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OTH 535 Ete THE ABANDONMENT OF ttn OFFSHORE PIPELINES = Methods and Procedures for Abandonment Prepared by John Brown Engineers and Constructors Lid for the Health and Safety Executive TO HURL / Offshore Technology Report — Health and Safety Executive OTH 535 THE ABANDONMENT OF OFFSHORE PIPELINES Methods and Procedures for Abandonment Prepared by John Brown Engineers and Constructors Ltd John Brown House 20 Eastbourne Terrace London W2 6LE HSE BOOKS Health and Safoty Executive - Offshore Technology Report © Crown copyright 1997 Applications for reproduction should be made in writing to: Copyright Unit, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, St Clements House, 2-16 Colegate, Norwich NR3 1BQ. First published 1997 ISBN 0-7176-1421-2 Ail rights reserved, No part of this publication ‘may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, ‘or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, ‘recording, or otherwise) without the prlor written permission of the copyright owner. ‘This reportis published by the Health and Safety Executiveas partof a series of reports of work which has been supported by funds provided by the Executive. Neither the Executive, or the contractors ‘concerned assume any liability forthe report nor do they necessarily reflect the views ot policy of the Executive. Results, including detailed evaluation and, where relevant, recommendations stemming from their research projects are published in the OTH/OTI series of reports, FOREWORD In 1987 the Department of Energy, who at that time were responsible for authorising the construction and operation of pipelines in UK, waters, undertook a major study of the problems of pipeline abandonment. The work was carried out by John Brown Engineers and Constructors Ltd and consisted of a comprehensive review of the ‘engineering, environmental and economic implications of the abandonmentof subsea pipelines at the end of their operating life. Al the present time the UK Government's main interest in abandonment is exercised through the Oil and Gas Division of the Department of Trade and Industry, In matters concerning health and safety however, the responsibility is held by the Offshore Safety Division of the Health and Safely Exceutive. The main findings of the John Brown study were published in a conference paper in 1990, Abandonment of Submarine Pipelines by JA Bray and M W Cooper, IBC Offshore Pipetine Technology European Seminar, Paris. Therehave been anumber of requests for access to the detailed information on which the work was based and in particular that affecting safety. The Offshore Safety Division of HSE have therefore agreed to publish this report which is one of the seven individual task reports prepared in the course ofthe study, Ideals with methods and procedures for pipeline abandonment and should provide an informed basis for discussion and resolution of the safety issues involved. SUMMARY This report was prepared as part ofa wide-ranging study of subsea pipeline abandonment undertaken by John Brown Engineers and Constructors Ltdon behalf ofthe Department of Energy. Itdeais with the methods and procedures which could be adopted when the normal operational use of a pipeline ceases. In particular it provides a basis for discussion of the health and safety aspects which might arise in carrying out the necessary abandonment processes. ‘The first step in abandonment of a pipeline is decommissioning, which is to take it from its operating condition and render itclean and safe on the seabed. Pipelines carry a range of fluids, many of which will leave residues after the tine has been purged of its last active product, The various tools and materials available for purging and cleaning pipelines are reviewed together with the methods to be applied for removing the differenttypes of residue. A methodology is presented for the development of the detailed procedures to be adopted for dealing with the various features encountered in particular situations. ‘The rates of decay to be expected in pipelines following abandonmentareconsidered, The various mechanisms by which coatings fail are investigated and the major causes of mechanical and corrosion-related failure are evaluated. In general estimates of residual pipeline life can be made; for example, once the cathodic protection system ceases to be effective, a well maintained pipeline witha 12mm wall thicknessmay last ‘60 years if exposed and perhaps 400 years if buried. After pipelines have been decommissioned they can if necessary be recovered. The equipment and techniquesavailable forrecovery are reviewed and analyses performed to demonstrate that certain recovery techniques can be applied. Pipelines that have ‘been loft in trenches in the seabed or covered by gravel or backfill may be left in situ subject to seabed restoration work where necessary. The recovery methods applicable are presented and the various features which ean be encountered are illustrated. Ifa pipeline is recovered, disposal of the coatings, linepipe, valves, flanges, fittings ‘ete needs to be determined. In the first instance they will have to be transported from the recovery site to either a dumping site, subject io a licence, and handling capacity may be required before the pipe is transported to an on-shore scrap yard or dump. Some of the scrap steel may be re-used in some form or re-processed. Re-use of any salvaged component in another pipeline would require re-certification, All these factors need to be taken into account and the various options are reviewed and analysed, ‘fleftin place abandoned pipelines will eventually deteriorate to the point where they may break up. The possible effects of decay are discussed and the techniques for inspection described. Methods for trenching and burial in order to prolong pipeline life are reviewed. Some pipelines may be re-used for another purpose, subject to re certification and the potential for this is described; however the likelihood of an abandoned pipeline being able to continue earning revenue is considered to be small. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION DECOMMISSIONING. 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Pipeline Purging and Cleaning .. 23 Safety of Personnel and Protection of the Environment 24 Effects and Consequences of Decommissioning, 2.5 Pipeline Stability and Spanning. 2.6 Decommissioning Procedure: 2.7 Conciusions. RATE OF DECAY .. 3.1 Introduction 3.2. Categorisation of Existing Pipelines 3.3 Pipeline Materials ... 36 3.4 Causes of Pipeline Failure 37 3.5 Pipeline Installation 38 3.6 Pipe Coatings... 39 3.7 Cathodic Protection 4 3.8 Decay Mechanisms 3.9 Flexible Pipelines 3.10 Pipeline Behaviour After Decommissioning 3.11 Materials Testing 3.12 Conelusions.. PIPELINE RECOVERY 4.1. Introduetion . 42 Pipeline Types 4.3 Access for Recovery 44 — Recovery Methods. 4.5 Recovery Equipmen 4.6 Seabed Restoration 47 Cutting Technologies. 4,8 Engineering Analysis.. 4.9 Conclusions... PIPELINE MATERIAL DISPOSAL S.1 Introduction.. 5.2 Material Transport 5.3 Material Storage and Handling. 5.4 Re-use of Pipeline Fittings and Component 5. Recycling and Dumping of Materials 5.6 Conclusions 6. ALTERNATIVES TO RECOVERY .. 61 62 63 6.4 65 6.6 67 68 7. OVERALL CONCLUSIONS... 71 12 13 14 15 8 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: REFERENCES.. APPENDIX 1..... 187 Introduction... Implications of Non-recovery Long Term Inspection and Maintenance Trenching and Burial... Surface Covering without Burial “161 166 170 Pipeline Filling 172 Alternative Re-uses of Abandoned Pipelines. 172 Conclusions... 174 195 Decommissioning Rate of Decay, 195 Pipeline Recovery Pipeline Material Disposal Alternatives to Recovery 201 207 1, INTRODUCTION When a subsea pipeline reaches the end of its operational life for commercial or engineering reasons arrangements have to be made for its abandonment, Io this context the term abandonment is used to describe the whole range of activities and options open to the owner of the line who remains responsible for its future when it is no longer needed for its original purpose. These actions range from doing nothing and leaving the pipeline to decay on the seabed, to fully cleaning it and recovering it for reuse or disposal as scrap. This report was written as part of a comprehensive study of pipeline abandonment commissioned in 1987 by the Department of Energy. It was carried out by John Brown Engineers and Constructors Ltd with the objective of providing a complete review of the engineering, environmental and economic implications of the abandonment of offshore pipelines at the end of their operating life. It deals with the methods and procedures for abandonment and should provide a useful background and framework for the discussion of the health and safety issues arising from these processes. ‘The approach taken in this study has been to develop and analyse methods based on existing technologies and equipment. The various alternatives were then examined in relation to a detailed database of 137 UKCS pipelines gathered in an earlier phase of the work. Information regarding equipment, vessels and technology was obtained from the appropriate contractors. Additional specific technical data came from published sources and direct approaches to fabricators, installation contractors, commissioning companies and scrap merchants. The report is presented in five main chapters dealing with respectively, decommissioning, rate of decay, recovery, disposal and alternatives to recovery. Inaddition there is an appendix which presents a detailed treatment showing how pre- decommissioning ‘and decommissioning procedures may be developed for typical examples of pipelines. 2. DECOMMISSIONING 2.41 INTRODUCTION ‘Decommissioning. pipeline scheduled for abandonment requires itto be left ina safe condition. This involves purging it of potentially hazardous live product and cleaning it of residue and scale. If itis to be left in place on the seabed for any considerable time, sources of local corrosion and potential causes of on-bottom stability should be identified and as far as possible removed. ‘Once the form of abandonment is decided, detailed procedures should be prepared covering the predecommissioning and decommissioning stages. Close attention to the safe and efficient conduct of operations is required at every stage, whether the pipeline is to be recovered or abandoned in place. If the abandoned pipeline is to be recovered, a duty of care in handling and disposing of potentially hazardous produeis lies with the operator. Following intemal and external inspections, the first practical steps are to purge the pipeline ofits operational contents and thoroughly clean it internally. The procedures required are similar to established operational practices and in this section they are presented in such a way that they can be applied to specific types of pipeline, 2.2. PIPELINE PURGING AND CLEANING 2.2.1 General Purging the pipetine and cleaning it internally are the first actions to be taken in decommissioning, The usual procedure is to use cleaning and separation pigs, propelled by a suitable liquid, gas, gel or foam. If the propellant is to be left in the abandoned pipeline afterwards, it must be safe, non-corrosive and environmentally acceptable. Detailed decommissioning procedures are given in Appendix | and shown in block diagram form in Figs 2.1 A-D. This subsection describes the purging devices and propellants available for use in those procedures. 2.2.2 Purging Pigs Choice of pig for purging and fluid separation purposes is dependent on the size and condition of pipeline and type of cleaning fluid proposed. Table 2.1 liststhe pigs currently availableand describes their characteristicsand applications. Three pigsare illustrated in Figure 2.2 as examples. Most of the pigs listed in Table 2.1 are available, with only minor modifications, for all pipeline diameters in general use, The cupped and bi-directional pigs ((d) and (1) may be manufactured from synthetic materials and their bodies articulated if necessary to negotiate the smaller diameter pipelines. 23 3 Propellants Propellants used to drive cleaning and purging pigs should be safe enough to be left after purging until the pipeline iseitherrecovered or abandoned. Propellantsaremade up by mixing the appropriate liquid, gas, gel or foam to suit the application, Sea water ik is the most readily available fluid but it must he treated with an oxygen scavenger, a Corrosion inhibitor and possibly a biocide, Propellant gas may be either air or nitrogen. To avoid the possibility of an explosive mixture forming, the injection of air is normally preceded by a slug, Ifthe propellant is going to be left in the pipeline for longer than a few months, a slug of corrosion inhibitor fluid is also required, Gels, foams and gases are compressible and this may result in problems in restarting ifthe pig train drags orsticks inthe pipeline, having collected large quantities of solids orresidues. Careful planning and preparation is required, especially if the pigging history of the pipeline is not known. Compressible driving fluids should not be used if waxy residues are present in large amounts. New gels and foams are constantly being developed and many are environmentally acceptable. 2.2.4 Disposal of Product Safe disposal of the remains of the final product in the pipeline is the first step in any decommissioning procedure, Of all the altemative methods of product disposal, it is preferable to use existing routes. Pipeline systems consistof flowlines, infield pipelines and trunk pipelines. In addition, a complex system may include one or mote of the following: water injection, gas lift, chemical injection and hydraulic controls, and the associated equipment may beused or pumping and cleaning, purposes during decommissioning. Product in the flowlines may be pumped out or reinjected into the reservoir. For recovery of hydraulic fluid, hydraulic controls can be disconnected at the well- head Christmas tree and either cross-linked and their contents pumped back to the platform, or the hydraulic fluid an be returned by adiver-operated pump. The infield lines can be pumped through the gathering into the trunk pipeline, and the trunk pipeline in tum may be discharged to the onshore reception facility. If the platform topsides have been decommissioned or aro otherwise unavailable before the pipeline decommissioning operation is ready to start, asuitably equipped vessel will require to be stationed at the locations of the missing facilities. Using flexible hoses, the pipeline contents may then be loaded onto vessels which afterwards discharge at a suitable harbour or terminal. 2.2.5 Removal and Disposal of Product Residues and Cleaning Agents ‘The removal and disposal of the residues remaining once the bulk ‘live’ product has been removed are one of the most difficult parts of any pipeline decommissioning project. Careful preparation is required, including the gathering of accurate information and designing a cleaning process tailored for each situation, All pipelines, whether they carry oil, gas, chemicals or water will, following removal ofthe bulk contents, still contain residues. ‘These can range from simple liquid or gas products in valves and pipe irregularities to sludges, waxes and hard scale, Sometimes these residues are present in layers; forexample a hard scale on the pipe wall can be overlaid by hard wax which is in turn covered by a soft wax or sludge. 12 Pipeline residues will almost always be derived from the ‘heavy’ end of the product, and whatever their chemical nature, the chemicals used for cleaning should always be treated as hazardous, Questions concerning residues include the following: + What types of residue are there? + Where are the residues located? + What are the quantities of each type? + Should they be removed, or can they be neutralised in-situ? + What chemicals and what tools will be required to deal with the residue? + What method of removal ean be adopted which will not risk blocking the line? + How are the residues and chemicals to be disposed of? ‘The answers to these questions will provide information on the particular pipeline being decommissioned and the usefulness of the availabie facilities. The following are general answers to the above questions, covering most eventualities. a) ‘Types of Residue The type of residue depends on the previous pipeline service. Any number of residues may be present, from liquids and semi-solids to pipe scale, and these may be acidic, passive, toxic or flammable. b) Location of Residues Residues will almost certainly remain lying in valve bodies and pipeli irregularities, depending on how the pipeline was operated during its useful life and how frequently it was pigged. Experience has shown that residual scale deposits are to be found at the ‘hot’ end of the system and waxes and sludge at, the ‘cool’ end, In long gas pipelines, tine packing results in a combination of low pressure and high velocity atthe delivery end which will assist in sweeping the line clean, ©) — Quantity of Residue it is impossible to predict the amount of residue in a pipetine after it has been emptied of produet. Indications of excessive residues include reduced line throughputs and lower flow velocities towards the end of the pipeline’s operational life, and normal maintenance pigging will also have brought in evidence of residues. 4) Removal or Neutralisation of Residues In-Situ A decision on whether to remove or neutralise all residues nmust have regard for the safety of personnel, other users of the sea, future use of the pipeline and the avoidance of pollution. In general, all pipeline product residues should be removed, but the following relaxations may be considered: - the contents of pipeline irregularities and valve bodies, if extremely small in volume in relation to the full pipeline capacity, may be left, 13 °) 14 - hard scale residues may be left, if removal and disposal involves considerable additional chemical washes and water flushes, provided thatany residual contaminants they contain can be effectively neutralised and - residual chemical solvents used in the removal of product residues may be left, provided that they are capable of being sufficiently diluted by the final decommissioning fluid fill to prevent any hazard arising. ‘Tools and Chemicals Pipe cleaning tools are selected from the list of pigsin Table 2.2, modifying the standard pig if necessary to suit the application. An appropriate pig is selected to form a ‘train’ for the purpose of removing residues from the walls ofthe pipe and propelling them forward to the reception facilities provided, at the same time maintaining separation of the chemicals and washes used to remove the residues. Chemicals are selected for their abilities to soften or loosen specific residues, so thatthose residuescan be removedby thepig. The type of chemical required will depend on certain factors; for example light, oily films will only need a cleaning wash of methanol or similar solvent, whereasheavy waxes and scales may require a full softening or dissolving treatment. The full treatment may require an acid wash, then a sodium hydroxide or caustic soda solution to neutralise the acid and assist in the cleaning itself, followed by methanol, whose function is to tender any remaining hydrocarbons miscible in water, and finally awater wash. It may be necessary for this water to contain inhibitors and a pH enhancer such as soda ash and there should be sufficient water to dilute any residual chemicais to a safe concentration before discharge, If it is necessary to perform more than one scraping rin or acid wash, they should be run in immediate succession prior to any alkaline wash. Acidic batches should be run through as slowly as possible, to allow maximum. residence time. Velocities of no more than 1.5m/second are recommended, with each batch size sufficient to provide 3 to 5 minutes reactive contact. Care must be taken to ascertain the full implications of residue chemistry before introducing any solvents or washes into the system, so as to avoid aggravating any hazards in the resultant reaction. Avoiding Blockage During Residue Removal A blockage occurs when the resistance to movement of the residue being transported exceeds the force that can be applied to it by the cleaning pig. The force that the pig can exert is in turn determined by the maximum pressure that can be applied to the propellant, limited to the maximum permissible working pressure of the pipeline. Ifa pipeline has scen lengthy service without having bbeen subjected to leak or hydrostatic pressure tests, it would be prudent to limit the maximum pressure to minimise the risk of leakage or rupture of the pipeline. ‘The maximumpressure used for pigging should not exceed that used during the final phase of production, ‘To minimise pipeline blockages, residue samples should be obtained before beginning the cleaning process. 8) ‘The cleaning method shoutd ascertain: - types of residues involved, = resultant friction factors, - probable bulk volumes, by type, + maximum force that can be exerted on these volumes, - probability of line blockage and ~ chemistry of the residues in order that safe solvents can be selected. ‘Where there is any possibility of a blockage, the pigs should be carefully selected; for example, a train of pigs can be despatched, each in turn increasing the loading on the pipe wall deposits and hence removing the residues in manageable stages, Semi-rigid hard swab pigs should be used at the head of the train; these are. designed to reduce in volumeata given over-pressure, Softrubber cupped pigs which will also readily reduce in diameter can follow. Friction-reducing and suspension fluids or gels should be included in the train to pick up any hard ‘waxes, sediments and/or scale. No appreciable benefit is found from gel inthe cases of sludges and light waxes. A larger number of relatively inefficient pigs each taking out a small. amount of tesidue is preferable to alesser number of more efficient pigs which may pick up excessive residue and cause blocking. It is important to consider the optimisation of the solvent residence times and the design velocities of the scraper pigs, so as fo ensure both are as effective as possible in removing residues. Gas, being compressible, may cause the pig train to slow down or surge, If this is likely, water may be a preferable driving medium. Disposal of Residues and Chemicals Disposal of residues, chemicals, flush waters and the cleaning system driving medium can cause serious problems. However efficient the cleaning system may be, there will bean amount of contaminants contained therein which will classify them as ‘dirty’. By farthe safest and most economic route of disposal for the pipeline residues, and probably for the more persistent chemicals as well, is into the receiving facilities that may still exist for handling product. These facilities may be used forthe cleaning and recovery of the cleaning fluids. The majority of pipelines can be treated in this way. It would be desirable to remove and dispose of the bulk residue while the system is in the later stages of production; this may mean designing a pigging system which, while requiring a high number of passes, only removes a relatively small amount at a time. 15 16 If product is continuously available, this removes the necessity to supply and dispose of alternative driving media, which in turn means that a higher number of purely mechanical cleaning passes can be made. This largely disposes with the requirement for chemical solvents until the final wash out and passivating passes. It may be feasible to treat flowlines which run from a subsea completion well to a satellite platform or gathering station by overpressurising and alternaiely reversing flow and production, thus enabling a cleaning pig to be “shuttled” between platform and wellhead. For water and/or small bore injection pipetines, residues are not expected to buildup. With due regard to the chemical sotutions that may have been used, therefore, a short batch of a suitable passivating chemical driven by the appropriate final line fill agent may be passed through these lines from the platform tothe wellhead, driving the pipeline contents and passivating chemicals down hole. By using deformable swab or gel type pigs, these chernicals can be discharged beyond the downhole safety valve, Should the preceding not be possible, the situation can give tise to one of several scenarios, as follows: 1a) Inthe worst case, where no facilities exist at either end of the system, a vessel, suitably equipped to transport the treatment chernicals to the pipeline end station and discharge them into the pipeline, may have to be included. Equipment would in this case consist of: + bulk tanks for the chemicals, + pumps complete with mixing tanks for chemicals, = salt water lift pumps, ~ _ adiving spread, + flexible risers to deliver chemicals to the pipe on the seabed, - a4 point mooring system or dynamic positioning capability and - acrew trained in the safe use and handling of special chemicals, 6) Forthe receiving endof the pipeline a vessel with bulk tanks appropriate to the chemicals and large enough to accept the pipeline's original contents plus a degree of over-run flush water. All the other items listed in La) above will also be required. 2a) For the situation where a jacket exists but pipeline terminal facilities are not available or not suitable, the following should be provided: - a vessel as in 1a) above for receiving and transporting the treatment chemicals, - flexible transfer hoses and - a4 point vessel mooring system, modified to a simple two point mooring with a jacket tie-back system, or dynamic position capabitity vessel. A diving spread will not be required. b) For the receiving end of the pipeline: ~ avessel asin2.a)but with bulk tanks to take chemicals, flush water and original line contents, 3.a) Fora situation where all of the jacket and terminal facil and suitable: fies are available - a supply vessel for delivery of chemicals, together with possible minor auxiliary pumps and mixing tanks. b) For the receiving end of the pipeline: - no requirements. ‘Thus, any operation which can use all the existing facilities for delivering the cleaning materials into the pipeline is beneficial, ‘This is enhanced if the receiving facilities can also be used. 2.3 SAFETY OF PERSONNEL AND PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 2.3.4 General All hydrocarbon products and the chemicals used to clean and purge the pipelines should be regarded as hazardous, and must therefore be considered as containing an element of risk to personnel and the environment. This subsection considers the operations involving potentially hazardous materials and the nature of risk which they represent. 2.3.2 Materials Most of the hydrocarbon products handled by pipelines are flammable and explosive under certain conditions. Additional substances which these hydrocarbon fluids may contain can render them corrosive, toxic and/or erosive, while decompression can. ‘cause the product to become unstable. ‘These problems are by no means over when purging the pipelines to make them safe. ‘The chemicals which are introduced during the cleaning operations can in themselves be flammable, corrosive and/or oxic. Although the objective in using these chemicals is to achieve passivation and cesultant total safety of the pipeline, the chemicals used and the pressures to which they are subjected should be considered potentially hazardous unless known to be otherwise. The following information on the materials to be handled must be communicated to the relevant personnel, who should be qualified to receive it: + the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the product, the residues and the cleaning agents, + the consequences of mixing these materials and, 7 * the minimum and maximum mixing ratios permitted and the consequences, planned and unplanned, of changes to the pressure and temperature regimes during the proposed operations. 2.3.3 Personnel Basic principles to be applied to all personnel associated with the decommissioning procedures include: + making all personnet familiar with the operation and training them in using the facilities provided, + employing properly qualified contractor services, + providing all personnel with clear and comprehensive written working procedures and other relevant information, and ensuring that these are fully understood by those concerned and + estabiishing and identifying to everyone the persons in authority, defining their responsibilities in writing and delineating the areas of authority and responsibility for every separate work element. 2.3.4 Environmental Safety Protection of the environment from leakages of the products being removed and the chemicals and solvents being used, is of major importance, ranking second only to the safety of personnel and the public, During every operation, there is the risk of an accident due to human error and to equipment failure. The procedures set out in Appendix f are intended to guard against this. It is well-known that the human factor cannot be entirely legislated for, and as additional safeguards, personnel should be reminded of the following basic rules for ensuring that safety and pollution risks are avoided: + establish and maintain an objective and the steps required to achieve it, + define precisely the product ingredients, + define the chemicals to be used and any possible reactions with the product, + establish the most recent working pressure in the system, + always use existing facilities where possible, + ensure that ail equipment is suitable and conforms to an acceptable standard, + pressure test special and temporary pipework for leaks to 1.5 times maximum working pressure and + always provide full working and contingency procedures for every work phase. ‘These rules have been bore in mind in drawing up the predecommissioning and decommissioning procedures referred to in subsection 2.7 and set out in Appendix 1. 18 2.4 EFFECTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF DECOMMISSIONING 2.44 General ‘An abandoned pipeline may be considered for reuse for storage ortransportof.a liquid ‘or gaseous fluid other than that for which it was constructed, This subsection poses questions relating to new duties which may result from reuse and considers the possible consequences on decommissioning. 2.4.2 New Product Data The following questions arise from a consideration of carrying a different product in the pipeline: 8) What are the new product's - name, - specific gravity and density, + fluid characteristics, ~ . cotrosiveness, - maximum operating pressure, - pressure and temperature limitations and + throughputs and duration of operations? b) Will the existing pipeline require - a survey to determine existing structural and dynamic stability, the condition of the coatings and cathodic protection systems and the progress of any remedial works required, - _ ahydrostatic test to determine that the maximum safe working pressure which can be imposed on the reactivated pipeline is achievable and - an internal and external corrosion survey to assist in determining the remaining design life of the pipeline? ©) What are the requirements of statutory bodies and interested parties concerning approvals, permits, licences, notices and insurances? 2.4.3 Corrosion Atthe initial conceptual stage. a pipeline is designed for an economic life span related to the reservoir which it serves, and this span should be re-assessed at every major change in the fluid carried and operating characteristics which could influence design life. ‘These re-assessments should consider the effect of the mew product on the internal pipe wall and of the surrounding environment on the external surface of the pipe. Both surfaces may have to be protected against excessive corrosion and additionally a corrosion allowance may have been added to the calculated wall thickness at the original design stage. Operational aspects should be considered as follows, whenever there is a significant change of use: 19 a) b) 9 e) 20 Internal protection during the operational life of the pipetine ‘The amountof protective additive inthe product will vary from zero to a range of passivators or inhibitorsintroduced before despatching the product into the pipeline, Monitoring at the receiving end will assist in regulating the additives for optimum control of the corrosive elements, Internal protection of a decommissioned pipeline Options include provision of a range of inhibitive additives, Additives include simple oxygen scavengers which absorb and suppress the oxygen content of water, biocides for suppressing biological micro-organisms in the ‘water and corrosion inhibitors which form barrier layers on metallic surfaces, Alternatively, inert fluids areused to fill the pipeline after it has been decommissioned Water content Caution should be exercised in treating water fills for the following reasons: * oxygen scavengers do not act against biochemical attack, ~ conversely, biocides donot afford protection againstoxygen fed corrosion and ~ inhibitors are only proven active for up to two years, after which they may tend to degrade and settle. Some become acidic in certain circumstances. Air and gas Inhibitors temain activefor2-4 years. An appreciably moist environment may cause the inhibitor to cake; adchydrated atmosphere is therefore desirable and the inhibitor should be sprayed as a mist onto the pipe wall. Dry granular moisture absorbers are sometimes used for providing a suitable environment for inhibitors. They are difficult to distribute and the absorber can adhere to the steel in an over moist environment. Oxygen scavengers and biocides active in air or gas are notcurrently available. External protection during the operational life of the pipeline The extemal anti-corrosion coating affords a measure of corrosion protection which is then supplemented by cathodic protection (CP). Between them, the coating and CP system are designed to protect the pipeline against corrosion for the length of its active life. Both coal tar and epoxy anti-corrosion coating compounds eventually absorb Water and deteriorate, ‘The sacrificial anode CP system becomes depleted over the years; this depletion is made worse by the progressive deterioration. ofthe anti-corrosion coating, shortening the normal expectation of anode life appreciably. External protection of a decommissioned pipeline Having regard to the decreasing effectiveness of the average anti-corrosion. Coating towards the end of its design life and the diminishing output of the anode systems, itis possible that the exterior of the pipeline may begin to lose its corrosion protection in just a few years, One possible answer to sacrificial anode depletion is the installation and renewal of anodes coupled to the pipeline, Thisis an expensive measure and itis not easy to ensure its effectiveness. For a more exhaustive discussion of extemal corrosion, see Section 4. 2.5 PIPELINE STABILITY AND SPANNING. 2.5.1 General ‘Subsea pipelines are design to be stable on the seabed allowing for the combined forces of currents near the seabed, wave induced ioads and the effects of subsea bottom subsidence and scour. Lateral movement of the pipeline is opposed by friction between the pipe and the seabed and by plastic deformation of the supporting soil, and a factor of safety can be calculated which will indicate the ability of the pipeline to remain stable under the combined forces assumed to act on it. If the supporting soil is removed, the pipeline behaves like a beam, and the resulting additional stresses in the pipe wall can cause structural failure. In addition, seabed currents flowing above and below the pipe can set up a regime which can lead to vibration of the supported span under certain conditions. Analyses were cattied out, to calculate the stability of the pipelines in the Study database when carrying air, oil and water while subject to environmental loads. The large numbers of database pipelines were arranged into four groups according to water depth, namely 0-50m, 50-100m, 100-150m and 150-200m, Within each group, pipelines with similar outside diameters (OD) were represented by a single pipeline having generalised dimensions and similar trenching data. In the ease of the 50-100m group, the majority of pipelines in the database were found to be buried and since buried pipelines could be modelled the stability analysis for this group was Jimited in extent, Mean values of the on-bottom currents and significant waves were determined, based on retum periods of 1 in 30 or 1 in 100 years. For the purposes of this study, the available data may be considered adequate. The analyses and results are discussed below, 2.5.2 On Bottom Stability A pipeline is assisted in remaining on the seabed by its negative buoyancy. This, is dependent on the combined weights of the pipe itself and its contents, supplemented ifnecessary by a coating of concrete and any trench back-fill or cover thatis provided. If the weight of any portion of a pipeline is sufficiently reduced, that portion will lose its negative buoyancy. Material losses which would contribute to a reduction in negative buoyancy include: 21 + loss of concrete, + toss of field joints, + loss of steel on the exterior of the pipe, + oss of steel on the interior of the pipe, * depletion of sacrificial anode bracelets and * loss of burial or cover, __ Mthereis a possibility ofa serious reduction in negative buoyancy, the pipetine should be kept under surveillance and compensation provided for any significant weightloss. A pipeline will not move beyond its permissible deformation unless the friction between it and the seabed is overcome by the vertical and horizontal forces arising fromseabed currentsand wave action. A minimum safety factor of 1.1 is considered sufficient to maintain stability. Stability factors of safety have been determined for each of the depth groupsand itcan be shown that the safety factor increases with decreasing OD and inereasing water depth. Trenched pipelines are considerably more stable-than untrenched pipetines; a fully trenched 457mm OD pipeline is shown to have a safety factor of 12, compared with a safety factor of 3 for a SO6mm untrenched pipeline. Furthermore, the heavier the contents the more stables the pipeline, water being best and airor gas worst. A fully trenched pipeline will almost cettainly be stable, even iffilled with natural gas, but the factor of safety of an untrenched pipeline designed for water or oil can drop to the limiting value of 1.1 if filled with gas. 25.3 Analysis of eline Spans under Static Loading Analyses of unsupported spans under static loading conditions were carried out to determine the maximum permissible unsupported spans which would result in pipe being stressed to 72% and 100% of their specified minimum yield strength (SMYS). Ifthe pipeline is to be reused, the 72% SMYS value is the limiting factor in design, butif the pipeline can be allowed to yield, forexampleifitis being recovered forscrap, 100% SMYS is used. ‘The analysis was applied to the pipelines in the depth group 100-150m, using a two- dimensional finite clement analysis program, which simulates any pipeline configuration and calculates the resultant stresses in the pipeline. The obstacle chosen to change the normal configuration of the pipeline was a depression in the seabed. ‘The analysis shows that the permissible span lengths for both 72% and 100% SMYS increase with increasing OD. The curves for oil and water contents are similar, and the curve for gas is steeper than for liquids, indicating a proportionally greater increase in span for the same increase in pipe diameter. A comparison of computed results with actual spans contained in the database shows that the computed spans far exceed those experienced in practice, in most cases by a factor of 2. 