo! —

Ernest continued: "You must realize that most of

us who were at the debate admire you for your skills
and your charm as a speaker. Nevertheless, there
were some, and I was among them, who were not
comfortable to see you trying to take unfair
advantage of a presenter less skilled than you."
Urban: "Is that really the impression I gave? It
wasn't my intention to take advantage of the
presenter. I just wanted to point out the
improvements required in his proposal."
Ernest: "Let's be frank, Urban. You are the
INNOVATOR type, and as you know, all types have
a main fear that pushes them to act in an unbalanced
fashion, which action they then try to justify, and
that's what you are doing right now".
Urban: "Hold on a minute, Ernest! What am I
trying to justify? You will agree that the proposal I
am criticizing was poorly presented and needed
Ernest: "You are still doing it! You are trying to
justify your failure to acknowledge the basic
soundness of your opponent's proposal. You are
focusing on matters of secondary importance, while
ignoring the most important aspect of the proposal."
Urban: "All right, it's an oversight. I assumed
everybody realized that the proposal was basically
sound. I guess I am a stickler for detail."
Ernest: "Urban, you are doing it again! Even with
me you are trying to manoeuvre your way to
maintaining control. Urban, I am your friend, and I
don't want to have a long and unpleasant argument
— Urban the "Wooer" Fox — 83

with you on this matter. Will you listen to me

attentively, without interrupting me, while I explain
to you how I see it? If not, we'll just drop the
Urban realized that his friend was serious and he
remembered that on a similar occasion Ernest had
"dropped the matter", after which their relationship
had cooled off and had remained cool for a long
period. Urban did not want this to happen now, and
he replied: "I'm listening."
Ernest: "You have got to realize, Urban, that your
main fear, the fear of lack of control, plays tricks on
you. When you feel strongly that your idea should
win, which happens often, you will skillfully
manipulate statements on both sides. Unfortunately,
because of your skill and your charm you often
succeed in convincing others of the correctness of
your deceptive conclusions. You may not realize that
you are doing this. Justifying or rationalizing what we
do is something we all practice. Each type has his
own way of rationalizing its main tendency or main
feature. Each one of us tends to rationalize or justify
our incorrect actions when they are caused by our
main fear. Are you with me on this, Urban?"
Urban: "What you are saying is that my fear of
lack of control caused me to unconsciously try and
convince the audience that my proposal is better, no
matter what was stated in the other proposal, and
that therefore I felt the other proposal did not need
not be examined properly and should be dismissed
out of hand."
84 — CrazYZoo! —

Ernest: "That's putting it very bluntly; but yes,

that's about the size of it. The question is, can you
admit to this?"
Urban: "I am starting to understand what is
meant by "tendency to manipulate" in the description
of my type. I feel it's quite an insidious thing, because
it comes so natural to me when trying to defend my
point of view. My problem seems to be not knowing
when to stop defending my point of view."
Ernest: "Remember the exercises in active
listening that we practiced in our study of types?
Active listening might be the best way for you to
learn to know when to stop sticking to your idea,
because active listening forces you to examine the
other person's idea closely."
Urban: "OK. Let's see. In active listening the first
thing I have to do is respond to the other party by
stating in my own words how I understand the other
party's position. I then wait for the reaction. If the
reaction is in the affirmative, I know I have
understood the other party's position. At that point I
can start comparing the merits of that position with
my own position. How am I doing?"
Ernest: "You are doing just fine. Putting the other
party's message in your own words and feeding it
back to the other party will make you focus on the
other party's point of view."
Urban: "What about my comparison of the other
party's position with my own? How do I insure that
my comparison is objective?"
— Urban the "Wooer" Fox — 85

Ernest: "Your objectivity will be increased by the

next step of active listening. That step is having the
other party feed back to you, in their own words,
what you have stated as being your position. This will
give you the opportunity to re-think your own point
of view. You are likely to become more objective
after doing that."
Urban: "I can see that. But the problem with
discussions in a public forum is that it would be
awkward to ask the other party to repeat my
Ernest: "Yes, of course, unless the situation lends
itself to it, such as when you know that the other
party is familiar with the technique of active listening,
which is the case with most of our groups. If this is
not the case, the second best approach would be for
you to say something like this: 'Now that we both
agree on the correct interpretation of your proposal,
please allow me to restate the proposal that I have
presented so that we can agree on its interpretation.'
That should give you an opportunity for greater
Urban: "Agreed. Now I guess I need to set some
goals, so that I can start with some specific
situations where it would be best to practice active
listening. I will also track the results I am able to
Ernest: "Excellent. I suggest you define those
situations right now, while you are close to the
subject. And don't forget to aim for reasonable
scores rather than perfect ones. If in the beginning
86 — CrazYZoo! —

you succeed half of the time, you should feel good

about that and congratulate yourself for it. You can
aim for higher scores once you start exceeding the 50
% level. And remember, doing this will be of great
benefit to you. You are a popular individual, and you
will be liked and appreciated even more once you
have reduced your annoying tendency to be
overbearing and even manipulative. Others know
that you are very smart, and they will think that you
are even smarter if you do not try to be right all the
Urban got the message. He started applying
himself in very serious fashion. In the first week he
was very unsure of himself, and he told Ernest about
that difficulty. They agreed that instead of trying to
change his behavior immediately, Urban would take a
couple of weeks to only observe what was happening
in the situations he had identified. He would then
review the situation each time after the fact to find
out whether or not he had been trying too hard to
keep control.
After the first two weeks, he was able to apply the
active listening technique only some of the time, and
only during the sixth week was he able to achieve 50
% success, and not without repeated meetings with
Ernest who had him adjust his goal as he went along.
It was a long haul, but Urban's efforts paid off and
his reputation as an outstanding speaker kept
spreading. It also greatly reduced Urban's self-doubts,
and his energy level increased.
— Urban the "Wooer" Fox — 87

