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http://www.sarasuati.com

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Tema    *52:    H   O    N    *
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*    *    *    U De Lincoln    D    * a   * F.D.    *
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Madhatter Wylder

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14/06/2007

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Tema 52:
2

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La evolución histórica de Estados Unidos: De Lincoln a Roosevelt.

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Table of contents

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1. Timeline. ______________________________

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______________________________________________________________
___________________________________
___ 2

*    *    *
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 2. The civil war ______________________________

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______________________________________________________________
________________________________ 5

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2.1. Slavery & sectionalism. _________________________________________________________ 5

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2.1.1. The Abolitionists. ____________________________________________________________________ 5

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2.1.2. The Compromise of 1850. _____________________________________________________________ 6

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2.1.3. A divided Nation. ____________________________________________________________________ 8

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *   A    *    *
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2.2. Secession and the Civil War. _______________________________
_____________________________________________________
______________________ 9

*    *    *    *    *    *


2.2.1 Lincoln’s peaceful reconstruction. _____________________________________________ _________ 10

   *    *    *    D    *    *


2.2.2. Radical reconstruction. _______________________________________________________________ 11

   *    *    *    *    I    *


2.2.3. The end of the reconstruction __________________________________________________________ 12

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   *    *    *
 3. USA Growth and

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   *    B    *
and Transformation _______________________________

  O
____________________________________________
_____________ 12

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3.1. Technology and Industrial
Industrial change. ______________________________
______________________________________________
________________ 12

*    *    *    *    *    *    *    H    N    *


3.1.2. Corporations and cities. ______________________________________________________________ 13

   N    *    *


3.1.3. Railroads, regulations and tariffs. _______________________________________________________ 14

   *    *    *   O   O


   I    E    *
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 4. Discontent and reform____________________________________
reform______________________________________________________
__________________ 15

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4.1. The struggles of labor. ______________________________________________________ ___ 15

   *    *    *    M    *    *


4.1.1. The reform impulse. _________________________________________________________________ 17

*    *    *    *    *    P    R    E    U    *    *    *    *
4.1.2. Roosevelt’s reforms. _________________________________________________________________ 17

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 5. War, Prosperity and
and Depression _____________________________
______________________________________________
_________________ 19

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5.1. War and neutral rights._______________________________

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________________________________________________________

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_________________________ 19

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5.1.1 United States enter the WW1. __________________________________________________________ 20

   *    *    D   O    *    *    *


5.1.2. The League of Nations. ________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________ 21

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*    *    *
   *    U    M
   E    I    D    *    *    *    *
5.2. The booming 1920s. ________________________________________________________
________________________ ___________________________________
___ 21

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5.2.1. Tension over immigration. ____________________________________________________________ 22

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5.2.2. Clash of cultures. ___________________________________________________________________ 22

   *   A    E    *    *    *    *


5.2.3. The great depression. ________________________________________________________________ 23

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6. The New Deal and World War 2. ______________________________
_____________________________________________
_______________ 23

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6.1. F.D. Roosevelt and the New Deal. __________________________________

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________________________________________________
______________ 23

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6.1.1. Unemployment. ___________________________________________________ _________________ 24

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6.1.2. Agriculture. ________________________________________________________________________ 24

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6.2. The World War 2. __________________________________________

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__________ __________________________________________________

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__________________ 26

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6.2.1. Eve of the WW2. _____________________ ______________________________________________ 26

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6.2.2. Japan, Pearl Harbor and war. __________________________________________________________ 27

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 Bibliography ________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________ 28

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 Brief summary. __________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________
___________________________ 29

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1. Tim

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Timelin
eline.
e.
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-1820: MISSOURI COMPROMISE : Missouri was admitted as a slave state & Maine as a free state. In addition, Congress

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 .

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  a

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slavery in the territory acquired by the Louisiana Purchase.
banned slavery in

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-1844: Samuel F. B. Morse had
Morse had perfected electrical telegraphy.
telegraphy.

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  v
   i -1845: Texas becomes
Texas  becomes a US (slave) State.

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   C Democrats.

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-1848: C ALIFO RNIA-fever .

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  e

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   h -1850: THE COMPROMISE OF 1850: 1850: California becomes a (free) US state, …

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Whigs.

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   f -1854: K ANSAS -NEBRASKA  A CT: Kansas and Nebraska were allowed to become either in free or slave states, against

   *    *    *    *    *    *


  o

   *    *    *


  s the MISSOURI COMPROMISE.
  e 14 F. PIERCE

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  s -1857: Dred Scott,
Scott , a M ISSOURI slave, asked for liberation on the ground of his residence on a free-soil state (I LLINOIS).
15 J. BUCHANAN

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  u

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The Supreme Court (dominated by Southerns) decided that he was not a citizen and that his master has the right to

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  a

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carry his properties wherever he liked.

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-1860: Abr
-1860: Abr aham Lin co coln  is elected as the new president of
ln is president  of the USA.

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Republicans .
Republicans.

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 . -1861: SOUTH C AROLINA secedes from

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  r secedes  from the USA

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  a

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st

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February, 1 . Six more States seceded.

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   W 16 A. LINCOLN

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th
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February, 7 .The 7 States adopted a provisional constitution as the CONFEDERATE STATES.

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th

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 April, 12 . The USA Civil War begins.
begins .

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   C -1964: End of Civil War : General Lee surrenders.

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Iván Matellanes’ Notes

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Tema 52:
3

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La evolución histórica de Estados Unidos: De Lincoln a Roosevelt.

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-1965: Lincoln is assassinated at

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assassinated  at Ford’s Theater by a Southern resentful by the South defeat.

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th
 . December . 13  Amendment is
 Amendment  is ratified by the Congress. The slavery is abolished.

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  n

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  o -1866: Foundation of
   i Foundation  of the K U K LUX K LA N (Tennessee) & the KNIGHTS OF THE WHITE CAMELLIA .
   t -1867: RECONSTRUCTION ACT: Congress divided the South into 5 districts & placed them under military rule.

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  c

   *    *    *    *    *


  u
17 Andrew JOHNSON
  r

*    *
Purchase of A LASKA from Russia.

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   t

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  s -1868: The 14th  Amendment is

   *
  n  Amendment  is ratified: All persons born in the US are US/State citizens.