2.5.4 Evaluation of Maximum Pipe Spans Under Dynamic Loading ‘The flow of fluid past a free spanning pipeline can under certain conditions cause an unsteady flow regime which results in a form of turbulence known as vortices. The 22 behaviour of these vortices is known as vortex shedding, For certaineriticat current velocities the vortex shedding pulses at frequencies which may coincide with or be a multiple of the natural frequency of vibration of the pipeline span, resulting in harmonic or sub-harmonic motion of the pipeline. An analysis was carried out to determine the maximum allowable free span length Which would avoid the possibility of vortex induced vibrations occurring. The analysis was based on a comparison between the vortex shedding frequency arising from probable flows and the natural frequency of vibration of the pipeline. The analysis was performed for pipelines with similar outside diameters, in water depths of approximately 150m, The curves for gas, oil and water pipeline contents follow similar patterns and the maximum spans for all contents inerease with pipe OD. ‘The spans determined in this dynamic analysis are smaller than those established by static analysis. Nevertheless, they still exceed the actual spans held in the database, indicating that the reported spans are within safe limits, 2.6 DECOMMISSIONING PROCEDURES 2.6.1 General The majority of subsea pipelines are designed for uni-directional flow, with fittings and equipment arranged accordingly. Lack of space and restricted access make itdifficult to alter a set orientation offshore, and decommissioning procedures should where possible be based on fluid flow being in the same direction as the former operational flow. One of the first decommissioning operations is pipeline purging and cleaning. Cleaning is most effectively carried out by mechanical pigs, and if pig launchers and receivers are not already available it will be necessary to provide them temporarily. Pigging will not apply to lines less than about 4 inches diameter for fear of blockage, and for small bore lines provision should be made for clearing the product with a neutralising agent, followed by the final decommissioning line fill. If possible, the two fluids should be kept separate in the line with the use of ‘deformable’, soft pigs. Te may be necessary to run more than one train of cleaning pigs, the limitation on length of train being that the pressure required to drive a train plus the residue it displaces must not exceed the maximum allowable working pressure of the pipeline, having regard to the age and probable condition of the line. In the case of flexible tie- in connections, the solvents specified for the removal of residue should be compatible with the flexible lining und hose materials, Thin film linings such as paint and fusion bonded epoxy are also liable to be softened by too vigorous a use of solvents and cleaning pigs. This thin material comes away from the pipe wail in the form of scale which can block the pipe if too much of it is Toosened at once. If this is likely to happen, a suspension gel should be included in the slugs ahead of the first two or three passes of the cleaning pig train. 23. Forsafety and environmental reasons, itis imperative that the pre-commissioning and decommissioning stages are accompanied by a careful setting down of procedures which define the aims of the operations to follow, the responsibilities of afl personnel involved, actions to be taken and materials and equipment to be provided. These procedures are set out in Appendix 1 for the different types of pipeline considered. 2.7 CONCLUSIONS The planning and execution of purging and cleaning operations on abandoned offshore pipelines requite considerable care. The procedures laid down for these ‘operations must be efficient and safe, having regard to the hazardous nature of many of the materials which will be handled and their potential impact on the environment. Preplanning information on the pipeline should be as complete as possible, followed by clear and precise definitions of aims, lines of authority and responsibility, actions to be taken during the operations and a programme of work. Any additional facilities known to be required for handling the scheduled equipment and materials should be properly designed and ordered in advance and checked before use. ‘The condition of the pipeline should be established before any decision is taken to eave it in position. Static and dynamic stabilities should be calculated and remedial action specified if required, 4 TABLE 2.1 PURGE PIG TYPES The list below describes the pigs most frequently used in offshore pipelines, With afew exceptions, they are available in the full range of sizes required in the North Sea. Figure 4 illustrates three types of pig: swab, bidirectional and scraper, The ‘intelligent’ pig is illustrated in Section 6. a) b) °) da) Swab Asoftorsemi-soft, high or low density cellular foam body, used for separating fluids and swabbing pipework of complex configuration and pronounced changes in diameter. Sometimes fitted with wire brush strips to facilitate mechanical cleaning of the pipe wall. Hardswab As a) above, but with a non-cellular, semi-rigid outer shell of synthetic ‘material. Used for separation and swabbing in pipelines having only minor complications, large radius bends and slight indentations, Gel Gel is despatched between foam pigs to pick up debris in the pipeline. It is ed on site, using the combination of chemicals which will give a desired consistency. A thick gel will pick up heavy items while a thinner gel, although only able to handle the lighter residues and debris, has less risk of blocking the pipeline. Incomplex systems, care must be taken to prevent the gel from entering branch lines through tee or wye connections, Cupped Formed on a tubular steel case on which are mounted two pairs of semi-rigid rubbev/elastomer cupped disks, one pair at each end. The cupping serves to increase the driving force derived from the transporting fluid. In section, the disks taperdown towards the outer edge, the thinning avoiding damage from an uneven pipe wall, While useful for product separation, cupped pigs will not remove debris. Sphere ‘The sphere pig is an inflatable hollow sphere, filled with a liquid or gas under pressure until the correct hardness is reached, The sphere wall is protected ‘with a steel mesh or made up from layers of synthetic material, the outer wall being designed for wear resistance and drag. Sphores are used for fluid separation,but are not suitable for handling pipeline debris. Bi-Directional Of similar construction to the cupped pig described in d) above, but the risks are of polyurethane and of uniform section throughout, to improve contact with the pipe wall, ‘They are used for flooding the pipeline and cleaning it during commissioning, and are also reasonably useful for removing debris, if moved at low velocities. ‘Their ability to move ineither direction permits the pipeline flow to bereversed. 25 8) h) » 26 ‘This design is the preferred type for product separation, when multiple pigs are despatched to forma train whose length depends on the degree of separation required, Scrubber Wire brushes in the form of disks or pads are mounted on cupped and bi-directional pigs or embedded onto the surface of a hard swab pig. They are intended for removing hard, flakey deposits from the inside walls of the pipe, such as service deposits or even mill scale present during the pipeline commissioning stage. Scrubbers will not move the dislodged debris along to the end of the pipeline; for this, a follow-up operation, using another type of pig, is necessary. Seraper Scraper pigs are constructed on the same principle as the bi-directional pig described in f) above, but the disks are made oversize for the bore of the pipe, and are supported by steel disks which serve to increase contact pressure on the pipe wall. If it is necessary to increase the driving force, the disks can be cupped. Scraper blades or brushes are fitted to spring arms just behind the front cup, so that they bear tightly on the pipe wall. Scraper pigs are effective for dislodging and carrying away studges and soft waxes. ‘Intelligent’ Pig The ‘intelligent’ pig is fitted with sensors and a recorder for inspecting and recording the mechanical and metallurgical condition of the pipe. Although articulated, intelligent pigs are limited in the bend radi and other fittings they can negotiate, and thus cannot be used on some of the older pipelines. Further information and illustrations may be found in Section 6 of this Report. Figure 2.4 STRIP BRUSHES @) FOAM PIG WITH BRUSHES (TYPE (a). TABLE 3,1) FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE PIG BODY. pisces “] l |--———— FLANGE, U {b} BI-DIRECTIONAL SEPARATION PIG (TYPE (f). TABLE 3.1) 2 NEOPRENE CUPS DIRECTION OF » FLOW URETHANE BLADES {c) SCRAPER PIG (TYPE (h). TABLE 3.1 27 Figure 2.1. A @ [APPOWT KEV PERSONNEL FROM CONCERNED PARTIES TO COORDINATE OPERATIONS CCONDUCT SITE SURVEY ON EXISTING FACHITIES ef ® ¥ { cotecerine sary eccreaneurconry | Stowmeroroacin | _[PEEKNEEHeomnunos DAMAGE AND BURIAL STATUS) | CONTENT, CONCRETE WEIGHT OF VALVES, MAN 7 COAT AND SPANNING EQUIPMENT a STUDY CEB, AS BUT DaAWNGS, SPECFICATIONS ‘AND MARTENANCE AND OPERATING RECORDS @ Oy TERRE THE BETENT OF TEMPORARY FACLITES AND MODRICATONS 70 8 eAMFACTURED, FABRICATED AND NSTALLED, NEWONG ‘Nv HOT OR COLD TAPPNG AND CONNECTIONS FoR Te INS WH SISTING FACRITS PPELNETS NOT PIGGABLE WaTH Danernral, Fppeta is ecasle i i { conremon oo. | [bar conennona. roa. Pasa oe Sou mnerine Foam] i as AME ica weno aaneTo0s | PREPARE INSTAILATION AND TIE IN OF TEMPORARY LAUNCHING ‘AND RECEIVING PIG TRAP ASSEMBLIES ccitecr sawPtts oF PRODUCT AND RESIDUES FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS Cont. ovate. 2.18 CGD CONT. Fs, 2.18 @ DECOMMISSIONING PROCEDURE BLOCK DIAGRAM 28 Figure 2.1B cov. Fw cot rows. 214@ ‘SELECT TH CHEMICAL CLEANING ‘METHOD FOR CLEANING P2ELNE ‘OF RESDUES FREQURED SELECT THER TRAM SIZE, TYPE GF PAGGNG TOO: AND pcre canis en sarc, MOUNT STAVES "1 TRACK GS. CASE OF LOCKACE AND TO CHECK ETA, @ : ESTIMATE SZ OF STORAGE FACLITES RECURED FOR CONTAMING PURGED CONTENT OF PPELNE conararosmuccowr] ©) PROPELENT LADO resemomsrouat |_| T&HPORARY sronase FacUms| aces on ospasa, | | FORCCHECTION AND OPOsAL ARENDT REQUIRED a -! \ None To soma necrv Tomes | ("a prciss tT aunsronsce cures] | “Trova easte rok aces connor e(@ onads3@—ewmmue@| DECOMMISSIONING PROCEDURE BLOCK DIAGRAM 29 Figure 2.1C OTOSTEPAe From] i) ‘CHECK AVALABLITY OF SPACE ‘REQURED TO ACCOMMODATE ‘TeWPORARY FACIES AY BOTH COR ETHER ENDS OF FELINE ‘ERY A FLOATING VEESEL MGORED NEAR THE SITET. ‘ACCOMMODATE TEMPORARY FAGUITES AS REQUIEO Sy ‘CARRY OUT HYDROSTATIC TEST ‘CHECK AND CALIBRATE AGUS, ECLEPMEN AND DEVICES ASSOCIATED (WH DECOMABSIONNG ® u TER FTES FON COMBIGNG ino or ene coe ener Tectia Tus 8 2 ‘a Putri, LECTON OF CCOMPRESSING WNTED PROPELANT FLUD I RPELMES ‘TOE ABANDONED W ST ¥ @ com. mown. 21068 com. ons. 210 @ con, rc. 210 ' coms. ove. 210 @ DECOMMISSIONING PROCEDURE BLOCK DIAGRAM 30 Figure 2.1D cont on ‘cour Fron Hose W21C — AB2IC Con, OW 2. 8 {@ @ covr. Frown. 2.1€ @} 8 | (OLLECT A REMOVE DBAS, RESIOUE AND CHEICALS @ I ‘OBTAW SAMPLES AT INTERVALS AMD CHECK EFFECTIVIIESS OF SCG ‘AO CLEAING METHOD @ +; veo eri nes ARE ACEO nf , us. {S0LATETHESYSTEM AND DEPRESSURSE To TUNER mo @ | Discoumecr AD TRANSFER TEMPORARY ACUTE, NCLUONG TANS AND VESSELS COTARING ESOUES AND CHEVEALS — 1 WATER PPLE @ y 8 ow rr FORD] a0 AaMOWENT oF PEANE EXISTING OF @ oy FUTURE SEABED SERS AD Taner eens cowie eco oF "ARE ROT AFFECTED IME BY 8 ACCEPTABLE METEOD TRANSFORT SPINE FOR | SRP, STORAGEREUSE L_, DECOMMISSIONING PROCEDURE BLOCK DIAGRAM 31 32 3. RATE OF DECAY 3.1 INTRODUCTION ‘The process of decay to which all pipelines are subject begins when the pipeline is subjected to handiing damage during laying. Many North Sea pipelines witl have been in place for longer than their design lives of 20 to 30 years. Of different types, materials of construction, methods of installation and anti-corrosion systems, they will have been designed, constructed and maintained in accordance with contemporary standards; guidelines for pipeline abandonment will therefore have to consider the pipeline in its historical context. Almost every pipeline is uniquely specified with respect to materials, wall thickness, anti-corrosion coating, concrete coating and degree of burial. Corrosion, which is Specific to particular materials and environmental conditions, and damage from external sources all combine with the pipeline’s own characteristics to affect its life expectancy, Cathodic protection (CP) quickly reaches an equilibrium which can be maintained formany years, In the longterm, however, anti-corrosion coatings deteriorate, anodes become depleted and in some cases the environment can change for the worse. Subsea pipelines are if anything more vulnerable than those on land, The use of sacrificial anodes instead of an impressed current CP systems means that any areas found to be unprotected will require the installation of retrofit systems, atacost much in excess of that associated with land pipelines, By their nature, subsea pipelines are most difficult to visually inspect, consequently it can be longer before impact damage is detected and remedied. It would be invidious to compare the proneness of U.K. subsea and land pipetines to inherent mechanical faults since both receive very careful quality control and planning during the design and manufacturing stages, but it is probably true that subsea pipelines are more subject to damage than are land pipelines, By the time a subsea pipeline reaches the end of its operational life, itis possible that decay is beginning to become evident. This is then the starting point for predicting its remaining life if it is to be left in place after decommissioning. This section is considering the mechanisms of decay and theit effects on the remaining life of the pipeline. 3.2 CATEGORISATION OF EXISTING PIPELINES 3.2.1 General This subsection describes the different categories of pipeline according to their location, fluids handled and function. 33 3.2.2 Geographical Location ‘The following areas within UK territorial water are considered: + Northem North Sea * Central North Sea + Southem North Sea * Morecambe Bay ‘The North Seais remarkably uniformin its makeup and, for the purposes of reviewing material decay rates, all pipelines laid in UK waters may be considered subject to the same external influences with regard to the freely moving oxygenated sea water surrounding them, The seabed mud in which they are laid is more varied, butits effect is assumed as uniform for the purposes of this Study. Hence, the external corrosion rate data summarised in this Section are applicable (o all UK locations. 3.2.3 Pipeline Contents Fluids carried by subsea pipelines include the following: crude oil (liquids), natural gas (gases), condensates (mostly liquids), multiphase hydrocarbons (mixed liquids and gases), chemicals (liquids) and water. Fluids attack pipelines in varying degrees and the resultant intemal corrosion is countered by selecting an appropriate pipeline material, adding acorrosion allowance tothe calculated wall thickness, providing an internal coating orinjecting an inhibitor into the fluid. Full corrosion control includes a combination of these measures. ‘The prior contents of an abandoned pipeline will affect the way in which the pipeline is decommissioned (see Section 2). Decommissioning aims at removing all traces of the fluid previously handled, after which the condition of the internal surface may beassessed by “intelligent pigging” (see Section 6) or by extemal ultrasonic thickness gauging before the pipeline is left in its find state of abandonment, Subsequent freatment is the same whatever the fluid previously carried, and if the residual deposits cannot be effectively removed, their nature must be taken into account when considering future preservation or re-use. 3.2.4 Pipeline Types The following functions are performed by active pipelines offshore: + product exported from field to field or from field to shore, + product passing from platform to platform or from subsea manifold to platform in the same field and + primary fluid passing from wellhead to manifold or platform. 34 Each of the above functions is identified with one or more of the following pipeline types: trunk in-field pipelines, flowlines, ‘piggy-back’ pipelines and bundied pipelines. ‘These types are described below, with the addition of risers, whose function as extensions of pipelines requires special consideration in this section of the Report, although they ate not strictly subsea, 8) Export and Infield Pipelines ‘The majority of pipelines found in the North Sea are those which transmit crude oil, product or natural gas over significant distances offshore, and their diameters are among the largest installed. Since they are usually downstream of process facilities the fluids carried are usually reasonably constant in composition and temperature, a condition which assists in corrosion control. This type of pipeline is often given a concrete outer coat, both for weight control and protection against impact damage (see Figure 3.1). They may also be buried, foradditional mechanical protection; f they arenot buried attificially, they may become so in time through natural silting up by fine seabed material. b) — Flowlines Flowlines carry primary fluids from wells to a central gathering facility. They are typically shorter and of smaller diameter than export lines. Since they carry untreated fluids, sometimesathigh well temperatures, they are potentially more subject to intemal corrosion and erosion than are export pipelines. Burial and concrete weight costing are not specified as frequently for flowlines as for main pipelines, and this may result in physical damage to these pipelines and their extemal anti-corrosion coatings during laying and after. Flowlines may be constructed from flexible pipe (see Figure 3.1) and as such will contain several layers of synthetic material which act as protective seals against intemal corrosion. ©) ‘Piggy-Back’ Pipelines ‘Piggy-back’ lines are pipelines which are mechanically attached externally to larger diameter pipelines and laid all together for economy. ‘Their function is to transport a different fluid than the main line, from and to the same points. Because of theirsmaller diameters they can cause difficulties in the removal of either. 4) Bundled Pipelines Pipelines are said to be bundled when they are installed within an outer carrier pipe. ‘They are usually separated from each other and from the carrier pipe by ‘spiders’ mounted at intervais along the carrier. Some bundled pipelines are thermally insulated, 35 Ifa pipe forming part of a bundie leaks, the contents may corrode other pipes in the bundle. Furthermore, since externally mounted cathodic protection is not effective within the confines of the carrier pipe, electrolytic corrosion of the bundled pipes cannot readily be prevented. ‘The annular space between the bundle and carrier pipe is normally filled with sea water, inhibited to reducecorrosion. If the carrier pipe ruptures or leaks, corrosiveraw sea water will displace the original contents, leading to corrosion attack on the exterior surfaces of the bundled pipes as well as further breakdown of the carrier pipe, e) Risers Riser pipes connect subsea pipelines, flowlines and umbilicals on the seabed toprocess and gathering facilities on the platform topsides. They are particularly vulnerable to impact damage and corrosion at the splash zone, the region of intermittent wave action at the surface of the sea. Rivers are usually given a thick protective anti-corrosion coating, and an anti-fouling coating may also be necessary. Itisusual forrisers tobekeptinelectrical contact with their related submarine pipelines. Electrical isolation of the riser from the platform itself may be specified in order to preserve the integtity of any cathodic protection system. on individual items. Due to the severity of the environment in the vicinity of the splash zone, itis possible that the associated risers would be removed from the platform after abandonment of apipeline. If required at a later date, they can be replaced, provided the means of supporting them are still in existence. 3.3. PIPELINE MATERIALS One of the principal determinants in selecting an appropriate pipeline material is the corrosive property of the transported fluid, The requirement to combat this is balanced against the specific strength of the steel, the toughness required in the parent weld and. heataffected zone (theregion adjacentto the base weld metal) and, for gas pipelines, its fracture propagation properties. The resultant election of material is an economic balance taking into account state-of-the-art technology. Most pipelines in the North Sea are manufactured from low alloy carbon steel (Refs. 6,11, 16,17, 21-24), the material, manufacture and (esting almost invariably being inaccordance with the American API SL standard in appropriate grades of tensile strength (Ref. 73), modified if necessary to meet the specific requirements of the owners of individual pipelines. Materials are continually being improved, and while current practice extends up to X65 grade higher strength steels up to X80 are becoming available, although there is no indication of this strength of steel being used offshore in the foreseeable future. For ‘sour’ service duties, ie. fluids containing significant amounts of hydrogen sulphide, the US National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) Recommendations may be referred to (Refs. 57 and 78), 36 ‘Metallurgical problems associated with higher strength steels set a practical upper limit to the standard stecis available, and engineers are turning to special steels for the higher duties. Recent developments in extracting more aggressive crades and natural gases have led tothe increasing use of high alloy pipeline steels (Refs. 17, 21 and 23). These steels may be alloyed with chromium, nickel, molybdenum and manganese, the micro-structure of the steel being austenitic, martensitic and duplex (austenitie/ ferritic). Alternative protection can be obtained by cladding the inside of a low alloy steel carrier pipe with high alloy metal. The high quality steel is in contact with the transported fluid while the lesser parent steel, protected on the outer surface with an anti-corrosion coating, is exposed to the sen water. Exterior cladding may be applied to risers in the splash zone. The cladding may bean alloy containing nickel and copperand is applied asa sheath. This provides protection fromcorrosion and marine fouling. Corrosion protection alone is sometimes achieved by welding on a layer of corrosion resistant alloy such as monel metal. Flexible pipelines may be steel wire armoured, several layers of the wire being wound ‘onto the plastic pipe. Each layer is interleaved with a non-metallic coating. A similar protective coating is applied overall, reducing in most cases the amount of cathodic protection needed. 3.4 CAUSES OF PIPELINE FAILURE 3.41 General ‘The major causes of pipeline failure (Refs. 3, 6, 9-17, 23-37) are: + impact damage, + mechanical defect and . corrosion. ‘The mechanisms of decay likely to act on abandoned pipelines are listed in Table 3.1 and summarised in Figure 6, An analysis of 240 pipeline failures in the Gulf of Mexico during the period 1967- 1979 showed that 25% of the total number of failures were due to internal factors and of these, 70% accurred on interfield pipelines. Of the failures attributable to external factors, 43% were due to corrosion and 25% to impact. Of failures on US gas transmission pipelines, 80% were attributable to external factors compared with 20% due to internal factors. The pipelines receiving most attention and hence least likely to fail were those of large diameter and thick wall. 3.4.2 Impact Damage A powerful blow, such as one caused by an anchor or other device trailed from a ship or a hard object dropped into the sea, can have a destructive effect on a pipeline. 37 Exposed and small diameter pipelines and those which have already been weakened by mechanical defects or corrosion in the region of the impact are most at risk. Impact damage cannot readily be foreseen, but the possibility must be taken into account when predicting long term reliability. 3.4.3 Mechanical Defects Failure due toa mechanical defect can occur when the normal mechanical properties of the pipe are compromised locally and at the same time an atypical event happens, for example an abnormal pressure surge. As with impact damage, mechanical defect failure is a random event which arises because of the simultaneous presence of two or more seriously abnormal factors. The situation is difficult to forecast, but should be allowed for in terms of long term safety. 3.4.4 Corrosion Internal corrosion is caused by the transported fluid, while external corrosion arises from sea water. Both may occur fcom microbiological activity. Pipe failure occurs cither when cnough metal is lost to cause perforation ofthe pipe wall, or when the pipe is sufficiently weakened for mechanical failure to occur. Some corrosion is inevitable and is always irreversible, but the rate of corrosion can be controlled by specific protective measures which will enable the pipe to achieve its design life, notwithstanding the transported fluid or external environment. Long term corrosion failure occurs when anti-corrosion measures are. inadequate, ot if the pipeline contents change for the worse and the original pipe material is unsuitable for the new conditions. 3.8 PIPELINE INSTALLATION The principal methods of subsea pipeline laying are: * lay barge, + reel barge and * towing. Pipelines are corrosion coated before laying and in certain circumstances a concrete weight coat is applied over the corrosion coat, Corrosion coating may be a very thin layer of epoxy, thermally cured to form an extremely tough skin protecting the pipe from sea water, oracoal taror other enamel used to give asoftercoat several millimetres thick. When the pipe has to be made negatively buoyant to ensure its stability on the seabed, a heavy reinforced concrete weight coat is applied over the anti-corrosion coating. ‘The largest pipelines are laid by lay barge, which are able to handle any coating, including concrete weight coating, Reel barges on the other hand cannot cope with large diameter or concrete coated pipe because of the pipe’s tight winding radius onto the reel. 38 ‘Towing out methods can result in damage to some coatings if the pipe is scraped over rocks or other obstructions on the sea bed, Inspite of the care given to the pipeline while being laid, some damage can be imparted to both the pipe and the coating due to inadvertent over-stressing, twisting and poor handling. Concrete coating will undergo deformation, and some cracking or spalling of the conerete is inevitable. Care is required to avoid disbonding between the concrete and corrosion coating, and the coating and the pipe surface. Despite the above strictures, construction in the North Sea can usually be well controlled, and most pipelines remain sufficiently protected during their normal design life. After installation, pipelines are surveyed for evidence of damage (Refs. 9, 12,15,26 and 33-35). A successful hydrostatic test is required before a consent to start-up the pipelines is given. Some pipeline operators perform pre-commissioning survey and all ate required to perform regular surveys of their pipelines. Details obtained during these surveys of concrete weight coat damage, soil conditions, free pipe movement, loss of burial and presence of unsupported spans, debris and scour, will be useful when planning the decommissioning stage. 3.6 PIPE COATINGS 3.6.1 General Line pipe is rarely coated internally but isneatly always coated on the outside. During the laying process, the field joints made up on the lay barge are given coatings on the barge compatible with those applied to the line pipe in the coating yard onshore. ‘The occasions when pipe is coated internally are made necessary by the type of fluid handled, or to improve pipe flow characteristics. Anti-corrosion coatings serve as a barrier, isolating the steel from its aggressive environment. ‘The coating should have Jong term stability and maintain a high dielectric strength during prolonged immersion. External coatings generally have low ‘water absorption properties and be tolerant of the cathodic protection applied to the pipe. Especially, coatings should not be allowed to disbond from the pipe surface under any conditions. Pipe coatings are applied in onshore yards under controlled conditions and are tested before despatch. Coatings applied on the barge are exposed to a less well controlled environment and are applied to pipe surfaces which cannot be so carefully prepared. ‘Typical pipetine components are illustrated diagrammatically in Figure 3.1. 39. 3.6.2 External Coatings ‘The types of coating applied to the external surfaces of subsea pipelines are listed in Table 3.2. (Refs. 6-8, 10, 14, 35-43, 47 and 48) and their properties compared in Table 3.3, Selection takes into account the coating’s inherent anti-corrosion properties, its impact resistance, ease of application, temperature limitations, pipe size, cost and whatever experience exists resulting from past use. ‘The first successful external contings for submarine pipelines were derived fromcoal tar and bitumen. The lower aliphatic hydrocarbon content of the former is said to render it mote resistant to water absorption and to bacteria attack. Earlier systems in the 1960s used tape-wrapped coatings, but this method of application has since waned in popularity. Coal tar enamels (CTE) and bitumen coatings are usually applied hot, with several layers of glass fibre fabric for reinforcement. They have given good performance in service and remain in widespread use, Care should be exercised when product temperatures become high since progressive coating deterioration can occu, Developments in technology have resulted in other coating types. Polyethylene (PE) coatings, are extruded onto an adhesive primer and have proved successful in service although extensive disbonding readily occurs if the PE is penetrated. Adhesive- backed PE tapes have been used onshore for several decades. Nylon and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coatings have met with little success. Fusion bonded epoxy (BE) coatings were introduced in the late 1970s, They ate said to offer toughness, adherence and durability but are not highiy resistant to the impactof sharp objects. An advantage over PE is that any damage is localised due to good FBE-to-steel adhesion. Long term data on the behaviour of extemal coating in seawater, particularly under the influence of cathodic protection and bacteria, are not available duc to both the limited elapsed time involved and commercial constraints. Performance is a function of the standard of surface preparation of the pipe at the time of coating application, care taken during transportation and installation, damage during life, marine growth and extent of burial. Although its is difficult to predict with precision the effective lifetime ofa given coating onasubseappipeline, it is unavoidable that some progressive deterioration will occur. Guidelines laid down by Det Norsk Veritas (DnV) for expected percentage breakdown of coatings are shown in Table 3.4. 3.6.3 Field Joints Field joints are provided to protect welded joints from corrosion. ‘They are given a profile which is uniform with the coated line pipe. Field joints may be of bitumen or synthetic rubber, over-filled with hot poured mastic, or protected by heat-shrunk sleeves or cold applied adhesive tape. Fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) field joints have been used for FBE coated pipelines. 3.6.4 Concrete Weight Coating The primary purpose of concrete weight coating is to confer negative buoyancy, ensuring pipeline stability on the seabed. This outer coat will also mechanically protect the anti-corrosion coating over which it is applied, to the benefit ofthe latter's ong term durability (Refs. 6-10, 13, 14, 29 and 44-46). 40 A tough, impact resistance high quality concrete coat is required, and a strong reinforcing steel cages built in during application of the concrete. Both ordinary and rapid hardening Portland cements are used. ‘The tricalcium aluminate (CA) must be sufficient to afford protection tothe steeleinforeing cage, The mineral aggregates,such as magnetite, are used for extra weight. The reinforced concrete will be of the order of 30mm to 120mm thick; the concrete is usually impinged onto the pipe as arelatively dry mixture but recent application innovations include a compression coat system where concrete is extruded or wrapped onto the pipe. Itshould be noted that several pipelines installed before the mid 70's used a ess robust re-inforcement of wire mesh known as ‘chicken wire’ in place of the steel cage. The concrete should be durable, possess low permeability to and not react with sea water. These qualities are achieved by ensuring a high cement content, a low water/ cement ratio during mixing, placing and curing, and by good quality control in the yard. Some cracking of the concrete is inevitable, particularly during the lay barge ‘operation, when the pipeline is in tension and subjected to bending moments. Some porosity is likely in the cured concrete, due to entrapped air. Concrete is applied directly to most anti-corrosion coats, but smooth FBE coats are covered with an intermediate non-slip barrier coating, usually fibre cement, before the concrete impingement process begins (Table 3.1). 3.6.5 Internal Coating ‘Most pipelines are not coated internally. Where internal coating is specified, itis for corrosion control or to improve flow properties. Baked urethane, phenolics and FBE, can be used for internal coating, During the girth welding of the pipeline, any internal coating or paint will be destroyed. inthe weld area, Unless the coating is replaced, the resultant bare pipe is exposed to corrosion attack. Most barges ate equipped to recoat large diameter pipe manually at the weld. During decommissioning of the pipeline, the condition of any internal coating should be ascertained and the results taken into account in a programme for pipeline preservation. 3.7 CATHODIC PROTECTION 3.7.1 General Standard design codes for subsea pipelines stipulate that pipeline corrosion shall be prevented by the use of coatings and cathodic protection (CP) (Refs. 9 and 32-35). Where the external coating is damaged or has deteriorated with time, cathodic protection currents contrat corrosion on the pipeline surface. For steel in seawater, a polarised potential more negative than -800mV silver/silver chloride/seawater reference electrode (Ag/AgC1), gives protection. In anaerobic environments such as mud, where sulphate reducing bacteria may be active, the required potential is more negative than -900mV, Ag/Ag C1. 41 Cathodic protection may not be effective beneath disbonded coatings (Refs. 8, 24.and 48), and external surveys may not always reveal whether the steel in such areas is under-protected. 3.7.2 Cathodic Protection Design CP currents are applied using impressed current or sacrificial anode techniques. For subsea pipelines the latter method is used, since this system is relatively low in maintenance. Exceptions may occur at onshore approaches or platform risers, where reliable electrical power supplies are available and the impressed current technique becomes viable for use on well-coated pipelines (Refs. 6-9, 20, 25, 37 and 59). Early sacrificial anode systems were based on zine anodes in the form of segmented or half-shell bracelets shaped to the profile of the pipeline. Recent improvements in aluminiumalloys have ledto a trend towards using aluminium-zine-indium alloys for half-shell and segmented bracelet anodes. The design of pipeline cathodic protection systems has developed with time, and Codes of Practice are continually being updated. Designs also vary according to operator requirements, For pipelines with extended design lifetimes, the difticulty and cost of retrofitting CP systems, particularly to submarine pipelines in deep water, should be considered atthe design stage. Each system shouldbe regarded individually when predicting sacrificial anode residual lifetimes. Annual survey data will be usefal in this respect. 