As an INNOVATOR with a very quick and

inquiring mind, Urban continued to demonstrate a
keen interest in the most diverse subjects. He
continued to make his ideas known and to defend
them, but he was more objective in doing so because
he had succeeded in turning his fear of lack of
control into a protective mechanism. That means
that Urban was less afraid that inferior ideas of
others would replace his. He realized that the ideas of
others are often just as good as, and sometimes even
better than, his own. He took note when this was the
case and made sure to acknowledge, praise and
support such ideas. As a result, Urban was constantly
being consulted for new ideas and regularly invited as
a debater, presenter and entertainer. He had become
about the most popular individual in the free zoo,
someone others were inquiring about when they
planned an important meeting or a social function.
As a team leader, Urban spared no effort to bring
his team up-to-date on all issues. As soon as a new
idea, a new method, a better way of doing things
came up, he would introduce changes in the team's
way of doing things. He was convinced that
whenever something better came along, the old must
immediately be replaced by the new. This worked
well for a while, but Urban noticed that his team
started to be less and less enthusiastic about the
changes that he was introducing. Something was
wrong. He mentioned the situation to Ernest.
Ernest knew that INNOVATORS who are team
leaders can be so fond of change that they forget that
88 — CrazYZoo! —

teams need time to adapt to change. He explained to

Urban that a team is composed of a number of
different types of individuals who have to learn to
work together. They need to develop a rhythm in
their collective functioning. If a previous change has
not yet been fully assimilated into that team rhythm,
the team will find it hard to understand the benefits
of a new change and will feel uneasy about it. They
will sense a lack of continuity, a lack of stability.
Some team members will feel that it's hard to know
which way to turn. They want time to become
familiar and comfortable with the existing method or
procedure or equipment, otherwise they cannot see
the benefits of the proposed change. The leader who
is an INNOVATOR tends to forget that different
types of individuals working together cannot change
as quickly as an INNOVATOR working alone. He
must make sure the team is ready for the change he is
contemplating, otherwise the change will be
Urban understood what Ernest was saying, but
no matter how hard he tried over the weeks and
months, he always had the feeling that his team was
too slow in adapting to change. He suggested to
Ernest that the best thing might be to make his team
a pure INNOVATOR team. He would keep only
INNOVATORS, transfer all other types to other
teams and recruit INNOVATORS from the other
teams. Ernest did not want to reject the suggestion
out of hand and proposed to put it on the agenda of
the team leaders' meeting. He felt that it would be
— Urban the "Wooer" Fox — 89

better for Urban to have all team leaders give their

reaction to the idea rather than get only Ernest's
views. He recalled that Urban had already talked
about an INNOVATOR team during training with
Aislin, and everybody had understood quickly why
teams composed of only one type were not a good
idea. Perhaps for Urban the matter was not handled
in sufficient depth at that time. In Urban's mind, a
team made up exclusively of INNOVATORS would
necessarily be less problematic than any other team,
whether a mixed team or one composed exclusively
of members belonging to a type other than
their ideas easily!
Urban was quite happy to discuss his suggestion
with the other team leaders. He couldn't help being
stimulated by this opportunity to convince his
colleagues of his brilliant idea.
Ernest went to see Aislin to get his help in
preparing for the meeting. He pointed out that he felt
Urban's suggestion needed to be treated in depth,
otherwise Urban would automatically prolong the
meeting and try to control the discussion or even
manipulate it to get the conclusions he wanted. After
evaluating the situation, Aislin and Urban agreed to
organize a role play that would clearly illustrate the
difficulties a team composed exclusively of
INNOVATORS would encounter. The exercise
worked out beautifully. Here is how it went.
Aislin asked Urban to participate in a role play
and act as one of a team of six INNOVATORS, the
90 — CrazYZoo! —

other five team leaders acting also as

INNOVATORS. In other words, Udo, Casimir, Leo,
Eden, Ernest, and Urban all acted as members of
the same team of INNOVATORS. Before the
meeting, they were asked to review the tendencies of
the INNOVATOR, so they could all act out those
tendencies effectively during role play.
Aislin acted as the team leader. He started by
asking the team to effect a change in their method of
work. It was the same change that Urban had talked
about to Ernest. He asked Urban to be the first to
state his views. Well! Everyone had a better idea than
the other team members. Urban's presentation was,
of course, well-prepared and well-delivered. After all,
he had been the originator of the proposed change.
He had all the arguments and was at his charming
best. The other members of the hypothetical team,
making sure to act as inveterate INNOVATORS,
did not let themselves be impressed by Urban, their
INNOVATOR colleague. They all agreed that a
change was necessary (as INNOVATORS are apt to
do) but they couldn't agree on the nature of the
change. As is likely to happen among
INNOVATORS, they each had a better idea and
each made sure to defend his idea to the fullest. As
they had been instructed by Aislin, they worked hard
during role play to find good points of improvement
over the ideas put forth by the other members. In the
end, many of the ideas had a lot of merit, but each
INNOVATOR wanted his idea to be the chosen
one. The team could not come to an agreement, even
— Urban the "Wooer" Fox — 91

though the role play lasted for over an hour. It

should be noted that, as instructed, the participants
did not take this as just a game, but as serious role
play designed to illustrate an important principle
about how types function. They effectively
demonstrated the kind of difficulty a team composed
exclusively of INNOVATORS would have if they
tried to reach agreement.
Urban got the point and thanked his colleagues
for the demonstration. He did add that he thought
they had sometimes exaggerated the INNOVATOR'S
behavior, but then he admitted that at other times a
real INNOVATOR could have been even more
adroit in defending his ideas than they had been.
When Urban and Ernest met the next day, Urban
took the initiative to review the role play. They had a
good laugh about it all and Urban said that he now
understood clearly that it was not a good idea to aim
at teams composed of one type only. Mixed teams
are best. He saw that his role as a team leader was to
take into account the motivations and fears of every
type in the team and to allow the team a certain time
to consider and assimilate change so that they could
maintain a sense of continuity.
Urban established a check list of steps to go
through before introducing any change to his team.
They included verification of the degree of familiarity
the team had developed with the existing routine and
of their level of understanding and acceptance of the
reasons for the proposed change. Before meeting
with the team he would also review each team
92 — CrazYZoo! —

member's motivations and fears according to type, in

order to take these into account when discussing
proposed changes with them.
— Urban the "Wooer" Fox — 93