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  o -1869: NOBLE ORDER OF THE K NIGHTS OF L ABOR :  1st trade union to organize workers on a nationwide basis.

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  c

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  e -1870: The 15th  Amendment is

   *    *    *    *    *


  r  Amendment  is ratified: US citizens can vote regardless their color, race …

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   A -1872: A

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-1872: AMNESTY A CT: Restoration of full political rights to almost all Confederate sympathizers.

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st
   U -1876: Alex
-1876: Alex ander
and er Gr aham B ell  exhibited the 1 telephone.
ell exhibited telephone. 18 U. S. GRANT

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-1873: SUPREME COURT:  14th Amendment give no new privileges to protect blacks from state power . 19 R. B. H AYES

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st

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-1874: M ASSACHUSETTS  passed 1  legislation limiting the working hours  for women & child to 10/day. 20 James G ARFIELD

*    *    *   A    *    *


-1877: Federal troops withdrew from the South, South, abandoning federal defense of black’s civil rights. 21 C. A. ARTHUR
 .

   *    *
March. GREAT R AIL STRIKE: Rail workers across the nation went out on strike due to a 10% pay cut.

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  m

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   i -1883: SUPREME COURT: 14th Amendment did not prevent individuals from practicing discrimination.
discrimination.

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  a -1886: The A
The AMERICAN FEDERATION OF L ABOR  was organized as an association of trade unions.

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March. H AYMARK ET SQUARE INCIDENT :  A bomb was thrown into a meeting in which a strike at the McCormick 22 G.CLEVELAND

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  a

   B
Harvester Company was been discussed.

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  o -1887: INTERSTATE COMMERCE A CT: Forbid excessive transport charges & rate discrimination.
discrimination.

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  - st
-1890: SHERMAN  A NTITRUST ACT: 1  measure passed to prohibit trusts. Contract or combinations that limited interstate 23 B. H ARRISON

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and foreign trade become illegal.

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  o -1896: PLESSY VS. FERGUSON: separate but equal  public spaces for blacks didn’t violate their rights. rights . 24 G.CLEVELAND
   l
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  O    *    *


   A -1898: SPANISH -AMERICAN W AR for the Independence of Cuba.

   *    *    *   O    I    E    *


-1901: UNITED STATES STEEL CORPORATION resulted from Carnegie’s company & others merging.

   *    *    *    *


September . The President of the USA is assassinated and T. Roosevelt assumes the presidency. presidency . 25 W. MCKINLEY

   *    *
 .

  S
26 T. ROOSEVELT

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-1906: HEPBURN ACT: Strengthened the government's trust regulatory power more definitively.

   *    R
  m

   M    *    *


  s
   i March. PURE-FOOD LAW: Banned the use of any drugs or chemicals in prepared medicines & foods. 27 William H. T AFT

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-1913: Ratified the 17th Amendment:
Amendment: Direct election of senators by the people

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  s

*    *    *    *


  s October . UNDERWOOD T ARIFF : Rate reductions on imported raw materials, foodstuffs, cotton, iron …

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  e
  r
  g December. FEDERAL RESERVE  A CT: New organization of the banking system, divided into 12 districts, all

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  o
  r supervised by a Federal Reserve Board

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-1914: CLAYTON A NTITRUST ACT: supplement to the S HERMAN ANTITRUST ACT.

   *    *    P    *


Summer . First world war .

   *    *    D   O    *    *


-1915: SEAMEN' S A CT: improved living and working conditions on board ships.

   *    *    *    *


-1916: WORKINGMAN' S COMPENSATION A CT: Payments to civil service workers for disabilities done at work.

   *    M    *


28 W. WILSON

   E    I    D    *    *    *


March. A DAMSON ACT: Established an eight-hour day for railroad labor.

*    *    *    U    *    *    *


-1917: President WILSON asks the congress for a declaration of War .
-1918: Wilson’s FOURTEEN POINTS: Formation of an association of nations.

   *    *    *


 .

   *
   1 Summer . Germany is defeated
defeated . They want to negotiate with Wilson on the basis of the 14 POINTS.

  A    E    *    *    *    *


   W -1919: 18TH & 19TH AMENDMENT: Forbid the
Forbid  the sale of alcoholic drinks;
drinks ; Women are
Women  are allowed to vote.vote.

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   W

  Q    *
June. The TREATY OF VERSAILLES is signed. The WW WW1 1 is offic ially over .

   *    L    T    *


-1920: Creation of the League of Nations (ONU).
Nations (ONU).

   *    *    *    *


March. The Senate rejects
rejects b oth  the VERSAILLES TREATY and the L EAGUE COVENANT .
oth the

   *    *   S    *    *    *    *


November . Warren G. H ARDING became the new president of the USA.

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *


-1921: Adolf  H
 HITLER becomes leader  of  of National Socialist 'Nazi' Party .
'Nazi' Party. 29 W. G. H ARDING

   E    *    *    *


-1924: IMMIGRATION QUOTA L AW : It limited the annual number of immigrants to 150,000.

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30 Calvin COOLIDGE

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-1929: The stock market crashed.
crashed .

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31 H. C. HOOVER

   *    *
-1931: Japan invaded Manchuri
Manchuri a.

   *    *    E    *    *    *    *    *


-1933: The DRY LAW is cancelled.
cancelled.

   *    *    *    *    *    *


January. Adolf HITLER becomes Chancellor
Chancellor of Germany
Germany..

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 A GRICULTURAL  A DJUSTMENT A CT: Provide economic aid to farmers.

   *
 .

   *    *   D   *    *


  s

*    *    *
  e N ATIONAL INDUSTRIAL RECOVERY  A CT created the N ATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION (NRA), which

   *    *    *


   i

   *
  c
   i set codes of fair comp etitive practice to generate
generate more jobs and thu s more buying.
buying .

   *
   l

   *    *    *    *


  o

   *
  p November . CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS : Men in civil work camps across the country > $30/month.

   *    *
   l

   *    *    *


  a -1935: NRA was
NRA was declared unconstitutional.
unconstitutional.

   *    *
  e

   *    *    *    *    *    *


   D N ATIONAL L ABOR RELATIONS  A CT: Defined unfair labor practices & gave workers the right to

   *    *
 .   w

   *    *    *    *


   2   e negotiate through unions. 32 F.D. ROOSEVELT

   *    *
   N

   *
   W

   *    *
SOCIAL SECURITY  A CT: Insurance sys for the aged,
aged , unemployed & disabled based
disabled based on employer &

   *    *    *


   W

   *    *    *


employee contributions

   *    *
  e

   *
  r

   *    *    *


   P Italy attacked Ethiopia.
Ethiopia.