3.7.3. Interaction with Coatings Although CP currents control the rate of corrosion of steel in seawater, coatings ‘minimise the total current requirement of the system and, hence, the weight of anode material installed, However, CF can have a progressively adverse effect on the coating itself (Refs. 8, 19, 39, 43 and 47-48 (see subsection 3.9.4.) In time, all coatings will suffer loss of adhesion to steel as a consequence of cathodic polarisation, though rates will differ. ‘The mechanism of disbondment is not fully understood, but may be related to the formation of an alkaline environment where cathodic currents are discharged at the steel’s surface. Disbondment usually starts at defects in the coating and tends to be more pronounced on those coatings which have. a lower adhesive bond strength. The relative performances of coal tar enamel, polyethylene and FBE coatings are compare in Table 3:3. The progressive deterioration of coating effectiveness will lead to an increase of current demand, while polarisation and progressive build-up of calcareous deposits on the steel will tend to decrease the current demand. As a result, the rate of ‘consumption of sacrificial anodesis not necessarily linear, although likely to increase with time, and short term consumption rates eannot be extrapolated to predict total system life. Again, annual survey data would be useful to highlight those areas where severe coating damage has occurred and may also indicate the effect of progressive breakdown of the coating. 42 3.7.4 Detrimental Effects of Cathodic Protection Extreme cathodic ‘over’ protection can cause hydrogen gas to evolve on the steel surface which may physically ‘lift-off’ coatings. Such acondition is more likely with impressed current systems elose to current drain points. In addition, cathodic protection can influence the fatigue life of pipeline steel (Ref. 3, 22, 24, 28 and 48). Instances of cathodic protection adversely affecting the properties of stainless steels have also been reported. Although the level of cathodie protection was sufficient to stop crevice corrosion of ferritic and martensitic stainless steel, severe hydrogen blistering and internal fissuring were evident. Austenitic stainless steels appear to be unaffected mechanically by cathodic protection whereas hydrogen embrittlement has been caused in martensitic stainless steel. Clearly, the design of cathodic protection must take account of all the materials in a pipeline system. (See subsection 4.3.6 for a description of crevice corrosion int stainless steels). 3.8 DECAY MECHANISMS 3.8.1 General ‘The principal decay mechanisms, corrosion and loss of concrete weight coating, are described in this section (see Figure 3.1). The objective is to predict the behaviour ofan abandoned pipeline, but the observations would be relevant in many eases where an extension to the lifetime of an existing pipeline is under consideration. There is at present very little experience of long term corrosion in sea water. One example only is to hand, a submarine recovered in 1982, 69 years after sinking. Although the main material of construction was mild steet with a chemical composition not used in modern pipeline, a short account of the investigation into the extent of corrosion is included in this report for information. 3.8.2 Available Data Performance data covering the operating life of the pipeline would be useful; these data are the property of the pipeline operator and are not publically available, The Institution of Corrosion has attempted to pool such information as is available, information which will result from the periodic internal and extemal surveys carried out during the life of the pipeline. Special features of pipeline configuration are listed in Subsection 3.4. Some of these affect corrosion and corrosion protection measures, to which should be added: + marine growth, + defects, + stabilising mats, + corrosion product deposits, + extraneous debris, + depleted CP anodes and + pipeline crossings and tie-ins 43 Every attempt should be made to inspect and gauge the effect of the above features, although burial and marine growth will prevent a full visual inspection; similarly. ‘magnetic particle and ultrasonic inspection require free access to a clean, ua-coated surface, 3.8.3 Corrosion Mechanisms Corrosion acts in the following ways, according to the material under attack and its enviconment. Corrosion Environments The corrosive environment of a subsea pipeline consists of seawater and seabed mud saturated with seawater. The effects of the resultant anaerobic environments and microbiological activity are considered below. For the sea areas under consideration the seawater, which in the North Sea is well mixed, contains pollutants from the Scandinavian, European, British and Irish land masses. In deep water, water and mud temperatures of less than 10°C are evident throughout the year. In shallower waters, such as the Southern Basin and at shore approaches, higher temperatures may occur. Corrosion ratescan increase by 20-30% per 10°C temperature rise; Figure 3.2 shows the effect of temperature on corrosion rates, and Figure 3.3 indicates the effect of temperature on another corrosion indicator, the solubility of oxygen, in the North Sea, Unlike most other waters, the North Sea has a fairly uniform profile of oxygen concentration with depth, in the range 6-8 mg/l, Seawater has a high salt content, of the order of 3.4%, and includes anions (chloride, sulphate, bicarbonate and bromide) and cations (sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium). Resistivity is low, about 30 for water and 75-250 ohmem for mud, and this encourages rapid corrosion rates. Seawater plH is fairly constant, of the order of pH8. Figure 3.4 shows the effect of oxygen and salt concentrations on corrosion rates. Marine organisms which influence corrosion patterns are widespread (Refs. 1, 2,13-21, 29, 49 and 50), Fouling isincreased when a secure foothold is available, as on the surfaces of steel, concrete and to some extent anti-corrosion coatings. Underwater currents above 2-2.5 metres/second can prevent organism attachment and fouling. Species and growth arc determined by water depth, temperature and the penetration of sunlight. Once marine growth isestablished itisdifficulttoremove and acts as a barrier to water flow and oxygen transport, In general, pipelines nearer to the water surface are at most risk from severe marine fouling. Corrosion Reactions Corrosion can proceed by general thinning of the metal or by a more localised effect. ‘The latter is more of a problem during the operational life ofthe pipe, since perforation cours, Corrosion is the breakdown of a material due to electrolysis. Examples are the consumption of sacrificial anodes or dissolution of steel when the cathodic protection system is exhausted. For metals in water, corrosion proceeds electrochemically by the conjoint action of an anodic (oxidation) reaction, by which the metal is dissolved, and a cathodic (reduction) reaction. The presence of an aqueous medium such as seawater or seabed mud is essential for corrosive action to take placs, 44 Electrons are produced by anodic reaction and pass through the metal, on demand, to the cathodic site, where they ate consumed by cathodic reaction. Charge balance in the ‘circuit’ is maintained by the passage of ions in solution. ‘The primary corrosive agent in seawater is oxygen, which diffuses to the metal surface and is therefore reduced to form hydroxyl ions. Any factor such as fluid motion which speeds the transport of oxygen to the metal surface will inctease the net corrosion rate. Conversely, if the transport of oxygen is impeded, for example by coatings, marine growth or burial, the net corrosion rate due to oxygen will decrease, Microbiological Activity ‘The limited data available for North Sea sediments indicates that there can be ahazard of microbiological corrosion. Redox potential (oxydation reduction) data are difficult to obtain; nevertheless, values of redox potential are necessary to determine the perceived risk of conrosion due to bacterial action. One set of guidelines is given in Table 3.5 (Ref. 51). Sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) require an anaerobic (oxygen-free) environment such as seabed mud (Refs. 2-4, 6, 42 and 50-53). Bacterial growth is restricted to an environment with atange of pl16.5t0 9.5, pH 7to being optimum. They can tolerate temperatures between -5°C and 75°C, 10 to 40°C being optimnm, There are several distinct species of SRB, each of which affects the corrosion of iron differently. To grow, SRBs require a source of sulphate ions, phosphates, carbon, nitrogen and inorganic iron (steel), SRB activity reduces sulphate to sulphide and depolarises the cathodic reaction both by consuming cathodic hydrogen and depositing a layer of ferrous sulphide, which is an effective cathode. In addition, SRB activity enhances the anodic dissolution reaction and interferes with the formation of a protective film ‘onthe iron, The ncteffect isa local increase in the corrosion rate ofthe item attacked. Some observed rates are given in Table 3.6. Pits in the internal walls of pipelines may harbour bacteria, and cleaning procedures need to consider the use of biocides to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated, General Corrosion Rates General (uniform) corrosion occurs when the cathodic reactant (oxygen) has equal access to all parts of a metal surface. This uniformity of corrosion rate permits reasonable predictions of system life. The rates reported (Refs. 1-5, 38 and 54-56) in Table 3.6 will apply to non-cathodically protected structures and to those where cathodic protection has become exhausted and the structure depolarised. ‘The rates are mainly for open seawater where corrosion rates are primarily controlled by oxygen availability. Coatings, calcareous deposits and full burial will decrease these values significantly. Rates vary locally at the mudline due to differential concentration cells, scouring, marine growth and SRB activity. To large extent, corrosion rate data for bare carbon stee! are applicable to the whole family of related ferrous materials, such as low alloy (high strength) steels, alloy steels, weathering steels (with copper), malleable irons, and nickel alloy cast irons. ‘The summarised data relate to shallow seawater conditions. Since the pipeline locations under consideration are in mixed, well aerated seawater, this data should be applicable topresent subsea pipelines to a good approximation, 45 Galvanic Corrosion ‘The electrode potentials of different alloys in seawater are not identical, (Table 3.7) (Refs, 2, 57, 67 and 69), the difference in potential being the driving force. For galvanic corrosion to occur, the two metals must be in electrical contact and cathodic reactants must be available at the less corrosive (more noble) metal. Galvanic corrosion is used to beneficial effect for the cathodic protection of steels by sacrificial anodes. In its tum, carbon steel may protect stainless steel and prevent pitting, the rate of dissolution of the carbon steel increasing, rising for example from0.79 to 0.91 mm/year on coupling equal area of 304 stainless steel (Ref. 3). Galvanic corrosion can also be detrimental where it causes preferential corrosion at welds. Crevice Corrosion Crevice corrosion is autocatalytic (self propagating) and is the result of a series of connected events (Ref. 56), The crevices need to be wide enough to permit fluid entry, but narrow enough to cause stagnation; a few thousandihs of an inch wide is sufficient. Fibrous matter, deposits, or marine organisms contacting the surface of a metal or exposed wire armouring may also produce crevice corrosion sites. Upon initial immersion, oxygen reduction anc metal dissolution occur overthe entire surface of the metal, both within and outside the crevice. The oxygen in the crevice is rapidly depleted, but outside, oxygen arrival is unimpeded and oxygen reduction continues. Metal dissolution, meanwhile, continues both in and out of the crevice. Inside the crevice, the continued production of metal ions (positive charge) causes an imbalance of charge, which is corrected by the migration of chloride ions (negative charge) into the crevice. ‘The increasing concentration of metal and chloride ions causes hydrolysis and results in a build-up of hydrogen ions (acidity) inthe crevice. Variations in electrode potential between the metal in the crevice and that exposed to the bulk solution can be severe, approximately 100m forcarbon steel and SOOmV for stainiess steels. Overall, metal dissolution within the crevice alone is, stimulated, supported by the continuing reduction of oxygen om the metal adjacent to the crevice. Many metals are susceptible to crevice corrosion, as shown in Table 3.8, Metals such as stainless stecls, which rely on athin surface oxide film for corrosion resistance (passivity), are particularly vulnerable to crevice corrasion, although the likelihood is decreased by an increase in chromium, nickel and molybdenum, content, They rely on the availability of oxidising species to repair defects in the passive film and where such conditions pertain, corrosion rates are virtually zero (Refs. 1, 2, 4, 22 and 56-58), However, where these films are destroyed and cannot be repaired, for example by concentrations of chloride or hydrogen ions in an active crevice, the local dissolution rate increases markedly and progressively with time. Ifcrevice corrosion is caused by the attachment of marine growth to asurface, or by the scttlement of deposits, then fluid flow rates in excess of i to 1.5 m/s may prevent attachment or deposition and prevent the occurrence of crevices, Pitting Corrosion Like crevice corrosion, pitting corrosion is also autocatalytic, the result of a series of connected events (Ref. 67). Pitting attack is very localised and itis not uncommon for 90 to 99% of the surface to remain unattacked, with only a few pits evident, Whereas the rate of general corrosion may be low, the rate of metal dissolution in active pits will be high and rapid penetration of the metal item can occur. It is often difficult to detect pits because of their small sites, and failures due to pitting often occur with unexpected suddenness. An extended initiation period is usually required before pits become visible. ‘This period can be up to several years, depending on both the metal and the corrosive environment. The initiation process is thought to be due to a local imbalance at the surface of a metal where itis exposed to the environment. In seawater, the imbalance leads to a local build up of ions from solution, with the net result that the rate of ‘metal dissolution is stimulated at that point, If conditions permit, for example under stagnant conditions, metal dissolution remains concentrated at their localised points (pits), the corrosion process becomes self-stimulating and pitting corrosion proceeds at an increasing rate. Typical rates of pitting corrosion are given in Table 3.9. Again, metals which rely on a passive film for corrosion resistance are particularly vulnerable. Corrosion behaviour data for Type 304 stainless steels are typical for the lower alloyed stainless steels (Ref, 2), except the nickel-free alloys, which are usnally much less resistant to pitting corrosion, Data for Type 316 stainless steels are typical of the higheralloyed stainless steels. Increases in chromium, nickel and molybdenum content will usually decrease the likelihood of pitting corrosion; for example alloys containing 6% molybdenum are superior to those with only 2.3% M,, Rules of thumb for estimating pitting resistance equivalent (PRE) are given below. Values should be greater than 36, PRE = Cr+3.3M,or PRE = Cr+3.3M,+16N ‘One example for 316 stainless steel under full immersion in low velocity seawater showed 0.94mm by pitting attack in five years. A different example in quiet seawater exhibited pitting attack under barnacles in 42 months. At a velocity greater than 1,2 m/s no bamacles were able to attach and no pitting occurred. Corrosion Fatigue All metals, when subject to cyclic, variable or alternating loads, are liable to fail by fatigue (Refs. 3, 14, 24, 27, 28 and 56). Fatigue involves crack initiation, propagation and subsequent mechanical failure. Higher stresses lead to shorter fatigue lives. ‘The fatigue properties of low and intermediate strength offshore pipeline steels in acrated seawater are adversely affected by the aqueous environment and chloride ions, the steel becoming more susceptible to crack initiation and enhanced erack growth rates; that is, they suffer corrosion fatigue, the synergistic effect of fatigue plus corrosion. The possibility of corrosion fatigue is a major constraint on the design of offshore pipelines and platforms, particularly at welds and nodes, Resistance to corrosion fatigue depends more on corrosion resistance than mechanical strength. The action of low cycle fatigue stresses is also important, since more corrosion can occur during the low cycle. This factor is particularly significant when considering pipelines that are to be preserved afler having been in use for several decades, 47 Cathodie protection can restore the fatigue fife of low strength steels (less than 550 ‘MNim?) in seawater fo equal that in air. ‘The effect is ambiguous, but is thought to control the condition of sites where cracks may initiate, thereby inhibiting crack initiation, it can however cause an acceleration in the growth rate of larger cracks. Overprotection is detrimental, particularly to high strength steels (greater than 900 Nim), and may cause decreased ductility and cracking due tohydogenembrittlement. Overprotection of carbon steels should not oceur with zine or aluminium sacrificial anodes. The fatigue parameters used in design indicate that extended fatigue and long service lives are attainable. Stress-Corrosion Cracking Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) requires an alloy which is affected by composition and microstructure, a specific aggressive environmentand a sustained tensile stress (Refs. 3, 8, 23 and 24). Carbon and low alloy steels are not susceptible to SCC in seawater, but high strength steels may be at risk, particularly in the weld and heat affected zones. Sulphide stress corrosion or hydrogen induced cracking, caused by hydrogen sulphide produced by SRB activity, is a particular form of SCC which should be considered during the design and life of a pipeline. Onshore examples of SCChave occurred on buried carbon steel pipelines at moderate temperatures above ambient, as a result of interaction between disbonded coating and cathodic protection. The steel becomes susceptible to SCC as a result of a build up of carbonate and bicarbonate in the crevice formed under the coating. It is considered that pipelines offshore will not be subject to the set of conditions necessary to cause this form of SCC. Long Term Experience An example of the long-term corrosion behaviour subsea of an iron-based material has been reported for the “Holland 1” submarine (Refs. 76 and 77). This sank in 1913 and was recovered in 1982 for inspection, There were indications that during Ghisperiod the submarine had been exposed to a variety of environments, including burial and exposure to seawater, and to both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The submarine was covered both internally and extemally by an adherent layer of calcium, carbonate scale with a thickness of 2-Smin, The outside surface was also colonised by a layer of marine growth, Corrosion was evident by visual examination and was subsequently attributed to both aerated and deaerated mechanisms. The possible role of sulphate reducing bacteria was highlighted. “The submarine hull was made froma very mild ductile steel of good quality. Typical tates of corrosion for this material in seawater were given as 0.02mm - 0.0Smm/ year. However the original thickness of the hull plate was of the order 143mm. In places this had thinned by only 1.5mm; generally the thickness remaining was 6mm; elsewhere total perforation bad occurred. Based ona 69 yearcorrosion period, ignoring any corrosion that may have happened during service and before sinking, these equate to corrosion rates of 0.02, 0.12 and Q.21mm/year. Clearly, the latter is aminimum value and may indeed have been exceeded. 4B 3.8.4 Failure of Concrete Weight Coating Concrete weight coating on a subsea pipeline can fail by: + spalling during laying, + inpact from external sources, shedding due to jateral movement of the pipe and an abrasive obstacke, + corrosion and foss of integrity of the steel reinforcing cage or + degradation of the concrete material itself. In addition, concrete weight coating on unsupported spans will be subject to the vibrational forces induced in the span by seawater currents flowing around the pipe. Ii the forces are severe enough, the concrete will break away, Spans will also be at risk from anchor and trawl board impact damage. The occurcence of an unsupported span is usually the result of scouting of the seabed by underwater ‘currents, or more rarely collapse of the seabed. Conerete Structure Hardened concrete is rigid and contains a network of inter-connected pores which are filled with water saturated with calcium, sodium and potassium hydroxides. Reserve alkalinity is available as solid calcium hydroxide which forms during the hardening process, The concrete structure will be permeable by reason not only of the pores, but also cracks, voids and entrapped air pockets. ‘The durability of undisturbed concrete in the marine environment depends to a large degree upon itslow permeability. Inittal surface absorption, chloride ion diffusion and electrical resistivity test results show that the permeability of uncracked concrete exposed to sea water reduces significantly with time. This reduction is due to the formation of a discrete layer on the surface of the cement paste, together with a more ‘widespread bulk effect associated with a modification of the pore structure, The surface layer generally consists of a brucite (magnesium hydroxide) layer which is in evidence after only one day, overlain by a more slowly developing skin of aragonite (calcium carbonate). Afier four months of sea-water exposure the layers are typically 30m and 150m thick respectively. Chloride ions do not attack concrete per se, although some ions will react chemically with the cement and become immobitized. Diffusion of chloride ions from seawater into the conerete is inevitable, but the ratecan be arrested ifthe tricalcium aluminate (C,A) content is sufficiently high. The rate is also affected by the quality and soundness of the concrete and by the hydrostatichead, Forexample, chloride ions will penetrate Im into a well compacted concrete in 140m water depth in 50 years, whereas poor quality concrete couldbe penetrated after only one day. The presence of eracks will facilitate significantly the entry of chloride ions into concrete, Deterioration of Concrete Material ‘Concrete made from ordinary Portland cement (Refs. 29, 44, 46, 59 and 63) contains insufficient C,A to preventa deleterious reaction in the presence of sulphate ions. For example, in a3.5% magnesium suiphate solution, 90% loss of strength occurred over five years. Greater than 8% C,A is required for immunity, The sulphate reaction with C,A causes a gradual softening of the cement matrix with long-term progressive loss of strength and swelling of the conerete, The effect is partly offset by the presence of chloride ions; however, itis considered more likely that any loss of structural integrity of a concrete weight coat is caused by failure of the steel reinforcing cage. 49 Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement Cage The stee! reinforcement cage in the concrete weight coat will initially be exposed to ahighly alkaline environment, pH 12.5 to 13.5, and will be protected from corrosion by the immediate formation of a passive film (Refs. 6, 10, 44-46, 60-62 and 64- 66). This film can be maintained for many years, even during seawater immersion, by 50 to 75mm of sound, good quality concrete, but such a depth of cover is not always available to reinforcing steel in concrete weight coating. Although total corrosion of steel in reinforeed concrete under immersed conditions usually depends on a limited cathodic current, ithas been found thatthe distribution, of corrosion can be determined by factors such as cracking of the concrete, which can influence passivity. Steel in concrete on subsea pipelines may be depassivated by the arrival of chloride ions from seawater. The high conductivity of seawater to conerote makes possiblethe development of long-range corrosion cells where local rate and extent oF corrosion could depend critically on the geometry of cracks in the concrete over the reinforcement. Oxygen availability is necessary if corrosion of the steel is to proceed, although corrosion is not always inevitable. Oxygen does not react with conerete and will have unimpeded, if slow, passage into concrete via pores and cracks. Therefore, oxygen in seawater can allow local corrosion of the steel to proceed in concrete where viable, that is at cracks and areas of poor quality or at the site of impact damage. The rate of corrosion will be decreased by full burial of the pipeline. The corrosion products of iron and steel are two to five times more voluminous than the parent metal; corrosion of steel in concrete will therefore produce tensile stresses in theconcrete. Because concrete has a low resistance to tensile stress, it will crack inorderto relieve these stresses. Thus, the concrete weight-coat can become detached from the pipeline by the progressive loss of spalled material, or can come away in ‘chunks’ following dissolution and or severance of the reinforcing cage. Effect of Failure of Concrete Weight Coating Separation of the weight coat from the pipeline will make the latter more buoyant, conerete fragments may ensuare fishing gear and the underlying anti-corrosion coating willbe exposed and become more vulnerable to damage, increasing the likelihood of early pipeline steel corrosion. However, the ficld-joint coating (which has no concrete cover) will always pose more of a problem in maintaining anti- 3.9 FLEXIBLE PIPELINES A typical multi-layer flexible pipsline is shown in Figute 3.1. For the mechanical strength of the flexible pipeline (o be affected, the metal layers will need to corrode; significant corrosion of the outer reinforcement iayers will depend on degradation of the outermost coatings, shown in the Figure 3.1 ¢ an elastomer. 50 Elastomeric coatings have been in use in seawater for several decades and they have been shown to maintain good durability, water resistance and adhesion to steel (Ref. 75), aithough some loss of tensile strength and elongation is to be expected, On this, basis, elastomer coated flexible pipelines will probably be preserved mechanically for many decades. 3.10 PIPELINE BEHAVIOUR AFTER DECOMMISSIONING 3.10.1 General The internal and extemal condition of a pipeline should be determined at the time of de-commissioning, for example by intelligent pig and cathodic protection (field gradient) surveys. Where possible, visual inspection and non-desteuctive testing may also be used where pipelines are exposed. {In the examination of behaviour afer decommissioning, pipelines generally fall into one of three categories: Category 1 Carbon steel pipelines, coated, provided with cathodic protection and fully or partially buried. Category 2 High alloy steel pipelines with coatings where relevant, fully or partially buried. ‘These lines are at risk from local corrosion where pitting or crevice conditions can_ occur, Perforation would render the line inoperable, although much of the pipeline would remain intact mechanically for decades. Category 3 Flexible pipelines made up of several metallic and non-metallic coats. They are durable and it is not likely that their mechanical properties will deteriorate rapidly. Doring the operational life of any pipeline, the majority of metal loss will probably be by internal corrosion. ‘The extent of metal loss will then govern whether the pipeline can be considered for preservation and re-use. Where external attack is a concem, replacement sacrificial anodes can be retrofitted if required when the original anodes become depleted. Repairs to areas of gross damage to the anti- corrosion coating may be contemplated in extreme cases. On this basis, external corrosion can be controlled provided CP is maintained; if the cathodic protection systems allowed to run down then corrosion of the stee! will become inevitable once coating defects appear. If the pipe is to be abandoned in situ and filled with water or some other liquid, inhibition may not be necessary, since all corrosion reactants will be consumed and not replaced, leading to an eventual reduction in corrosion. Pipeline crossings left in place after abandonment will need to be monitored to ensure that the abandoned pipeline does not deleteriously influence the crossing line. Spur lines may drain an existing cathodic protection systemif they are designed for shorter lifetimes, SL High alloy fittings in carbon stee! lines may promote galvanic corrosion. Rock dumping (see Section 6) may cause extra coating breakdown, Protective covers, particularly those made from sheet steel, may interfere with the cathodic protection systems acting within them unless they are correctly and securely bonded clectrically. 3.10.2 Sequence of Pipeline Decay A typical sequence of subsea pipeline decay is as follows: Breakdown of corrosion coating and increased consumption of sacrificial anodes over the ‘normal’ life of the line. At the end of its ‘normal’ life, there should be in at least 20% of anode material remaining, equivaient to an anode design utilisation factor of 80%. This may assist in maintaining the level of protection on parts of the pipeline. Sometime after the pipeline has ceased to operate, its temperature will approach seabed temperature, which will alleviate corrosion to some extent. ‘Theamountofremaining anode material, degree of burial, extentof coating breakdown, and build-up of calcareous deposits will then determine at what rate the pipeline depolarises from a protected potential to a potential at which free corrosion can ‘occur. This may take several years. As the anodes become totally depleted, the bare areas of pipeline steel will become increasingly subject to corrosion, the upper-boundary corrosion rate being approximately 0.2mm/year in seawater. Thus, fora typical wall thickness of Lamm, the time to arrive at complete perforation by uniform corrosion will be 60 years. For afully buried line, the time period may be 400 years, Localized pitting corrosion in seawater will occur at a higher rate, such that holes appear in the line after only 15 years. The above time periods are approximate, and under certain circumstances corrosion rates may be some ten times tess than those given above, leading to pipeline lifetimes of several centuries. Generally, itisconcluded that a pipeline will remain on the seabed for many decades before it begins to break-up into sections. 3.41 MATERIALS TESTING 314.1 Testing Ali pipeline components are subjected to various tests before being used, to confirm their fitness for purpose. With respect to abandoned pipelines, some of these tests are ‘more applicable than others and some are only relevant if the pipeline is to be recovered, For example, the shear strength of the coatings is relevant if the pipeline is to be recovered by the “reverse lay" method (see Section 4 for a description of recovery methods). 52 3.11.2 Applicable Tests InTable3.10the various decay mechanisms are identified for each pipeline component, The table indicates which properties should be considered if the abandoned pipeline is to be recovered at some future date. For cach component property the associated test code is identified in Table 3.11. Most methods for evaluating pipeline components are based on tests lasting up to 1 year, or on 28 day accelerated high temperature ageing tests which have been developed to predict the perforniance during the pipeline's operating life. Short term tests may not be relevant to longer lifetimes of, say, more than 30 years. Test methods are based on measuring the physical and mechanical properties of a pipeline component during various stages of long term immersion in seawater. This, ‘would need to be carried out for pipeline sections which are cathodically protected as well as on those which are not. Meaningful “ong term” immersion tests would be for periods longer than 5 years, although to establish trends the results should be logged on an annual basis. 3.11.3 Performance Testing Most long term performance information is held by the operating companies and consists of the results of visual inspection determining damaged areas, loss of coating and external corrosion. Cathodic protection surveys give an indication of coating breakciown, provided the field density method is used to establish current density. To obtain quantitative data, it will be necessary either to remove pipe sections for testing onshore or to adapt those onshore test methods which are appropriate for in-situ testing of pipetines offshore. Some methods of in-situ testing on operational pipelines may not be rctevant in establishing the performance of abandoned lines; for example, the performance of coatings not under cathodic protection differ from those that are. Wherever possible, samples of lines that have been in the sea.for a considerable length of time should be obtained for examination and testing. Recommended test codes are listed in Table 3.11.. The tests identified there should when possible be conducted on pipeline components that have been immersed in seawater for extended periods. 3.12 CONCLUSIONS ‘The uniformity of water and seabeds throughout UK waters means that the location of pipelines does not effect external corrosion rates. Intemal corrosion attack will depend on the fluid carried duting the operational life of the pipeline and can be countered by provisions made during design and operation. 53 By reason of their size and applied protection, export and infield trunk pipelines are considered less liable than flowlines to accident and decay. Risers reccive extra Protection in recognition of their greater vulnerability to impact damage and environmental attack in the splash zone. An analysis of failures in the Gulf of Mexico indicates thata minority of failures were due to internal factors, most of them on infield lines. Forty-three per cent of external failures were due to corrosion and twenty-five per cent to impact. In general terms, corrosion rates are toa large extent controllable, impact damage and the consequences of mechanical fauits less so. Damage during pipe transportation and construction is possible but most can be detected in time for remedial work to be carried out. Anti- corrosion measures and concrete weight and anti-impact coatings require high-level quality assurance ducing application and laying. Good maintenance of riser coatings during their lifetime is needed, ‘The considerable attention alzeady given to these factors in the UK ensures that they assist in meeting the predicted design life of the line. After considering the corrosion mechanisms and failure probabilities present throughout the life cycle of a pipeline, it is eoncluded that a subsea line that is well maintained and has kept fairly free from mechanical damage has a good chance of lasting for 60 yeats if exposed or 400 years is fully buried after the cathodic protection system becomes depleted. 54 Table 3.1 DEGRADATION MECHANISMS OF ABANDONED SUBSEA PIPELINES PIPELINE COMPONENT DECAY MECHANISM. General and localised corrosion following depletion of CP systems and action of biological activity Pipe material Pipeline structure Displacement due to environmental forces, anchors, fishing gear and loss of support. Denting and severance by external impact. Mechanical damage, hardening permeation and disbondment, Anti-corrosion coatings Concrete weight coating: Concrete - Loss of strength due to reaction with seawater, micro-structural failure and spalling. Stee! rebar - Corrosion. Sacrificial anodes Depletion due to preferential wastage. Flexible pipe Hardening of seals. Corrosion of armouring. 35 Tabie 3.2 EXTERNAL COATING TYPES TYPE COMMENTS: TYPICAL THICKNESS (mm) Goal Tar Enamel (CTE) - Long history of successful 5.0 use. Petroleum Bitumen -_Less effective than coal tar. 50 Polyethylene (PE) - Early problems, Extruded PE 20 now successful. Fusion Bonded Epoxy - Successful applications. 05 (FBE) Polyamide - Limited data. Polyurethane (PU) ~ Field joint material, 12.0-50.0 Limited data. Polychloroprene (PCP) - Durable; splash zone coat, —_12.0-25.0 (Neoprene) Ethylene Propylene - Durable; splash zone coat, 12.0-25.0 Diamine Monomer - Limited Data, (EPDM) Hypalon - Splash zone coating for 10.0-50.0 higher temperature ranges. PCPIPYC = Thermal insulation 50.0 PE Tape/Mastic - Field Joint Coatings 2.0450.0 PVC Tape/Mastic - Heat Shrink Sleeve. 