During the prolonged period when he worked

closely with Urban to help him progress toward his
goals, Ernest frequently thought of his own main
motivation and main fear and asked himself what he
could do to reduce his unbalance. As he himself had
pointed out to Urban, every type is unbalanced by
nature, although the unbalance is different for each
type. He knew that no blame should be attached to
the individual for his unbalance of type, as that
unbalance is inborn and has to do in part with such
things as the glands that are dominant in a person.
For instance, the production of adrenaline by the
adrenal glands is quickest and strongest in the
IDEALIST type, and this conditions the quickness
and the intensity of his responses.
Being a PLANNER type, Ernest decided to
examine his main motivation (truth) and his main
fear (mental confusion) and to see how and to what
extent he manifested his type's unbalance. He knew
that in the PLANNER, this unbalance translates into
the tendency to go overboard in analyzing and
96 — CrazYZoo! —

planning things. Getting all the facts is something the

PLANNER finds necessary in order to feel that he
has the whole truth and that he has avoided any
possible confusion. Ernest realized that in his own
case, when he analyzed too much he usually slowed
down things unnecessarily. He decided to set a goal
to gain greater control of this tendency. He wanted
to develop his goal in methodical fashion, which is
the way of the PLANNER. He proceeded to review
all the ways in which he had been trying too hard in
the past to get to the absolute truth. He ended up
describing to himself over thirty past events in which
he, directly or indirectly, seemed to have been
spending too much time in accumulating facts in
order to avoid mental confusion.
One of the over thirty occasions where Ernest
thought he had been too concerned with getting all
the answers, or pushing too hard to get to the whole
truth, happened about six months following the
opening of the free zoo. His team had asked him to
form a small committee whose task was to examine
the new environment and find all the food sources in
the new surroundings, including the adjacent areas
outside the territory of the free zoo, which might
have been ignored for one reason or another. Ernest
set up a committee that reported to him within a
week, giving full details about the type of food that
was available, including mice, vole, fruit, berries,
other vegetation, insects, young deer, wild boar,
rabbits and other animals. They concluded that all
food sources were being tapped. They added that the
— Ernest the "Doer" Fox — 97

only improvement in connection with food might be

to find a way to store more food for later
Despite the fact that the committee members
were unanimous in their report, Ernest worried that
they might not have been systematic enough in their
study. In his mind, they didn't seem to have
presented 'the whole truth'. He divided up the
committee into four 'sub-committees of one' and
asked each member to observe specific food sources
only. One member was asked to observe only
rodents, another only deer, wild boar and rabbits and
other animals, still another all fruits and berries, and
the last one all edible young trees, shrubs, herbs and
other vegetation. All four members protested that
they had looked at everything and that the conclusion
was obvious. Ernest insisted, giving members
another week to report on their specific observations.
A week later, Ernest presided over a long
meeting, getting a detailed account of each member's
findings. At the end of the meeting, Ernest thanked
them for their work and asked them to come back in
two days for another meeting where he would
discuss his own conclusions with them. Once he and
the committee would reach consensus, he would
report the conclusions to a meeting of the entire
team the week after.
Well, Ernest's consensus meeting with his
committee turned out to be a very laborious one.
Not only did Ernest rehash all the details already
reported by committee members in the previous
98 — CrazYZoo! —

meeting, but he asked detailed questions about the

information that had been provided. As the meeting
dragged on, Ernest realized that the members of the
committee were not only getting restless, but they
were showing signs of annoyance by pointing out
that the new details Ernest was unearthing with his
many questions did not contribute in any way to
decision making but tended to create confusion in
everyone's mind.
To save face, all Ernest could do at this point was
to start reviewing the conclusions the committee had
originally presented to him. He justified the exercise
by saying that it is always good to double check one's
findings, and he thanked the committee for their
painstaking work.
The consensus that was reached added nothing to
the original conclusions of the committee. Only the
wording was slightly different. In order to show that
something was accomplished, Ernest elaborated on
the committee's suggestion about more storage of
food for later consumption. He stated that he was
adding to the list of new projects the examination of
the way the food caches were being prepared.
When the meeting was finally concluded,
committee members looked at each other with a sigh
of relief. After the meeting they were complaining to
each other about the needless delay of too extra
weeks and the additional long meeting before coming
to the same conclusion they had initially presented.
The complaints did eventually reach Ernest through
— Ernest the "Doer" Fox — 99

the grapevine, and he realized that his insistence to

get more facts had been misplaced.
You will recall that the above experience was only
one of over thirty experiences Ernest had
remembered as examples of when he might have
been overly analytical. Ernest decided to go through
those experiences once again in order to see what
type of goal he could formulate that would best help
him to control the fear of mental confusion. He
ended up defining an average of three different goals
for each experience. He now had over a hundred
possible goals. Ernest knew that he needed to start
with one goal and he found it very difficult to narrow
down his choice. He decided to sleep on it, hoping
that the next day he would be more clear-headed and
able to decide more easily.
That night Ernest had a hard time falling asleep.
His goal options swirled around in his head and he
wondered whether the next day he would come to a
decision after reviewing all his goals once more. He
decided, well into the night, to be positive about it,
and he finally fell asleep.
Waking up next morning he started wondering
whether his method of evaluating the question of his
main motivation and main fear had been exhaustive
enough. He decided that he needed to get some input
from others, from individuals who knew him and
who could advise him. He figured that the opinion of
three individuals would be a minimum. He sat down
to review all the possible individuals to consult. He
had many names but only one individual he found
100 — CrazYZoo! —