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *


1935,36,37: NEUTRALITY  A CTS: No American could legally sail on an aggressive ship; prohibition to trade

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *


munitions and making loans to any country in war.

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *


-1938: HITLER incorporated Austria into the German Reich

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *
-1939: Poland is assaulted by the Nazis:Nazis : England & France declare war to Germany > WW2

   *
-1940: 1st  peacetime RECRUITMENT BILL ever enacted in the USA.

   *    *    *    *    *


th

   *    *
-1941: Decembre, 7 . Japanese carrier-based
Japanese carrier-based planes attacked th e U.S.
U.S. Pacif
Pacif ic fl eet at Pearl
Pearl Harbor.

   *    *    *    *


th

   *
 .

   *
December, 8 . USA Congress declareddeclared a s tate of war wi th Japan.
Japan.

   *    *    *    *


   2

   *
th

   *
December, 11 . Germany & Italy declare the war to USA. USA.

   *
   W

   *    *    *    *    *    *


   W -1943: July. British & American forces invade Sicily Sicily..

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *


November . D.D. EISENHOWER was appointed Supreme Commander  of  of Allied Forces in Europe.

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *


-1944: June. Rome is liberated and
liberated and an invasion army landed on the beaches of NORMANDY.

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *
 August. Paris is liberated
is liberated..

   *    *    *    *


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Iván Matellanes’ Notes

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Tema 52:
4

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La evolución histórica de Estados Unidos: De Lincoln a Roosevelt.

   *
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   *    *    *
   *    *
   *    *
   *    *
   *
-1945: April. President ROOSEVELT dies suddenly. Harry TRUMAN becomes president of the USA.

   *    *    *    *    *


rd
May. The German 3  Reich surrenders.

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *


July. USA, UK & USSR met at P OTSDAM (Berlin): POTSDAM DECLARATION : Japan would neither be

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *


destroyed nor slaved if it yielded before the 3 rd August. Tests o f the atomic bomb in New Mexico.

*    *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *


 .
th
 August, 6 . The E NOLA G AY dropped an atomic bomb on the city of HIROSHIMA. 33 Harry S. TRUMAN

   *
   2 th

   *    *
 August, 8 . Second atomic bomb w as dropped, this time on N AGASAK I .

   *
   W

   *
th

   *
   W

   *
 August, 14 . Japan agreed to the terms set at POTSDAM.

   *    *    *    *    *    *


nd

   *
September, 2 . Japan surrendered.

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *


November . TRIALS OF NUREMBERG.

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Iván Matellanes’ Notes

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*    *    *    *
Tema 52:
5

   *    *    *    *    *


La evolución histórica de Estados Unidos: De Lincoln a Roosevelt.

   *
   *    *
   *    *    *
   *    *
   *    *
   *    *
   *
   *
   *    *    *
2. The civil war

   *    *
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   *
*    *    *
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   *    *    *    *
   *
2.1. Slavery & sectio nalism.
   *    *    *    *    *
   *    *
   *    *    *    *    *    *    *
   *    *
One issue intensified the regional and economic differences

   *
   *    *    *
between North and South:

   *    *
   *    *
   *
SLAVERY .

   *    *    *


   *
Resenting the large profits amassed by

   *
   *
*    *    *    *    *
   *    *    *
   *    *    *
   *   A    *
Northern businessmen from marketing the cotton crop, Southerners attributed
   *
   *
   *    *    *    *    D    *
   *    *
the backwardness(=” retraso ”)  of their own section to Northern enlargement.
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Northerners, on the other hand, declared that slavery (the "peculiar institution,"

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which the South regarded as essential to its economy) was wholly responsible

   *    N    *


   *
*    *    *    *    *    *    *    H    N    *    *
for the region's relative backwardness.

   *
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   I    E    *
   *
 As far back as 1830, sectional lines had been steadily hardening on the

   *    *    *


   *
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   *    *    *    R   S    M    *
   *
slavery question. In the North, abolitionist feeling grew more and more

   *    *    *


   *
*    *    *    *    *    P    R    E    U    *    *    *
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powerful, fomented by a movement vigorously opposed to the

   *    *   A   C    *    *


extension of slavery into the Western regions not yet organized as

   *
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   *    D    P    *
   *    *
   *
states. To Southerners of 1850, slavery was a condition for which they

  O    *
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*    *    *
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felt no more responsible than for their English speech  or their
   *
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   *
representative institutions. In some seaboard areas, slavery by 1850 was well

   *
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   *    L  A    T   E    *
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over 200 years old; it was an integral part of the basic economy of the region.

  Q    *
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Political leaders of the South, the professional classes and most

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   *   S    *    *
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of the clergy now no longer apologized for slavery but supported it.
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Southern publicists insisted that the relationship btw capital & labor was more
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human under the slavery system than under the wage system.
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2.1.1. The Abolitionists.

   *    *    *    *    *


In national politics, Southerners chiefly sought protection and

   *    *    *    *    *    *


   *
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enlargement of the interests represented by the cotton-slavery system.
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Expansion was considered a necessity because the wastefulness of cultivating a

   *    *    *    *


   *
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single crop, cotton, rapidly exhausted the soil, increasing the need for new

   *    *
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fertile lands. Moreover, the South believed it needed new territory for additional

   *    *    *


   *
   *    *    *    *    *    *
slave states to equilibrate the admission of new free states.

   *
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   *
 An earlier antislavery movement, an consequence of the American
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Revolution, had won its last victory in 1808 when Congress abolished the
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slave trade with Africa. Thereafter, opposition was largely by the Quakers,

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Iván Matellanes’ Notes

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Tema 52:
6

   *    *    *    *    *


La evolución histórica de Estados Unidos: De Lincoln a Roosevelt.

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who kept up a mild but ineffectual protest, while the cotton gin and westward

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expansion into the Mississippi delta region were creating an increasing demand

*    *    *
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for slaves.
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The abolitionist movement that emerged in the early 1830s was
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combative, inflexible and insistent upon an immediate end to slavery.