2.0450.0 Polymer Glass - Limited data. Fibre Cement - Barrier or bond coat between 2.5 FBE and concrete weight coat. Reinforced concrete - Weight and impact coating. _30.0-120.0 56 Table 3.3 COMPARISON OF COAL TAR, POLYETHYLENE AND FUSION BONDED EPOXY COATINGS (Ref. 36) PROPERTY coaL POLY- FUSION TAR ETHYLENE | BONDED ENAMEL | (PE) EPOXY (CTE) (FBE) Extensibility 1 3 3 Cathodic disbondment resistance] 2 1 2 Impat resistance 1 3 2 Adhesion 1 2 3 Resistance to Creep or Flow 1 3 3 Resistance to Penetration 2 3 3 Ageing effects 2 1 2 Key: _4= Poor; 2= fair; 3= good ‘The coatings above are used for their general anti-corrosion properties, but other coatings may be specified for special situations: thick polychloroprene (PCP) and EPDM coatings are particularly durable and are used to protect risers in splash zones. ‘They have also been used for themal insulation, often in conjunction with aPVC foam, 37 Table 3.4 DnV GUIDELINES FOR BREAKDOWN OF PIPE COATINGS LIFETIME PREDICTED COATING BREAKDOWN % (Years) [in Mean Final Thin Film (Ref. 35) 10 2 7 10 20 2 15 : 30 30 2 25 60 40 2 40 90 Rubber (Ref. 9) 25 1 5 10 58 Table 3.5 REDOX POTENTIAL INTERPRETATION (Ref. 51) REDOX POTENTIAL CORROSION (mv) RISK up to 100 Severe 100 - 200 Moderate 200 - 400 Slight over 400 Negligible Table 3.6 EXAMPLES OF CARBON STEEL CORROSION RATES IN SEAWATER JocneraL CORROSION | COMMENTS REF RATE (MM/YEAR) 5 Flowing, 40m/s turbulent (a) 1 075 Flowing 3mis 0.75 Millscaied sample, 8 years 4 07 Piling, millscale free, up to 2 years 02 Piling, millscale free, over 2 years 015 After 1 year 0.07 After 16 years 0.23 Flowing, 0.6ns (a) 3 0.10 Quiescent 0.125 Quiescent, rate decreases with time 56 0.07 -0.21 Piling (tmudiine), less than 0.6m/s 2 0.02-0.24 Seabed - 69 year exposure 76 01-02 Quiescent, world values (a) 1 0.03 - 0.08 Low velocity, low oxygen 5 0.03 Embedded (with or without CP) 38 0.03 Immersed (with CP) 0.07 - 0.14 Mean rates (b) 55 0.15 ~ 0.50 Just below mean low tide level 0.84 - 1.02 SRB mean values (c) 1.52 - 2.03 SRB maximum vatues (c) Notes: a) Chromium (2-3.5%) will increase the likelihood of pitting and gives no advantage in the long term. (Refs. 1 and 3). b) _Pitting 2.5 to 3.5 times worse than uniform rate. (Ref. 35). ©) Values for SRB. Pitting may be 4 to 5 times worse than uniform rate. Table 3.7 GALVANIC POTENTIALS IN SEAWATER Alloy Potential (Ag/Ag/C1) ACTIVE Zine -4000 Carbon Steel -650 Active 304 Stainless Stee! -520 Active 316 Stainless Steel “410 90/10 Copper - Nicke! -250 70/30 Copper - Nickel -200 Passive 304 Stainless Steel -80 Passive 316 Stainless Steel -50 Alloy 825 +20 LESS ACTIVE 61 Table 3.8 TOLERANCE TO CREVICE CORROSION IN QUIESCENT SEAWATER (Ref. 2) HIGHLY MODERATELY] FAIRLY CREVICES TEND TO RESISTANT | RESISTANT | RESISTANT | INITIATE DEEP PITTING| ls0/10 CuNi | Gast iron Ni-Fe-Cr Types 304, 316, 400 (1.5% Fe) stainless steels 70/30 CuNi | Carbon Steel | Ni-CuAlloy | Ni-Cralloy (0.5% Fe) 400 62 Table 3.9 RATES OF PITTING CORROSION IN QUIESCENT SEAWATER (Ref. 2) RESISTANCE TO PITTING Goop FAIR POOR Alloy Pitting Alloy Pitting Alloy Pitting nmiyea) (onmiyeat) (ome) 90/10 CuNFe | 0.03-0.13 0.38-0.76 | 304L Stainless} 1.78" Steel 0.13-0,38* 70/30 Cu/NiFe | 0,03-0.13 ] 316 Stainless 1.53-1.78"| Ni-Cr-Fe 1.63" Steel Notes: a)* At flowrates greater than 1 Sm/s corrosion rates are less than 0.003mm/year. b) All pitting rates vary considerably from the above. 63 64 Table 3.10 PIPELINE COMPONENT TEST CRITERIA COMPONENT TEST Pipeline Steel Concrate Coating Corrosion Coating Flexibles Pipe General corrosion Pitting corrosion Corrosion of reinforcement Compressive strength of concrete Shear strength of cancrete impact resistance Oxygen diffusion Water absorption Oxygen diffusion Cathodic disbondment Resistivity Interface shear strength Impact resistance Resistance to marine organisms Water resistance Oxygen diffusion Resistivity Resistance to marine organisms Tensile strength Corrosion of wire reinforcement Table 3.11 SUBSEA PIPELINE TEST CODES PROPERTY Corrosion in Seawater Compressive Strength Adhesion: Shear Strength Tensile Strength Cathodic Disbondment Abrasion Impact Bond Strength Water Absorption Water Vapour Transmission Resistivity Salt Spray TEST CODE ASTM G31/NACE TM-01-69 ASTM C 39 ASTM D-1000 ASTM D-1002 Push-off Test ASTM C496 ASTM D2370 ASTM D 638 ASTMG8 BGC/PS CWE DIN 53516 ASTM D 1044 ASTM G 14/ASTM G17 BS 4147/BS 4164 ‘Swing Hammer Test BS 4184 ASTM D 570 ASTMC 642 ASTM G9 ASTM E 96 ASTM D 1000 ASTM D 257, ASTMB 117 65 66 Figure 3.1 STEEL LINE UNE CORROSION SACRIFICRAL FIELD JOINT COATING COATING REINFORCED CONCRETE COATING GIRTH WELD TYPICAL CONCRETE COATED PIPELINE ARRANGEMENT ELASTOMERIC TEXTILE & STAINLESS STEEL COVER REINFORCEMENT BURST REINFORCEMENT COMPONENTS SYNTHETIC LINER STAINLESS STEEL ANTIASRAIDING tNERCOc® TUBE ‘COMPONENT TYPICAL FLEXIBLE PIPE ARRANGEMENT 67 CORROSION RATE, pm/ YEAR 700 600 800 400 300 200 100 68 Figure 3.2 12 pm/YEAR/DEG. C 20 30 40 ‘STEEL SURFACE TEMPERATURE, °C. Figure 3.3 13 12 = ° a é © © * wdd 'N3DAXO 4O ALIEN TOS 70 80 80 100 «110 60 30 40050 20 TEMPERATURE, 69 RELATIVE CORROSION RATE 70 ° Figure 3.4 GONCENTRATION NaCl, wt % 18 g w £10 = 3 8 6s Q 1 2 3 4 5 6 CONCENTRATION OF DISSOLVED 02, mL/L qt t i i t t j | t { 1 3 10 15 20 25 4. PIPELINE RECOVERY 4.1 INTRODUCTION fit is decided to recover an abandoned pipeline rather than leave it in situ, careful preparations for carrying out the recovery operation are necessary, to minimise cost and disturbance. ‘The few occasions when the pipeline is to be moved for reuse will involve lifting it from the seabed in manageable sections which may be several kilometres long, after first uncovering it on the seabed without damage, In considering the different stages of recovery, only those technologies that are reasonably certain of being applied successfully at the present time are described andno attempthas been made at economic comparisons since so much depends on the circumstances of each case. Avoidance of overstressing the pipeline during reverse lay recovery is central to recovery operations if the material may be re-used or the risk of a major buckle is to beminimised, Selection criteria for access, cover removal and recovery methods are described and illustrated in detail. 42 PIPELINE TYPES 421 General Before tho engincering approach and costings concerning abandonment can be determined and the options reviewed, data are required which will indicate the probable condition of the pipeline. Whenever possible, this information should be obtained from records and by survey. Before this stage, certain facts can be inferred from a knowledge of the type of pipeline, its parameters having been conditioned at the design stage by its intended operational function. These attributes include protection such as burial, depth of water, proximity to other pipelines and structures and any special situations such as a shore approach. One general note that applies to all types is that normally pipelines Jess than 16" diameter are trenched, andall pipelinesto shoreare trenched and buried in thesurf zone and shore approach section, regardless of size. 4.22 Description of Pipeline Types For the purpose of defining their physical situation, pipelines in the UKCS ean be differentiated in terms of the following fimetions: + trunk tines, inctudingshore approaches, + imterfield product pipelines, + flowlinesand + service linesand umbilicals. nN ‘These functions may be described as follows: a) Trunklines ‘Trunk pipelines are main carriers which transmit oil and gas exported from offshore fields to shore terminals. At the input end, a trunk pipeline is usually connected to the base of a platform riser. ‘The UKCS trunk lines considered here are those listed in Table 41, taken from thetable ‘mnajor offshore pipelines' in Appendix llof the Department of Energy's Report “Development of the Oil and Gas Resources of the United Kingdom 1987” (the ‘Brown Book’). Referring to Figures 4.1 and 4.2, the diameters of the “Brown Book’ trunk Pipelines are plotted against numbers of pipelines to shore (upper histogram in Figure 4.1), against numbers of pipelines laid between fields only (Figure 4.1, lower histogram) and in Figure 4.2 year by year between 1967 and 1987. A boundary at the 100 metres depth of water has been used to - separate the Southern area of the North Sea and the Central and Northern areas, From these histograms, the following features emerge: - 32 pipetines are in more than 100m of water depth, compared with 25 pipelines in less than 100m; i. there are more trunk pipelines in the Central and Norther areas than in the shallower Souther area, - Those pipelines to shore starting in water deeper than 100m are more than 180km long. + Few pipelines to shore ate under 16" diameter. - Seven pipelines under 16" diameter lie in less than 100m, compared with fifteen in deeper waters. - Of those pipelines 16” and over, half are pipelines to shore, - The majority of pipelines over 30" are trunk lines to shore. + There are thirteen 30" diameter pipelines, more than any other one size. All but three are in the Southern area and lie in less than 100m of water. ‘Some are 10-15 years old, which is approaching the end of an average pipeline design life. ‘One other feature of pipelines which must be taken info account during recovery operations is their proximity to one another. There is insufficient practical experience of recovery operations to define the optimum distance below which there is a risk of one being damaged while the other is being recovered; that distance will depend on the technique being used for recovery and the possibility of pipelines drifting to one side during the recovery operation. Some examples of UKCS pipelines laid adjacent (o one another are: + Frigg 1 and 2: dual 32” gas lines, 220 miles long, Frigg Fieldto St, Fergus Tecminal, > Two 36" crude oil interfield lines, Shell/sso Cormorant to BP Ninian, - 36" and 16" pipelines, both British Gas, Rough Storage Field to Easington ‘Terminal and - 16" and 24” BP gas pipelines, West Sole Field to Easington Terminal. The largest single concentration of trunk pipelines are the nine entering Bacton ‘Terminal from the Southern area fields. These pipelines were Iaid singly at different times and with separate trenching and cover provisions, but they are nevertheless in sufficient proximity to one another to require mutual protection during recovery. An.upper limit of 16" diameter for handling pipelines by reel barge means that only three pipelines to shore would be eligible for recovery by this means: Beatrice-Nigg, West Sole-Easington and Rough-Easington. Conerete-coated pipelines are eligible provided there is no objection to the coating becoming damaged during the recovery operation. If the upper size limit were to be increased to 20", this would make the 20” diameter Fulmar-St. Fergus pipeline cligible for reel barge recovery. A breakdown of the listed trunk pipelines by content gives the following size ranges: all sizes up to 36" - associated gas: all sizes up to 28" - natural gas: 16" to 36" ‘The majority of natural gas pipelines donot come within the confirmed capability of reel barges. Speciat consideration has to be given to the shore approach section Figure 4.3). At the shore approach, the pipeline is buried under a minimum of two metres of cover. If steep cliffs intervene between the sea and the terminal, as at Easington and Bacton gas terminals, the pipeline is brought ashore through a tunnel driven horizontally through the surf zone,ashaftbeing sunk fromthe cliff top to mect it. At the offshore end of the tunnel, which can be up to 500 metres out from low water mark, a ‘water block’ is constructed to form a seal around the end of the pipe which will withstand the pore water pressure of the sub seabed soil. ‘The tunnel lies at a considerable depth, to avoid presenting hazard to the environment and to any beach and inshore users, The seaward end of the tunnel can haves muchas three metres of cover, often necessitating the pipeline being lowered tomeetit. Depending on the slope ofthe shelving seabed, itcan be some distance before pipeline cover beyond the tunnel decreases to its normal one B b) 4 metre. If the offshore portion of the pipelines being recovered, itis possible that the shore approach portion can be left in place providing it has cover sufficient to ensure the pipeline is not subsequently exposed. Infield Product Pipelines Infield pipelines (Figure 4.4) are defined as those product lines lying within any one field complex, laid either from one platform toanother orconnecting remote wellheads to platforms, Most are less than 20” diameter and shorter than 20km. ‘Unless they are in special need of protection, for example close to a platform where they can be damaged by supply ships or dropped objects, they may be left untrenched. ‘Some infield pipelines less than 16” diameterare constnuctedof flexiblepipe laid by reel barge. Connection to the platform may then beby J-tube or similar direct vertical attachment, terminating above the water surface or splash zone and dispensing with the conventional riser system connection at the seabed. Flowlines Flowlines (Figure 4.4) transfer crude oil or gas froma subsea manifold chamber or subsea completion to a manned or unmanned platform in the same field complex. Most flowlines are smuall diameterand cover short distances; some are flexible pipe and some are laid in bundles within a common carrier pipe (see Section 3). Although trenching techniques for flowlines exist, many are laiduntrenched on the seabed and may be recovered and reused in the course of field development, ‘The use of anchors by construction and repair vessels is restricted in the vicinity of aflowline, J-tubes are often used rather than risers for lowline connections to platforms. Proprietary connections are used as attachments for pulling and laying the pipe and for connecting flowline bundles. Field installations, 2” - 8" diameter, which have been developed with the assistance of flexible pipe on the UKCS include: = Argyll and Duncan, - Buchan, = Balmoral, - Claymore, - Beryl, = Cormorant UMC, and > Magnus Service Lines and Umbilicals Umbilicals (Figure 4.4) contain cables and hydraulics for subsea valves, electronic controls, instruments and through flow tine (TFL) tooling, while service lines carry methanol-ethanol-glycol (MEG) and water for well injection purposes, ‘These lines are small diameter and may be faid separately in bundles or ‘piggy- back’ on a larger pipeline (see Section 3). Since they are not strictly oil or gas pipclines, they have not been included on the data base. 4.3 ACCESS FOR RECOVERY 4.31 General ‘The initial stages ina recovery procedure are to gain access to the pipeline and expose it ready for the recovery spread (Figure 4.5). Flowsheets following through the access, recovery and seabed restoration stages described in this chapter are presented in Figure 4.6. 4.32 Access to Pipelines Access to a pipeline for recovery purposes entails consideration of its protective covering and any fixed anchors which serve to retain it on the seabed, Some systems of protection currently used are considered below. Protection is applied for purposes of stability or to avoid interaction with other users of the sea, and include one or more of the following: trenching, burial, covering by rocks or grout bags or mechanical anchoring. ‘Trenching during pipeline construction is usually carried out by water-jetting, if the seabed material is soft, or ploughing if harder: both methods have their place in recovery. The depth of trench to receive anewly laid pipeline is kept to the minimum necessary, and pipelines may thus be partially trenecied, only sufficiently to cover the pipe or deep trenched to provide one or two metres of cover, according to need. A newly trenched line may be left exposed but is frequently buried for additional protection. The simplest and cheapest burial is achieved where seabed material is able. to drift naturally into the trench and over the pipeline. Manual burial is effected by back-filling using the trench spoil, or cover material is dumped from a surface vessel. If there is no danger to fishing gear and the pipeline still has need of stability or protection from light anchors and dropped objects, the line may have been left untrenched and instead buried under dumped rock or gravel, grout bags or a man- made ‘mat’. In rock dumping, a layer of soft fill is sometimes used to protect the pipeline from the graded rock dropped from a surface vessel. Grout bags are permeable sacks which are pumped full of wet concrete, orthey may be filled with dry cement after being heaped over the pipeline and left to harden by the action of seawater. ‘Mats’ are fabricated flexible mattresses lowered by crane from a surface ‘vessel and guided so asto cover the pipeline and overlap it by several metres each side. A refinement in mat design is the attachment of dense plastic fronding which forms a receptacle for drifting sand and other seabed material and eventually becomes a dense protective cover, Pipe anchors restrain pipelines from moving. ‘They are held fast to the seabed with spikes, piles or concrete blocks. 15 4.3.3 Pipeline Exposure The method used for exposing a pipeline prior to removal will depend on its accessibility, which depends on the method used to protect it when in service as described above, and on local environmental conditions. The various methods used for exposure are illustrated in Figure 4.7. Pipeline cover could be removed by reverse trenching; the same jet, plough or ‘mechanical excavator machines that are used for initial trenching can be used, but ploughing could induce unacceptable stresses in the pipeline and where the pipeline is to be recovered intact, jetting is to be preferred ‘Supplementary methods may have to be used for removal of cover, as follows: + surface dredger grab, + trailing hopper suction dredger, + cutter suction dredger, + off-botiom high volume, + low pressure pump or + diving. ‘These secondary methods are labour intensive and slow and would only be considered when the necessity for removal is paramount and no other technique is possible, Furthermore, with the exception of diving, they can only be used in shallow waters up to 20 metres, although some contractors claim to be able to operate in 50m. ‘The primary and secondary methods of exposure are described as follows: a) Jetting Sled ‘The sled straddles the pipeline and high pressure pumps direct jets of water onto the cover material from both sides. The vehicle is pulled by a mother-ship and remote TV cameras monitor its progress. After the cover material has been loosened, it may have to be removed by other methods. Jetting is not suitable for removal of cohesive or firmly consolidated soil . b) Plough ‘The plough-share runs beneath the pipeline while the plough carrier rides onthe pipe or straddies it, Ploughing is used on hard, consolidated soils. ©) Surface Grab ‘The grab is suspended from a barge-mounted jib and removes rock or cohesive soil from the pipeline, depositing the load to one side or into the barge. Grabs are limited to maximum depths of 50m. They are cumbersome to use and can only handle one load at a time. They are also in danger of damaging the pipeline during handling of the grab on the seabed, 16 d) 8) h) i) Trailing Hopper Suction Dredger A long pipe suspended froma hopper barge terminates ina suction head tailing ‘on the seabed as the barge moves forward along the line of the pipe. Hopper suction dredgers will handle large quantities of overburden but lack of control carties a risk of damage to the pipeline. They handle non-cohesive soils and work in shallow water, Cutter Suction A pipe angled forward from the barge extends to the seabed and carries a combined cutter and suction head at its lower extremity. The cutter makes it possible to remove cohesive material, but it too risks damaging the pipeline, and depth of water is limited, HV/LP Suction Pump Ahigh volume, low pressure pumpis fitted tothe lower end ofa pipe suspended from a hopper barge and reaching down to the seabed. The pump suction takes up loose, uncompacted material and discharges it to the hopper. Diving Divers working from a crane barge remove overburden using suction dredging, equipment or grabbing equipment operated from the barge. While on station, the diver will sometimes cut and remove sections of pipe during the same stint. Divers can operate at most depths on the UKCS, Diving spreads are expensive, however, and the operation can be hazardous, Shore Excavations Ifa land excavator can be stationed on firm supporting ground, it will work in the surf zone close inshore, in shallow water at low tide. An excavatorcan only bbe used when the pipeline is buried to a shallow depths itis not suitable where the shore approach is deeply trenched or in tunnels. Special-Purpose Equipment Most of the access operations described above use existing equipment, and Table 4.2 lists a selection of trenching machines available for this purpose. If arequitementis established for the exposure of buried pipelines for which there is no existing equipment available, market forces will determine whether contractors and manufacturers undertake to develop appropriate special- purpose equipment. If the application is pressing and industry does not react, research and development would need to be funded, It is likely that new equipment will not depart radically from established designs leaving future development to concentrate on improving the speed and reliability of existing equipment. 1 44 444 RECOVERY METHODS: General The principal methods of recovery are by: laybarge, reel barge, davit lift barge, tow, cut and lift and Aik, ‘Therecovery methods are shown diagrammatically in Figures4.8 for differentpipeline configurations and 4.9 for different types of installation, A more detailed comparison ofrecovery methods s illustrated in Figure 4. 10, These methods are described below. Each method is illustrated in the Figures quoted. a) B Reverse Laybarge Recovery The pipelines laid in the North Sea so far have been within the capability of conventional laybarges(Figure 4.11). Laybarges construct pipelines by assembling them on board from standard ongths of line pipe welded end to eu, a length or ‘joint’ being approximately 10mettes. The bargeis propelled along the exact route of the pipeline by pulling on anchors or by using thrusters. As the barge moves forward, the welded pipeline is paid out aft overa hinged ramp or ‘stinger’ fixed to the side or stern of the vessel, ‘The weight of suspended pipeline is held by tensioners fixed to the assembly line ahead of the stinger. Thesuspended portion of the pipeline takes up an‘S” bend configuration between the stinger and the seabed, This shape must be carefully controlled to avoid buckling distortion, and if the sea state exceeds certain limits, the pipeline may be abandoned temporarily over the end of the stingerto protect from buckling. Ifa buckle does occur, the pipeline will have to be hauled back on board for repair, which may include dewatering if the buckle is ‘wet’, that is if the pipe wall has ruptured, letting in seawater, Recovery of an abandoned pipeline may follow the same procedure as is used for recovering a buckle, with some additional steps. The course of action is as follows: - Detach the pipeline from the riser or other fixed subsea connection (NB. itis important at this stage, to take into account the possible presence of locked-in forces of unknown magnitude and direction which may be released on separation and present a hazard to divers and others) and attach a pulling head to the exposed end. ~ Attach a winched recovery cable to the pulling head. - Carefully position the laybarge and take up slack on the cable. Wind the cable back, at the sarne time putting the barge in reverse, until the pipe b) d) positions itselfon the stinger. During this operation, the pipeline mustot, be allowed to exceed its calculated extreme ‘S” bend configuration. - As the barge backs up, the cable continues to pull the pipeline onto the stinger, past scrapers which clean seabed material and encrustation from the pipe surface, . - When a sufficient length of pipeline has been hauled aboard, the tensioners are activated to hold the line fast and the pipe severed behind the last tensioner. - The pulling head is removed and the cut length of pipe removed and stored. - Thepullinghead isinserted into thenewly cutendofthe pipeline upstream of the tensioner, the weight is taken-up by the recovery cable, the tensioners are released and the ‘pull and cut” procedure is repeated, Reverse Reel Barge Recovery A eel barge (Figure 4.12) can carry several kilometres of pipeline, depending on diameter, the largest size diameter of pipe handled so far being 14", This enables appreciable lengths of small diameter pipe to be recovered rapidly in deep water and re-used. The rect barge cannot lay concrete coated pipe, since the concrete would be damaged during reeling and unreeling. Forthe pipe lay operation, standard ‘joints’ are welded into a continuous length on shore and wound onto a large diameter wheel mounted on the barge. The barge then takes up its position to start laying and the line is paid out through straighteners and tensioners to land on a steeply sloping stinger before entering the sea. The angle of the stinger is such that the pipeline takes up a near ‘TP configuration rather than the ‘S’ bend of a conventional laybarge. Pipeline recovery is the reverse of laying, the recovered pipe being wound back ‘onto the reel for reuse or disposal onshore intact instead of having to be eut into short lengths. The length that can be recovered in one operation is limited by the reel capacity. Approximately the samesize limitations would apply as for laying. Long Section Barge Recovery The pipe is slung from davits mounted at intervals along one side of a vessel converted for recovery duties (Figure 4.13). While the vessel moves slowly along the route of the pipeline, the sling lengths are adjusted so that the pipe is liftedinacontrolled ‘S’ bendconfigurationtoavoid buckling, Theend of the pipe is fed througha cutting station near the bow of the recovery vessel and the pipe cut into convenient lengths for shipping ashore in a supply boat. Davit lift recovery is slow and suitable mainly for shallow waters. Tow Recovery Davits are fitted to a recovery vessel (Figure4.13) ina similar way to(c)above, ‘except that the vessel catries tensioners and a stinger at both ends, the cutting station being positioned amidships. 79 ‘The pipeline is lifted onto the forward stinger and passed through to the aft stinger. Flotation buoys are attached, the pipe moved aft and the towing head picked up by a tug which pulls the buoyant pipeline away from the recovery vessel until the desired towing length, usually a few kilometres, is reached. The pipe is then severed on board the recovery vessel and the freed length of pipeline towed away for resuse or disposal. ‘The buoys are calculated to provide sufficient buoyaney for the pipeline to be towed on or close to the seabed, close to the surface or at a level midway between, the choice partly depending on the sea state and condition of the Seabed at the time of the operation, ©) Short Section Recovery ‘The pipeline is cut into short lengths on the sca bed, using a remote operated submersible vehicle (ROY), robots or divers, and the cut lengths lifted onto the recovery vessel by crane (Figures 4.14 and 4.15). Altematively, the pipeline is lifted by davits and cut into single or double ‘joints’ on the barge (Figure 4.16). ‘The method is suitable for any size of pipeline but is slow and requires high cost divers and special equipment for the subsea cutting methods. Cutting techniques suitable for underwater applications are described in Subsection 4.7 below. — Jift Recovery ‘The J-lay Barge (Figure 4.17) is a proposed development designed primarily to lay the larger pipelines in extra deep water. The tensioners and stinger would be mounted on anearly-vertical derrick and the stingerextended down into the sea through a central ‘moon-poo!’, This method avoids the excessive ‘S’ bend stresses in pipelines that result from the pipeline’s extra weight in very deep water. In other respects, J-lilt recovery follows the same procedures as the other lay barge methods described above. 4.8 RECOVERY EQUIPMENT 451 General The critical items of equipment affecting a barge’s recovery capability are: + the pulling power of the winch, + the length of the recovery cable and * the holding capability of the tensioners. ‘The maximum duty this equipment will be called upon to sustain arises from the depth cof water and the suspended weight of the empty pipe, concrete coated and configured to avoid buckling. Subsection 4.7 considers the capabilities of existing barge equipment to sustain those weights. 452 — Existing Barge Equipment ‘Some typicalbarges operating in the North Sea in 1988 have been idemtified as follows: a) Laybarges BAR420 Castoro Sei 1601 Lorelay LB 200 b) Reelbarges Apache Characteristics of the above relevantto pipeline recovery operations are given in Table 4.3. The winch capabilities and pipe storage capacities of the same barges are listed in Table 4.4, and a check list of the pipeline diameter and water depth recovery capabilities of each vessel is given in Table 4.5. 4,6 SEABEDRESTORATION After an abandoned pipeline has been exposed and lifted, the seabed may need to be restored to a condition which matches its surroundings. This will entail making good the effect of reverse trenching machines, the backfilling of trenches and the clearing away of concrete, bracelets and other debris which may have fallen away from the recovered pipe. It may also be necessary to level spoil mounds resulting from previous trenching operations. ‘The initial step is to survey the old pipeline route and surrounding seabed, using an ROV fitted with video and still cameras. Restoration involving the levelling of spoil mounds of appreciable size may require ‘the use of special purpose seabed crawlers; otherwise grabs or scraper boards operated from surface vessels can be used, supported by ROVs. Blocks of conerete, short lengths of pipe and other pieces of debris will require heavier lifting facilities and diver support. Disturbances to the seabed are assessed in terms of their effect on other users of the sea, such as the fishing industry, defence activities and cable laying. There are as yet no standard criteria for measuring the acceptability of finished restoration work. Ifthe criterion of matching the condition of the surrounding seabed is followed, mound and depression heights and depths and the area and distribution of debris will need to be measured. aL 4.7 CUTTINGTECHNOLOGIES 4.71 General ‘The recovery of an abandoned pipeline entails cutting it radially at some stage, to free two ends so thata long section can be recovered, or to cut the pipeline into short lengths for recovery piece-meal. Bither of these two approaches may involve cutting, the pipe into manageable lengths on board the barge or on the seabed, Not all the cutting techniques available are appropriate to the subsea environment. This subsection describes the more practical of these techniques, using one of the following three methods of applying cutting energy: + strain energy, + thermal energy and * chemical energy. 472 — Strain Energy Methods ‘Strain energy is applied to the pipeline, using mechanical force to fracture the metal. Severance may be in the form of brittle fracture or plastic deformation. The available methods are: explosive cutting by contact charge. explosive cutting by shaped charge, explosive cutting by shock wave generation. mechanical sawing. abrasivelwater jet application. ‘These methods are described below. a) — Explosive Cutting by Contact Charge ‘An explosive charge is attached to the pipeline and detonated by an electrical ignition device. Above sealevel, the ignitor can be triggered by a remote coded radio signal or light signal to avoid the risk of a premature explosion. After the pipe is perforated by the explosion, radial cracks form in the vicinity ofthe perforations, tobe joined by secondary cracks which form soon after. The fragmented zone is in disequilibrium, leading to collapse occasioned by the remaining weight of metal and the residual strain energy. ‘Variables that determine the effectiveness of this method include the size and nature of the charge, pipe wall thickness, the nature of the steel, residual stresses existing in the pipe, the amount of separation between the pipeline and the charge and the medium between them, Cutting rate is fast, and there is almost no limit to pipe wall thickness. Costs of consumables, labour and initial capital are low. The simplicity of this method makes it suitable for use both subsea and above sea level, but 2 major difficulty is a lack of control in the cutting action. The method should not therefore be used if the pipe is to be re-used. 82 a) Explosive Cutting by Contact Charge Explosiveis packed into a soft metat sheath (copper or lead) which has a tubular arrowhead cross-section, The sheath is fited around the pipeline internally or externally, with the apex furthest away from the pipe surface. Air at atmosphere or vacuum pressuteis essential inside the V-groove forthe formation of acutting Jet. The sheath collapses on deterioration of the explosive and its inverted V geometry projects the metal into the pipe wall at high velocity High cutting rates are produced but the thickness of stee! is limited to 15mm underwater, slightly more in air. Labour and capital costs are low but thecostof consumables is high, since every sheath has to be made to fit the target pipe contour, A furthercostly difficulty is the needto maintain auniformairgap. Encapsulation of the charge is one solution but requires a stronger explosive charge. On the other hand, the greater accuracy of this method results in less charge being needed, allowing costs to be optimised, Explosive Cutting By Shock Wave Generation Detonation of an explosive charge in direct contact with a solid will generate a shock wave in the solid, Surface, shear and longitudinal waves are produced with a velocity equal to: - @" Where ¢ = shock wave velocity E = Young’s Meidulus for longitudinal shock waves, The appropriate constant replaces Y.M. for other wave forms. p= density of the solid, Jn its passage through the metal, the shock wave rapidly develops a vertical leading edge which acts as a step discontinuity. A iongitudinat compression wave travels through the solid and is reflected back froma remote free surface as a tensile wave, Ifthe reflected wave is of sufficient amplitude the tension so generated will fracture the solid near the reflective surface. Several focused waves will cut the steel where required. The method is applied to pipelines by wrapping ribbon explosive around the pipe, overlapping a flexible waveguide which directs the shock waves into the pipe, ensuring an accurate positioning of the fracture. High cutting rates are produced for wall thicknesses of 10mm in mild steel. Costs are higher than for contact charges but lower than for shaped charges, since an air gap is not necessary. Further development is required to iake the application commercial and to enable metals tougher than mild steel to be cut. Mechanical Sawing A diamond tipped circular saw is applied to the pipe and cutting results from deformation and fragmentation of a narrow zone around the contact point. 33 ‘The saw blade is rotated by a hydraulic motor which receives its power from an electric motor-driven hydraulic power pack through hoses not more than 10 metres away to keep pressure losses down to acceptable limits, The power pack can incorporate a remote control console to regulate speed, blade position and feed rate from a position away from the cutting station. Labour and consumable costs are low but the capital cost of equipments high, Pipe can usually be cut in a single pass, The equipment is, however, bulky and heavy and requires to be anchored while the saw is in action. Remote blade changing is a problem and the method is unlikely to be usable in more than 50 metres of water. ) Abrasive/Water Jet Application 4 high pressure jet of water containing partictes of abrasive material has a ‘cutting action by virtue of local fractures and deformations induced in intensive and highly localized stress fields. Two systems are used: one in which the abrasive is introduced downstream of the water jet nozzle which operates at 700-2,000 bar pressures, and the BHRA, system that pre-mixes the water and abrasive and directs the mixture onto the ‘workpiece at pressures of 100-200 bar. The second system can attain the higher cutting rates, cutting rates for both systems depending on the abrasive used, the abrasive/water ratio, the material being cut, jet pressures and the separation distance of the nozzle and the workpiece. In principle, any thickness canbe cut, provided the jet can reach o the bottom of the narrow siot left by the cutting action, Nozzles require frequent replacement, resulting in high costs for consumables, Capital costs are also high, while Inbour costs are low. Nodistortion is created and aclean cutcan be produced, The method can readily be automated. A major disadvantage is that considerable mechanical force is required to hold the nozzle steady. 47.3 Thermal Energy Methods ‘Theoretically, the amount of thermal energy to melt a given amount of steel can be calculated if its melting point, specific heat and latent heat of melting are known. In practice, the energy required to supply the heat losses by conduction and radiation increase the theoretical total energy and those losses cannot be readily calculated. Thermal cutting acts in two different ways: + simple melting by the input of heat and * using heat produced exothermally by the IRON/OXYGEN/ARON OXIDE reaction (not applicable to non-ferrous metals and stainless steels). 84 ‘The applications of these two actions are: oxy-are, oxy-arc with water jet, plasma-are, thermic lance and the ‘Kerie Cable’ modified thermic lance. ‘These are described below. a) Oxy-Are An arc is stuck at a circumferential weld between a tubular electrode and the workpiece and oxygen is fed into the hollow electrode to react with the steel in an Fe + 0, reaction, A jet of air or water disperses the molten metal, Electrical energy is supplied to the torch by aDC generator through waterproof leads, Oxygen is drawn fromeylinders by flexible hoses. Either ceramic or steel electrodes are used. Although ceramic electrodes are consumed ata lower rate than steel electrodes, they are brittle and frequently break. Stee! electrodes are coated with flux for stability and assistance in maintaining aconstantarc length. ‘Cutting rate is dependenton thickness, which is limited toabout 40mm. Capital costs are moderate but the diving support which is necessary increases the operational costconsiderably. The method is used extensively for cutting out welds, being fast, efficient, reliable and cheap. Working from inside the pipe with rotating electrodes can be made automatic. b) Oxy-Are With Water Jet ‘The oxy-arc is combined with a high speed water jetto flush away molten metal before it has time to re-solidify. There are operating problems in using this method under water. ©) Plasma-Are An arc is struck between a non-consumable tungsten electrode and the workpiece. The electrode is contained in a chamber which has a small annulus at one end. A plasma gas is fed into the chamber, passing through the annulus to form a plasma jet at the outlet when an arc is struck by the electrode. An electric current passing through the ionized plasma produces an extremely high temperature jet, capable of melting the steel, ‘The plasma gas may be argon, hydrogen, nitrogen or a mixture of all three. Oxygen is excluded and the Fe + 0, reaction does not apply. ‘The high temperature plasma jet cuts faster than oxy-are but plasma are cutting rates decrease with increasing thickness until the rate equals that of an oxy-arc. Plasmaarc capital costsare higher and labour and consumables are comparable. ‘The method has the advantage that the electrode is non-consumable, thus saving operational time. It is readily automated but the operator must guard against electric shocks. 