worthwhile consulting: Leo the lion. Ernest made up

his mind to meet with Leo right away and to see
afterward who else there was. He respected Leo for
his ability to decide quickly. He thought that Leo not
only made fast decisions, but that most of the time
his decisions were also very good ones. Leo simply
had the IDEALIST's knack for making quick quality
Leo was pleased to hear from Ernest. He had
asked Ernest on several occasions to analyze projects
for him and to plan for their execution. He found
Ernest a very capable analyst and planner. Ernest's
drawback was that he found it difficult to know when
to stop analyzing. In the very first assignment Leo
had given Ernest, Leo had to put a stop to Ernest's
overly analytical and slow approach, because it
created unnecessary delays. Leo knew the tendency
of PLANNERS to want to cover all the angles,
which is good in some cases and unjustified in many
others. He also knew that PLANNERS belong to the
"doer" types, but that often their "doing" is
concentrated too much on analysis. He recognized
the difference between the interest in details of the
PARTNER and that of the PLANNER. The
PARTNER tends to be fascinated by details and may
get lost in them, forgetting the overall picture. The
PLANNER always looks for the overall picture, and
he wants as much detail as possible to get an accurate
overall picture. Leo had reached an understanding
with Ernest that before undertaking any project, he
and Ernest would agree on the amount of time and
— Ernest the "Doer" Fox — 101

effort it was reasonable to invest in analysis and in

When Ernest approached him with his project of
a personal behavior goal, Leo smiled at the
thoroughness with which Ernest explained his
behavior-improvement challenge. When Ernest told
him about his over hundred goals to choose from,
Leo couldn't hold back his feelings of impatience and
he let go of the following quip: "How can you waste
this much valuable time!" He looked at Ernest and
saw that he did not appreciate the gibe. Leo added:
"Seriously, Ernest, you and I have worked together
repeatedly on limiting unnecessary analysis for
various projects, and you should have been aware
that you were overdoing it in this case. You have
over-analyzed more than I have ever seen you over-
analyze. You could have asked me before going into
all this review and I would have told you off the bat
what your type-related problem is as well as how to
try to correct it."
Ernest: "It is true that you know me as well as
anyone does, but I had to do my own thinking on the
subject. This is not just any project. It has to do with
changing the way I function, and I simply needed to
go into it in greater depth than I would have to for
some other subject."
Leo: "We have talked several times about your
fear of mental confusion and how it pushes you to
try to get to the absolute truth no matter what it
takes. There are two things you did not take into
account in this case. First, there is no such thing as
102 — CrazYZoo! —

the absolute truth, especially in this matter. Much of

it is a question of personal judgment. Second,
outlining so many goal options does the opposite of
what you were aiming at, which is clarity. Instead, all
these possibilities create confusion which requires an
inordinate amount of unnecessary additional time
and effort to resolve. That means that in situations
like this you need to trust your gut feeling more than
anything else."
Ernest: "Even if you are right about this, I don't
know how to go about trusting my gut feeling in this
case. It seems to me that I must make an analysis of
some kind."
Leo: "Your analysis in this case is simple. All you
need to do is find the answers to two simple
questions. Knowing already that you want to put a
check on your fear of mental confusion, the first
question to ask yourself is this: In what situation has
the fear of mental confusion seemed to be most
bothersome, or most unnecessary, or most
inappropriate recently? The second question is: What
action can I take to limit my tendency to over-analyze
in such situations?"
Seeing Ernest in an appropriately reflective state,
Leo continued: "Try to answer the first question right
now: In what recent situation did the fear of mental
confusion seem most unnecessary? And remember, I
said 'seem most unnecessary', because this is not
something scientific but something more subjective,
something where you want to know how you feel
about it."
— Ernest the "Doer" Fox — 103

Ernest related to Leo his experience with the

committee he led in the exploration of the sources of
food in the surrounding area. He said he realized that
after the committee reported their unanimous
findings, his fear of mental confusion was most
unnecessary. He said he knew now that his insistence
on a new round of research by sub-teams had been a
waste of time and effort.
Leo: "Excellent example. You answered the first
question by identifying the situation in which the fear
of mental confusion seemed most unnecessary. Now
to the second question: What action can you take to
learn not to over-analyze in similar situations?"
Ernest: "I guess it's the same thing that we agreed
upon for the projects I have been doing for you. I
need to ask myself in each case how much analysis is
required or justified."
Leo: "Exactly. You have to apply the same rule to
all questions, including personal matters such as your
personal goal of behavior improvement. In other
words, you have to decide in each case whether to do
a formal analysis or not, and if you do require a
formal analysis, how much time and effort it is
reasonable to invest in the analysis. Because of your
strong tendency to overdo analysis, you need to be
disciplined in defining and in respecting those limits.
Suppose you say to yourself that all you need is to
quickly review things, you have to then be specific
and define what 'quickly' means. Suppose it means
two minutes. You must now make sure that you
make your decision after at most two minutes. Or if
104 — CrazYZoo! —

you conclude that you can justify a formal analysis,

but that you must not take more than two days for
the analysis, you must time yourself and respect that
Ernest: "You are right. I will set myself as a goal
that before starting to carry out any analysis, I will
first answer the question: how much analysis is
justified? I will then set my limits and make sure that
I respect them."
Leo: "You got it. Let's review together in a week's
time how often you remembered to do this
verification before starting an analysis. As you know,
you will need to track yourself daily, since you have
usually more than one opportunity each day to
analyze one situation or another. And let's start with
a 50 % success rate as an initial goal, which is the
same that we set when you started this very
technique in the preparation of analyses for my
Ernest agreed and was confident that he would
reach the 50 % success rate in the first week because
of his successful experience with the work projects
he had carried out for Leo. Knowing the
thoroughness of Ernest, Leo was just as convinced
that Ernest would do well.
The optimism of the two friends was vindicated
in practice. Ernest succeeded 60 % of the time in the
first week and after a while he made it a habit to
evaluate the need for analysis each time he was
thinking of undertaking one. He learned to turn his
fear of mental confusion into a protective
— Ernest the "Doer" Fox — 105

mechanism, which means that he was able to

determine ahead of time when an in-depth analysis
was required and when such an analysis was
unnecessary or superfluous. He went on to become a
highly effective decision maker. He was soon voted
team leader of the year. Various teams kept calling on
him to look at projects and ideas. Because of his
skills to plan and to organize, in addition to his
analytical expertise, Ernest was soon elected Planning
Director for all teams. His opinion became to be
regarded by the vast majority as the decisive opinion
in matters that were of interest to all teams.
The chart on the next page summarizes the
characteristics of Ernest the PLANNER.
106 — CrazYZoo! —
— Ernest the "Doer" Fox — 107
If at the outset you selected the Fox as your animal, this is the time for
you to decide which of the two Foxes is more like you, Urban or Ernest. If
you are not absolutely sure of your choice, don't worry.