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*    *    *    *
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This approach found a leader in WILLIAM LLOYD G ARRISON. Garrison's methods

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awakened Northerners to the evil in an institution many had long come to

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regard as unchangeable. He recognized no rights of the masters, acknowledged

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no compromise, tolerated no delay. Other abolitionists, unwilling to subscribe to

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his law-defying tactics, held that reform should be accomplished by legal and

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peaceful means.
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2.1.2. The Compromise of 1850.

*    *    *    *    *


Until 1845, it had seemed likely that slavery would be confined to

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   *   A    P   C    *
the areas where it already existed. It had been given limits by the

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Missouri Compromise in 1820 and had no opportunity to break them .

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Many
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Northerners

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believed that if not allowed to
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spread,

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slavery

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would

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ultimately decline and die. To

   *    *    E    *    *


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 justify their opposition to adding

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new slave states, they pointed to

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the statements of Washington and

*    *    *
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Jefferson, and to the Northwest

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Ordinance of 1787, which forbade

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   *    *    *    *    *    *    *
the extension of slavery into the

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Northwest. TEXAS, which already

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permitted
   *
   *
slavery,
   *
   *
naturally

   *    *    *


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entered the Union as a slave

   *
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   *
state.

   *
   *
But

   *
C ALIFORNIA,

   *
NEW

   *    *    *


   *    *    *    *    *    *
MEXICO and UTAH did not have

   *
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slavery, and when the United
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Iván Matellanes’ Notes

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Tema 52:
7

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La evolución histórica de Estados Unidos: De Lincoln a Roosevelt.

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States prepared to take over these areas in 1846, there were conflicting

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suggestions on what to do with them . Extremists in the South urged
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*    *    *
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that all the lands acquired from Mexico be thrown open to slave
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holders.  Antislavery Northerners, on the other hand, demanded that all
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the new regions be closed to slavery. One group of moderates suggested

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*    *    *    *
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that the Missouri Compromise line be extended to the Pacific with free

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   *    *    *    D    *    *
states north of it and slave states to the south .

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In January 1848 the discovery of gold in C ALIFORNIA precipitated a

   B    *
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mad movement of more than 80,000 settlers for the single year 1849.

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C ALIFORNIA became a crucial question, for clearly Congress had to determine

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the status of this new region before an organized government could be

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established. Now once again it was stopped a dangerous sectional

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quarrel with a complicated and carefully balanced plan.
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The compromise (as subsequently modified in Congress) contained a

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number of key provisions: (1) that C ALIFORNIA be admitted as a state

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with a free-soil (slavery-prohibited) constitution; (2) that the remainder
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of the new annexation be divided into the two territories of NEW MEXICO
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and UTAH and organized without mention of slavery; (3) that the claims

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of Texas to a portion of New Mexico be satisfied by a payment of $10
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million; (4) that more effective machinery be established for catching

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runaway slaves and returning them to their masters ; and (5) that the

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buying and selling of slaves (but not slavery) be abolished in the District
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*    *    *
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of Columbia. These measures (known in American history as the COMPROMISE
   *
   *
OF 1850)
   *
were passed.

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For three years, the compromise seemed to settle nearly all
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differences. Beneath the surface, however, tension grew. The new Fugitive

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   *
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Slave Law deeply offended many Northerners , who refused to have

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   *
any part in catching slaves. Moreover, many Northerners continued to help
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fugitives escape.
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Iván Matellanes’ Notes

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*    *    *    *
Tema 52:
14

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La evolución histórica de Estados Unidos: De Lincoln a Roosevelt.

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   *
 In this new industrial order, the city was the nerve center,
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   *
bringing to a focus all the nation's dynamic economic forces: vast
   *
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*    *    *
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accumulations of capital, business and financial institutions, spreading railroad

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yards, smoky factories, & armies workers. Villages, attracting people from the

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countryside, grew into towns & towns into cities almost overnight.

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3.1.3. Railroads, regulations and tariffs.
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Railroads became increasingly important to the expanding

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nation.
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Rail lines extended

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cheaper
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to

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large

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companies,

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*    *    *
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   *    N    T
disadvantaging small shippers. Moreover, while competition drop transport

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charges between cities with several rail connections, rates were excessive

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   *   O    I    E    *
   *
between points served by only one line. These practices stimulated state

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efforts at regulation. In 1887 President Grover CLEVELAND   signed the
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*    *    *    *    *    P    R    *
INTERSTATE COMMERCE  ACT, which forbade excessive charges and rate

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discrimination, and created an Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to

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guard against violations of the act.

*    *    *    U    M


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The president was also active  in combating the high tariff 1, which,
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adopted originally as an emergency war measure, had come to be
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accepted

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as

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permanent
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national
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policy

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under

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the

   *
Republican

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   *    *    *   S    *
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presidents who dominated the politics of the era. CLEVELAND , a Democrat,

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   *    *
   *
regarded excessive protecting tariffs as responsible in large measure
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for an oppressive increase in the cost of living and for the rapid
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development of trusts. The tariff became the main issue of the

*    *    *
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presidential election campaign in 1888, and Republican  candidate
   *
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Benjamin H ARRISON, a defender of protectionism, won.

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During this period, public antipathy toward the trusts increased.

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The nation's gigantic corporations, subjected to bitter attack through the 1880s

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became a hotly debated political issue. To break the monopolies, the
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SHERMAN  ANTITRUST  ACT  (1890) was the 1 st  measure passed by the U.S.

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Congress to prohibit trusts. The act declared illegal every contract or

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combination that limited interstate and foreign trade  under a fine of

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1

   *
 Also called CUSTOMS DUTY , a tax levied on a products traded across a border of a country or

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that of a group of countries that have formed a customs union.

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Iván Matellanes’ Notes

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Tema 52:
15

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La evolución histórica de Estados Unidos: De Lincoln a Roosevelt.

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$5,000 & imprisonment for one year. A decade later, the effective application of

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T. R OOSEVELT ’s administration baptized him as " trust-buster."
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3.2. The divided South.
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Intransigent white Southerners, who resisted Reconstruction through
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their positions in the national government in Washington, found ways to stress

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state control to maintain white dominance . Several Supreme Court

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decisions reinforced the views of these Southerners. In 1873  the Supreme

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Court found that the 14 th Amendment conferred no new privileges or

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immunities to protect African Americans from state power . In 1883,

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furthermore, it ruled that the 14th Amendment did not prevent individuals

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from practicing discrimination. And in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)  the

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Court found that "separate but equal" public accommodations for

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 African Americans, such as trains & restaurants, didn’t violate their rights.
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Soon the principle of segregation by race extended into every

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area of Southern life, from railroads to restaurants, hotels, hospitals

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and schools. With the complicity of two major parties, calls for racial justice

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attracted little support, and segregationist laws remained common in the South

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well into the second half of the 20th century.