85 @) Thermic Lance A three metre long steel tbe is packed with steel rods and oxygen pumped through the tube. The free end is ignited and the exothermic Fe + 0, reaction produces heat which when focussed is capable of melting steel. ‘The molten metal is dispersed by the jet. Cutting rates are high, depending on the skill of the operator and th¢ thickness of the cut metal. Overall costs are low. {©) Modified Thermic Lance Inthe ‘Kerie Cable" system, the steel rods are contained in aflexible plastic tube in lengths up to 30 metres, resulting in less frequent charging and re-ignition of the lance. 4.74 Chemical Energy ‘Chemical or pyrotechnic cutting depends on the heat generated by a highly exothermix chemical reaction between two or more reactants, The reactants, usually in solid form, are transferred to the workpiece either by conduction or through a high temperature jet. Aluminium is commonly used on cost grounds. ‘Oxygen is produced by readily reducible metal oxides. Ifthe combustion products are used for cutting, a propellant compound capable of decomposing is included in the fuel-oxidant mixtures and the resultant pressure rise accelerates the jet. Cutting rates are high and there is no limitation to thickness of steel. Costs are moderate, ‘The method is flexible in its application, while its freedom from external energy sources other than for ignition makes it suitable for automatic and remote control. ‘The efficiency of the process is sensitive to the homogeneity, formulation and patticle size of the fueVoxidant mixture. 4.8 ENGINEERING ANALY: 4.8.1 General This subsection gives the results of analyses used to calculate the recovery of pipelines from the bed of the North Sea at the end of their design life by the most commonly used techniques of reverse lay using a laybarge and reelship. It was assumed that the recovered pipes may be re-used, requiring the stress limits within the pipe to be kept to the design limit of 72% of specified minimum yield strength (SMYS) in the sag bend. If the pipe were not to be re-used, the sag bend stress level could have been increased to 100% of SMYS. The aim of the analyses was 10 check whether existing equipment can be used to recover pre-installed pipelines in the North Sea, or whether new or modified ‘equipment will be required. 86 Pipeline recovery needs to be analysed on a case by case basis, the criteria in each case being dependant on the condition of the pipeline and its proposed future use, Allowances should be made for deterioration during operating life and possible damage caused by exposure for access prior to recovery. 4.8.2 Recovery Analysis The recovery analyses carried out illustrate the following cases: NOM WALL PIPE DIAMETER THICKNESS GRADE SUBMERGEDWEIGHT | RECOVERYMETHOD ins) nm) (APE (Knv/m) 5) MIN MAX, 36 15.875 X52 3.2 -1.67 — Laybarge 18 22.22 X52 0.68 145 Laybarge 4 19.00 X52 055 LIS Reelship 6 9.52 X52 Od 0.45 Laybarge, Reelship All cases are considered for 30m and 100m water depths. ‘The pipe sizes for lay barge recovery were selected as representative of the maximum, ‘medium and minimum pipe sizes in the database. The 14 inch size was selected in the reelbarge analyses as representing the maximum pipe diameter handled by a reelship so far. For the purpose of analysing the maximum and minimum cases the data was manipulated to create a ‘typical’ pipeline for each size with submerged weights consistent with current practice. ‘The following vessel capabilities are used in the analysis. VESSEL TYPE MAXIMUM = WINCH TENSION CAPACITY (tonne) (tonne) CASTORO SEI 3rd gen. laybarge 180 180 BAR 420 3rd gen. laybarge 180 180 LB 200 3rd gen. laybarge 180 180 ALLSEAS Lay Vessel 90 90 APACHE Reelship 20 120 4.8.3 Buckle Analysis Pipeline collapse and propagation buckle analyses determined the minimem call thicknesses which will permit tecovery. The results are summarised below: MINIMUM WALL THICKNESS - mm WATER DEPTH 30 metres 100 metres PIPESIZE COLLAPSE PROPAGATION COLLAPSE — PROPAGATION ins 36 10.8 14 16.8 28.1 18 34 87 a4 1d 4 37 59 63 102 6 18 29 28. 47 4.8.4 — Recovery Methods Reverse Lay by Lay Barge ‘The Jay barge analyses indicate that itis feasible to recover all 6” -36” pipelines in the North Seausing the third generation lay vessels listedin subsection4. 19 above in water depths of 30-100m. For the larger diameters these vessels may require extra tension capability. ‘The results of the analyses are summarised in Figure 4.18 and the stinger configuration used is shown in Figure 4,19, Thisis notan optimum stinger configuration, butonethat allows the sagbend stresses to stay within allowable firaits, Reverse Lay by Reelship The reelship analyses confirm that pipe sizes up to 14" without concrete coating can be adequately recovered by the ree! method without any modifications to the existing barge. ‘The results are shown in Figure 4.20 and the ramp configuration in Figure 4.21. 4.9 CONCLUSIONS After considering the three stages of recovery - access, recovery itself and seabed restoration- itis concluded thatthe principal operations canbe carried ontusing existing technology and equipment. Some of the underwater pipe cutting methods are new and will require careful review before the expense of mounting an underwater cutting operation is undertaken, 88 Cost considerations and technical difficulties increase with depth of water and pipe diameter. Statistically, the majority of large pipelines in the North Sea are in shallower waters and their recovery is therefore more favourable . Some aspects of recovery are difficult to quantify; they include unforseeable access difficulties, obligations attendant on seabed restoration andthe reusable condition of the pipeline. ‘These factors represent significant elements in the recovery decision process. Even if the pipe is to be scrapped, gaining access if the pipeline has been trenched, buried of covered on the seabed is neither cheap or easy. 89 Table 4.1 MAJOR OFFSHORE PIPELINES (From Appendix 11, DEn Brown Book 1987) Pipelinesfromto Length Diameter Material Operator Year (Gmailes) (inches) Conveyed Commissioned Operating: West Sole-Easington 2 16 NaturalGas BP 1967 Leman Bank-Bacton 8 30 NaturalGas Shell/Esso 1968 Hewett-Bacton » 2 NaturalGasPhillips/Arpet 1969 Leman Bank-Bacton 28 30 NaturatGas Amoco 1969 Leman Bank-Bacton 0 30 NaturalGas Amnoco/ShelWEsso 1970 Indefatigable-Leman Bank % 30 NaturalGas Amoco/Shell/Bsso_ 1971 Viking-Theddlethorpe, % 2% —NaturalGas_ Conoco 1 Hewert-Bacton a 30 NaturalGas —Phillips/Arpet 1973 ‘Leman Bank-Bacton 6 3X NaturalGas_ Amoco/Shell/Esso 1973 Rouigh-Easington 8 16 NaturalGas British Gas 1975 Bkofisk-Teeside 220 MA ~~ CaudeOil Phillips 1975 Forties-Cruden Ray a 32 CrudeOil BP 1975 Piper-Flotta 124 30 CrudeOil_ Occidental 1976 Prigg/St. Fergus No. 1 2 32 NaturalGas Total 1977 Claymore-Piper 8 30 CrudeOil Occidental 1977 SouthCormorant-SullamVoe 98 36 © CrudeOil —Shell/Esso 1978 Piper-Claymore 2 16 Assoc. Gas Occidental 1978 Thistle-Dunlin 1 16 CrudeOil—Britoil 1978 Heather-Ninian 2 16 CrdeOitl_ Union Gil 1978 Piper-Frigg (MCP-01) B 1B Assoc Gas Occidental 1978 Frigg-St. Fergus No.2 220 32 NaturalGas Total 1978 iian-Sullam Voe 105 % — CrudeOil BE 1978 Dunlin-South Cormorant 7 2A CrudeOil— Shell 1978 Brent-SouthConmorant 2 30 CrudeOil Shell 1919 Murchison-Dunlin 2 16 CrudeOil Conoco 1980 ‘Tartan-Claymore 7 24 CrudeOil Texaco. 1980 North Cormorant-Westem Leg 14 JL Assoc. Gas Shell 1980 Ninian-Western Leg n 1 Assoc. Gas Chevron 1980 Beatrice-Nigg Bay ry 16 CrudeOil—_Britoil 1981 West Sole-Easington “4 24 NaturalGas BP 1982 Brent-St. Fergus 281 % Assoc. Gas Shell 1982 South Cormorant-Brent B 16 Assoc. Gas Shell 1982 Thistle-Northen Leg 6 6 — Assoc. Gas Britoil 1982 Tartan-Piper ul 18 Assoc. Gas Texaco 1983 North Cormorant-South, Cormorant u Shell 1983 Brae-Forties B Marathon 1983 Mognus-Brent(NGLP) a BP 1983 Magnus-Ninian a BP 1983 91 Pipelinesfromto Length Diameter Material Operator Year (mites) Giaches) Conveyed Commissioned North West Hutton-South Cormorant 8 2 CrodeOit Amoco 1983 Huon CFLP)-North West Hutton 3 2 CrudeOil —Conseo 1984 Montrose-Forties » {4 CrudeOil Amoco 1984 Victor-Viking 8 16 NaturalGas Conoco 1984 South Morecambe- Westfield Point 2B 36 NaturalGas British Gas 1985 Rough-Easington 18 % — NaturalGas BritishGas 1985 Esmond-Bacton 126 % — NaturalGas_ HamiltonBros 1985 Heimmdal-Brae mw 8 Condensate HF 1985 Statfjord-NOLP “4 12 Assoc, Gas. BP 1985 Heather- Western Leg 4 Assoc. Gas Unionoil 1986 Balmoral-Brae/Forties 9 1% — CrudeOil_—_North Sea Sun 1986 Fulmar-St. Fergus 180+ 20% Assoc. Gas Shell 1886 ‘Thames-Bacton 5 2M NaturalGas Arco 1986 Buchan Forties xB 2 Crodeoil BP 1986 Sean-Bacton 6 20 NaturalGas Shell 1986 Awaiting commissioning/under construction Clyde-Fulmar 8 16 CrudeOil Brito Clyde-Fulmar 8 16 Assoc. Gas Brill North Alwyn-Frigg » 2 NaturatGas_ Total North Alwyn-Ninian 9 2 CrudeGil Total * Comected from Brown Book values, 92 Table 4.2 AVAILABLE TRENCHING MACHINES 1988 OPERATOR | MACHINE TYPE TECHNOMARE — | TM402 MECHANICALCUTTER BROWN&ROOT | VARIOUS PLOUGHS ANDJETTING HEEREMA EAGER BEAVER MECHANICALCUTTER LAND & MARINE. PBP3TMIV PLOUGHAND WATER SETTING McDERMOTT : WATERJETTING kav KBVTRENCHER CUTTER WITHDREDGEPUMP UDI MTS PLOUGHAND MECHANICAL (MARINETRENCHING — | CUTTER SYSTEM) ALLSEAS TRENCHINGSYSTEM — | CUTTER SANTEFE VARIOUS PLOUGHANDJETTING SAIPEM VARIOUS SETTING 93 oe oe | wee | avaor} om creat a e v | ana az} ss] ew zt caster sivay wa 3a "MNS SRISBENS wont rose} “Das, es ee | ot sat| mca oot] sa wt va coe 1 nes “GE ‘now m iors 7 Tan a we] 6 we war | eect cootee Arex SasTW sss root news “5S @ eel} com car ve] rears est] sa jets corte, 1s wo car onus “eats va cay a wovd ost) we at w aor] @) sz} iat ‘oe| miss vor} se cat cots sores Tost HS ISS ros] 9 wovacst} ae (owas “OS e et} opocn w| sez] unr -ce] cis vst} gis or core ssrA) © apn Cer (sana | (smaman{ (sanao| (sactm) | (saaon | (samc (saa) | (sous f (sas) (sant) Ee AEN now emms| wowe| sosct ow = aesa | aoum| ze aw] ms} suo] ean | eaorom. Per aw ant cei} ou} gt) sag [unorgac |amorsct| oem] ore! won| nie) aNBeEESIG| 10 (8861) SSDUVE AVI ONIASIXA 4O SOLLSIYSLOWHVHO fp sqeL Table 4.4 WINCH CAPABILITIES AND PIPE STORAGE CAPACITIES OF EXISTING BARGES (1988) VESSEL ABANDONMENT/RECOVERY WINCH PIPE STORAGE | BAR 420 1X 225 tonne winch with 909m x 3" wire 7000tonne ETPM 1601 | 1x Western Gear ARW 300, Max tension €216tonne, 180 tonne, line length 121m 4680mearea CASTORO | 180 tonne with 2500m 76mm wire 5000tonne SEI ALLSEAS — | 1336 onnewinch with 1500m of 3" wire 11.2kmof20" pipe or 38.4km of 6" pipe McDERMOT}) 205 tonne single pull at 86.6m/min — LB200 with 1220m x 10.20m OD cable APACHE — | Recovery winch 260 tonne, — 100m of 2.5" OD cable —_! 95 puluuejepun Aupqedes -. eiqede-X —:Sa10N x x x x x x x auovay a VINVS oe kk x xX x x Xx x xX x oz aT LEON x x x x ox x x x Xx KTR SYST 1 * oe xX x x x x x x x x x x anisvo WATS «ee X x xX x x x x x Xx x xX x x Toot ala * xX ex xX x x x ex x x x oy ave vera ve | pe Ve 2 eta vassaa undag sau3eu OST - TOT soajou OT ~ TL seajou ox - Te secqeu of sBoen (8861) STASS3A ONILSIXS JO SHILITIGVdVO AHSAOO3H Sp age Figure 4.1 PIPELINES TERMINAL 4 10 PIPELINES 6 _| | PLATFORM To 6 PLATFORM 4 2 9 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 PIPELINE DIAMETER —— _ AWAITING COMMISSIONING / UNDER CONST. "BROWN BOOK’ INSTALLED MAJOR OFFSHORE PIPELINES (1986) 97 vasa vem oor < ff UVaA / SINITdld JO IZIS GNY Y3IWON vuesa aon unos > wr AER TSH [oset / coi o@6t 9261 | rast |e66t z961 tne jovi | 6251 ast [e451 oxet jozar |rcet tue! zeo1| test [xsi 14964 ROL | C96 Lee oot se et a et ee i : | | | ! | | 1 r T ss it : | i i : _| — — | | i il a | tl anna aus ion L$ ‘Sad 70 UN = = | at | | ' | ! i I r | ! Pp (sd aaiaiwia ad Cbs sg) [a Hoa a I | i 1 t i | Si L ul | $§ mu I Ty RUN Figure 4.4 OFF SHORE PLATFORMS M4 SEA LEVEL SEA BED INFIELD PIPELINES OFFSHORE PLATFORM SEA LEVEL UNDERWATER MANIFOLD 5 SEA BED FLOWLINES, SERVICE LINES AND UMBILICALS ee ALS Nowwuoiszy cze¥a ONY RBAOOR WAOWRY BRO BAITEEld YOK VHD MOTE | Pat ‘SENTBdlé 4O AzIiegs300¥ eparts NOUN THISN 40 34k 80g MAOINEE UEAOO BNR Pode 48 aA mI i to 4 LE ik oo if iii 4A 1 |i ie [4 Yt Le ie ey a [ell Th Wa [i me i Pe uh [ate ii i [wt RECOVERY OPTIONS FOR PPELINE CONFIGURATIONS NOWYTWVISNI 3O 32K, UOESNOUO AVEACOR aS SS a ee ol SS300Ud AV] SSHAARY AG ANITSdld GANOGNVaY 4O AHNFAO0SH aNnadid aaning aNITSdId aSOdxa ‘OL LNA Lar ANITadtd GauaIvMaG qauinoau at SaNI7 HOHONY, — ANAWHOVLIV Ulavyos \ (eS aan va BAONLLS wANOISNaL apuva BNULar (GaYOHONY HO da) BOUVE-AV'T WNOLNZANOO iby eanBiy 107 SS300ud AV JDUvEe 1334 3SYSAaY A@ ANITAdld GANOGNVEY JO AYSA003Y ANITAdid Ganing GANGIISOd ATIVSINYNAG Usd 900'2) Ne uadvuos waNOISNAL ‘ASSIA -AYT Ta3u gouva ONWIat thy eanbig AWSAODSY SNIAdId NOILOAS ONOT SRST VIS uv any auosy susoNILS Buta OTONIM ‘ong auoHsss0 cnvisnrany 203 aunadia cane fons Srwvadie asNocnvay es Sova NOHVIOT! aAST vas HONIM x2V@ a10H ‘wanorsnat suave 2am aNniaels 79953A AUBADDSM auLUZANCD ei'p eanBiy 109 TASSSA GSLYSANOD ATIVIOSdS AG AUAAODRY NOILOZS LYOHS plant wasay Gaze = 08 HioNaD puuvoo sign S1SudNOD ao. 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PIPELINE MATERIAL DISPOSAL 5.1 INTRODUCTION ‘Transportation, scrap value and potential for reuse are the factors to be taken into account when deciding whether to uplift and scrap a pipeline, relocate it or leave it situ for reuse or abandonment. ‘Transport is a significant cost element; italso makes demands on road, rail and sea infrastructures, while the effect of heavy unusual loads on the environment can be cause for concer. Transport cannot be treated separately fromthe handling and storage of materials, and this section combines those factors to provide a broad picture of material disposal. ‘Material recovered from an abandoned subsea pipeline will be in varying stages of decay and some will notbeuseable dueto damage inflicted during removal. Pipeline components are considered in this Section of the Report from the point of viewof their probable condition after decommissioning and recovery. A data base of pipeline construction projects was used in compiling this Report. Several contractors were asked to provide details oftheir facilities and supplied useful information which has been incorporated in the Report. Only a limited response was obtained from major scrap firms who were approached, 5.2 MATERIAL TRANSPORT 5.2.1 General ‘The method used for transporting pipeline material after removal fromthe seabed will be dictated by the form that the pipeline takes after recovery; it may for example be cut into long or short lengths and broken down into its constituent parts. Transport will also depend on loading point and destination, which in turn are determined by the proposed re-use or disposal of the material. Possible transport routes, materials to be transported, the form which those materials ccan take and the methods by which they may be transported together with capacities of available vehicles and vessels are factors to be considered, 5.2.2 Possible Transport Routes To establish the means that will be used for transporting material from abandoned pipelines, the potential routes are first identified. ‘The recovered material will need to be stored temporarily or permanently in a new location which may be either offshore or onshore. Before relocating offshore, the material may first have to be returned to shore for storage or renovation. Figure 5.1 shows schematically the possible transport routes, having regard to loading points and destinations. 19 5.2.3 Materials to be Transported ‘The pipeline must be recovered in such a form that it is able to be easily transported and handled; for example, pipe brought ashore to be carried by road must be cut to length which is within the legal constraints of road transport. ‘The form of transport onshore or offshore will be dictated by the final destination of the pipeline and this ‘may put constraints on the method of transport and on the form of the material itself. A pipeline thatis to be re-used elsewhere offshore must be ableto withstand the loads applied to it during recovery and re-installation, Recovered pipelines will take one of the following forms, depending on their destination and the transport available: + longcontinuous sections of pipeline, + pipe cut into short lengths and + _ thepipeline reduced to its constituent parts, fragmented and transported in bulk. Auxiliary materials which may require transportation are pipeline fittings and protective equipment suchas artificial matting. The information in Table 5.1 is given for guidance as an indication of the total quantities of various constituents making up pipelines in the North Sea. 5.24 Methods and Capacities of Transportation Transport methods may be regarded as onshore and offshore, Offshore transport includesthe following: + flat deck barge and pipe canying vessel, + towing and + lay barge and reel ship, Onshore transport may be either road or rail. Methods of transportation for the possible lines of transport shown in Figure 5.1 are given for onshore and offshore journeys in Tables 5.2 and 5,3 respectively. a) Barge or Special Pipe Carrying Vessel ‘The pipeline wil! be cutinto tengths depending on the transportation equipment available on the recovery vessel, andat thedestination port. tis normal practice for double-jointed pipes 24 metres long, made up of two standard pipe lengths prewelded together before being incorporated in the pipeline string, to be transported for installation purposes and similar lengths may be adopted during the recovery process where the same handling facilities are available. Recovered pipe cut into the lengths described above will most likely be transported to shore, other possibilities including dumping at sea or alternative offshore uses. Offshore transportation for these lengths of pipe is limited to flat deck cargo barges ot special pipe carrying vessels. 120 b) Co) Table 5.4 lists pipe-carrying vessels that operated in the North Sea in 1988; the list is restricted to vessels with a minimum deck catgo of 2,000 tonnes and a catgoarea greaterthan650 square metres. Table 5. lists four jacket transportation barges which cover the range of available sizes. Costs depend on market forces and these have varied considerably in the North Sea in recent years. As a guide, pipe-carrying vessels cost £5,000 per day in 1988, having ranged from £3,000 to £7,000 per day during 1986 and 1987. Typically a 91m x 27m barge has cost £2,000 per day and a 5,000 HP tug approximately £7,000 per day. Towing ‘Towing is applicable to bundled pipelines and pipelines that are to be moved intact in sections up to 12 kilometres long, Four tow methods are relevant, each ‘one requiring the use of vessels such as sea-going tugs and support vessels. The four methods given below are illustrated in Figure 5.2. - mid-depth tow, - near-surface tow, - off-bottom tow and = bottomtow. The advantage of towing is the speed with which a pipeline may be moved to its new location, and it is not limited by water depth and pipe or bundle characteristics. Careful preparation isnecessary a the feasibility stage, requiring detailed knowledge of the internal and external condition of the pipeline. Route surveys must be carried out before and during the towing operation, the seabed profile and identification of obstructions being critical factors. Since it is probable that the routes of other pipelines and cables will be crossed, off- ‘bottom and bottom tow techniques will in most cases be ruled out, Bundled pipelines 3-5 kilometres long have been installed after being towed to site at speeds of 2-6 knots by tow vessels of up to 220 tonnes bollard pull. The methods independent of the diameter of carrier pipe, the main limitation being the bollard pull capacity of the tug. Buoyancy is a critical factor and buoyancy tanks and drag chains are necessary to control the depth of pipeline during towing. Reelship and Conventional Lay Vessels ‘Transport by reclshipisnormally limited tofiexible pipe and non-concrete coated stee! pipelines 16" diameter and under, For pipelines that can be reeled and unrecled without overstressing, this offers a means of moving pipelines 3 to 13 km in length rapidly. The overall length of the pipeline transported on any one trip is limited by the capacity of the carousel on the reelship, as shown in Table 5.6; clearly, longer lengths of a smaller diameter pipe may be carried subject t0 the maximum weight capacity of the reel. ‘The proposed re-use of the pipe will determine if itis suitable for transportation by reel. Pipe that is to be re-used should not be subjected to tepeated bending during reeling and unreeling, leading to excessive strain hardening which could affect the requalification of the recovered pipeline to mect its new duty. If the pipe is to be scrapped, damage to the pipe is of less importance. 121 a) *) 122 Road Road transport offers the most flexible means of onshore transport, since one yehicleis often able to deliver from starting point direct to destination, whereas with rail or waterway transport double handling will in most cases be necessary. Restrictions apply to the size and overhang of vehicle that may legally use the highways, Additional local restrictions may apply to take account of physical limitations on a chosen route. ‘The regular permitted load ofa road vehicle is currently 38 tonnes, and special permission is necessary to move larger loads. The weight of the tractor and trailer unit is typically 12 tonnes, resulting in a payload of 26 tonnes, Pipes may be transported on flat-bed trailers. The standard dimensions for a flat-bed trailer are 12.2 metres long, 2.4 mettes wide, and special trailers are available whereby loads may extend to 18.3 metres. Extra long vehicles are available up to 27.4 metres, using a bogie trailer. The maximum width allowed for a road vehicle without a police escort is 2.5 metres, The overall height of the vehicle and its load will be dictated by height restrictions on the selected route, the maximum height in most cases being 4.2 metres from the road surface, The height of the load will depend on the height ofthe tractor unit and trailer; ateailer 1.5 metres high can carry a load 2.7 metres high. Bulk material such as crushed concrete is transported in high sided tipper lorries, ‘These lorries are made ina range of capacities; they may be articulated or fixed chassis and are governed by an overall load limit of 38 tonnes. An eight ‘wheel lorry with the tipper body having the same heightas the driver's cab will carry 16 cubic metres of material. Rail British Rail offer a complete road/ail transport package. This overcomes the inflexibility of a rail system alone; ail the loading and offloading is provided, and should include the cost of double handling, ‘The limiting load of the train will depend on the route, track weight restrictions, bend radii and the severity of inclines. A lange range of goods wagons may becalledon, either directly from British Rail or leased from a third party. Many of the wagons will be available on demand, but special wagons such as long, high load capacity flat bed wagons may have to be ordered well in advance. Many users own their own rail wagons. ‘Table 5.8 gives the sizes and capacities of two flat bed wagons; these are the larger sizes in the range of available vehicles. A typical train configuration would contain twenty of these wagons. Cars may be loaded to approximately 2.1 metres above the bed of the wagon. Gross train loads can be up to 3,000 - 4,000 tonnes, depending on the route. In general, the economics of rail transport compares well with road haulage where there are large contracts involving long distances. Comparison of carrying capacities Table 5.9 compares the carrying capacities of road, rail, purpose built pipe- carrying ship and cargo barge, for a 36" and a 6” diameter pipeline. It gives the total length transported in one load and the number of loads required to move 100km of pipe. The pipeline data are given below: Nominal dia (inches) 36 6 Diameter (mm) 9144 1683 ‘Wall thickness (mm) 16 10 Steel density (kg/m) 7840 7840 Concrete coat thickness (mm) 100 100 0 Concrete density (kg/m) 3044 - ‘The following assumptions are made concerning the method of transport: Road- Flat bed articulated lorry: Max payload = +26 tonnes, ‘Max width = 24meires ‘Max height = 2.5 metres Max length = 12 metres Rail- Flat-bed wagon (each): Max payload = = ~—_‘58 tonnes. Max length = 15.5 metres Max width = 2.4 metres: Max height = 2A metres ‘Train consists of 20 wagons. Pipe carrying barge: Maxpayload = = —_-2,250tonnes Deck area = 750 sq, metres Deck area usage factor = 90% Upto 15no, 6" diameter pipes may be stacked, given adequate side support. Cargo barge - medium size (Oceanis 93): Maxpayload = 4.4 tonne/sq. metre Deck area = 137.x45.7 metres Deck area usage factor = 90% Upto 10no. 6" diameter pipes may be stacked, provided adequate dunnage is provided. The comparison assumes that the 36" pipe has not had its concrete coat removed. The concrete accounts for 73% of the weightof the pipe but only 27% of the recycled value of the materials. If the pipes must be transported, it is clearly less economic to transport them with their concrete coating, especially on-shore where the load capacities of vehicles are considerably less than ‘barges, necessitating more joumeys. Ideally, the concrete should be removed at the earliest opportunity once the pipes are uplifted, 123 Costand other considerations have considered. the comparison of transportation methods and the following conclusions may be drawn from the capacities given in Table 5.7: Offshore transport: - Cargo vessels require fewer journeys than pipe-carrying barges, considerably so in the case of large pipe diameters. - Although acargo vessel can accommodate more small diameter pipe than apipe-carrying barge, the latter has sufficient capacity to accommodate ‘most small diameter subsea pipelines in their entirety. ‘On-shore transport: Road:- ~The optimum number of road joumeys is approximately 40 times rail transport, with consequent cost penalties. - Even if legal restrictions on road transport loads were to be eased, itis unlikely thatthe number of journeys required would bereduced sufficiently to alter the economics of road transport significantly. ~ Road transport has the advantage of offering flexibility in the choice of toading point and destination, Rait- - Longer trains may be used to improve the economics of rail transport. - Pipelines separated into their constituent materials which are then ‘transported in bulk would allow trains to be loaded up to their weight limits of 3,000-4,000 tonnes, instead of sustaining space penalties. 5.3 MATERIALSTORAGE ANDHANDLING 5.3.1 General ‘The same storage and handling techniques will apply torecovered pipelines as fornew pipes. The degree of care required in handling and storage may only be relaxed if the recovered pipes are to be scrapped, Suitable locations for landing pipelines on-shore together with storing and processing facilities include existing fabrication yards. Figure 5.3 shows UK yard locations and the facilities offered, and Table 5.9 gives facilities available at two representative yards. ‘Two API “Recommended Practices” contain methods for calculating load stresses in stacked pipelines, as follows: APLRP SLI ‘Rail and Road Transportation of Line Pipe’ and API RP 55 ‘Marine Transportation of Line Pipe’. 124 53.2 Storage Pipes and pipelines may be stored onshore, subsea rin surface vessels offshore while waiting for processing into scrap or for refurbishment. Figure 5.4 charts the areas required for storing pipe and the advantages of stacking. The chart does not include any allowance for access to or working space around the stored pipes. Stored material may be in the form of rigid pipe, flexible pipe or components. Figure 5.4 shows that the area of storage is inversely proportional to stack height for auniform pipe size. a) — Onshore Storage ‘Onshore facilities can be used for both long term and short term storage of pipe. Short term storage might involve fabrication sites near ports while the pipes are awaiting transport or processing. Long term storage requires a low cost site, such as waste land suitably fenced, ‘To achieve a compact and safe storage, the pipes should be approximately the same length; if they are of different lengtas, the longer pipes should be placed at the bottom. Individual items such as valves and short pipes whose diameter equals length are not easily stacked and will take up a larger area of storage space per unit weight. b) Subsea Using controlled depth tow techniques, «pipeline can be moved toadesignated subsea storage area, Ata later date the pipeline may be moved again for re-use in a new location. Before carrying out such an operation, the pipeline owner will need to obtain a Works Authorisation from the Pipelines Inspectorate, in accordance with the ‘Submarine Pipelines Guidance Notes. The applicant will have to consult with interested bodies who may beaffected by his proposal, including the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, The Department of Agriculture and Fisheries for Scotland, British Telecom, and fishing, du and mineral working interests, The owner will need to prove the stability of the pipeline at the storage area. ©) Offshore Pipes may be stored offshore on a vessel such as a cargo barge, although this will depend on economics. Long term storage of this nature is not economical. It is likely that the barge would be moored in a sheltered harbour or estuary ‘which would incur port authority charges. a) Flexible Pipes ‘Two flexible pipelines have been recovered and stored on shore. The pipelines were recovered by reelship which unloaded the pipe onto a land based reel which was designed to carry the total proposed quantity of pipe. Larger diameter and longer pipelines may be cut into shorter sections and stored on several smaller reels, smaller reels often being easier to move ftom the dockside into a storage area than a single large ceel. 125 §.3.3 Handling Existing handling methods for new pipes includes craneage and specially adapted fork lift trucks, The craneage consists of on shore mobile cranes and the crane on the installation vessel offshore, with lifting either by lifting hooks attached to the pipe endls or a lifting beam with two slings (Figure 5.5), Lifting hooks are quick and easy touse since they are simply pushed into the open ends of the pipe, New pipes require special packing to the pipe end to avoid damage. The lifting hooks are shaped to suit the internal diameter of the pipe and problems atise if the pipe ends become severely distorted during the secovery procedure. For safety, the lifting chains attached to the lifting hooks must not be less than an angle of 45° tothe horizontal, as shown in Figure 5.5, and the chain lengths are adjusted to suit the length of pipe to be lifted. Lifting beams and slings are more awkward to use than hooks, and as the stings have tobe fed around the pipes, the pipe is stacked on spacers toallow the slings tobe fitted, ‘The beam length is madeto suitthe length of pipe thatis tobe lifted; forexamplea beam designed to lift pipes of 10-15 metres length would be inappropriate for pipes less than say 6 metres long. Other equipmentincludes fork lift trucks and small trollies forraoving the pipes around the yard. Fork lift trucks can be fitted with parpose built claws for grasping the pipe, the claws being able to handle a range of pipe diameters. Although the claws may damage the corrosion coating on new pipes if unprotected, this is only a problem for recovered pipes if the pipe is to be re-used and the corrosion coat requires to be undamaged. 5.4 RE-USE OF PIPELINE FITTINGS AND COMPONENTS 5.41 General A subsea pipeline is made up of many components. This subsection considers re-using these parts in a new pipeline and reviews some possible altemative uses for pipelines refurbished and ieft in situ, 5.4.2 Identification of Pipeline Fittings and Components for Re-use Fittings on pipelines do not lend themselves to being re-used for applications other than those for which they were originally designed. Itisunlikely that pipeline owner would wish tore-use the cheaper items, where recovery would outweigh re-use vaiue. Expensive items such as large diameter valves and actuators, however, may prove to haveaconsiderably extended life ifvefurbishmentis properly carried out, Although this, may be cheaper than purchasing new material, the use of second-hand components must allow for the difficulties in recentifying thern, ‘The material value of components external 10 the pipe is generally low, while installation costs can be high. Some of the items, such as protective covers and link block type mattresses, could be re-used in a new location subject to their condition, but the cost of moving the materials to store before re-use must be balanced against sorapping them, which would include disposal. 126 IErock or gravel has to be removed from the pipeline, itis unlikely that the material will have any reusable value and it is more likely to be dumped at a permitted location offshore, 5.4.3 inspection, Cleaning and Testing Before a pipeline can be re-used it must be carefully inspected inside and outside. Internal inspection uses a gauging pig to check for major imegulzrities in the wall, while external inspection is carried out by a video camera mounted on a remote ‘operated vehicle (ROV) travelling along the length of the pipeline. A more detailed inspection of the pipe wall will be required before a decision can be made whether to re-use or scrap the pipeline. The approach which would provide most detail about the pipe is to use an intelligent pig; this is both expensive and time consuming however and would be impeded by substantial distortion or damage to the pipe. A caliper pig would be easier to run, although more limited in its application. ‘Theextent of testing and cleaning willbe dictated by the purpose for which the pipeline istobe re-used and the method by which the pipeline is tobe moved to its new location, If the pipeline is to be brought ashore before itis to be re-nsed it may be less costly £0 test and clean the pipe onshore; if however the line is to be relocated offshore by a reelship or controlled depth tow, it will be necessary to clean and test the pipeline in- situ, 5.44 Re-use asa Pipeline It may sometimes be possible to reuse pipelines either in-situ or in new locations, A reused pipeline may be carrying a substance different to that for which it was originally designed, and it is therefore important that the pipe is thoroughly cleaned during the decommissioning phase. Detailed surveys and inspections will need to be conducted to establish the remaining life of the pipeline and its fittings, in order to recalculate its design life under the new operating conditions. 