You should keep in mind that you do not possess the

characteristics of only one type, since all types have certain traits in
common and some individuals possess quite a few traits of some of
the other types. More about this later.

Your task at the moment is to determine which one of the two

FOXES has the most numerous or most marked of your

Tick off your choice below:

/__/ URBAN /__/ ERNEST


Ernest frequently met with Leo to review type

fundamentals. He kept learning from Leo how to
make quick decisions when required. He had found
Leo more and more knowledgeable about types ever
since Eden had helped Leo to improve his
relationship skills. As a matter of fact, Leo had been
calling regular study sessions where mutual coaching
skills for all types were discussed. Leo was promoting
the idea that all types can help each other to function
better and that every individual who did so would
greatly benefit himself.
This was a very welcome idea to Ernest because
Leo's idea was based on the principle that you will
know yourself better if you improve your knowledge
of the other types. Ernest always liked to see the big
picture, and Leo had cut through the many details to
present a clear overall approach to the study of types.
During the sessions, he would require that every
participant always look at all six classic types before
110 — CrazYZoo! —

setting a personal behavior goal. In this way,

participants learned gradually to see their own
problems in the context of all six classic types, which
helped them to understand in what way the different
types are "all in the same boat". As each was able to
see how their own tendencies and those of others
were related to type, participants developed a more
open, more forgiving, more tolerant attitude to each
other, enabling them to more readily help and
encourage each other.
During his last private meeting with Leo, Ernest
said that he found it remarkable that Leo, who was a
lion, could understand so well an individual like
Ernest who, after all, was a fox.
Leo replied: "You must keep in mind a
fundamental principle we learned about types, and
that is that all types have three important functions
or intelligences in common: the BODY
and the MIND INTELLIGENCE. We are all alike
in that respect. What makes us different is the order
of priority in which we use the three functions or
Leo continued: "BODY types, such as Eden and
I, are dominated by our BODY intelligence, so we
like to do things and we like to deal with things more
than we like to deal with feelings or with theories.
This does not mean that we have no feelings and are
incapable of examining theories. HEART types, such
as Udo and Casimir, being dominated by the
HEART intelligence, tend to be dominated by
— Review of Fundamentals by Ernest and Leo — 111

feelings and emotions more than by things and

theories, and MIND types, like you and Urban, are
dominated by the MIND intelligence, and you are
therefore motivated by ideas and theories more than
by things and emotions."
Ernest: "Yes, I need to keep looking at the overall
picture. It takes some practice to see the overall
picture clearly and to understand the relationships
between types. There is one other aspect I want to
share with you. Both you and Eden are BODY types
and both of you are primarily interested in doing
things and in working with things. Yet you are very
different from each other."
Leo: "Right. We are both BODY types. However,
I am the "doer" body type who concentrates on
tasks, whereas Eden is the "wooer" body type who
concentrates on relationships. The basic difference
again lies in the order of priority in which we use our
functions or intelligences. Of course, both Eden and
I use the BODY function as our first priority, but
our second priority is different. Eden's second
priority is the HEART intelligence, whereas mine is
the MIND intelligence. In the same way, the two
MIND types, you and Urban, do not use the same
secondary intelligence, and the two HEART types,
Casimir and Udo, also use a different secondary
Leo then reviewed the importance of reminding
everyone that one of the most effective ways of self-
improvement is to develop the qualities of the type
112 — CrazYZoo! —

that follows one's own in the direction shown by the

arrows on the charts.
Ernest agreed, citing his own situation where he
was able to learn from Leo who belongs to the type
that follows that of Ernest.
The chart on the next page summarizes the
information Ernest and Leo pulled together about
the secondary function or intelligence of each type.
The intelligence of first priority is UNDERLINED,
that of second priority is in CURSIVE print, and
that of third priority is in ORDINARY print.
The chart also has the arrows indicating the
direction of flow in relationships between types. As
stated in Leo's chart in Chapter 2, one can
theoretically transcend type and become perfectly
balanced by following the arrows from type to type
and developing each type's qualities on the way.
— Review of Fundamentals by Ernest and Leo — 113
114 — CrazYZoo! —

In subsequent meetings, Ernest and Leo reviewed

the many other differences between types as well as
the many ways in which the different types can learn
from each other and help each other. Ernest was
struck again and again by Leo's ability to make things
clear and simple for everyone. He found that Leo
had turned into an exceptional IDEALIST, because
he was no longer authoritarian, although firm, no
longer aggressive, although assertive, and no longer
impatient and violent, although still very much action
Leo had learned to replace his fear of
ineffectiveness by a protective mechanism which
allowed him to continue using his strength, that of
achieving goals, and at the same time to take into
consideration needs other than those of task and
expediency. He had developed the habit of reminding
himself to examine other aspects of leadership,
including the need to celebrate successes, the need to
include in his presentation of projects things such as
how relationships will be affected, how conflicts will
be avoided or dealt with, how all ideas will be taken
into account, and how planning was done and will be
Ernest realized that in large measure it was thanks
to Leo's leadership that adaptation to the new
environment never stopped progressing and that the
generally positive attitudes were such that continuous
improvement had become the motto for all groups.
All this was due principally to Leo's insistence on
developing tolerance and the desire to exchange
— Review of Fundamentals by Ernest and Leo — 115

views. Leo achieved this by making sure that all

training programs, whether skill training, team
training, or leadership training, included teaching
about types which is interwoven with the subject
matter of each program. The information about types
in training programs is aimed at creating an adequate
understanding of self and of others in order to
provide opportunities for participants to learn from
each other and to help each other. This opens their
minds to increased communication, reducing
personal worries such as those about not being able
to express themselves properly and other worries
about being perceived wrongly.
Working with Leo was very rewarding for Ernest.
They worked well together organizing and
facilitating regular training sessions which were
attended by a steadily increasing number of
During one of the review session with Leo,
Ernest was working on a revision of the introduction
to the study of types in the different programs.
Knowing Leo's exceptional ability to simplify and
clarify, he asked him:
"Leo, could you put in a nutshell what the results
are of acquiring a good knowledge of types?"
Leo thought for a moment and said that he would
put it in the following way:
"A good knowledge of types leads to an attitude
of openness, tolerance, and readiness for change."
Leo added that those gains translate into the
following attitude:
116 — CrazYZoo! —