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4. Discontent and reform

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4.1. The strugg les of labor.

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The life of a 19th-century American industrial worker was far
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from easy. Even in good times, wages were low, hours long and working

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conditions unsafe. Little of the prosperity which the growth of the

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nation had generated went to its workers. The situation was worse for

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women and children, who made up a high percentage of the work force in
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some industries and often received but a fraction of the wages a man could
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earn. At the same time, the technological improvements continually
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reduced the demand for skilled labor.
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Before 1874, when Massachusetts passed the nation's first

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legislation limiting the working-hours of women & child to 10/day,

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virtually no labor legislation existed in the country. It was not until the
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Iván Matellanes’ Notes

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*    *    *    *
Tema 52:
16

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La evolución histórica de Estados Unidos: De Lincoln a Roosevelt.

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1930s that the federal government would become actively involved. Until then,

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the field was left to the state and local authorities.
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The “allow-to-do ” 2  capitalism, which dominated the second half of

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the 19th C, was supported by the judiciary system which again and again
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ruled against those who challenged the system. The " SOCIAL D ARWINISM," as it

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was known, had many supporters who argued that any attempt to regulate

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business was equivalent to impede the natural evolution of species .

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 Yet the costs of this indifference to the victims of capital were high. Most

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industrial staff still worked a 10-hour day (12 hours in the steel industry), yet

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earned from 20%-40% less than the minimum considered necessary for a

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decent life.
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The first major effort to organize workers' groups on a nationwide basis

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appeared with The NOBLE ORDER OF THE K NIGHTS OF L ABOR  in 1869. They grew
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slowly until they succeeded in facing the great railroad baron, Jay Gould, in

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an 1885 strike. The Knights of Labor soon fell into decline, however, and

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their place in the labor movement was gradually taken by the
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 AMERICAN FEDERATION OF L ABOR . Their objectives were: increasing wages,
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reducing hours and improving working conditions. Labor's goals resulted

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in the most violent labor conflicts in the nation's history. The first of
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these occurred with the GREAT R 
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 AIL STRIKE  of 1877, when rail workers

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across the nation went out on strike in response to a 10-percent pay

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cut. Attempts to break the strike led a wide-scale destruction in several cities.
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The second  was the H AYMARKET SQUARE INCIDENT (1886). Someone threw a
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bomb into a meeting called to discuss an ongoing strike at the McCormick

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Harvester Company in Chicago. In the resulting fight, nine people were killed
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and some 60 injured. Next came the Homestead strike of 1892 at Carnegie's

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steel works. A group of 300 Pinkerton detectives the company had hired to

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break a bitter strike by the Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel and Tin
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Workers were fired upon and 10 were killed. The National Guard was called in
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as a result, non-union workers hired and the strike broken. Unions were not let

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back into the plant until 1937.
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2

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 Policy based on minimum of governmental interference in the economic affairs of the States.

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Iván Matellanes’ Notes

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Tema 52:
17

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La evolución histórica de Estados Unidos: De Lincoln a Roosevelt.

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4.1.1. The reform imp uls e.

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Theodore Roosevelt, vice president at the moment, assumed the

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presidency in 1901 after the president’s assassination. Roosevelt's accession

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coincided with a new epoch in American political life. A small republic had

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become a world power. The country's political foundations had endured the
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vicissitudes of foreign and civil war, the tides of prosperity and depression.
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In response to the excesses of 19th-century capitalism  and
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political corruption, a reform movement arose, called

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PROGRESSIVISM .

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The

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Progressives saw their work as a democratic crusade against the

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abuses of urban political bosses and corrupt magnates. Their goals were

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greater democracy & social justice. Almost all the notable figures (politics,

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philosophy & literature) of the time were connected with the reform movement.

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4.1.2. Roosevelt’s reforms.
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By the early 20th century, most of the larger cities and more than half the

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states had established an eight-hour day on public works. Equally

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important were the workmen's compensation laws, which made employers
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legally responsible for injuries sustained by employees at work.

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R OOSEVELT  initiated a policy of increased government supervision in
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the enforcement of antitrust laws. Later, extension of government
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supervision over the railroads prompted the passage of major regulatory bills.

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His striking personality and his "trust-busting" activities captured the

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imagination of the ordinary individual, and approval of his progressive measures

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cut across party lines. He was reelected in 1904. Encouraged by a sweeping

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electoral triumph, Roosevelt applied fresh determination to the cause of reform.
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In June 1906  Congress passed the HEPBURN  ACT. It strengthened the

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Interstate Commerce Commission, defining the government's regulatory

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power more definitively. Other congressional measures were
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PURE-FOOD LAW of

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1906, which prohibited the use of any "deleterious drug, chemical or

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preservative" in prepared medicines and foods.

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Conservation of the nation's natural resources, putting an end to
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wasteful exploitation of raw materials and the reclamation of wide stretches of
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neglected land were among the other major achievements of the Roosevelt era.
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Iván Matellanes’ Notes

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Tema 52:
28

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La evoluc ión histórica de Estados Unido : De Lincoln a Roosevelt.

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On 16t   July, an atomic bomb was tested at New Mexico. President

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TRU  AN,
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calc lating tha  an atomic bomb might b   used to gain Ja an's

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sur ender m re quic ly and w ith fewe  casualti s than a n invasi n of

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the mainlan , ordered the bomb be used i  the Japa ese did n t surrend r by

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 Aug st 3. The  Allies iss ed the POTSDAM
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ECLARATI N  on

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July  26, pro ising

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that Japan would neither be destroyed nor nslaved i  it surren ered; if Japan

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did ot, howe er, it would meet "utter destr ction."