5.4.5 Alternative Re-uses The list of suggested alternative re-uses for steel pipe is extensive and in some cases quite imaginative. One of the more practical proposals, originating inthe United States, is to use the pipes as ground piles and sheet piles (Figure 5.6). Another application for scrap pipe isthe shell orcasing pile. This construction normally uses reinforced concrete casings but acheap source of steel casing would be a suitable alternative, Casings are ideal forpiling through granular orfill materialsorininstances ‘where the piles will penetrate the water table. The method of construction is to drive ahead through the material and insert the casings above the head. The casings will usually follow the head under the action of their own weight. Additional casings are added until the pileis downto the designed depth; the driving column on the beadis then removed and the casings filled with concrete. The casing remains in the ground and forms an integral part of the friction pile. Sheet piles are used to retain an embankment which has been partially excavated, A. sheet piled wall will usually be strengthened by a waling, often supplemented by ground anchors, 127 Proprictary systems of sheet piling are designed such that adjacent sheets are interlocking using a specially designed mechanism calied a clutch, detailed in Figure 5.6, ‘Trench sheeting is a simpler system, used to shore temporary excavations. Figure 5.6 contains a section through a typical trench sheet, Trench sheets are designed withoutany interlocking mechanismand simply overlap. Unlikesheetpiles, they donot, usually extend mote than 1-2 metres into the ground. Jtis this latter application that isthoughtto be more suited forrecycled pipelines since the construction industry would be unlikely to accept the sheet piling application without interlocking clutches. in trench sheeting, the pipes are cut along their lengths into four sections, Typical sheets are Smm thick, whereas sheetpiles would be approximately 10mm thick and up to 12 metres in length. It is rare for pipes to be less than 16mm thick; they would therefore be heavy (o use as trench sheets. They would have to be mechanically moved, unlike purpose made sheets which can be manhandled. Figure 5.6 shows the overlapping pipe sections retained by a waling. One application that has been considered for offshore jackets and rigs is the “‘rigs-to- reef” concept of installing the structure either partially or totally submerged on the seabed such that it acts as an artificial reef. American experience suggests that there. is a long term benefit to fishing in the use of artificial reefs, while the Japanese have already constructed 2,500 artiticial reefs as part of a study to enhance their fishing industry. Studies in the Gulf of Mexico indicate fish concentrations around platforms 20-50 times higher than those in adjacent areas. Studies are being conducted in UK. waters to evaluate this phenomenon, but the magnitude of its effect cannot be accurately estimated at this time. Views are conflicting, one suggesting that artificial reefs encourage fish reproduction and that stocks are benefitting, while another suggests that artificial reefs are simply encouraging what fish there are to congregate around offshore structures, imparting little or no benefit to fishermen. ‘The minimum water depthsin which artificial reefs can be constructed inthe North Sea are likely to be limited, and in any case, before the idea of artificial reefs can be taken ‘much further more information is needed on the effect of reefs on the enhancement, of fish populations. Studies would also be useful on the optimum placing of pipes on the seabed and the long term stability and integrity of the resultant reef structures. If unburied pipelines ‘were abandoned in-situ without any provisions being made for preventing them from breaking up, it would be analogous to offshore structures which are abandoned by toppling so that they just rest on the seabed. In either case there is a risk to users of the sea from the resultantuntraceable debris, although in the case of pipelines the debris would be smaller, 5.5 RECYCLING AND DUMPING OF MATERIALS 5.5.1 General For pipelines which are not to be re-used, the constituent materials can be recovered for the purpose of recycling, or disposed of onshore or offshore. The economics of these two alternatives will dictate which altemative is to be selected, given that there are no special difficulties in disposal one way or the other, 128 5.5.2 Recycling ‘The components of a subsea pipeline, other than the steel pipe (either mild steelor less often stainless steel), consist of a corrosion coating and in certain cases a concrete weight coating, aluminium anodesand valves which contain non-ferrowsmetals. These would yield materials for possible recycling in small quantities compared with the line pipe. Even ifthe steel is recovered, it may not he worthwhile attempting torecycle the other ‘materials; the concrete for instance is of relatively low value yet requires considerable time and labour to remove it from the pipeline, 5.5.3 Removal of Concrete and Other Components ‘Valves and other fittings would be removed separately if the pipeline is recovered offshore, and the pipeline would be cut into short lengths and stored ina suitable yard, leaving enough space in the yard for stripping the concrete. a) Concrete Coating ‘The removal of concrete from pipelines is slow and may not be cost effective. Available methods are described below: i) Pneumatic and Hydraulic Breakers Probably the most efficient method of removing concrete is to use pneumatic o: hydraulic breakers. The larger breakers are mounted on the back actor arm of an excavator, their size making them faster but less manageable, requiring the pipe to be rotated so that the hanymer can address the pipe vertically. The process is aided by cutting slots in the concrete, thereby introducing planes of weakness and encouraging larger pieces to break away. The reinforcing steel is sawn as itis exposed, ‘The rate at which the concrete coat can be-removed is dependent on the thickness and strength of the concrete. Thistechniqueisnoisy and the potential for damaging the pipeconsiderable. ‘The method is not to be recommended if the pipe is to be re-installed in aconventional pipeline. ii) Blasting Inthe 1970"s, M K Shand were contracted to remove concrete from a pipe for Total Oil Marine Ltd. They used explosives to remove the concrete. ‘Two diagonally opposed cuts were made in the concrete, the uppermost cut being made wider by chasing out a narrow width of concrete. The chase was then filled with cordite which was used to blast the concrete away from the pipe. 129 b) 130 iti) Mechanical removal British Gas have developed a machine which is suitable for removing a 2 metre length of concrete from 914mm o.d, pipelines (Figure 5.7). The machine is capable of dealing with concrete 60 - 150mm thick and has been developed for use subsea. ‘Two machines are used, The first machines clamped to the pipe and cuts two circumferential and two longitudinal slots through the concrete using a diamond tipped blade. The cut extends to the midpoint between the reinforcing steel and the pipe surface. The second machine is then clamped to the pipe, its purpose being to prise open the two half shelis formed by the cutting operation, Figure 5.7 shows the location of the cuts and the direction of the force exerted by the splittingrams. The procedure takes 1.5 hours cutting time and half an hourto split when operated in the dry. Theconcreteis removed in two large panels with only asmallamount remaining on the pipe, Abrasive Water Jetting ‘The relatively new technique of abrasive water jet cutting offers cold cutting whilst also being shock and dust free, Hither steel or concrete may. be cut depending on the water/abrasive mixture used, or if a mixture of abrasives is used both steel and conerete can be cut. Compared with simple water jet cutting, abrasive water jetting results in a cleaner cut. While the speed of cutting is similar to that of a diamond tipped saw, it is considerably cheaper on both wear and tear of equipment and in the cost of consumables, The depth of cut can be controlled to 5-0mm and possible damage to the pipe can be limited to a small area of shiny pock marks if a mixture of ste! and concrete cutting abrasives is used to cut through the concrete down to the surface of the pipe. ‘Othermethods forremoving concrete from pipe require research anddevelopment before they can be considered for practical application. One such method is an adaptation of the method used for shear strength testing of the bond between the pipe and its corrosion coat. The basis is that the pipe is slid out of the concrete by shearing the corrosion coat material. Itisestimated that a force of 5Otonne/m length for a lm diameter pipe would be required, If necessary, disbonding may be aided by cooling the pipe, thus reducing its diameter. Corrosion Coating ‘The corrosion coat has no value as a recycled material but it will detract from the value of scrap steet if it remains on the pipe. Several methods exist for removing the corrosion coat from a pipeline, the chosen method being dictated by the type of corrosion coat on the pipe. Table 5.12 indicates which method of removing the corrosion coating is applicable to each type of coating material. 1) Grit Blasting Grit blasting is used to buff the face of the pipe after the majority of the corrosion coat has been removed by other means. This method would be ‘most suitable for removing the thinner coatings i.e. 0.5mm fusion bonded epoxy or for final cleaning work after suitable preparation, iii) ” vi) vii) Abrasive Water Jet ‘The abrasive mixture can be adjusted to suit removal of any of the corrosion coatings while avoiding causing damage to the pipe. It would be more cost effective to remove the major portion of a thick corrosion. coat by other methods first, Burning and Scraping ‘The external surface of the pipe is heated to approximately 200°C. The corrosion coat blisters and chars at this temperature and is removed by scraping, ‘The burning process produces toxic gases which require special extract facilities, while the scraping work is labour intensive. This method has been used by pipe coatersonsmall numbers of pipes where a problem has arisen with the coating application. Ifadopted on alarge scale, economics require several pipes to be heated together, necessitating larger furnaces than have been used previously. Spinning and Cutting ‘The pipe is spun and the coating is removed by acutting tool in a similar manner to a lathe. The process is cold and will not affect the steel characteristics. To avoid damaging the cutting tool and the pipe surface, a small thickness of the coating must be left on the pipe and removed by some other means. Cooling and Shattering ‘This method is applicable only to thermoplastic materials since only they become brittle when cooled. The pipe is cooled and must remain cold throughout the removal process. The coat is removed using hammers and cchisels. Onimpactthe coating will shatter and may beremoved piecemeal, Mechanical Removal of corrosion coats using mechanical means involves wire brushes and abrasives. Although these methods are feasible they are not ideal since the coating materials will block the brash or abrasive surfaces. The method is also labour intensive. Heating and Scraping Applicable to thermoplastic materials which will soften with an increase in temperature. The pipe is spun while hot air is blown through to heat the inside. The softened corrosion coatis thenremoved with acutting tool. A thin layer may remain on the pipe. Re-use of Materials Steel Pipe Steel pipe 5.10 lists the steel furnaces which process scrap steel in the UK and the quantity per week which they handle, The list accounts for 90-95% of the scrap steel processing industry in the UK. Locations of the fumaces are shown in Figure 5.9. Table 5.11 shows the tonnage of steel available per Kilometre of pipeline for different pipe diameters may be sold toa steel furnace which accepts scrap stee! for recycling. Table and wall thicknesses. 131 Furnace operators like to purchase scrap steel in ascleanand pure conditionas possible since this will produce the best quality steel. Scrap steel ina moderately ‘dirty’ condition (ie. containing other materials in small quantities) may be acceptable, however, although higher quality scrap will command a higher price. It may be beneficial for a recovered pipeline to have the concrete and corrosion coats removed before despatch to the steel mill, ‘The UK “Specifications for Iron and Steet Serap for the Manufacture of Steel” specifies that all grades of scrap must be free from “pressurised gas, fuel, explosives and dangerously inflammable material”, and “All grades shall be free of dirt, non- ferrous metals or foreign materials of any kinds, excessive rust and corrosion”. Included in this are alloys. However it further states that unavoidable inclusion of negligible amounts of the substances mentioned may be allowed. Acceptable sizes of scrap will depend on the dimensions of the charging hole in the furnance. The majority of furnaces do not have the facilities for reducing scrap into smaller sections, and those that do will offer a reduced price for the scrap. For example, Clydesdale can accept | metre diameter by 40mm thick by 8.5 metres in Jength, while Ravenseraig does not have any shearing facility and can only accept 1.5 ‘metre lengths. United Engineering Steel's furnaces can accept 1.5 metre lengths but only 600 mm diameter. Prices tendo fluctuate with demand and quality of scrap steel, and a typical purchase price for scrap stee! delivered to works has been £50-60 per tonne in 1988. Concrete Crushing Techniques and Capacities ‘Tneuse of recovered concrete is limited to the construction industry where itcan serve ‘as a hardcore fill material. If the size is graded as it is erushed it can be used as a fill material for Jess onerous duties in road construction. Concrete crushing plants may be transported ona low loader to the site where the pipelines are being scrapped. The crushed concrete should be free of reinforcing steel and other degradable matter. Figure 5.8 illustrates the volume of concrete om a pipeline per kilometre for a range of pipe diameters and concrete thicknesses. Concrete from weight coating less than 3 inch thick can be a problem to crush, since itis able to slip between the jaws of the crushing machine. Owing to the possible presence of reinforcement bar and the problems of crushing reduced thicknesses, itis untikely that recycling concrete in this manner would prove economically viable for the thinner concrete coatings. Available crushing equipment includes single and doubie toggle jaw crushers, cone crushers, crushing rolls and impactors. Mobile units are the single toggle jaw crusher type. Jaw crushers are designed as primary crushers and are therefore suitable for crushing concrete, while cane crushets, crushing rolls and impactors are more suitable as secondary and tertiary crushers. These latter types of crusher are generally used to further reduce material size; they depend on the nature of the material for their suitability. 132 Mobite jaw crushers consist of a hopper feeder system which may be either static or vibratory for loading the concrete, a diesel engine of around 200 bhp, a crushing unit and a conveyor belt system to carry the discharged material from the crusher either direct to a lorry or to a stock pile, Machines are available which give a maximum. product size of 60mm up to 200mm. Finer material may also be produced. ‘Machine outputs are quoted for the crushing of limestone and vary from 70-95 tonnes per hour for a 60mm product to 200-250 tonnes per hour for a 200mm product, depending upon the machine, Output rates for concrete will be less than for limestone. 5.5.5 Dumping of Surplus Materials. Possibly the least cost method for disposal of a cecovered pipeline is to dump it at suitable sites on land or offshore. ‘The procedure involves removal of the pipeline from its original location and transporting it to the dumping site, Minimum processing of the pipe is carried out before the line is cut into manageable lengths for transportation. It is likely that onshore dumping would prove to be more expensive owing to additional transport costs and double-handling, The relevant legislation governing dumping at sea is the Food and Environment Protection Act 1985, Section II: Depositsin the Sea. This Act supercedes the Dumping at Sea Act 1974, Offshore dumping is currently carried out on the United Kingdom Continental Shelf {UKCS) in areas that are licensed by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) and the Scottish Office Agriculture and Fisheries Department (SOAFD). Licensed sites that have been regularly used over the years are shown on Admiralty charts, but occasionally spoil grounds may not be charted, Dumped ‘materials are subject to dispersal and dilution or they may settle on the seabed in an unobtrusive manner, An offshore dumping licence requires an application to the Marine Environmental Protection Division of MAFF or the equivalent department of SOAED. The application should state the tonnage and cubic capacity of materials to be disposed of, details of the proposed disposal technique and an assessment of the environmental impact. Considerations of altemative disposal methods should be included, ‘The cost of the licence is likely to be of the order of thousands of pounds, depending on the work involved in approving a dumping site and the extent of intemational consultation. Licences usually last for a period of one year. Considerations given to the establishment of a disposal site are set out in Part 3 of Annex If of the London Dumping Convention 1972. MAFF or SOAFD undertake the necessary consultations with parties who mightbe affected by the granting of alicence, such as the fishing industry, environmental groups and international bodies. Licence holders may be requited to undertake monitoring of any change in the characteristics of the waste, in support of monitoring by the Ministries. 133 Intemational Dumping Commissions have yet to address the matter of dumping Pipelines offshore. A code for disposal has not yet been agreed and until a precedent is established, the answers to the questions about offshore dumping of pipelines will remain imprecise. In addition to finding a site, questions of responsibility for a dumped pipeline in the long term would have to be resolved, The degree of cleanliness of the pipeline must be defined, since the residues of previous contents may harm the ecosystem if they escape. Rules for monitoring dumped materials will need to be set up, since jittle information is available on how dumped pipes behave as they degenerate over a long period of time, ‘Some lessons can be learned from onshore experience, where some 2,000 miles of pipeline have been abandoned. The pipelines were cleaned by pigging, valves were removed and the line cut into sections of a half to one kilometre and closed off with blank flanges. Each section was then filled with clean water. Experience has shown that dissolved oxygen in the water ceases to be a problem after approximately four days and that only a small amount of corrosion occurs at the pipe wall, §.6 CONCLUSIONS ‘Transportation, handling and storage of material recovered from abandoned pipelines are significant cost and environmental factors to be taken into account in deciding on the fate of the line, ‘On balance, itis rare to find a pipeline that is economical to reuse, particularly if ithas to be moved or its function changed. Facilities exist in the UK to move portions of existing pipelines by any of the three modes of transport: road, rail and sea. If the components of the pipeline are to be salvaged separately, the line pipe itself is probably worth recovering, although the cost of stripping it of its anti-corrosion and concrete weight coating and cleaning the pipe of product residue will reduce its value considerably. Fittings such as valves and tees may sometimes be worth recovering, and line pipe may toalimitedextentbe re-used. Concrete debrisis only useful where conventiathardeore is not available from other sources for building. Corrosion coating material is of no practical value after it has been stripped. All material recovered from pipelines must be tested and recertified for the appropriate duty before being re-used. 134 Table 5.1 QUANTITIES OF SELECTED PIPELINE FITTINGS Type of Fitting Diameter (mm) <50_ 50-200 200-500 500-1000 Pig Traps None Valves Tees/Bends Expansion Loops 135 Table 5.2 METHODS OF ONSHORE TRANSPORT TRANSPORT ROUTE*| FROM TO Portin Dump . Scrap . Altemative Reuse . Onshore Storage . Re-use as Landline ‘Onshore Altemative Storage Re-use . Re-use as Landline . Port Out * See Figure 5.1 x Denotes ‘available’ 136 Table 5.3 METHODS OF OFFSHORE TRANSPORT LINE OFTRANSPORT* | FROM To | FLATDECK SUPPLY DUMPING TOW |__ BARGE VESSEL VESSEL Original Dump 1 x Location 1 . Portin I x x . Attemaive | x x x Reuse | " Offshore: | Storage [x I . NewOffshore I ‘Location 1 x Offshore Portin \ x x Storage I . NewOitshore | Location I x I Alternative | Re-use 1 x PortOut NewLocation | x x " Alternative | Re-use x x — * See Figure 5.1 x Denotes ‘available’ 137 Table 5.4 PIPE CARRYING VESSELS (1988) [TENDER CLIPPER NAME DWT DECK DECK ENGINE AREA CARGO POWER m2 tonnes bhp BALBAIR 2srt 795 2100 4800 EDDA SKY 2605 825 2500 4600 LOWLAND PIONEER 2425 656 2000 5400 LOWLAND PROWLER 2425 656 2000 5400 MARTIN VIKING 2550 870 2350 5900 NORMAND TONJER 3191 795 23560 6120 INORTHERN COMMANDER, 2500 ert 2200 4000 INORTHERN FORTRESS | 3200 772 2430 6120 NOATHERNFORTUNE 3350 795 2450 6120 REGAL SERVICE 2700 ato 242d 4000 ISEATRUCK + 825 2500 4600 SAFE TRUCK 2540 870 2400 5280 SOUND TRUCK 2600 865 2400 6120 2600 670 2500 4000 138 Table 5.5 CARGO AND LAUNCH BARGES (1988) Name Wicoperi | Micoperi | Intermac | Oceanis a 45 504 93 Type Launch CargofLaunch | Cargo/Launch | Launch Dimensions 110 x 29.3 180x 44 106 x 24.4 137 x 45.7 metres) Approximate 45 15 26 44 Loading (tonne/sqm) 139 Table 5.6 REEL CAPACITIES (1988) Sante Fe Wharton Williams ‘Apache’ Carousel Vertical Reel Payload (tonnes) | 1,790 500 200 ‘OD of reel(m) 25 12 6 ID of reel (m) 16 4 26 Width (m) 67 30-35 4 140 SUMMARY OF CARRYING CAPACITIES Tabie 5.7 TRANSPORT 36" DIAMETER [__ 8" DIAMETER METHOD Length of | NoofLoads | Length of | NoofLoads Pipe per | per 100km | Pipe per | per 100km Load of Pipe Load of Pipe (m) (no) (mn) (no) Road 19.6 $102 660 152 Rail 876 114 29740 4 Pipe Carrying Vessel 1a" 82 67500 2 [CargoBarge 15100 7 375000 1 141 142 Table 5.8 FLAT BED RAIL WAGONS (1988) Standard | Special Payload (tonnes) 58 Length (metres) 15.5 Width (metres) 24 Table 5.9 YARD FACILITIES (1988) SMIT KESTREL LOCATION Wick TAIN Railiength (m) 4,440 5,500 Width (m) 20 20 Fabshop CW ST crane Yes, data not available Covered storage (m*)| 1080 Information not avaiable Storage (m?) 8000 3400, more if necessary off site Winch 2x125T capstan | 200T + 150T Rails 2no0. 910mm gauge | 2no. rollers, 1 timber support Side access (m) 11 hardcore Smetalled Mobile crane Upto 100T Own winch barge [in depth (m) 65 Information not available 143 Table 5.10 SCRAP STEEL FURNACES (1988) Operator Furnace Location Quantity of Scrap Steel Processed tonne/week British Steel “Clydesdale 5-700 “Ravenscraig 7 -8000 Teesside Humberside 15000 Uanwem Port Talbot United Engineering Steel Sheffield “Rotherham 25000 *Stocksbridge } Wrexham 10000 Sheerness Steel Isle of Sheppey 8000 Allied Steel Wire Trevor, S. Wales 15000, *Sarved by rall connections. 144 Table 5.11 TONNAGE OF STEEL PER KILOMETRE OF SCRAP PIPE AVAILABLE TO FURNACES. Tonnes/KM 1067 | 230 330 450 530 650 914 | 190 280 390 450 560 813 | 170 250 340 400 490 Pipe Nom. 610 } 130 190 260 300 9370 Diameter (mm) 457 | 100 140 190 273 60 80 168 30 50 87 12.7 17.5 206 25.4 Walt Thickness (mm) Table 5.12 METHODS FOR REMOVING ANTI-CORROSION COATINGS Thermoptastic (including coal tar enamel and polyethylene) Thermosetting (fusion bonded epoxy) GritBlast Abrasive Water Jet Burning & Scraping Heating & Scraping Spinning & Cutting ‘Cooling & Shattering Mechanical YES NO. YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES No YES —}———— Elastomeric (neoprene) YES NO YES No YES YES NO 146 Figure 5.4 ORIGINAL, LOCATION [ALTERNATIVE] RE-USE PORT OUT K (OFFSHORE ‘STORAGE (SHORT. TERM) RE-USE AS LANDUNE NEW ONSHORE OFFSHORE 147 Figure 5.2 B. NEAR ~ SURFACE TOW METHOD W.D. C. OFF - BOTTOM TOW METHOD ©, eg ~ D, BOTTOM TOW METHOD LEGEND 1, SEAGOING TUG 4. CHAINS L = PIPELINE LENGTH 2, CABLE 5. FLOATS —W.D. = WATER DEPTH 3. PULL HEAD 148 Figure 5.3 ‘Smit Kestral Bundle Febrication Land & Marine Bunda Fabrication Highland Fabricators, Nig ‘MeDermott Scotland, Ardersier REC Ottshore, Fife ‘Motherwoll ridge Group, Leith WIE Scotand tia, Gumbparton ‘Chariton Losia Offshore Lid. Blythe, Newcaste-on-Tyne, Wallsend, Sunderland Scott Lithgow, Port Gigsaow ‘THC Fabricators, Hartlepoot (Sora Middlesbrougt Davy Oftshore Modules Ltd, ‘Cleveland Ortshore Redpath Offshore UK Offshore Fabrication Yards (1988) 149 AREA OF STORAGE PER KILOMETRE OF PIPELINE (METRES 2) Figure 5.4 1500 75 N= HEIGHT OF STACKED PIPES WHERE N IS THE NUMBER OF STACKED PIPE DIAMETERS: 1250 62.5 1000 50 750 97.5 500 26 250 12.5 0.25 0.5 075 10 125 1.5 PIPELINE OVERALL DIAMETER (METRES) 150 STORAGE AREA FOR A 50Km LONG PIPELINE (HECTARES) Figure 5.5 DETAIL ‘A’ PIPE LIFTING HOOKS CRANE HOOK ZN UFTING BEAM WETING BEAM AND PIPE SLINGS 151 Figure 5.6 EMBANKMENT GROUND ANCHORS WALING . tio INTERLOCKING fio CLUTCH i SHEET PILED WALL 300 - 450mm TYPICAL TRENCH SHEET CROSS SECTION STEEL PIPE WALING SECTIONS EXCAVATION SECTION THROUGH AN EXCAVATION SHOWING THE PROPOSED USE OF STEEL PIPE SECTIONS 152 Figure 5.7 DOUBLE LONGITUDINAL CUT AT 12 O'CLOCK {40mm SLOT) ‘CIRCUMFERENTIAL CUTS ‘SINGLE LONGITUDINAL CUT AT 6 O'CLOCK STEEL PIPE CONCRETE COATING Machine for Removal of Concrete Weight Coating (British Gas) 153 PIPE DIAMETER (mm) 154 88 Figure 5.8 (m3 / Km) 75 269 366 CONCRETE COAT THICKNESS (mm) 468 Figure 5.9 Middlesbrough Location of Steel Furnaces Accepting Scrap in UK in 1988 155 156 ALTERNATIVES TO RECOVERY 6.1 INTRODUCTION Af a pipeline has reached the end of the useful life originally intended for it, and recovery is found to be uneconomic or impractical, certain measures may have to be taken to prevent it deteriorating at an unnecessarily fast rate and affecting the activities of other users of the sea To the basic inspection and maintenance costs which the owner may be obliged to carry out ifthe line is not recovered are added possible extra costs for rehabilitating the line and adapting it if a use is found for it. Inspection, rehabilitation and ‘maintenance techniques are well-known, whereas adaptation of abandoned pipelines for more effective use is unlikely and will ental innovative thinking and may require untried techniques in converting the pipeline and terminal facilities, Information was obtained from contractors and manufacturers ofbarges, ROVs, other underwater equipment and cutting equipment. 6.2 IMPLICATIONS OF NON-RECOVERY 621 General Deterioration of a pipeline left on the seabed will be the result of one or more of the following: + accidental damage, * corrosion and * movement of the pipeline. Anabandoned pipeline may deteriorate ina few years oritmay take hundreds of years, depending on its location, in what condition itis left when abandoned and what ‘measures are taken to arrest the deterioration process after abandonment. Short term deterioration is mote likely to be the result of an accident than neglect, but the ravages of time make long term deterioration virtually inevitable. If the pipeline cannot be recovered for some reason, then all that can be done is to ensure that preventive measures are putin hand as soon as possible and are faithfully maintained 30 as to extend the period during which the pipeline will remain intact and not be aouisance and a danger to other users of the sea through deterioration, Figure 61 illustrates the types of damage that an abandoned pipeline can suffer. 6.2.2 Accidental Damage ‘The most likely causes of accidental damage to any pipeline are fishing activities, shipping, Ministry of Defence (MoD) activities and dredging and dumping. In most cases, the pipeline will come off worse in any accidental encounter, but third parties ‘ay claim losses. The question of legal liability either way has stil to be finally resolved and there is still too little case law to serve as precedent. Allthatcan be done: meanwhile is to ensure as much as possible that the pipeline is adequately protected physically and in tn protects others from losses. 157 In the following pages, the main causes of damage in each case are enumerated and some possible remedies outlined. a) Fishing Repeated and heavy blows from trawl boards and beamtrawls (Figure 6.2) can dent the pipeline itself, scrape itsexternal anti-corrosion coating and remove sections of concrete weight coating. ‘This is however, a rare occurrence. In tur, fishing gear can suffer severe damage if it snags on a pipeline. b) Shipping ‘The predominant cause of damage by shipping is from anchors. Anchors are used to slow down or halta vessel and to hold the vessel in one place. They ‘can damage a pipeline by being dragged until the anchor fluke hooks under the line, or the anchor can be dropped directly oto the pipeline, or the anchor chain can be dragged over the line and cut into it. Itis rare for a ship to drop anchor in the open seas, far from port. Small vessels do not drop anchor in deep water, their anchor chains being too short, Medium and large size vessels usually keep to regular and well-defined shipping lanes. Very few of these lanes cross existing pipeline routes, and since these pipelines are shown on official Admiralty charts which are available to all ships’ masters, the onus of avoiding them can be placed readily on the ship’s masters and owners, ‘Very large ships such as tankers and naval vessels will only drop anchor at sea in an extreme emergency and the chance of this affecting any subsea pipeline is rare. ‘The large, heavy anchors used by offshore construction vessels such as lay barges, heavy lift barges, “flotels’ and semi-submersible drilling rigs reraain a problem, mainly in the vicinity of platforms. Government regulations and guidelines require movements of these vessels to be notified to pipeline operators likely to be affected. ‘The regular use of anchors is in inshore waters and at port approaches. There are no pipelines close to UK ports, and the shore approach sections of trunk pipelines are protected by extra deep burial, rock fill and concrete coating. ‘The possibility of pipeline damage is confined to the accidental or emergency use of an anchor and is considered to be an extremely low probability event. ©) Ministry of Defence Analysis of MoD activities indicates that a pipeline can be damaged by the unscheduled proximity of a torpedo or depth charge. These activities are confined to designated areas of UK waters in peace-time, none of which is currently crossed by pipelines. Conversely, the MoD has expressed concern at the effect of pipelines on offshore defence measures, Unburied pipelines can provide shelter to enemy underwater craft by casting a ‘sonar’ shadow in which the craft can lie. Debris from a pipeline that is breaking up can drift away from the last charted position 158 a) 6.23 of the pipeline and be mistaken fora hostile object on sonar screens, while steel pipelines can affect the demagnetisation of naval craft that prevents it from activating certain types of mine, For these reasons, the MoD has asked particularly to be advised of all offshore steuctures, including subsea pipelines, and to be kept informed of their status, ie. whether operational or abandoned. The MoD further requests that all pipelines abandoned in-situ be as far as possible buried or otherwise prevented from deteriorating to the extent of breaking up, and that in any case they should bbe kept under surveillance and any debris closely monitored. Dredging and Dumping Dredging and dumping may only be carried out in UK waters under licence. Permitted dredging and dumping areas are very well defined; no dredging area in the North Sea is crossed by pipeline and thereis only one area where dumping is allowed which may be so affected. ‘The only ways in which an abandoned pipeline can be damaged by dumping are if the dumping is unauthorised, and if corrosive material is dumped close to a pipeline that has lost its protective anti-corrosion coating, in which case corrosion may be accelerated and the predicted remaining life of the pipeline will be curtailed Corrosion Pipeline corrosion can occur: a) externally, from the environment in which the pipeline is lying and ) internally, from attack by the contents of the line. The mechanisms of corrosion are described in detail in Section 3 and it is sufficient here to outline the possible effects of corrosion on the integrity and remaining life of an abandoned pipeline. a) External Corrosion ‘The exterior of a pipeline is given protection by an anti-corrosion coating and by cathodic protection (CP). ‘The coating acts asa dielectric shield between the steel pipe and the electrolyte (Gea water) that surrounds it. Cathodic protection is applied to supplement the overall protection given by the coating and prevent corrosion occurring at imperfections in the coating. Sacrificial anodes are fastened to the pipeline jn the form of segmented bracelets of magnesium, zinc, aluminium or equivalent anodic material during the pipeline coating and construction phase. ‘They are calculated so that protection is provided for the projected life of the pipeline, usually 25-30 years. If, however, the life of the pipeline is extended ordesign conditions change adversely, the CP system will in time cease to be effective. 159 Intime, the coating will deteriorate and corrosion will continue unchecked over theentire surface of the pipe, Two things will then happen: the fluid with which the pipeline has been filled will be replaced by seawater entering through perforations inthe metal, and the weakened pipe itself will break up, assisted by movements induced by seabed currents and vortex shedding. This gloomy prognosis is inevitable if the pipeline is left unattended after abandonment, Deterioration can only be deferred by continuous monitoring and replacement of anodes and defective coating but it is doubtful whether it can be put off indefinitely. ‘The period of deferment will depend on the environmentsurrounding the pipeline and on itsaccessibility formaintenance, factors which will obviously vary from case to case. The life expectancies of abandoned pipelines are discussed in Section 3, b) Internal Corrosion ‘The internal surface of an abandoned pipeline will corrode if its final fill is an unsuitable and uninhibited fluid, orf residual products are not properly cleared out, Anti-corrosion protection includes de-oxygenation, chemical inhibition, replacing the pipe wall coating or lining the pipe with a corrosion-resistant or inert material. 6.2.4 Movement ‘An abandoned pipeline or sections of it can move due + the activities of a third party, + loss of seabed support, giving rise to excessive spanning and + forces due to subsea currents and wave action. Movements from a known charted position is of interest to the fishing industry, the ‘MoD and other users of the sea such as shipping, dredgers and dumpers. A pipeline that_has moved appreciably from the position shown on charts may be damaged inadvertently and questions of responsibility will arise, Excessive movement can also of course accelerate pipeline deterioration. Causes of third party damage which results in the pipeline moving include snagging by an anchor that has been dragged by its vessel, and hooking by fishing gear. Some anchors are heavy enough, and their vessels sufficiently powerful, to sever an intact pipeline or move it bodily. Fishing gear is less likely to cause the same amount of damage, particularly if the pipeline is provided with a normal amount of protection as specified. Loss of support is caused by seabed subsidence, the sudden appearance of pockmarks or scouring. Subsidence and pockmarks of unknown originarerandomand ‘unpredictable seabed phenomena, although seismic surveys would probably disclose ‘weaknesses of this nature in the earth formation beneath the seabed. Loss of support may result in instability and vibration, both of which contribute to an accelerated deterioration of the pipeline. Spanning analyses are described in Section 2. 160 Even withont the accelerated breaking up brought about by third party activities or environmental action, long term deterioration, measured in decades and centuries, will occur to any steel structure immersed in seawater and subjected to an ocean environment, The cost of delaying this process by a constant cycle of inspection, repair and preventive maintenance will have to be weighed against either the cost of early removal or the consequences of breaking up, as outlined above, 6.3 LONG TERM INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE 63.1 General Depending on its location, size and condition, a pipeline due for abandonment can be recovered in its entirety or in sections, orit canbe left wholly in-sita but continuously maintained to prevent it breaking up, or it can be buried and left to break up naturally. There is a relatively short period after decommissioning in which to take a decision on future policy; during this time, the process of deterioration will begin unless temporary prevention measures are implemented, Data ate scarce on the ti it takes for an abandoned pipeline to reach a point where it has deteriorated into a condition which prohibits recovery. It has been assumed that the period of grace may only be a few years. In this section, the actions which must be taken to implement a policy of preservation are set out, ‘There are two kinds of action, both of them necessary and complementary: + inspection, internal and extemal to the pipeline and + maintenance, preventive and remedial, Specific acts of maintenance will be conditioned by the results of prior inspection, and it is the internal and external inspection processes which are discussed first. 