"No matter how good we are, as individuals and

as teams, we can always be better and greater."
Ernest liked those descriptions and proceeded to
include them in the introduction of all programs. He
also realized that this was the very attitude required in
a successful program of continuous improvement,
which was a new program Leo and Ernest were
putting together.
After launching the revised programs, Ernest and
Leo became the team trainers for all teams, in
addition to being the leaders of their respective
teams. They created an admirable world of animals in
a free zoo . . . a zoo that was not a "CRazYZoo!" at
all, but a model community, which a growing number
of observers and commentators were finding out.
This is the end of our story. It need not be the
end of what you do with it though, because you have
acquired some valuable knowledge about yourself
and about the six classic types which you can further
develop for your benefit and the benefit of the
people around you.

If you have followed the story and made your

choices, you have reached the following stage in your
knowledge of types:

1. You have identified the classic type to which

you belong.
2. You have learned how your type is different
from the other types.
3. You have a good idea of how each of the six
classic types is different from the five other
classic types.

Some readers, after making the initial choice of

animal, eagerly turn to the story of their animal,
skipping the stories of the other animals. If that's
what you have done, there is no problem, as long as
you now go back and read the stories you missed,
because different principles or different basic aspects
of types were discussed in some stories and not in
others. In addition, in order to understand your own
type well it is necessary to learn about the other five
118 — CrazYZoo! —

types. Understanding of your type is a gradual

process. This understanding grows as you observe
not only how you and other persons of your type
function, but also how persons belonging to the
other types function. At this point, it is necessary that
you have a good idea, from reading the entire story,
how each of the six classic types is different from the
other five types. That basic understanding will help
you to continually improve your knowledge of
yourself and of others.
Your knowledge of classic types and their
application in practice will give you a more objective
understanding of people and will greatly improve
your interaction with all types of individuals.

Additional Study

As you gain experience with your new knowledge,

you will have many questions about those of your
behaviors, and behaviors of others, that seem at
variance with the classic type descriptions you have
learned. As can be seen from the headings that
follow, there are a number of additional aspects to
the classification by type. They can provide a fuller
understanding of people, as each one of those other
aspects affects classic type behavior in some way or
other. Although this additional information adds
complexity to the whole question of classification by
type, it in no way invalidates the underlying
characteristics of classic types. The simple fact is that
nature has provided endless variety in all things
— Your Knowledge of Types — 119

existing, and human beings are no exception. In the

end there are no two persons exactly alike.
Depending on the level of interest you have in how
people function, you may want to study and apply
some or all of the sections that follow. If you have
the opportunity and the inclination, you may also
want to participate in one or more of the programs
and workshops listed at the end of this section under
"Practical Training".

Essence and Personality

In the study of types a distinction is made
between the essence of a person and his personality.
Your essence is made up of your inborn physical
and mental characteristics, including the motivations
and fears of the type to which you belong. Those
characteristics are the strengths and the weaknesses
you possessed at birth.
Your personality represents all that you have
acquired after birth, either consciously or
unconsciously. Personality becomes an asset for the
individual when it is based on correct learning, and it
is a liability when it is the result of incorrect or faulty
learning. Only correct learning can add to a person's
balance and lead to harmony between personality and
essence. Incorrect learning will result in the
domination of personality over essence.
No-one can experience healthy growth if his
essence and his personality do not evolve in
harmony. When personality becomes too strong in
120 — CrazYZoo! —

relation to essence, all kinds of bad results follow.

The person becomes less healthy and starts to like
things that are bad for him and dislike things that are
good for him.
Personality is an important part of who we are.
Personality is indispensable to survival in society; it
helps us to be on our guard and to be socially adept.
However, personality is an asset to a person's overall
growth only when essence is not being stymied.
How can one insure balance in the development
of essence and of personality? We have already
learned how to improve personal balance through
balanced use of the main strength of our type. You
will remember that the method involved working on
our negative tendencies. Once those tendencies are
diminished, we are closer to personal equilibrium and
we have encouraged parallel growth of essence and
of personality. If we ignore negative tendencies,
personality tends to dominate essence.
To use an example, let us say that you belong to
the INNOVATOR type. Your main motivation
would be INTEREST (you are interested in
everything, you want to know everything). The main
fear accompanying that motivation is LACK OF
CONTROL (you are concerned that your ideas
might not be listened to sufficiently and that they
might be replaced by ideas not as good as yours). The
negative tendency fostered by that fear is the habit of
Suppose now that you realize that that's not a good
habit, and you decide to reign it in. Let's say your
— Your Knowledge of Types — 121

effort is successful. You succeed in recognizing the

good ideas that others present and you realize that,
although you often have the best idea, sometimes the
ideas of others are better. By acknowledging this, you
demonstrate that you have learned objectively and
correctly that while in many cases it is reasonable to
defend your own ideas to the end, in some other
cases it is proper to recognize and support the ideas
of others. Because you have succeeded in this correct
manner, you have allowed for parallel growth of your
essence and your personality. You have learned to
like what is good for you (to recognize the good
ideas of others) and to dislike what is bad for you (to
always want to be right).
Suppose now that in pursuing the same objective,
that of reducing your tendency to always want to
have the last word, you lack objectivity and you learn
incorrectly that you need to always yield immediately
to the ideas of others and that you must never defend
your own. In acting in that manner, you would be
demonstrating that you have learned to like what is
bad for you (yield always) and to reject what is good
for you (adequately defend your own ideas). In other
words, your incorrect learning has allowed the
dominance of your personality over your essence.
That type of bad learning, or incorrect learning,
leading to the dominance by personality, can also
occur when a person tries to imitate or borrow
qualities of another type. Let us say that in certain
situations or certain activities you would like to use a
strength or quality you do not possess but you
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recognize in another type. Let's assume it is the

