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BIOPAC Systems, Inc.

Training Seminar

• About BIOPAC

• Hardware Setup

• Software Setup

• Subject Preparation

• Data Acquisition Demonstration

• Data Analysis

• Application Notes and Other Resources

• Question and Answer Session

MP150

MP150
MP150
• A/D Conversion
• A/D Conversion

MP150

• Range of the MP150 system: from -10 to +10 Volts

• A/D resolution: 16 bit

• Dual A/D converters: Reduce Channel/Channel timing latency

65536 levels or 30 microvolts resolution

• Minimum change that can be detected is 30 uvolts. If the signal is not strong, it must be amplified.

• Sample Rate
• Sample Rate

• Max Sample Rate = 200 K Samples/Sec. Max aggregate of 400 kHz

Sampling Rate

ECG waveform sampled with relatively few samples per second. The black dots are the sample points.

Above waveform as it would look if plotted.

Representation of the same ECG waveform sampled at a relatively higher sampling rate.

as it would look if plotted. Representation of the same ECG waveform sampled at a relatively
as it would look if plotted. Representation of the same ECG waveform sampled at a relatively
as it would look if plotted. Representation of the same ECG waveform sampled at a relatively

Sampling Rate

Recommended sample rates for physiological signals

ECG

200 Hz (1,000 Hz for HRV)

Respiration

50

Hz

GSR

50 Hz

EMG

1,000 Hz to 10,000 Hz

EEG

200

Hz

EOG

200

Hz

Blood pressure

100

Hz

Flow rate

50

Hz

EGG (electrogastrogram)

1 Hz

UIM100C Universal Interface

UIM100C Universal Interface • 16 analog channels – Input range between 100 mv and 10 v
UIM100C Universal Interface • 16 analog channels – Input range between 100 mv and 10 v

• 16 analog channels – Input range between 100 mv and 10 v

• 16 digital outputs

• Digital Trigger

• Channels are input and output

Amplifier Settings

Amplifier Settings • Red Channel Switch – Only one amplifier per channel • Gain – Depends

• Red Channel Switch

– Only one amplifier per channel

• Gain

– Depends on application

• Filters

– AC for Biopotential Recording

– DC for Transducer Recording

• Transducer Amplifiers:

– Calibration Required

• Biopotential Amplifiers:

– No Calibration Required

ECG100C Amplifier

• Designed to pass the ECG signal (P, Q, R, S, T waves) with minimal distortion

• Works with disposable or reusable electrodes

• Typical Human Settings:

– GAIN: 2000

– MODE: NORM

– 35Hz LP: ON

– HP: 0.5 Hz

GAIN and typical physiological signal levels

Heart Potential (ECG)

0.5-4 mV

Brain Potential (EEG)

5-300 µV (scalp)

Muscle Potential (EMG)

0.1-5 mV

Electrooculogram (EOG)

50-3,500 µV

Blood Pressure: direct measurement indirect measurement

10-400 mmHg Arterial 25-400 mmHg Venous, 0-50 mmHg Venous

Blood Flow

1-300 cc/sec.

Respiratory Rate

2-50 breaths/min

Pneumotachography (flow rate)

0-600 liter/min.

Tidal Volume

50-1,000 ml/breath

Galvanic Skin Response

1-500 kΩ

Electrogastrogram (EGG)

10-1,000 µV

Source: Revised from Medical Engineering, C.C. Ray (ed.) Copyright 1974 by Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc. Chicago

Filters: Low pass, High Pass, Band Pass, Band Stop, Notch

Low Pass at 5Hz High Pass at 5Hz
Low Pass at 5Hz
High Pass at 5Hz

Filters: A practical Low Pass Filter example with ECG Part I

Noisy ECG data Data after applying a low pass filter at 35Hz
Noisy ECG data
Data after applying a low pass filter at 35Hz

Filters: A practical high pass filter example with ECG Part II

Drifting ECG data Data after applying a high pass filter at 1Hz
Drifting ECG data
Data after applying a high pass filter at 1Hz

GSR100C Amplifier

• Designed to measure skin conductance via the constant voltage technique

• Works with disposable or reusable electrodes

• Grounding provided by Vin-

• Typical Human Settings:

For SCL GAIN: 5 µmhos/V LP: 1.0 Hz HP: DC HP: DC

For SCR GAIN: 5 µmhos/V

HP: 0.5 Hz subject’s baseline return to 0 ~ 1 sec.

HP: to 0.05 Hz subject’s

baseline return to 0 ~ 10 sec.