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 A com ittee of
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SA milit ry and

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olitical
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fficials nd scientists

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con idered the question of targets fo the ne

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weapo . TRUMA had

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writ en that o ly military installations s ould be argeted. Hiroshi a, a

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cen er of war industries an   militar

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operations, wa   chosen. On

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 August 6, a .S. plane  the Enol Gay, d opped a   atomic bomb on the

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city of Hiroshima. On  August
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, a seco d atomic bomb
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this time on Nagasak i. On  Aug st 14, J pan agr ed to th  terms s t at

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Pot dam. O

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Septe ber 2, 1945, Japan for ally su rendere . In

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Nov mber 1945 at Nure berg, Germany, th crimina  trials o  Nazi leaders
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pro ided for at POTSD M took
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place.
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Bi liogra hy

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Main ource: My UAB notes & Sourc : http://usinfo. state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/hi tory/toc.htm

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http://college.hmco.c m/history/rea erscomp/rcah/html/ah_003400_americanfed .htm

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http://www.theodore- roosevelt.com/hepburnact.ht l

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http://bensguide.gpo. gov/6-8/gover ment/national/ president_list.html

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Iván Matellane ’ Notes

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Topic 52: Brief summary . 29

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Brief summary.

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La evolución histórica de Estados Unidos: De Lincoln a Roosevelt

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- THE CIVIL W AR (see TOPIC 46 for the maps)

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- One issue intensified the regional and economic differences between North and South: Slavery .

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♦ To Southerners, slavery was a condition for which they felt no more responsible than for their English speech.

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♦ In the North, abolitionist feeling grew more powerful, fomented by a mov opposed to th e extension of sl avery into the Western regions.

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- In 1820, MISSOURI, which had 10,000 slaves, applied to enter the Union: MISSOURI COMPROMISE. [M AP 2]

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♦ Northerners opposed MISSOURI's entry except as a free state, and a storm of protest swept the country.

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♦ It was arranged with the MISSOURI COMPROMISE: MISSOURI was admitted as a slave state at the same tim e M AINE  came in as a f ree state.

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 ___ In addition, Congress banned slavery from the territory acquired by the Louisiana Purchase (parallel 36º 30’).

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♦ From 1816 to 1821, 6 states were cr eated: INDIANA, ILLINOIS and M AINE (Free states), and MISSISSIPPI, ALABAMA and MISSOURI (Slave states)

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- The compromise of 1850 : was again taken in order to balance the number of free-soil and slave states. [M AP 3]

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♦ TEXAS entered the Union as a slave state, But C ALIFORNIA , NEW MEXICO and UTAH did not have slavery.

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 ___ The South wanted the lands to be open to s lave holders, while Northerners demanded that all the new regions be closed to slavery.

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 ___ Some moderates suggested that the MISSOURI COMPROMISE line be extended to the Pacific w /free states north of it & s lave states south.

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♦ In 1848 the discovery of gold in C ALIFORNIA  precipitated a mad movement of more than 80,000 settlers for the single year 1849.

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♦ A compromise was created containing a number of key provisions:

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 ___ (1) C ALIFORNIA  was admitted as a st ate w/a free-soil constitution;

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 ___ (2) The remainder of the new annexation was divided into the 2 territories (NEW MEXICO & UTAH) with no mention to slavery;

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 ___ (3) The TEXAS’ claims to a portion of N EW MEXICO was paid w/ $10 million ___ (4) Catching runaway slaves & returning them.

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 ___ (5) that the buying and selling of slaves (but not slavery) be abolished in the DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

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- The K ANSAS -NEBRASKA A CT of 1854: In 1854 the old issue of slavery in the territories was renewed. [M AP 4]

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♦ Under the MISSOURI COMPROMISE, the entire region was closed to slavery. The COMPROMISE OF 1850 accidentally reopened the question.

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 ___ The Qs of slavery should be left to the decision of the settlers themselves (POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY). This act ended in a vast migration of

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both Southern slave holders & antislavery families into K ANSAS , WHICH  resulted in an armed conflict (“ B LEEDING K ANSAS ")

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♦ WHIG P ARTY  (no clear political ideas about slavery expansion) died & REPUBLICAN P ARTY  arose (slavery excluded from all territories- A. L INCOLN).

*    *    *    *    *


- In the presidential election  of 1860 A. L INCOLN (REPUBLICAN) won  only 39% of the popular vote, but 180 electoral votes(all 18 free states).

   *    *
♦ Lincoln's election made SOUTH C AROLINA 's secession from the Union inevitable. By February, 1861, 6 more Southern st ates seceded.

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♦ The 7 states adopted a provisional constitution for the CONFEDERATE STATES OF A MERICA .

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♦ A. L INCOLN  refused to recogn ize the secession, considering it legally v oid . His speech closed with a plea for restoration of the bonds of union.

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 ___ The South tur ned deaf ears and elected a president of the CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA , J EFFERSON D AVIS . A war had begun. [M AP5]

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- After the War  (1864), L INCOLN delivered his last public address, in which he presented a generous r econstructi on polic y .

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On April, the president was assassinated by JOHN WILKES BOOTH, a Virginia actor embittered by the South's defeat.

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 ANDREW J OHNSON (LINCOLN’s vice president) followed his predecessor policy. In L INCOLN ’s view, the people of the Southern states had never

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legally seceded; they had been misled by some disloyal citizens  & since the war was the act of individuals, the federal government would

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have to deal with these individuals and not with the states. However, some years afterwards the vision w as radicalized.

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th th th

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 ___ The 13  (slavery abolishment), 14  (ex-slaves considered citizens) 15  (all citizens can vote) amendments were passed.

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 ___ South was against the amendments & the federal gov place the southern states under military rule ignoring the legislatures established (1867).

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 ___ In the South, whites tried to un do some of the war's effects. By the 1890s many of the old Conf ederate leaders were back in pow er , &

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blacks had lost their right to vote, and couldn't go to school with whites.

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- USA GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION.

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- Btw the Civil & the WW1, in a period of less than 50 years, the USA was transformed from a rural republic to an urban state .

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♦ Great factories and steel mills, transcontinental railroad lines, flourishing cities and vast agricultural holdings marked the land.

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♦ ANDREW C ARNEGIE  was largely responsible for the great advances in steel production . He controlled the new mills of coke & coal, iron ore, a

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vast fleet of steamers, a port town and a connecting railroad. Nothing com parable in industri al growth had ever been seen in America before.