6.3.2 _ Internal Inspection The inside of a pipeline can be inspected in two ways: + inspection pigging and + travelling camera, Internal inspection techniques require a pig or cartier vehicle to be despatched at one end of the pipeline and retrieved at the other end. Most pipelines except the very smallest are designed to be pigged at some stage in there life and are usually provided with pig launching and receiving equipment. In the case of subsea pipelines, pig launchers and receivers are wherever possible installediin the dry, on platforms and on shore. If these facilities are removed before the pipeline is finally abandoned, internal inspection will only be possibte if temporary facilities are installed, 161 a) 162, Inspection Pigging A pig is atight fitting tool thats inserted atthe despatch end ofa pipeline and driven towards the receiving end by the forward action of differential pressure acrossitcreated by flow of fluid in the pipeline. Thecarrierportion may be fitted with devices that separate products, clean, gauge and inspect the intemal condition of the pipeline and, in the so-called ‘intelligent’ pig, will detect hidden flaws in the body of the pipe. Plenty of experience in running the simple mechanical gauging pigsis available, butthomore sophisticated intelligent pigs, with teir magnetic flaw detectors and recording instruments, require considerable preparation and expertise and are costly to operate. ‘The inspection pigs discussed below are as follows: gauging pigs, - caliper pigs, + leak detectors, - spot samplers and ~ metallurgical flaw detectors (‘intelligent’ pigs). Gauging Pigs ‘This and the caliper pig register the presence of deformations in the pipeline in the form of dents, buckles, flat spots and partially closed valves. ‘They precede other pigs, checking for obstructions that will impede the passage of cleaning pigs and damage subsequent pigs which are despatched in their turn to carry out more complex functions. ‘The gauging pig (Figure 6.3) carries a metal plate mounted on a cupped tool. Aluminium plates will inflict Jess damage on the pipeline than steel plates but ‘are more subject (o misleading distortions, ‘The gauging plate has a diameter 95-97.5% of the nominal internal diameter ofthe pipeline. If the gauging plate indicates an obstruction on its arrival, the locationand nature of the trouble has to bedetermined by some other means before it can be eradicated, Caliper Pigs Thecaliper pig Figure 6.4) is fitted with spring loaded fingers, each withits own marker. The callipers have the same the gauging piate, to detect obstructions and deformities, but it does go with greater precision. Flexible driving cups and sprung detector fingers enable the pig to negotiate severe obstructions up to 75% of the original diameter of the pipeline. A pedometer wheel measures the distance along the pipeline of the obstructions which the pig has located. Leak Detectors The leak detector pig pinpoints leaks, such as those disclosed by hydrostatic pressure tests. Theinformation isobtained by measuring pressure differentials under offshore conditions; these pressures are transmitted to the surface through the pipe wall. Leaks as low as SO mishour are claimed to have been detected. Spot Samplers A sampler pig (Figure 6.5)carries an odometer and other instruments which are set to detect predetermined minimum Jevels of residue and other materials remaining in the pipcline. If it is required to confirm the presence of residues at a particular position along the pipeline, the sampling instruments can be triggered externally. ‘intelligent? Pigs ‘The metallurgical integrity of pipeline steels and welds may be inspected by electronic methods, using specialised equipment. Because of the high level of sophistication used in the detection and recording instruments, the device hhas become known as the “intelligent pig’. ‘The detector equipment is mounted on acarrier vehicle which is also fitted with pedometer and recorder. The electrical and electronic equipmrentis driven by an on-board power supply, enabling the pig to travel several kilometres while recording information. If the pipeline is longer than the range of the vehicle, the pig can be repeatedly re-run, the equipment being programmed to start at any predetermined distance. Information gathered includes quantification and location of internal and extemal corrosion and metallurgical flaws in the pipe material. ‘The remaining wall thickness in the corroded region is registered. Inspection encompasses the entire circumference of the pipeline in one pass. ‘The detector systems may operate electromagnetically or ultrasonically, In the ‘magnetic tool (Figure 6.6), longitudinal magnetic field is producedin the pipe wall by magnetic pole pieces mountedcircumferentiallyon the pig. Reductions in pipe wall thickness cause an increase in the magnetic flux which “leaks” from the metallic path through the adjacent air paths. Magnetic flux sensors mounted between the poles close to the pipe wall pass through the leakage flux, inducing signal voltages which are electronically processed and recorded, In addition to metal loss, girth welds, valves and fittings are registered and assist in locating defects. Ultrasonic inspection tools (Figure 6.7) transmit and receive ultrasonic pulses, the time differences between the outgoing pulses and those reflected from the internal and extemal pipe wall surfaces, cracks and flaws indicating thinning and other defects. ‘The intelligent pig is a precision tool, invaluable where the information is needed for determining the future life of the pipeline. It is very costly to construct and operate, it requires special launching equipment, and its use is therefore restricted to simations where the data are critical. 163 b) Internal Camera Inspection Following the inferential inspection described in a) above, direct inspection of ‘a gas pipeline may be provided by despatching a trolley along the pipeline on which is mounted a video camera fitted with a ‘fish-eye” tens for 360° vision, ‘The camera will record the condition of the pipe walls, but the pipeline must be thoroughly cleaned beforehand, otherwise the lens will quickly become obscured. This type of inspection can only be used to confirm intemal cleanliness and to detect large scale surface defects for the first few hundred metres from the insertion end. 6.3.3 External Inspection A considerable amount of physical information is necessary before decisions can be taken conceming the treatment an abandoned pipeline should be receiving after decommissioning. Itwill be necessary for example to determine the residual life of the sacrificial anodes provided when the pipeline was laid. Additionally, the condition of the concrete weight coating will determine the ability of the line to remain on the sea bed and be protected from impact, the presence of unsupported spans will presage future breaking up due to vibration and the preservation of trenching and burial will indicate whether additional protection against third party damage is necessary. External inspections to check these features are carried out regularly on operational pipelines. The inspection equipment required already exists and is of three types: + acoustic, © visual and + electrical, Equipment currently available is described below, a) Acoustic Sonar and sub-surface profile insteuments search for possible problem areas (Fignre 6.8) so that later visual inspection can be carried out to greater effect. Sonar inspection is swift and accurate and read-outs are available very soon aftorthe end ofa ‘flight’. Dual scanning sonars are often installed on an ROV performing a pipeline survey. ‘These simultancously provide a profile of the seabed and the pipeline relative to it, Side scan sonar and profilers are carried in small torpedo shaped vessels towed at a suitable depth parallel to the pipeline by a surface vessel. A strip normally 20-30 metres wide either side of the pipeline is viewed in one pass. Sonar will indicate anchor scars, existing large unsupported spans, loss of burial and the presence of debris from which loss of concrete can be inferred, white the profilers provide the subfloor data from which future unsupported spans can be predicted. 164 b) ©) Visual Inspection Visual inspection uses divers and remote operated vehicles (ROVs) (Figure 6.9). Givenclearenough water, visual inspection will yield more detail than the acoustic methods that precede it, but it is more costly. Diving has a depth limitationand divers therefore carry out inspection mainly in association with the repair work for which they are best suited. For deeper and more dangerous waters, and where a rapid visual scan is all that is required, ROVs have been developed to a considerable level of sophistication, able to perform many difficulttasks efficiently. ‘An ROV system consists of an operator, a computerised control panel, a power supply and the remote operated vehicle itself. The ROV is fitted with lights, video and stills cameras and the larger ones may cary scanning sonars, profilers, CP survey equipment, sampling instruments and manipulators. Larger ROVs may in addition perform many pipeline maintenance tasks, such as non-destructive testing (NDT), repairs and retrievals, The operator is stationed on the ‘mother’ ship. Telecommunications, control lines anda power source are carried in an umbilical ine that tethers the ROV to the mother ship. In complex situations, to reduce drag and avoid entanglements, the umbilical may in future be omitted, giving the ROV greater freedom of movement; in this case, the ROV carries its own power source and controls are transmitted acoustically. A compromise solution is to reduce the diameter and weight of the umbilical by using fibre optics for duta transmission and command signals instead of electrical currents. ROV development is continuing to make progress, and more powerful and sophisticated models will undoubtedly appear. Electrical Techniques The principal direct use of electrical techniques on abandoned pi the testing of cathodic protection, Provision for this is made by positioning a silver/silver chloride reference cell near the surface of the pipeline and connected to it Figure 6.10). The measured electrical potential of the steel with respect to the reference point is an indication of the effectiveness of the CP. Another method of measuring potential, though more rarely used, is the trailing wire system (Figure 6.11). In one version, a direct connection is made to the pipeline, while the survey ship trails the reference electrode along the route of the pipeline. This method is timited by the length of the wire, the position ofthe reference electrode and telluric signats which can swamp the measurement data, Another version replaces the direct pipeline connection with a remote reference electrode called a ‘fish’ (Figure 6.12). This reference electrode outlines the overall pipeline potential levels but cannot provide information ‘on the anodes. In order to obtain more detailed measurements, the field gradient measurement method was developed which uses an ROV to position a probe sensor very near to the pipeline (Fig. 6.13). During the survey, the probe is pulled along 165 parallel to the pipeline and field gradient measurements and potential measurements are collected by remoteelectrode and probe respectively. The gradient information is converted through the use of finite element analysis techniques to determine the current density at the pipe or anode surface. ‘The measurement of field over short distances requires an accurate resohution of potential. Readings of microvolts are required at the probe, but carrier measurement systems are prone to field effects produced by the ROV. The navigation and stability of the ROV is a prime factor in obtaining accurate ‘measurements; ROVs provided with wheels can move along the pipeline to improve the measurement of CP. 6.4 TRENCHING AND BURIAL 6.41 General ‘Trenching and burial offers a high degree of protection to a decommissioned pipeline. ‘The following advantages would be achieved: + increased stability, * protection from damage from impact by heavy fishing gear or anchors and + minimum obstruction to other users of the sea. Large anchors are rarely dropped in the open seas, where most pipelines are laid. Nevertheless, if a large anchor is dropped in soft sand, it is capable of penetrating several metres-into the seabed, and if this oceurs near a pipeline, normal trenching or burial is n0 guarantee against anchor daraage. ‘The principal methods used for trenching a pipeline are: + highpressure jetting, + low pressure high volume jetting, + finidization, + cuttingand + ploughing. These methods are described below, Pipeline burial is implicit n someofthetrenching, methods described, with pipeline protection by mass fibre re-inforced banksa possible alternative to burial. 64.2 High Pressure Jetting Jetting was the most common method for trenching pipelines in both deep and shallow water. Now, ploughs and cutters carry out most of the trenching in the Northern area, with jetting used in shallower waters on non-cohesive soils. In jetting, highpressure water jets and large volumes of water erode away the seabed materials from around the laid pipeline. Removal of the eraded material from the trench is by entrainment inanairand/or water stream which deposits he spoil to one orbothsides of the trench, via an eductor system. The jets and eductors are mounted ona trenching sled (Figure 6.14). 166 The trenching sled straddles the pipeline and carries up to 50 jetting nozzles per leg. The in-air weight of the sled is typically 50to 90 tonnes while the submerged weight can be adjusted by the use of ballast or buoyancy tanks mounted on the sled, ‘Thesled is pulled along by the surface towing vessel with a chain and/or cable connected to the front of the sled. Improvements to trenching equipment during recent years have concentrated on increased pressure and volume of air and supply of water to the trenching sled. A typical sled has a pair of downward projecting claws containing waterjetnozzles and aiteductor tubes. The jet nozzlestrain high velocity water under the pipe, cutting and loosening the soil and eroding the finer material away. ‘The loosened material in the trench is pumped away through the air eductor tubes to be deposited oneach side ofthe trench. Aftera sufficient length of trench has been cut and cleaned, the pipeline lowers itself by gravity and settles on the trench bottom. The trench depth and width can be adjusted by setting the position of the claws on the sled. The size of the trench is also a function of the sled towing rate. Trenching speed in medium to dense sand is 3.0km per day. A disadvantage of most jet sleds is that they rest heavily on the pipe and there is therefore a tisk of damage to the corrosion protection on the pipe. Other difficulties inusing conventional jetting equipment in deep water arise from the umbilical hoses. These hoses are likely to be long and bulky, making them difficult to handle and increasing the risk of damage to the pipe, sled or the hoses themselves. Trenching efficiency is also influenced by the effectiveness of soil disposal operations. Air systems are less effective in removing the soil in deep water, due to increased hhydrostatic pressure which causes the air volume to decrease appreciably, thus reducing the soil-lifting capability of the system, The trench isusually wider than necessary andfinishes up withan irregularbottomthat can sometimes give rise to unsupported spans, 6.4.3 Low Pressure/High Volume Jetting Low pressure, high volume jetting (Figure 6.15), while similar in many ways to high pressure jetting, involves less risk of impingement damage to the concrete coating. Problems arise when the low pressures fuil to cut the stiffer clays effectively. 644 — Fluidisation ‘Trenching is effected in this method by towing a fluidisation unit along the pipeline (Figure6.15b). The unit sin the form of a U-shaped frame straddling the pipeline over the entire length of the S-shaped bend in the vertical plane adopted by the pipeline during burial. ‘The train, which rests on the pipeline by means of support and side rollers, consists of a high pressure unit, the first section of the fluidisation device, and a low pressure unit containing the water-supply. The principle of fluidisation is that water is ejected. from the underside of the frame and flows through the soil into the seabed. 167 The pressure of the injected water destroys the particle cohesion ofthesoil, reducing thesoil density and transforming the soilintoaheavy fluid, the so-called “fluidised bed”. The pipeline sinks into this bed by gravity, aided by the additional weight of the train, After the passage of the train, the soil re-settles and covers the pipeline. The desired level can generally be reached in one pass, the weight and length of train being so designed that cover can be achieved without over-stressing the pipeline. The method can only work in soils which already have low cohesion and is best suited where conventional methods cannot be used, Relatively few trenching oper ns have been executed to date with fluidisation equipment. ‘The method is ineffective where there are considerable variations in soil typealong the pipe route, The equipments bulky and requires large volumes of water to operate. Hose handling complications are inevitable during the operation, 6.4.5 Mechanical Cutting In recent years various companies have developed trenching equipment based on mechanical cutting supplemented by jetting or suctioning the loose material away. ‘The positioning of the vchicle is performed without divers. It wavels on crawler tracks, automatically guiding itself over the pipeline without making physical contact, A safety shut-off system ensures that the pipeline does not suffer damage. ‘The trencher is suitable for pipe diameters 3° to 36". It forms a narrow trench to a depth of 2 metres. Although itcan achieve this depth in one pass, a second pass may be necessary for a partly buried pipe. 6.4.6 — Ploughing Ploughing is carried outin several ways (Figure 6.16), according to the situation on the sea bed. It has been used successfully on a number of occasions during construction, including the installation in 150m water depth of a 36” diameter crude oil loading line. The trench, I-1m deep, was cut by a 12m long, 50 ton underwater plough. ‘The ploughing techniques is suited to trenching small diameter pipelines since it cuts anarrow trench without disturbing the seabed to the same extent as the jetting method. In certain soils and water depths, ploughs are preferred to jets for burying large diameter pipelines, Ploughs are available with a second set of shares which back-fill the spoil over the pipeline in one pass. The plough system is pulled by a surface towing vessel such as a powerful tag. 6.4.7 Soil Parameters ‘The most important soil parameters influencing the performance of a trenching operation include soil density, water content, shear strength, plasticity, friction angle, granulac distribution, and permeability. Some of these parameters are more critical than others, and most are inter-active; a quantitative description of trenching is 168 therefore difficult to make in terms of each separate soil parameter because the parameters.are closely interrelated, and trenching efficiency isusually described using eneralised soil types, Another importantconsideration of pipe trenching is the erosion of soil backfill. During thenatural backfill mechanism, soil is stirred up and held in suspension by local currents having ahigh velocity (erosion velocity). Experimental results are available with which todetermine the lower limitof such velocities for different grain sizes, and thusestimate the maximum trenching rate. 6.4.8 Water Depth ‘The efficiency of a trenching operation is affected by water depth. Diver assistance is often needed and diver limitations affect the maximum depth at which the machine ‘can operate. To date, routine diving operations have been made in water depths up to 180mand considerable research and development work is being carried out, mainly on the physiological effects of deep water diving, which will eventually enable such, operations to be carried out beyond the Continental Shelf. Conventional jetting operations are limited by water depth due to friction losses in Jong umbilical hoses. 1f compressed air is used to remove soil from the trench, then the effectiveness of the suction operation is reduced still further in deep water. fion losses depend on hose size and the reduced intemal friction in large diameter hoses must be balanced against their extra weight and drag, Jetting steds with integral underwater pumps have been developed, reducing the need for umbilicals to supplying power and signal transmission only. 6.4.9 Productivity ‘The speed of a trenching operation is linked to the mass of soil being removed during trenching and to the trench depth. In general, trench depth decreases as the speed of the trenching machine increases. ‘Conversely, a high towing speed will reduce the time during which the pipe will remain unsupported in the trench and silting of the jetted tench will be reduced. ‘Optimum speeds of trenching can be selected based on model studies and experience records, 6.4.10 Pipe Size and Weight Soil is displaced when the pipeline settles into the trench that is formed. The amount of soil which is removed increases substantially with pipe diameter, causing a corresponding slowing down of trenching rate. ‘The pipe's submerged weight is significant in determining the efficiency of the trenching operation. ‘The heavier the pipe the more acute is the ‘S’ bend it takes up when settling into the trench; if this bend becomes too sharp the pipe will buckle or otherwise be damaged. The only way to avoid overstressing the pipe in this way is to take a shallower cut with the trenching tool. ‘Thus a larger number of passes will be required to form the teench to its finished depth if the weight of the pipe is increased bypriorflooding. 169 6.4.11 Sea State ‘The diving assistance needed at the start of trenching or on occasions during the trenching operation is supported and monitored from the surface and thus is fluenced by sea states, Conventional jetting is further influenced by sea states. due to suspended hoses which are subject to currents and surface-vessel motion. Underwater trenching machines working on the sea bed are less vulnerable to surface weather, 6.4.12 Trench Profiles ‘Trench stability is determined by the type of soil being renched. When trenching clayey soils, a trench with almost vertical sides can be produced, while sandy soils produce trenches with shallow inclinations, The depth of trench which can be achieved before ‘cave-in’ is greater in clay than in sand. Figure 6.17 shows typical trench profiles for different soils 6.4.13 Conceptual Evaluation An evaluation of trenching methods is dependent on the trenching equipment available. For example, both conventional jet sleds with the prime movers on the surface and underwater jetting machines with the prime movers mounted on the machine use the same jetting principle to cut the soil, leaving differences in power requirements, sea-state dependency and trenching machine handling to be compared. in determining which machine to use. In selecting the optimum method for a trenching operation, the desired performance requirements of the trench and backfilling machine must be identified. Data on seabed material characteristics must be established along the entire length of the pipeline to be trenched and must cover any changes in the soil conditions that may be caused by the trenching operation itself, Characteristics of the different methods of trenching are compared in Table 6.1. Irmay be seen from this table that no single trenching method performs well against all the trenching parameters described, and the method selected will be a compromise based on pre-determined project criteria. 65 SURFACE COVERING WITHOUT BURIAL 65.1 General Alternatives to trenching may be necessary due to cost or soil conditions, In recent years, several man-made refinements in addition to rock dumping have become available and are described below. 6.5.2 Rock Dumping Rock or gravel dumping is the traditional method of stabilizing untrenched subsea pipelines. This method also provides additional protection against impact damage. 170 ‘Three methods for placing the rock are commonly employed, as follows: + split hopper barge, . side dumping vessel and . fall pipe placement. ‘The first two methods above are only applicable to shallow waters since limited control can be maintained to prevent underwater currents dispersing the material as itis dumped. The fall pipe method is suitable for medium depths, since the spread ‘of dumped material is controlled to a greater depth. Rock dumping methods use considerable quantities of material, much of it wasted because of the hit-and-miss technique usually employed. Its use is therefore limited tolengths of pipelines of up toa few hundred metres long, that isin those cases where isolated problems of stability or erosion arise. Gravel dumping, where it is applicable, is more precise and is now widely used for providing pipeline cover, 6.5.3 Stable Mass Fibre Reinforced Banks Fibre reinforced banks involve assisting suspended seabed sediments to be deposited in a controlled area, thereby building up a cohesive soil bank which affords protection. This is more suited to the sedimentary southem area of the North Sea. ‘One such system involves a method using mats of buoyant fronds anchored to the seabed (Figure 6.18) which has been used with some success since 1984. The system has been employed in controlling pipe spans and protecting crossovers and pipelines, including one site in 120m water depth, however there is limited survey data regarding Jong term behaviour, Buoyant frond mats are spread over the area where sediment deposition is required. ‘The matis lowered to the seabed in a wrapped condition and spread out and anchored by divers. The? inch wide polypropylene fronds are then released to float vertically while remaining tethered to the mat. Typically a5 x 5 metre mat consists of 21 rows of fronds 1.25m high, each row containing 720 fronds. ‘The mat is held fast by anchors hydraulically driven into the seabed. With the mat installed and activated, water current velocity is reduced as the water passes between the fronds. This has two effects; it prevents local seabed shear or scour and it allows the transported soil particles to fall out of suspension and be deposited amongst the fronds. The result is a highly compacted and stable fibre re-inforced soil bank which is acceptable environmentally. 6.5.4 Subsea Mattresses Subsea mattresses have been used successfully for the stabilisation and protection of subsea pipelines. The method involves placing a dense mattress over a subsea pipeline at its vulnerable points. The mass of the mattress holds the pipeline on the seabed and encourages deposition of seabed material in that area. Subsea mattresses are applicable for both trenched pipelines and pipelines resting on the surface of the seabed. Placing the mattress requies lifting equipment on an installation vessel, aided by divers to manoeuvre the mattress into position. i Filled bags may contain either dense bitumen ora concrete mixture, Bitumen filled ‘mattresses are manufactured on shore and transported to their offshore location. ‘The mattress consists of a polyester fibre envelope filled with heavy-density bitumen Containing layers of re-inforeing steel mesh. ‘The mattresses retain their flexibility and are able to conform to the shape over which they are laid. Concrete or grout filled mattresses ate commonly known as grout bags, Installation of these differs from bitumen filled bags, the concrete taking on the shape over which itis cast. The bags are installed in position and filled by pumping a concrete mixture from the installation vessel. Another system uses interconnecting blocks, regularly spaced (typically 100mm X 100mm X 150mm deep) filled with concrete and cast intoa synthetic rope network. Mattresses are produced in a range of sizes up to 10 X 20metres. They are usually positioned at lengths of pipeline where stabilisation problems exist. 11 is unlikely that placing of mattresses would prove practical or economic for the protection of long fengths of pipeline for the purpose of abandonmentin the long term, 66 PIPELINE FILLING After decommissioning, the pipeline may be filled with inert materials if itis going to beabandoned in-situ, Iris clearly advantageous tofill the pipeline with dense materials such as water since this will increase the on-bottom stability. If the pipeline is to be filled with an inert liquid and left, inhibited water would be sufficient. Other inert materials suchas gas could be considered, butgasin lines which have been used for liquid products will make the line susceptible to environmental forces, making it unstable and more liable to sustain damage. Asan alternative to liquid or gas, short lengths of pipeline could if necessary be filled ‘with grout or concrete, or beads made from polystyrene or polypropylene. No specific example where this has been done is available for comment, but there is no doubt that the filling operation would be difficult, costly and unreliable, although it could be of limited uso as asubstitute for concrete weight coating, The uninterruptedlength that can be filled in this way is limited by practical considerations in the pumping of non-newtonian mixtures. As a result a pipeline would have to be cut at frequent intervals along its length to allow the infill material to be pumped in, This would require diverintervention and considerable subsea works. At this stage these particular ‘methods donot appear to offer any significant long term advantages over water filling, 6.7 ALTERNATIVE RE-USES OF ABANDONED PIPELINES 67.1 General ‘So far, only abandonment and recovery have been considered for a pipeline that has ‘ceased to be used for its original purpose of transporting hydrocarbon liquids, gases or chemicals. The alternative is to change the use of the pipeline to some other m function not necessarily connected with oil, gas or chemicals, should the opportunity arise, and this section identifies some possible altemative uses, These may be broken down into the following categories: a) “External” = fishing - navigationalaids b) ‘Internal’ ——- the pipefine as a container = transport of alternative products ©) Subsea ‘Farming’ 4) Refuse disposal ¢) Long term strategic networks, Each of these categories is briefly discussed below, but it mustbe appreciated that the alternative uses proposed are as yet untried and will remain largely hypothetical for some time to come. Any operational reuse will be subject to the pipeline complying fully with any legislative requirements which may be imposed for the specific duty. 67.2 External Uses It has been reported that fish are reported to congregate at pipelines, and that fishermen sometimes trawl their boards and nets along a pipeline if they believe that doing so gives them an opportunity to enhance their catch, Ifthis is true, there is some justification in leaving an abandoned pipeline in place by arrangement with the fishing industry rather than recovering it. The line would have to be maintained; leaving it to break up would not be in the interests of the fishing industry orindeed of any other users of the sea, but of course. there would have to be sufficient economic advantage to justify the cost of maintaining the abandoned pipeline. Subsea mapping is another passive use. It is more likely to be treated as an adjunct to more conventional re-use, since the cost of ating pipelines purely as a navigational aid is unlikely to be met by the beneficiaries. Offshore pipelines are already shown on Admiralty maps and it would be a short step to form all pipelines ‘on the charts into a grid which could be used to locate the positions of shipping and submarines. In any case, care will always have to be taken to keep the Cartographer to the Navy informed of the status of the pipeline, since he is responsible for transferring that information onto Admiralty charts. 6.7.3 Internal Uses Instead of using a passive material for filling the abandoned pipeline, the pipeline might be filled with material such as refuse, effluent or nuclear waste which otherwise pose problems of disposal. It would of course be necessary to ensure that only pipelines adequate for the duty areused in this way. Their exact locations are known and their condition can be monitored. Additional protection can be provided by extra deep burial or by additional rock or mattress covers. Modifications in the equipment used for filling the pipelines might be required, and additional condition monitoring would be necessary. Ifthe pipeline is notin thecondition necessary forreceiving hazardous wastes, itmight still be suitable for use as a temporary receptacle for biodegradable waste which ‘can be dumped into the sea or on land after a suitable period and replaced. 1B 6.7.4 Subsea ‘Farming’ Thecultivation of shell fish is sometimes assisted by providing ‘foreign’ body for the molluscs to cling to. If fortuitously there were an area crossed by a disused pipeline that is also favourable to shell fish cultivation, it may be possible to use the pipeline, which needs not receive as much attention as an operational line, to advantage. So farasis known, this application has not been attempted, and the suggestion is merely offered as a subject for further study, A more immediate use for an abandoned pipeline isto assist fishermen ‘herd’ shoals of fish along its route. The line will have cooled down after some time and may on that account be less of an attraction to the fish. Little is known for certain about the phenomenon of fish congregating at pipelines and further research would be helpful to all concerned with the interaction of fishing and pipelines. 67.5 Long Term Strategic Networks ‘The long term sccurity of supplies of oil and gas to the UK may be enhanced by permanent pipeline links to the European mainland, and the major trunk pipelines may provide the basis for such links. The Frigg pipeline system, for example, could potentially link into Zeepipe, and the various Southemn North Sea gas pipeline systems offer potential fink opportunities into the Dutch sector. If these pipeline links are developed and maintained, assurance of long term gas supplies to the UK from Norway, the USSR and North A ricausing the existing European gas networks would be reinforced. 68 CONCLUSIONS A decommissioned pipeline may deteriorate rapidly if no preventive measures are implemented. Damage can be accidental, corrosive or due to pipe movements; protection, the form of burial, coating and cathodic protection, will delay deterioration but in the ong term will not defer it indefinitely except in exceptional circumstances. Serious accidental damage due to third party intervention js rare in the North Sea, and. can largely be protected against. The pipeline can be protected against corrosion but this would incur annual maintenance costs which may not be offset by continued revenue. Movement following loss of support can only be detected by regular inspection and the cost of any subsequent remedial work will be high. The two most common methods of protection are cathodic protection and burial, and their cost must be offset against the cost of recovery ifthe pipeline is not going to be reused and insurance and other costs resulting from leaving the pipeline in an abandoned state, Alternatively, another use for the pipeline may be found after it has outlivedits original purpose. There ate only a few possible alternative uses for a pipeline built to carry liquid or gescoushydrocarbons, A review of some of the more realistic uses concludes that the economic scope for an abandoned pipeline to continue caming regular revenue inthe North Sea is small, 174 Table 6.1 CONCEPTUAL EVALUATION OF TRENCHING METHODS HP LP/HV Fluid- Cutting Plough] Key Jet Jet __ sation [Sandy bottom | + - : - | +Effective -Not Etfective Clayey bottom | - + + * + |+Effective -Not Etfective Surlace - - + + + }+ Dependent dependence ~ Very dependent Curent - - + — [+Slightetfect elfects - Great effect Deployment - . 