DC vs. AC example with skin conductance

DC vs. AC example with skin conductance

Software Setup

Software Setup Before you start recording: • MP150 Menu – Set Up Acquisition • Manual recording

Before you start recording:

• MP150 Menu

– Set Up Acquisition

• Manual recording

• Automatic recording

• Sample rates

• Acquisition length

• Online Averaging

– Evoked Response

Software Setup

Software Setup Before you start recording: • MP150 Menu – Set Up Channels • Analog, Digital,

Before you start recording:

• MP150 Menu

– Set Up Channels

• Analog, Digital, and Calculation Channels

• Scaling and Calibration

CALIBRATION

• GSR Scaling

CALIBRATION • GSR Scaling
CALIBRATION • GSR Scaling

Software Checklist

• Set analog, digital, and calculation channels

– Make sure analog channels match amplifier channels

– Make sure Source channels are set in calculation channel setup

• Set Acquisition Type and Length

• Set up triggering or stimulator if desired

• Make sure green light is on

setup • Set Acquisition Type and Length • Set up triggering or stimulator if desired •
setup • Set Acquisition Type and Length • Set up triggering or stimulator if desired •

Electrodes, Leads, and Gels

Electrodes, Leads, and Gels
Electrodes, Leads, and Gels
Electrodes, Leads, and Gels
Subject Preparation • Abrade the skin (ELPADs) • Electrode Gel • Wait 5 minutes for

Subject Preparation

• Abrade the skin (ELPADs)

• Electrode Gel

• Wait 5 minutes for best results

• Minimal movement

• Impedance check (EEG, etc.)

• One ground per subject!

Einthoven’s Triangle

Einthoven’s Triangle

Hints for minimizing data error

• Subject should remain as relaxed as possible

• Subject must avoid excessive extraneous movement

• Press ESC to add a marker every time you give the subject an instruction

• Add text to describe all interventions

• During comparative data analysis, ensure that all scales are the same for every channel

• Remove all jewelry or other metal objects

• Check all cable connections

RECORD BASELINE PERIOD!

Hardware Checklist

Before you start recording:

• Make sure there is only one amp per channel

• Check the GAIN and filter settings

• Check Subject

– Check electrode placement

– Let gel soak in (5 minutes)

– Make sure there is only one ground per subject

Software Setup

Software Setup • Set Up Triggering • Set Up Stimulator • Set Up Event Hotkey •

• Set Up Triggering

• Set Up Stimulator

• Set Up Event Hotkey

• Show Input Values

• Show Manual Control

Data Analysis Specialized Analysis package included • Transform and Analysis Menus – All post-acquisition processes
Data Analysis Specialized Analysis package included • Transform and Analysis Menus – All post-acquisition processes

Data Analysis

Specialized Analysis package included

• Transform and Analysis Menus – All post-acquisition processes – Offline filtering – Waveform math
• Transform and Analysis Menus
– All post-acquisition processes
– Offline filtering
– Waveform math
– Fast-Fourier Transform
– Automated analysis
• ‘Find Rate’ functions
• ‘Find Cycle/Peak’ functions
• Specialized Analysis Package
– AcqKnowledge 4 Windows
– AcqKnowledge 3.9 Mac
• Always duplicate waveform!!

Controlling the Display

Controlling the Display • Vertical Scaling – Autoscaling • Horizontal Scaling – Scrolling vs. Autoplot •

Vertical Scaling

– Autoscaling

Horizontal Scaling

– Scrolling vs. Autoplot

Zoom Tool

Display Modes

– Chart mode, Scope mode, X/Y plot, Stacked Plot

Hiding and Displaying Channels

Filters – FIR vs. IIR

• FIR – Finite Impulse Response

– used for post-acquisition filtering

– Phase Linear – More accurate than IIR filters

IIR – Infinite Impulse Response

– used for on-line or post-acquisition filtering

– More efficient (faster) than FIR filters

– Q value

Filters: Role of coefficients in FIR filters

Frequency response for FIR 35Hz LP with 4 coefficients:

Frequency response for FIR 35Hz LP with 4 coefficients: Original data FIR 35Hz LP coefficients =
Original data FIR 35Hz LP coefficients = 4 FIR 35Hz LP coefficients = 22
Original data
FIR 35Hz LP coefficients = 4
FIR 35Hz LP coefficients = 22

Frequency response for FIR 35Hz LP with 22 coefficients:

data FIR 35Hz LP coefficients = 4 FIR 35Hz LP coefficients = 22 Frequency response for

Filters: Performance of FIR filters vs. IIR filters

Original data FIR 35Hz LP coefficients = 22 IIR 35Hz LP
Original data
FIR 35Hz LP coefficients = 22
IIR 35Hz LP

Online Resources

• Application notes

Online Resources • Application notes • Knowledge base • Publications • Product Resources tab

• Knowledge base

Online Resources • Application notes • Knowledge base • Publications • Product Resources tab

• Publications

Online Resources • Application notes • Knowledge base • Publications • Product Resources tab

• Product Resources tab

Online Resources • Application notes • Knowledge base • Publications • Product Resources tab