ability of the IDEALIST to make DECISIONS
QUICKLY yet correctly. You find out that in order
to make correct decisions quickly you need to be
than you normally are. After a certain time, you
succeed in your effort. You know you have
succeeded because an analysis of the quality of your
decisions shows two things: first, despite the greater
speed with which you made most of your decisions,
the percentage of good decisions has increased;
second, in those cases where you decided to make an
analysis before deciding, the analysis was in fact
In the above example, you have given evidence of
correct learning, because you learned to judge
correctly in which case it is necessary to spend time
analyzing before making a decision and in which case
analysis is superfluous. In other words, you learned
to like what's good for you (be more spontaneous)
and to reject what's bad for you (abandon all
However, if the evaluation of the quality of your
decisions had shown that the percentage of good
decisions had diminished, you would know that you
are guilty of incorrect learning. A closer evaluation
might indicate that you made all your decisions
quickly and neglected to analyze when analysis was
required. You would have totally neglected the
analytical strength of your type by overusing the
strength you imitated or borrowed from another
— Your Knowledge of Types — 123

type. You would have learned to like what is bad for

you (no analysis) and reject what is good for you
(adequate use of your analytical strength).
It goes without saying that imitating or borrowing
negative tendencies of other types presents no
advantage whatever, which does not mean that it
does not happen. On the contrary, it is often easier to
copy a negative trait than a positive one.
In order to know whether you possess negative
tendencies belonging to other types, you need to
examine the descriptions of the classic types other
than yours. Look at the negative tendencies of the
other types (read the comments contained in the
NOTE of each type). If you possess one of their
negative tendencies, it may be strong enough to
present an obstacle to the growth of your essence,
making personality dominate over essence. If such
were the case, you would need to set a goal to control
that tendency. You will note that it is usually easier to
control a negative tendency that you have borrowed
from another type than to control your main negative
tendency belonging to your own type. The reason is
that a borrowed tendency is foreign to your nature
and less anchored in your subconscious.
It is also useful to read the descriptions of the
strengths and motivation of the other types and to
verify if you are borrowing them correctly. Are you,
for one reason or another, trying to do things that
suit those types but do not suit you at all? For
instance, it is possible that you are trying to
"motivate" yourself in the wrong way. You may be
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trying to develop a "personality" that is "too much"

for you. Nowadays one can find persons of all types
in just about every kind of occupation. Nevertheless,
the persons who derive the most authentic
satisfaction from their work are those who know
themselves and who manage to have a job that suits
them perfectly or, failing that, manage to adapt the
content of their work to the needs of their type.
As an example, suppose that you have just
discovered that, despite being a "relationship" type of
person, you have accepted an office job which totally
lacks relationship content. You accepted the position
because pay is good and the position offers you
management prestige. Let us say that you now realize
that the management prestige is too much of a
personality consideration for you. In fact, you can see
that by accepting the position you totally ignored the
needs of your essence. You are discovering that the
frustration and the lack of satisfaction you are
experiencing at your job are the result of a lack of
contact with people.
You must now explore the various ways in which
you can change things, starting with the delegation of
certain desk duties and the addition of some
relationship tasks. If that's not possible, it may
become necessary to find a job more suited to your
type and essence.
In conclusion, when you discover that your
personality characteristics are too pronounced, since
you would function better if you did not possess
them, you need to set objectives that enable you to
— Your Knowledge of Types — 125

change direction. This will help you to create better

balance between the needs of your essence and those
of your personality. The improved balance will help
you to be continually aware of who you are, of what
you are doing and of why you are doing it.

Combined Types
The grouping of people into six classic types
represents a basic and rather general level of
classification. Within each classic type, more detailed
differentiations can be explored.
One of the important differences between
persons of any classic type is the amount of influence
exerted by neighboring type characteristics. Every
classic type has two neighboring types. They are
situated next to one's own classic type in the
direction of flow between types. They are connected
by arrows to one's classic type as shown in the USE
Chapter 8.
Since very few persons are pure classic types, it is
quite likely that you belong to one of six combined
types. Even though you have TWO neighboring
types, only ONE of them combines with your classic
type to become your combined type. That means that
you share some characteristics of one of your
neighboring types more strongly than those of the
other neighboring type.
The influence of neighbouring types varies. In
one person it could be very strong and in another
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very weak. The precise strength or influence can only

be known through observation and after having
acquired a good understanding of the characteristics
of the different types. There are relatively few
persons situated exactly at the theoretical midpoint
between two types. In most combined types, their
basic classic type is dominant and its characteristics
govern their behavior more than those of the
neighboring types. As well, one of the neighboring
types normally has a stronger influence than the
other. Your next step will be to decide which of your
two neighboring types is stronger.
In order to determine your combined type, you
need to look at the description of your own classic
type in the chart USE OF FUNCTIONS or
INTELLIGENCES in Chapter 8. You will see that
one of your neighboring types is connected to your
classic type by an arrow pointing to your classic type,
while the other neighboring type is connected by an
arrow going from your classic type to the
neighboring type. You need to make a choice now as
to which of the two neighboring types is represented
more strongly in your make-up. As in your earlier
choices, you need to be more spontaneous than
analytical in making the choice. You are likely to
possess some characteristics of both neighboring
types. You need to decide which is stronger. If you
find it hard to make up your mind, a good way to
arrive at the final decision is to concentrate on the
"NOTE" for each neighboring type and underline,
among the tendencies listed there, the tendency that
— Your Knowledge of Types — 127

you find strongest in you, or that bothers you most

and that you would like to change most. The
neighboring type in which you find that tendency will
be the one to associate with your classic type to form
your combined type. The name of your combined
type will be one of the following six names.