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 ___ Though C ARNEGIE long dominated the industry, he never achieved a complete monopo ly over the natural resour ces, transportation and

*    *    *    *   D   *    *    *


industrial plants involved in the making of steel .

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♦ New companies convinced him to merge his holdings w/an group that would embrace most US iron & steel properties: The UNITED STATES STEEL

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CORPORATION , an example of a process under way for 30 years: the combination of independent enterprises into centralized companies.

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- Companies realized that if they could control both production and markets , they could bring competing firms into a single

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organization. The CORPORATION and the TRUST were developed to achieve these ends:

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♦ A CORPORATION  is a organization formed by a group of people. It has rights & legal responsibilities apart from those of the individuals involved.

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♦ A TRUST is a business organization consisting of a number of firms or corporations often united under an agreement.

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♦ The trend towards merging was manifest in many fields, particularly in transportation & communications: The STANDARD OIL COMPANY ,

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founded by John D. ROCKEFELLER, was one of the earliest and strongest corporations.

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *


- R AILROA DS became increasingly important to the expanding nation.

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♦ Competition btw diff Rail lines and small shippers drop transport charges between cities with several rail connections.

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♦ Transport charges were excessive btw points served by only one line. Therefore, President G. CLEVELAND (democrat) signed the INTERSTATE

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *
COMMERCE ACT, which said that charges on railroads must be “reasonable & just” and created the INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION.

   *    *
- President was also active in combating the high tariff  (tax levied on a products traded across the diff states)  which, adopted origin ally as an

   *    *    *    *    *    *


emergency war measure, had come to be accepted as permanent national pol icy under th e Republic an presidents.

   *    *    *    *    *


♦ CLEVELAND regarded excessive protecting tariffs as responsible for an oppressive increase in the cost of living & for the rapid development

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of trusts. The tariff became the main i ssue of 1888 presidential campaign, & Republican B. H ARRISON, a defender of protectionism, won.

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *


- During this period, public antipathy tow ard the trusts incr eased .

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *


♦ The nation's gigantic corporations, subjected to bitter attack through the 1880s became a hotly debated political issue.

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st
♦ To break the monopolies, the SHERMAN A NTITRUST A CT (1890) was the 1  measure passed by the U.S. Congress to prohibit trusts.

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 ___ It declared illegal every cont ract that limited int erstate & foreign trade under a fine of $5,000 & imprisonment for one year.

   *    *    *


   *    *
- Meanwhile, in the south, they found ways to stress state control t o maintain white dominance.

   *    *    *    *    *    *


th

   *
♦ In 1873 the SUPREME COURT found that the 14  Amendment conferred no new privileges to protect African Americans from state power.

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *


♦ in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) the Court found that "separate but equal" public accommodations for African Americans , such as trains &

   *    *    *    *


Iván Matellanes’ Notes
restaurants, didn’t violate their rights  (Soon the principle of segregation extended into every area of Southern life: railroads, restaurants, hotels…)

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*    *    *    *
Topic 52: Brief summary . 30

   *    *    *    *    *


- THE STRUGGLES OF LABOR :

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th

   *    *
- The lif e of a 19  C American industrial wor ker was far from easy.

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *


♦ Wages were low, hours long & working conditions unsafe. Little of the nation prosperity went to its workers (it was worse for women & child).

   *    *    *    *


st

   *
♦ Before 1874, when M ASSACHUSETTS  passed the nation's 1 legislation limiting the w orking-hours of women & child to 10/day, virtually no

   *    *    *    *    *    *


labor legislation existed throughout the country.

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *
♦ The “allow-to-do” capitalism was supported by t he judiciary system ⇒ The SOCIAL D ARWINISM  had many supporters who argued that any

*    *    *    *    *    *    *    *


attempt to regulate business was equivalent to impede the natural evolution of species.

   *    *
♦ The first major effort to organize workers' groups on a nationwide basis appeared with The NOBLE ORDER OF THE K NIGHTS OF L ABOR  in 1869.

   *    *    *


 ___ They grew slowly until they succeeded in facing the great railroad baron, J AY GOULD, in an 1885 stri ke.

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 ___ their place was taken by the AMERICAN FEDERATION OF L ABOR , whose objectives were increase wages, reduce hours & improve working cond S.

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st
 ___ The 1 of the violent labor conflicts occurred w/the GREAT R AIL STRIKE (1877): Rail workers went on st rike in respon se to a 10% pay cut.

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *


   *
- T. Roosevelt  (republican), vice president at the moment, assumed the presidency i n 1901 after the president’s assassination.

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th

   *
 In response to th e excesses of 19  C capitalism & political corruption, a reform movement arose called PROGRESSIVISM.

*    *

   *    *
 ___ PROGRESSIVES saw their work as a democratic crusade against th e abuses of urban pol itical bosses and corru pt magnates.

   *    *    *    *    *    *


 ___ Their goals were greater democracy & social justice.

   *    *    D


   I    *    *
♦ ROOSEVELT initiated a policy of increased government supervision in the enforcement of antitrust laws.

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♦ HEPBURN ACT: It strengthened the INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION, defining the government's regulatory power more definitively.

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♦ Even though Roosevelt was very popular in 1908, he supported WILLIAM HOWARD T AFT  as President of the next administration.

   *    *    *    *    B


 ___ T AFT continued the prosecution of trusts & the 17th  Amendment, ratified in 1913, mandated the direct election of senators by the people.

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   *
- In 1912, Woodrow Wilson  (Democrat) campaigned against T AFT (Republican) & ROOSEVELT, who had organized a third party: t he Progressives.

*    *    *    *    *    *    *    H    *    *


♦ UNDERWOOD T ARIFF  (1913) provided rate reductions on imported raw materials, foodstuffs, cotton, iron, steel & removed many other duties.

   N    *
♦ FEDERAL RESERVE ACT (1913) divided the country into 12 districts, w/a FEDERAL RESERVE B ANK  in each, all supervised by a F. R. B OARD.

   *    *    *   O   O


   I    *
♦ CLAYTON A NTITRUST A CT (1914) It prohibited exclusive sales contracts, local price cutting to freeze out competitors.

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- W AR 
 , PROSPERITY &   DEPRESSION:

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   *    R   S    *    *
- In February 1915, German military leaders  announced that they would attack all merchant shipping on the waters around the British Isles.