1. Idealist/Inspirator 4. Supporter/Innovator
2. Inspirator/Partner 5. Innovator/Planner
3. Partner/Supporter 6. Planner/Idealist

Because combined types possess a greater variety of

characteristics, they are more complex than pure classic
types. People often find it harder to understand
combined types, and the latter also find it harder to
understand themselves.
It is important to note that the characteristics of the
two types that make up a combined type do not get
mixed up in a kind of melting-pot characteristics.
Rather, the characteristics of each type will be
manifested in alternating fashion, the person being
more like one type at some time and more like the
other type at another time. The strength and frequency
with which the two types manifest themselves varies
with their relative weight in your inborn make-up.

The Center of Gravity

Persons of the same classic type as well as

persons belonging to the same combined type can be
further differentiated by their center of gravity.
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The four centers or brains or functions

Every person possesses four centers or brains or
functions which compete with each other for the
person's energy. Each center claims to be the true
identity of the person within whom it functions.
Each center or brain calls itself "I" and attempts to
speak for the whole person. None of the centers or
functions has any advantage over the others, either as
a mode of perception or in terms of the person's
chance of developing consciousness. Each has its
own correct work. Each of the centers can, and
usually does, work alone without connection with the
others, even though they are operating simultaneously.
— Your Knowledge of Types — 129
130 — CrazYZoo! —
— Your Knowledge of Types — 131

Human Complexity
As stated earlier, human beings, as all things
existing, are complex by nature. In the final analysis
no two persons are exactly alike. The center of
gravity represents only one level of differentiation
between individuals. The next level is a sub-division
of each center. Each center of gravity is an integral
part of the essence and is further divided into three
distinct divisions. These divisions are made according
to the attention required for the part to operate. At
the lowest level of awareness – which is no awareness
– are the moving and instinctive parts of each center.
Since these two parts work with the same lack of
attention and the same speed, the distinction is not
important for the average student. The two are
therefore treated as one, which is called the
mechanical part. Each of the four centers has a
mechanical part, and this mechanical part may be
primarily moving or primarily instinctive, but
operates without attention in either case. The other
parts of centers are the emotional and the intellectual
parts. The next level is an even finer division within
each part of each center. Each of the three levels of
each center is in turn divided into a mechanical, an
emotional, and an intellectual part. This can be
verified, but takes many observations over long
periods of time. For standard purposes it is sufficient
to be able to observe the three main divisions of each
center. When it comes to the beginning student, he
will do well to concentrate on recognizing the four
centers of gravity.
132 — CrazYZoo! —

The Sunny Kind

There are people of all types who possess an

extra strong sunny side to their make-up. Their
cheerful, childlike, creative and artistic disposition
has the effect of making the characteristics of the
type to which they belong less serious, less dark, less
heavy, more youthful and more guileless.
Their disposition tends to soften the hard edges
of their type, to supercharge the assertive tendencies,
magnify sensitivity, and often energize the passive
While it is not hard to recognize those sunny
qualities, it usually takes experience to be able to
determine the underlying type of such persons.
Persons with this disposition can be flighty,
nervous, over-sensitive, naive and rather fragile.

Male and Female, Emissive and Receptive

In-depth study of sexual differences and sexual

attraction is dealt with in the appropriate workshop
(see the section "Practical Training" below). In the
present section a general overview only is provided in
order to give an idea of what the general features of
female-male relationships are in the classification by

First, it is important to understand that

— Your Knowledge of Types — 133

a) emissive and receptive types complement

each other;
b) there is a degree of receptivity and emissivity
in each type.

Second, when it comes to males and females of

the same classic type, females tend to be receptive to
The female of an emissive type will be receptive
to the male belonging to the same emissive type but
emissive to all others in the characteristic realm of
her type. The characteristic realm is a person's
predominant intelligence (either movement, instinct,
emotion, or intellect).
For example, the female INSPIRATOR is
receptive to the male INSPIRATOR and emissive to
all others in the realm of instinct.
Similarly, the female INNOVATOR is receptive
to the male INNOVATOR and emissive to all others
in the realm of thinking.
With receptives of a type, the male is emissive to
the female but receptive to all others in the
characteristic realm of his type.
For example, a male IDEALIST will be emissive
to a female IDEALIST and receptive to all others in
the realm of movement.
In a similar way, a male PARTNER will be
emissive to a female PARTNER but receptive to all
others in the realm of emotions.
134 — CrazYZoo! —

Practical Training

Practical training is provided through public or

in-house workshops that typically produce in
participants an attitude that's best described as
"No matter how good I am, no matter what level
of productivity or excellence I have achieved, I can
always be better and greater!"

Style of Leadership and Team Building

A leadership program integrating knowledge of
classic and combined types with leadership training.
For leaders, managers and supervisors looking for a
non-traditional approach to leadership training
focusing on understanding of self and of others
through self-learning and through exchange.
Participants are enabled to understand and apply the
leadership and team building principles and
techniques in a personally significant manner. The
results are greatly enhanced leadership skills through
increased tolerance, growth in team orientation, and
enthusiasm for and effectiveness in continuous
improvement, both individually and collectively.

My Team and I
A team development program combining
knowledge of types with team training. Self-learning
and exchange between participants provide for
improved self-esteem, better skills in communication
and in consensus building, a feeling of belonging, and
— Your Knowledge of Types — 135

readiness and ability to make changes. A program

that builds team spirit from within.

Style of Selling for Superior Results

Improved self-knowledge and the ability to size
up others better, combined with sales fundamentals
and selling techniques, create the basis for superior
sales results for participants in this program. Learn
how you can build on your personal strengths in
selling and how to adapt your sales approach to the
different types of perceptions and views of different
prospects and clients. For sales persons, sales
supervisors, and sales managers.

Type Workshops
Basic and in-depth knowledge of classification by
type. Depending on the workshop chosen, you will
be solidifying knowledge already acquired about
types and you will be learning about subjects such as
the evolution of the classification by type since
ancient times, including the influence of astrology,
the influence of Carl Jung, and the contributions by
endocrinologists; and you will discover how type is
manifested in children, how types are attracted to
each other, how compatibility can be found, etc.
136 — CrazYZoo! —

Practical training is made available by BMLS-

SACE through its training partners. Please contact:

5372 O'Bryan Ave
Montreal QC – CANADA
H4V 2A9

Tel.: 514-488-8689 Fax: 514-488-3257