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   *    *    *
♦ President WILSON warned that the USA would not give up its tradition al right, as a neutral, to trade on the high seas.

*    *    *    *    *    P    R    E    U    *    *    *    *
♦ When 5 USA vessels had been sunk b y April , WILSON asked Congress for a declaration of war.

   *
♦ USA Navy was crucial in helping the British break the submarine blockade and it contributed to an early end to the war .

   *    *
♦ WILSON’S FOURTEEN POINTS, submitted to the Senate in 1918, were the basis for a just peace:

   *    *   A   C    *    *


st

   *
 ___ The 1  5 points proposed peace public agreements. The next 8 points talked about the territorial reorganization of the countries.

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 ___ The last point, the most important one, was the creation of a general association of natio ns to guarantee political independence.

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♦ Wilson made the political mistake of not taking w ith him a leading member of Republic an Party to Paris on his Peace Commission.

   *    *    *    *


 ___ The Senate (1920) rejected both the VERSAILLES TREATY & the LEAGUE COVENANT. The L EAGUE OF N ATIONS remained a weak organization.

*    *    *
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   E    I    D    *    *    *    *
- Governmental policy during the 1920s  was eminently conservative: The TARIFF ACTS of 1922 and 1930 brought tariff to new heights.

   *    *    *


♦ Restriction of foreign immigration during the 1920s marked a significant change in U.S. policy: IMMIGRATION QUOTA L AW .

   *    *    *


♦ Amer icans ex pressed their di sco ntent w ith th e soc ial and i ntellec tu al revol ution in the 1920s by fo cus ing on famil y & r elig io n:

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 ___ Crusade against the Darwinian science of biological evolution  because of biblical reasons. In the 1920s.

   *    *    *    *


 ___ 18TH AMENDMENT to the Constitution prohibited the manufacture, sale or transportation of alcoholic beverages .

   *   Q    L    T    *    *


♦ In October 1929 the STOCK MARKET CRASHED, destroyin g 40% of the paper values of common stock .

   *    *    *    *


 ___ The core of the problem was the immense disparity btw the country's productive capacity and the ability of people to consume.

   *    *   S    *    *    *    *


- THE NEW DEAL AND WW2

   *    *    *    *    *    E    *


   *    *
   *    *
   *    *
- In 1933 the new president, F. D. ROOSEVELT , brought an air of confidence & optimism to the USA citizens with his program, the NEW DEAL:

   *    *
   *    *    *    *    *
♦ The NEW DEAL  merely introduced types of social & economic refor ms which had been already undergone in Europe.

   *    *    *    *


♦ It was the end of a long trend of " allow-to-do " capitalism, back to th e Progressive era of T. ROOSEVELT and WOODROW WILSON.

   *    E    *    *    *    *


♦ An early step for the unemployed came in the form of the CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS (men btw 18 & 25). The CCC enrolled unemplyed

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young men in work camps across the country for $30/monthly, participating in conservation projects as planting trees to combat soil

   *    *
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erosion, …

*    *    *    *    *


 ___ ROOSEVELT favored unemployment programs based on work relief rather than welfare.

   *    *    *


♦ The N ATIONAL RECOVERY A DMINISTRATION  (NRA), established with the N ATIONAL INDUSTRIAL RECOVERY ACT (NIRA), set codes of fair

   *    *    *    *    *


competitive practice to generate more jobs and thus more buying .

   *    *    *    *    *


♦ N ATIONAL L ABOR RELATIONS A CT gave workers the right to negotiate through unions & prohibited employers from interfering w/union activities.

   *    *
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 The WORKS PROGRESS A DMINISTRATION  (WPA), the principal agency of the 2ND NEW DEAL , was an attempt to provide work rather than welfare.

   *    *    *    *    *


♦ But the New Deal's keystone was the SOCIAL SECURITY ACT (1935).

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *


 ___ Social Security created a system of insu rance for the aged, unemployed and disabled based on employer and employee contr ibutio ns.

   *    *    *    *    *


 ___ Although conservatives complained that the SOCIAL SECURITY sys went against American traditions, it was actually relatively conservative.

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *


   *    *
   *
- The Nazi assault on Poland (1939) provoked the beginning of the WW2:

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *


♦ At first, Neutrality legislation (1935-1937) prohibited trade w/any of the warring nations to prevent the involvement of the USA in the war.

   *    *    *    *    *    *


♦ However, Public sentiment favored the victims of Hitler's aggression & supported the Allied that stood in opposition to German expansion.

   *    *    *    *    *


st

   *    *    *    *


♦ Congress voted immense sums for rearmament, & in 1940 passed the 1 peacetime recruitment bill ever enacted in t he USA.

   *    *    *    *    *


th
♦ December 7  1941, Japanese carrier-based pl anes attacked the U.S. Pacific f leet at PEARL H ARBOR . USA has entered the WW2.

   *    *    *    *


♦ 1943 British and American forces invaded Sicily. Rome was not liberated until June 4, 1944.

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *


♦ Late in 1943  General Dwight D. EISENHOWER was appointed Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe. After immense preparations,

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st

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on 1944, the 1 contingents of a USA, British & Canadian invasion army, protected by a air force, landed on the beaches of Normandy.

   *    *    *    *    *    *


 ___ On August Paris was liberated. On May 1945 the Third Reich surrendered its land, sea and air forces.

   *    *    *    *


   *    *
   *    *    *    *
 President ROOSEVELT dies suddenly on 1945 and his vice-president, HENRY TRUMAN, became the new president of the USA.

   *    *

   *    *    *    *


♦ President TRUMAN, calculating that an atomic bomb might be used to gain Japan's surrender mor e quickly & with f ewer casualties than an

   *    *    *    *    *


rd
invasion of the mainland, ordered the bomb be used if the Japanese did not surrender by August 3 , 1945.

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 ___ The Allies issued the POTSDAM DECLARATION on July 26, promising that Japan would neither be destroyed nor en slaved if it surrendered.ç

   *    *    *


 ___ TRUMAN had ordered that only military installations be targeted : A USA plane, the ENOLA G AY , dropped an atomic bomb on H IROSHIMA.

   *    *    *


 ___ Two days afterwards, a 2nd  atomic bomb w as dropped, this time on N AGASA KI .

   *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *


 ___ One week later, Japan agreed to the terms set at POTSDAM & surrender.

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Iván Matellanes’ Notes

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