7 + |+ Less difficult procedure -Ditficurt lowering and lifting Cost - - - + + |+ Less costly |- Costly |Water depth + + - + Deep }- Shallow Past experience] + + . + [+ Experience - No Experience Required - + : : + — |+No development} development |- Development and testing Power demand | - - - + + + Low demand - High demand Production rate | - + + +t ++ |+High +4 Very high -Low Forces on pipe | - . + - - + Small }- Large 175 Figure 6.1 CORROSION CoAT, CONCRETE CoAT. TRMIRT CONCRETE AND ANTL-CORROSION COATING DAMAGE,LOCALLY OF IN LONG SECTIONS PIPE BADLY BUCKLED PIPE RUPTURED 176 PIPE DENTED aS TRG PIN HOLE LEAK, CONCRETE REMOVED LOCALLY res PIPE TORN IN TWO. Figure 6.2 TRAWL BOARDS BEAM TRAWL Figure 6.3 METAL GAUGING PLATE BODY | em BOLT |m—--— FLANGE FLEXIBLE DISCS Li FLEXIBLE DISCS BI-DIRECTIONAL PIG FITTED WITH GAUGING PLATE 178 Figure 6.4 SENSING FINGERS ODOMETER WHEELS | DIRECTION OF FLOW CALIPER PIG 179 Figure 6.5 Scumoence Prsauewnt ones Fe PIPETRONIX SAMPLING PIG 180 Figure 6.6 DRIVING SECTION SEALING DISC ——, |BRUSHES CONNECTED TO MAGNETIC SENSORS SENSING WHEELS. INTELLIGENT PIG USING ELECTROMAGNETIC PRINCIPAL 181 Figure 6.7 Guiding dise Distance wheel Pig oorate | Sealing dise / Probe ting — Cabling ot re] 3 ° ° lot Power pack Front end electronics: Data reduction ‘Timer 64 UT channels Memory 12M byte Pressure switch AD system ‘Temperature Circular B-scan at 3.35 m TYPICAL SCAN READ-OUT INTELLIGENT PIG USING ULTRASONIC PRINCIPLE 182 AAAUNS HVNOS NVOS-3dIS g'g eunBiy uvNos" areas | LA BULAN 0s-02 “2H Z 183 Figure 6.9 CONTROL STATION DEPLOYMENT UNIT CONTROLOISPLAY HAND CONTROLLER: VEHICLE STROBE FLASHER, ARMOURED CABLE! TV CAMERA DOME ROV TYPE RCV-225 Figure 6.10 vM + T CURRENT FLOW VIR ve A A A A TP A a STEEL SURFACE VM = MEASURED POTENTIAL VIR = OHMIC COMPONENT VP = POLARISATION POTENTIAL CP MEASUREMENT BY SILVER/SILVER CHLORIDE METHOD 185 GOHLSW YIM ONITIVEL AS LNSWSYNSVaW dO SNITAdid ‘Tad 3GoYuLOSTS uasit SHIM ONITIVEL en tig aan6iy 186 GOHLSW .HSId, GAMOL A@ LNAW3YNSVAIN dO ANITdld 1 A sous 4814, BI8VO ONIMOL wasiy waLvOI4 ZL’ eunbig 187 GOHLAW LNZIGNVYD-adOULOAIa FLOWSYH-AOY AG LNSWSYNSVAW dO 3goNv ™ SNIT3aid 7 wer 'aONY “ asoud ¥aZILIOIG 300819373 3ON3UaI3Y SLowsy 380ud 1 eb'g aunbiy 488 Figure 6.14 SEALEVEL, ANCHOR LINES TOW LINES UFTING CABLE TRENCHING SLED PIPELINE UrM@LNe + Dawson —y EDUGIOR 4 SUPERSTRUCTURE INcuNowerER f I : TRAILING ARM 7 TOW LINE BOTTOM OF TREN JET HEIGHT CAN BE ADJUSTED TO VARY DEPTH OF TRENCH SPACING. ‘CAN BE VARIED FOR DIFFERENT PIPE DIAMETERS UP TO 72" TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT FOR JET BARGE AND SLED 189 Figure 6.15 TRENCHING BY JETTING AND FLUIDISATION Figure 6.16 (A) SLED WITH PROJECTING SHARE (B) LONG - BEAM PLOUGH iC) POST-TRENCHING PLOUGH {PLAN) (0) MULTI- BLAOE PLOUGH PLOUGH CONFIGURATIONS 191 Figure 6.17 PROBABLE RANGE SS OF TRENGH SLOPE MECHANICAL CUTTER SYSTEM MECHANICAL CUTTER SYSTEM RANGE OF TRENCH >, CONFIGURATION ~~~” 4 ‘SAND 005M RANGE OF TRENCH /” SLOPE HIGH PRESSURE. HIGH PRESSURE: JETTING SYSTEM JETTING SYSTEM ‘STIFF HARD CONSOLIDATED CLAY SHORT TERM TRENCH CONFIGURATION SEABED etry |< RANGE OF TRENCH Cane ‘OF TRENCH uC CONFIGURATION MECHANICAL GUTTER AND LONG TERM TRENGH CONFIGURATION HIGH PRESSURE JETTING MECHANICAL CUTTER SYSTEM SYSTEM Loose SAND SER mt (6-30) . RANGE OF 27 TRENCH so -=- CONFIGURATION} HIGH PRESSURE JETTING SYSTEM SOFT CLAY TRENCH PROFILES 4192 Figure 6.18 FINAL BANK ‘APPROX. OUTLINE OF POLYPROPYLENE FRONDS ['# HIGH MAT ANCHOR INFILL TO SCOUR BENEATH PIPELINE MAT POSITIONED OVER PIPELINE. CURRENT VELOCITY REQUCED PARTICLES DEPOSITED | FORMING BANK MAT ANCHORS FOLLOWING INSTALLATION, A BANK SA, LEVEL iS RAPIDLY FORMED BY DEPOSITED PARTICLES. THE BANK COVERS AND PROTECTS THE PIPELINE. MATS POSITIONED EITHER SIDE OF PIPEINE 193 7. OVERALL CONCLUSIONS 7.1 DECOMMISSIONING The planning and execution of purging and cleaning operations on abandoned offshore pipelines require considerable care, The procedures laid down for these operations must be efficient and safe, having regard to the hazardous nature of many of the materials which will be handled and their potential impact on the environment. Preplanning information on the pipeline should beas complete as possible, followed by clearand precise definitionsof aims, lines of authority and responsibility, actions tobe taken during the operations anda programme of work. Any additional facilities known tobe required for handling the scheduled equipment and materials should be properly designed and ordered in advance and checked before use. ‘Thecondition of the pipeline shouldbe established before any decision istaken toleave it in position. Static and dynamic stabilities should be calculated and remedial action specified if required, 7.2 RATE OF DECAY ‘The uniformity of water and seabeds throughout UK. waters means that the location of pipelines does not effect external corrosion rates. Intemal corrosion attack will depend on the fluid carried during the operational life of the pipeline and can be countered by provisions made during design and operation. By reason of their size and applied protection, export and infield trunk pipelines are considered less liable than flowlines to accident and decay. Risers receive extra protection insecognition oftheir greater vulnerability toimpactdamageandenvironmental attack in the splash zone. ‘Ananalysis of failures in the Gulf of Mexico indicates that a minority of failures were due to internal factors, most of them on infield lines. Forty-three per cent of external failures were due to corrosion and twenty-five per cent to impact. In general terms, corrosion rates are toa large extent controllable, impact damage and the consequences of mechanical faults less so. Damage during pipe transportation and construction is possible but most can be detected in time for remedial work to be carried out, Anti- corrosion measures and concrete weight and anti-impact coatings require high-level quality assurance during application and laying. Good maintenance of riser coatings during their lifetime is needed. ‘The considerable attention already given to these factors in the UK ensures that they assist in meeting the predicted design life of the line, After considering the corrosion mechanisms and failure probabilities present throughout the life cycle of apipetine, itis concluded that a subsea line that is well maintained and has kept fairly free from mechanical damage has a good chance of lasting for 60 years iff exposed or 400 years is fully buried after the cathodic protection system becomes depleted, 195 7.3 PIPELINE RECOVERY After considering the three stages of recovery access, recovery itself and seabed restoration -itis concluded that the principal operations canbe carried outusing existing technology and equipment. Some of the underwater pipe cutling methods are new and will require careful review before the expense of mounting an underwater cutting operation is undertaken. Cost considerations and technical difficulties increase with depth of water and pipe diameter. Statistically, the majority of large pipelines in the North Sea are in shallower waters and their recovery is therefore more favourable. Some aspects of recovery are difficult to quantify; they include unforseeable access difficulties, obligationsattendanton seabed restoration and the reusable condition ofthe pipeline, ‘These factors represent significant elements in the recovery decision process. Even if the pipe is to be scrapped, gaining access if the pipeline has been trenched, buried or covered on the seabed is neither cheap or easy. 7.4 PIPELINE MATERIAL DISPOSAL ‘Transportation, handling and storage of material recovered from abandoned pipelines are significant cost and environmental factors to be taken into account in deciding on the fate of the line, On balance, itis rare to find a pipeline that is economical to reuse, particularly if it has to be moved or its function changed. Facilities exist in the UK to move portions of existing pipelines by any of the three modes of transport: road, rail and sea. If the components of the pipeline are to be salvaged separately, the line pipe itself is probably worth recovering, although the cost of stripping it of its anti-corrosion and concrete weight coating and cleaning the pipe of product residue will reduce its value considerably. Fittings suchas valves and tees may sometimes be worth recovering, and ine pipe may toalimited extent bere-used. Concrete debrisis only useful where convential hardcore is not available from other sources for building. Corrosion coating material is of no practical value after it has been stripped. All material recovered from pipelines must be tested and recertified for the appropriate duty before being re-used. 7.5 ALTERNATIVES TORECOVERY A decommissioned pipeline may deteriorate rapidly if no preventive measures are implemented. Damage can be accidental, corrosive or due to pipe movements; protection, the form of burial, coating and cathodic protection, will delay deterioration but in the long term will not defer it indefinitely except in exceptional circumstances, 196 Serious accidental damage due to third party intervention is rare in the North Sea, and can largely be protected against. The pipeline can be protected against corrosion but this would incur annual maintenance costs which may not be offset by continued revenue, Movement following loss of support can only be detected by regular inspection and the cost of any subsequent remedial work will be high. The two most common methods of protection are cathodic pratection and burial, and their cost must be offset against the cost of recovery if the pipeline is not going to be reused and insurance and other costs resulting from leaving the pipeline in an abandoned state. Alternatively, another use for the pipeline may be found after it has outlivedits original purpose. ‘There are only a few possible alternative uses for a pipeline built to carry liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons. A review of some of the more realistic uses and concludes that the economic scope for an abandoned pipeline to continue earning regular revenue in the North Sea is small, 197 198 8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Department of Energy forthis project. Inaddition they would like toextend their gratitude to Mr Alan Bray of the Marine Technology Support Unit for his guidance during the execution of the study and to JOHN BROWN'S staff for their highly professional contribution to the work. 199 REFERENCES 201 10. LL 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. REFERENCES B Todd, “Selection of Materials for Seawater Systems". Yorkshire Imperial Alloys. Seminar, ‘90/10 Cu/Ni in Seawater Systems for the Offshore Oil Industry’, 1972. INCO, “A Guide to the Selection of Marine Materials”. Reprinted 1973. RJ Schmitt & EH Phelps, “Corrosion Performance of Constructional Steels in Marine Application”. OTC 1047, 1969, HS Campbell, “The Corrosion Factor in Marine Environments”. Metals & Materials, Aug. 1985, pp 479-483, J Rynewicz, “Corrosion in Deep Waters”, Ocean Eng,, Nov. 15, 1974, pp 57- 66. RA King & D Gearey, “Corrosion Hazards of Offshore Pipelines & Risers”. Cort. Prev. & Control, Apr. 1980, pp 5-9. ‘TFrench-Mullen & W R Jacob, “Pipelines Undersea”. Ch.12, Ellis Horwood ‘Cathodic Protection Theory & Practice’, eds. Y Ashworth andCJ L Booker, 1986. M Roche & J P Samaran, “Pipeline Coating Performance: Field Experience of an Operating Petroleum Company”. Mater. Perf, Ref.26(1 1), 1987, pp 28-34. “Rules for Submarine Pipelines". DnV 1981. C G Googan, “Barrier Coatings for Submarine Pipelines”, GCC Seminar, “Internal and External Corrosion Control of Submarine Pipelines - Design and Practice’, London 1986. JJelinek, “Internal & Extemal Corrosion Problems of Pipelines - An Overview", Ibid. FP Rees, “Survey Techniques Applied to the Inspection of Controlied Pipelines”, GCC Seminar, ‘Surveying, Inspection and Corrosion Monitoring of Fixed Offshore Structures and Pipelines’, March 1985, RJ Brown, “Well Designed Concrete Coating Protects Offshore Pipelines”. ‘The Oil and Gas Journal, Feb. 26, 1973, pp 49-52. EG Kieman, “Brae Field Line Protection Uses Epoxy System & Membrane”, Pipeline and Gas Journal, Dec. 1981, pp 43-45. R Stetten et al, “In Service Inspection of North Sea Structures”. OTC 2980, 197. $ Suaukietal, “Recent {novation in Manufacturing Pipeline Steels for Offshore Use". Sumitomo-Metal Industries, Japan, 1986. 7. 18. 19, 20. 2. 23. 25. 26, 27, 29, 30, 31. 32. M Swiss, “Stainless Steel Offshore Pipelines: An Economic Answer to Corrosion”. Welding & Metal Fabrication, Dec. 1979, pp 723-724. P de Waele, “Some Problems Associated with the CP of Pipelines in the Middle. East". Proc, 2nd, BSE-NACE Corr. Conf., Bahrain, 1981, pp 417-421. AC Tonere & N Ahmed, “Cathodic Protection Under Disbonded Coatings”. Mater. Perf., 19(6), 1980, pp 39-43. BS Wyatt, “Cathodic Protection of Fixed Offshore Structures”. ‘Cathodic Protection Theory & Practice’, Ch. 5, eds. V Ashworth and CJ L Booker, Ellis Horwood, 1986, AL Asphani et al, “High Alloyed Stainless Materials for Seawater Application”. Corr, 80, Paper 29. FLLaQue, “Crevice Corrosion”. ‘Marine Corrosion’, Ch. 5, Wiley & Co., pp 164-176. RJHill & § Trout, “Materials Selection for, and Construction of, Submarine Pipelines”. GCC Seminar, Internal & External Corrosion Control of Submarine Pipelines - Design & Practice’, London 1986. R PM Proctor, “Detrimental Effects of CP’. Ch. 18, ‘Cathodic Protection ‘Theory & Practice’, ed. V Ashworth and CJL Booker, Ellis Horwood, 1986, BS Wyatt, “Pipeline CP Surveys”. GCC Seminar, ‘Surveying, Inspection & Corrosion Monitoring of Fixed Offshore Structures & Pipelines’, March 1985, LFoyen & R Molland, “Statutory Requirements for Fixed Offshore Structures”. Ibid. BS Hockenhull, “SCC and Corrosion Fatigue in Offshore Structures”, Joint Offshore Conference, Feb. 1976, pp 34-37. JW Knight, “Corrosion Fatigue of Steel Structures in Seawater”, Weld. Inst. Res. Bull., April 1976, pp 91-93. CIRIA Underwater Engineering Group, “Underwater Inspection of Offshore Installations: Guidance for Designers”. Report URIO, 1978. TJ O'Neill, “Underwater Inspection by Divers”. Joint Offshore Conf., Feb. 1986. US Geological Survey, “Data on Accidents on Sealines in the Gulf of Mexico”. 1967-1979. American National Standard Inst. ANSVASME, ‘Transportation Piping Systems”. B.31.4, 1979. “Liquid Petroleum 203 33, 34, 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. al. 42, 43. 45. 46. 47, 48. 49, “Recommended Practice for Design & Installation of Offshore Production Platform Piping Systems". API RP 14E, 1980, UK Statutory Instrument No.1513; The Submarine Pipelines Safety Regulations, HMSO, 1982. “CP Design”. DnV Offshore Standard RP B401, March 1986. D Norman, “Coatings Used by BGC for the Protection of Pipelines”. Bulletin No. 82, Inst. Corr. Sei. & Tech., London, 1980. V Ashworth, “The Theory of CP & Relation to Electrochemical Theory of Corrosion”. Ch. 1, “Cathodic Protection Theory & Practice’, eds. V. Ashworth and CJL Booker, Bilis Horwood, 1986, A Kumar & D Wittmer, “Coatings & CP of Pilings in Seawater: Results of 5 ‘Years Exposure”. Mater. Perf., Dec. 1979, pp 9-19. E Bikers, Joint Conference on Corrosion in the Marine Environment. Marine Media Management Ltd., 1973. B.S. Wyatt, “Cathodic Protection of Submarlne Pipelines and Outfalls”. Bull. Inst, Corr. Sci. & Tech,, 20(2), 1982, pp 7-13. WH Thomason et al, “The Use of Coatings to Supplement CP of Offshore Structures”. Mater. Perf., Nov. 1987, pp 22-27. V Ashworth etal, “Underground Corrosion andits Control”. Corrosion Australia, 11(5), Oct, 1986, pp 10-19. CG Munger & RC Robinson, “Coatings & Cathodic Protection”. Mater. Perf., 20 (1), pp 46-52. V Ashworth, “Rebar Corrosion and its Control”. GCC Seminar, ‘Corrosion in Concrete - Practical Aspects of Control by Cathodic Protection’, 11 May, 1987. NJ M Wilkins, “CP of Concrete Structures”. Ch. 9, ‘Cathodic Protection ‘Theory & Practice’, eds. V Ashworth and CJL Booker, Ellis Horwood, 1986. RDBrowne, Joint Conference on Corrosion in the Marine Environments, Marine Media Management Lid., 1973. ID Scantlebury et al, “The CP of Coated Mild Steel in Sodium Chloride Solutions”. Congr. FATIPEC, 15(3), 1980, IIT 178 - HII 190. FW Hewes, “The Implications of Corrosion under Disbonded Coatings on Buried Pipelines". BSE-NACE Corrosion Conference, 1979, W F Clapp, “Fouling Organisms”, Ch. in ‘Corr, Handbook’, ed. HU Uhlig, John Wiley & Sons, 1948, pp 433-441. 50. Si. 52. 53, 34, 55. 56, 37. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63, 65. 67. WHA Pugh, “Microbial Fouling of Pipelines”. Corr. Prev, and Control, June 1982, pp 8-10. AW Peabody, “Control of Pipeline Corrosion”, NACE, 1967, BNHerbert, “Microbiological Aspects of Secondary Recovery Technology”. Workshop on Secondary Recovery Technology, Oyez S & T Services, June 1984, London, “Cooling Water Treatment - Symposium Workshop”, Australia Corrosion Assoc., 1978, Queensland. CR Southwell & A C Alexander, Mater. Perf., 9(1), 1970, p 14. 'W von Baeckman & W Schwenk, “Handbook of CP”, Porcullis Press Ltd., 1977, KAChandler, Joint Conference on Corrosion in Marine Environments. Marine Media Management Ltd., 1973. NACE, NACE Corrosion Engineer's Reference Book. ed. R S ‘Treseder NACE, 1983. “Corrosion Resistance of Austenitic Stainless Steels in Marine Environments”, Intemational Nickel Co., London, 1964. “Fixed Offshore Installations”. DnV TNA 703, Technical Notes, 1981. O Saetre & F Jensen, “Developments in CP of Offshore Concrete Structures”. ‘Mater. Perf’, 21(5), 1982, pp 30-35. B Hevze, “CP of Concrete Offshore Platforms”. Mater. Perf., 19(5), 1980, pp 24-33. LH Everett & K WJ Treadaway, “Deterioration Due to Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete”. Corr. Prev. & Control, 23, June 1982, pp 5-7. IFranquin, “Corrosion Protection of Prestressed Concrete Pipes”. Corr. Tech., 12(3), 1965, pp 7-13. NWilkins, “International Seminar on Electrochemistry and Corrosion of Stee! in Concrete: A State-of-the-Art Summary”. Tech. Note., Mater. Perf., May 1980, pp 52-54. RA King et al, “CP of Steel in Concrete Structures in Seawater”. Corr. Prev. & Control, 31, April 1977, pp 11-13. OE Gjorv & O Vennesland, “CP of Steel in Offshore Concrete Platforms”. Mater. Perf., 19(5), 1980, pp 49-52. MG Fontana & ND Greene, “Corrosion Engineering”. McGraw Hill, 1978. 205 68. 0. 1. n. B. 4. 7. 76. 7B. , “Application of Corrosion Resistant Low Alloy Stecls in Marine Structures”. OTC 2376, 1975. “Corrosion Behaviour of Welds in Seawater”, Lincoln Blectric Co., April 25, 197. NIM Wilkins & J A Stillwell, “The Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement in Cracked Concrete Immersed in Sea Water”. Marine Concrete 86, London, Sept. 86. NR Buenfeld & J B Newman, “Permeability of Marine Concrete”. Ibid. GJ Osborne, Concrete Durability Studies. Ibid. API Specification for Line Pipe, (SL, SLS amd SLX), American Petroleum Institute, 1983. RN Duncan, “Abrasion Testing of Submarine Pipe Coatings”. Mater. Perf. Sept, 1980, pp 9-12. “Long Term Ageing of Rubber in Seawater”, Webco Report, QCP/WM/ (Q030/82/05/00 STP. “Investigation Into The Holland 1”. CAPCIS University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, June 1983, “H.M. Submarine Holland 1, Comosion Report”, Aberdeen Corrosion Engineers, 1983. NACE Standards: ‘'TM-02-84, Test Method: Evaluation of Pipeline Steels for Resistance to Stepwise Cracking. ‘MR-O1-75 (84). Material Requirements: Sulphide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oil Field Equipment. APPENDIX 1 PRE-DECOMMISSIONING AND DECOMMISSIONING PROCEDURES FOR PIPELINES 207 1. PREPARATORY QUESTIONS ‘The following list of questions will establish the form of decommissioning procedure which will follow: Item Requirement 1. ‘Who are the appropriate bodies 208 to be notified? What are the pipeline length and diameter? Is it an end to end situation or does the abandonment terminate ata ‘tee’ or ‘wye" junction? Do end stations have pigging facilities? Does the pipeline have adequate end station process facilities? Does the pipeline have any special features or fittings, e.g. valves, and are they working, e.g. tees or laterals, barred or open type? + any check valves or chokes? - diameter changes? - formed bends? ~ subsea connections? ~ any repair history? Does the pipeline have any service facilities, e.g, ~chemical lines, ~control umbilicals and - telemetry? ‘When was the last comprehensive survey conducted? Function, Allows liaison parties to be identified, defines the rules to be observed and licences or permits to be recognised. Establishes initial project magnitude. material handling requirements, Establishes handling methods and identifies any requirement for the provision of enginzered facilities. Establishes handling and potential disposal methods and identifies scope of engineering requirements. Establishes additional engineering requirernents, and assists in the selection of cleaning methods and tools. Establishes additional engineering requirements and defines facilities to be provided, Establishes the need for conducting a survey relative to spans and weight coat loss, 50 as to assess structural integrity and stability. Item 10. ut. 12, 13, 14, 15. 16. Wy Requirement ‘What is the design operating pressure and what is or was the latest sustained maximum pressure at which the pipeline was operated? Is it intended to recover the Pipeline immediately (within 1 year), leave it inoperative for 2 short period of up to 5 years, or abandon it indefinitely? ‘What was the line product, e.g. oil, gas, chemicals or water? Is there any history of sediment or residue formation, and was the line pigged periodically for maintenance purposes? What is the precise chemical composition of the product? ‘What is the likely consistency of any residues, e.g. sedimentary, light and heavy waxes or scale. Is the system in an operative or shut-down mode? ‘Are personnel with experience of, this particular pipeline system available for assistance with the procedural and decommissioning stages? Is there a potential for re-use of the pipeline? If so, what is the likely product? Function Establishes the maximum pressure available for decommissioning, Consideration of final pipeline fille.g. airor liquid and degree of inhibition which may be required, Initial selection of safe solvents and neutralising chemicals, Initial assessment of bulk residue which will require removal. Precise estimate and selection of safe solvents and neutralising chemicals, Assessment of cleaning and scraping pigs required. Assists in solvent selection and slug size and run speed estimates. Assessment of hardness of waxes and consolidation of sediments. Signalling of pig arrivals and their removal, Assists in the optimum use of existing pipeline facilities and the compilation and execution of safe decommissioning procedures. Consideration of final line fill materials having compatible chemistry. 209 2. PROCEDURAL STAGES: ‘The following procedures are applicable to all pipelines, Figures 2.1 A-D in the main text giving a decommissioning procedure in block diagram form. Figures 2.2 and 2.3 illustrate typical pig launcher and receiver installations for a gas pipeline; an oil pipeline will have similar facilities with modifications appropriate to handling oil. Additional stages to the procedures may be necessary to meet specific requirements. 1. Address every item on the pre-procedural information questionnaire. 2. Agree with the appropriate anthorities and other interested parties the basic objectives of the decommissioning operation and the status in which the pipeline is to be left, ¢.g. immediate recovery, short term preservation, long term preservation eic., and the standard of cleanliness attempted. 3. Action the engineering requirements resulting from the pre-procedural questionnaire, 4, Carry out and implement a site survey of the existing end stations, decide om the siting of temporary pig receivers and launchers and the provision, modification and acceptability of existing process handling facilities. 5. Survey the pipeline on the seabed to determine status of weight coat, pipeline stability and pipe spans. 6. Obtain product and typical residue samples for detailed chemical analysis. 7. appropriate, agree the suitability and acceptability of discharging line contents down-hole to reservoir. If not acceptable, review alternative subsea end station facilities and action accordingly. 8 Compile draft decommissioning procedures and agree contents with authorities and other interested parties. Obtain draft licences and permits a Appoint contractors for: + pigging and Shushing operations, ~ supply of cleaning and solvent chemicals, ~ deliver to site of chemicals and transportation and removal of displaced product and used chemicals from site, = disposal of displaced product and used chemicals by approved means and = provision of terminal modifications. 10. Familiarise contractors with the full project, and start detailed procedures for all stages of the operation. ‘M. Fromas-builtdata and design specifications plus information from the pipeline survey, formulate requirements for providing additional pipe stability and span supports, 210 12. 13. “4 15. 16, 17, 18. 19. 20. 24. 22. From product and residue analyses, specify the solvents and chemicals to be used, with due consideration for their function and the safety of the operation, This information must include as a minimum the acceptable chemical mixture ratios and their acceptable pressure ranges. both individually and as compounds, From the pipeline operational history and residue samples, agree the types and Volumes of residues to be removed. From this, design the pig and solvent trains ‘hat will free the residues from the pipewall and transport them along the pipeline, while ensuring thatthe risk of pipe blacking or plugging is eliminated. Produce detailed check lists for afl aspects of the work, including: + plant and equipment, - pigs and tools, - chemicals, > vessels for delivering and removing from site chemicals and product residues as appropriate, > manufactured launchers and receivers and any modifications required, + safety equipment and facitities and procedures, ~ contingency plans and equipment, ~ cheiical and product disposal facilities, ~ contingency procedures and - _ personitel function and hiring specifications, Condnet a technical audit by cross referencing all aspects and stages of the detailed procedures; ~ with the original outtine procedure and the pre-procedural questionnaire, and - with all tems identified up to and including stage 14 above. Make detailed presentations to authorities and interested parties, and obtain licences and pe Conduct physical andit on items listed in stage 14, Mobilise to site, phased as appropriate, Install pig launchers and receivers and end station modifications, Hydrostatically test all connections. Install chemical tanks, purmps and pigging tools at end station, or juraper hoses ‘on vessel. Note: a retum drain line is required from the pig launcher back to tanks, as the launcher has to be locked in and drained prior to the insertion of each separation pig, Ensure facilities such as tanks, vessels or existing pipework are ready at the reception end of the pipetine. Ensure all valving and other facilities are set as required and that both the operational and contingency facilities are ready, an 23. 25, 26. 2. Start operations for displacing pipeline product and residues. Note: at least one Digging tool in the sequence should be fitted with a wacking and location device. It is desirable that the pigging train should be set up to enable all product and residue to be displaced at one pass. On passage and receipt of pig train, continue pumping pipeline refill medium until acceptable cleanliness levels are obtained at the receiving end of the system, Shut down pumps, adjust system pressure to final set level and shut in end station facilities to contain contents in pipeline, If vessels or tanks ate used for reception of the pipeline’s original contents, cleaning fluids and residues, return these to the disposal location, dispose of contents, purge vessels and tanks and demobilise.. Dismantle and remove Jaunching and receiving facilities and any temporary facilities used. Demobilise the cleaning spread. 3. DECOMMISSIONING PROCEDURES 3.1 GENERAL ‘This section describes the procedures for decommissioning specific types of Pipelines. General checklists are provided, but every pipeline will require its own procedures to be written before decommissioning begins, 3.2 LONG DIRECT INTERFIELD PIPELINE TRANSPORTING GAS OR GAS CONDENSATE 3.24 General Description Interfield export pipeline, laid in one section, fitted at both ends with pig traps located on manned platforms. The product is either gas or gas condensate, 3.2.2 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Decommissioning Steps Carry out initial site survey to check pipeline integrity and prospective stability of the pipeline on the seabed. The stability may change with changes in density of pipeline content, condition of weight coat and the amount of free spanning, To conduct the survey, use video camera attached to remote operated vehicle (ROV) or handied by a diver or manned submersible. Although many Pipelines are either buried or covered with rock fill and not completely visible, as much information as possible should be obtained to decide on effective measures to be taken for decommissioning and subsequent recovery or in-situ abandonment. The use of magnetometers and pipe tracking devices may help locate a buried pipeline. The survey should record the condition of the pipeline end connections to manifolds and risers. ‘Study the as-built design drawings and specifications, maintenance and ‘operation records and collect samples of product and residue for chemical analysis. Determine the extent of modifications to pipework and equipment and temporary facilities which may need to be manufactured, fabricated and installed on each platform. The equipment needed at the despatch end consists of storage tanks and vessels containing chemicals, solvents and gel; isolating valves; manifolds; injection units; mixers; lifting devices for pumping seawater as the propellant fluid; diving support facilitics; recorders and other instruments. Depending on whether the form of abandonment, is in-situ or recovery, facilities for dewatering and drying with air, vacuum or ‘methanol may be needed. Based on the information obtained, select the most effective mechanical and chemical cleaning methods available. 23 Step 5 Step 6 24 ‘Typical pig trains will consist of a gauging cycle and mechanical geV/chemical cleaning cycles. The gauging cycle is important, as the intemal geometry of the pipeline should be known prior to insertion of further pigs, to avoid blockage. The gauging and cleaning cycles are as follows: a) Gauging Cycle = a magnetic pig to pick up suspended ferrous material which may damage subsequent pigs, + accaliper or gauging pig to check the intemal geometry of the pipeline and + abi-directional pig, equipment with well filled sealsassist in cleaning, b) Mechanical Gel/Chemical Cycle - acup and brush pig, to remove scale and hard deposits adhering to the surface, ~ an efficient sealant pig, to isolate treated seawater (the propellant ‘uid) so as to avoid affecting the gel solution, ~ a gel nun, separated by a seatant pig which will keep debris and residue suspended in the gel downstream of the pig. Untreated water may sometimes be used as the propellant fluid, = a scraper pig, to flake off any remaining deposits, product residue and chemicals and - a magnetic pig, to determine the internal condition of the pipeline. Note: pig tracking devices should be available in case of pipeline blockage. Estimate the capacities of temporary facilities at the receiving end which wilt contain debris, residue and chemicals. The dumping of residues may be required. Some quantities of propellant fluid should becollected depending on the capacities of these facilities. Install temporary valves and fabricate manifolds for connections to direct the flow into the appropriate tanks Check all temporary facilities in readiness for hydrostatic testing. ‘Tie in pumping and injection units handling the propellant fluid and chemicals. Launch the first pig as described below (Figure 2.2 in main text) insure bypass and trap valves are closed. Open blowdown valve, to vent pressure for pig launcher. Open end closure and insert pig until its forward end reaches the reducer. Close end closure. Open by-pass valve slightly to purge air from pig launcher. Close blowdown valve to bring the launcher slowly up to pipeline pressure. Close by-pass valve. (Damage to the pig miay occur if the bypass valve is not closed and the pig trap valve is opened: the pig may then try to leave the launcher before the pig trap valve is fully opened). Open pig trap valve. Open bypass valve. Open main discharge valve. Close pig trap valve and bypass valve. Repeat to launch a second pig. Step 7 After the pig train is launched begin removing the product at the receiver end of the pipeline and route to process and storge plants, if necessary through an existing or temporary pipeline, Step8 To receive pigs into the pig receiver, Figure 2.3 in main tex0), the following Steps are carried out: ~ Before atrival of pig, open bypass valve and trap valve. = Close the main suction valve. ~ Once the pig is inside the trap, open main suction valve, = Close pig trap valve and! bypass valve. ~ Open the blowdown vent valve to depressurise the receiver, ~ Opening the end closure of the pig receiver should not be attempted unless depressurising is complete. ~ Ensure that residues are completely replaced by propellant fluid, as some residues may ignite when exposed to the air in the pipeline. - Open end closure and remove pig. + Close end closure = Open by-pass valve slightly to purge air from the receiver. - Close blowdown valve and slowly bring the receiver up to line pressure, + Close bypass valve, The receiver is now ready for the next pig. Step 9 Debris, residues and chemicals are purged into their nominated storage facilities, for disposal after successful completion of the decommissioning, ‘operation. Diversion into correct storage is achieved by installation of properly designed manifolds and valves. Step 10 Collect samples for chemical analysis of debris, residues and chemicals. Check the effectiveness of pigging and cleaning metheds. Step LL Shut down and isolate the pipetine, depcessurising all facilities. Disconnect, for removal and disposal of temporary facilities. 3.3. LONG DIRECT TRUNK PIPELINE TRANSPORTING GAS OR GAS CONDENSATE 3.3.4 General Description ‘Teunk pipeline laid in one section from a platform to a shore terminal, Both ends are fitted with pig traps. The product is either gas or gas condensate. 3.3.2 Decommissioning Steps Steps 1-2 As per case 3.2, Step 3 Determine the extent of modifications and temporary facilities to be manufactured, fabricated and installed on the platform and at the onshore terminal. The equipment needed at the despatch end consists of storage tanks; vessels containing chemicals, solvents and gel; isolating valves; 25 ‘manifolds; injection units; mixers; lifting devices for pumping seawater as the propellant fluid; diving support facilities; recorders and other instruments, Steps 4-11 As per case 3.2. Step 12 Depending on whether the form of abandonment is in-situ or recovery, 3.3.2 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 216 facilities for dewatering and drying with air, vacuum or methanol may be needed, Decommissioning Steps Camry out initial site survey to check pipeline integrity, prospective seabed stability due to change in density of pipeline content, status of weight coat and extent of free spanning. Survey should cover the existing pipeline facilities, e.g, (ype of tees (whether conventional, barred or sphere), possibility of tie- {in to temporary pig trap and position where temporary facilities are to be tied-in, ‘Check maintenance and operating records. Review design and as-built drawings and specifications. Collect samples of product and residues for chemical analysis Determine the extent of temporary facilities required at the dispatch end and any modifications to be manufactured or fabricated and installed, Check the location of tie-in connections to the existing system; temporary facilities such as bulk tanks for supplying chemicals; gel solution and inhibitors; arrangements for insertion or injection of foam and gel pigs or chemical mixing units; seawater lifting and pumping equipment; diving support units; flexible hoses with dry breaker and mechanical connectors to minimise spillage. Depending on availability of space, deployment of a moored floating vessel at the site may be required to accommodate all or some of the temporary facilities, but this operation is complex and expensive and the risk of leaks and consequent pollution is high due to increased handling of piping connections and accessories. Based on the data obtained, select the most effective mechanical and chemical cleaning methods available, Due to the complexity of these systems, conventional pigging tools cannot be used and gauging cycles and pig tracking are therefore not included. A typical mechanical and cleaning cycle consists of ~ one foam brush pig run, followed by fresh water to avoid affecting gel solution, - two gel solution runs, separated by high sealant pigs picking up suspended residues and, ~ one foam brush pig, to remove deposits adhering to pipeline interior walls. Step 5 Estimate size of storage facilities required to collect debris, residues and chemicals. Where product is not to be purged into the processing and storage facilities directly or indirectly through an existing facility, temporary product storage will be necessary, Step 6 Hydrostatically test, check and calibrate all temporary equipment and instruments, Step 7 Insert first foam pig through tie-in connection, followed by pumped seawater. Continue this operation until the last pig is launched, Foam pigs are selected for the first and last pigs for two reasons: to obtain the surface contact which is essential to secure removal of scaling, sludge and wall deposits, and to indicate the condition of the intemal surface of the pipeline, Step 8 Collect samples of residue, debris and chemicals at intervals for chemical analysis, to determine the effectiveness of purging and cleaning methods. Repeat the pig train if necessary, Step 9 Ensure that purging of the pipeline contents, debris, esidues and chemicals, are collected into their respective storage tanks. Step 10 Isolate, shutdown and disconnect the temporary facilities, including removal ofall storage tanks. Do not attempt to disconnect and remove any facilities prior to depressurising the system, 3.5 SHORT GAS/LIQUIDS PIPELINE WITH COMPLEX GEOMETRY 3.5.1 General Description Complex pipeline configurations with tee or wye connections, and without pig traps, e.g, wellhead to platform or satellite platform to gathering system. Transported product is gas or multi-phase liquid and gas mixtures. 35.2 Decommissioning Steps Steps 1-10 As per case 3.4. 3.6 LONG CRUDE OR MULTI-PHASE INTERFIELD PIPELINE 3.6.1 General Description ‘An interfield export pipeline of significant length, carrying liquids between manned platforms in different fields, 217 There are significant differences in the nature of the residues and the pig launching and receiving procedures compared with the preceding cases. A typical pig train consists of: - agauging cycle, ~ amechanical cleaning eycle and - achemical cleaning cycle. ‘The equipment required for these cycles is as follows: a) — Gauging Cycle - magnetic pig, = caliper pig or aluminium plate and ~ bi-directional pig. b) Mechanical Cleaning Cycle ~ two-cup brash pig, = sovaper pig, ~ magnetic pig, and ~ high duty sealant pig. ©) Chemical Cleaning Cyete Due to the nature of the residues, full softening and dissolving treatment is required. ‘This treatment typically consists of an acid wash with a 15-20% hydrochloric acid solution followed by 3 to 5% sodium hydroxide or caustic soda to neutralise the acid and assist in treatment, then methanol or similar to remove any hydro residues and finally, a water wash containing a pH enhancer to dilute any chemical residues left in the system. ‘The speed of travel of the chemical cleaning cycle should be controlled to allow enough time for the chemical treatment to act properly. Batches of chemicals are separated by high duty sealant pigs, 3.6.3 Launching and Receiving The launching and receiving of pigs and chemical trains involves the following procedures: a) Launching - Ensure bypass and teap valves are closed. = Open the vent and drain valves to depressurise the trap. Trap valve and bypass valve are closed. ~ Open end closure and insert the pig until the front cup reaches the reducer. ~ Close end closure and drain valve. ~ Open bypass valve slightly to purge air from launcher. 218 b) 37 3.74 ~ Close vent and siowly bring launcher to line pressure. ~ Close by-pass valve. Damage may occur to the pig if the bypass valve is ‘not closed and pig trap valve is opened; the pig may try to leave the launcher before pig trap valve is fully opened. + Open pig trap valve. = Open bypass valve, > Slowly close main discharge valve until the pressure forces the pig into-the Pipeline. If pig does not leave launcher immediately, slowly close main discharge valve until the pig does leave the launcher. ~ Open main discharge valve. ~ Close pig trap valve and bypass valve. The trap is now ready for the next ig. Receiving ~ Before the pig arrives, open by-pass valve and pig trap valve. Close main suction valve. ~ Once the pig is in the trap, open main suction valve. = Close pig trap valve and bypass valve. ~ Open drain valve and vent valve to empty and depressurise the receiver to atmospheric conditions. Do not attempt to open end closure until receiver is empty and depressurised. = Open end closure and remove pig. + Close end closure. + Close drain line valve, = Open by-pass vaive slightly to purge air from receiver, + Close vent valve and slowly bring receiver to line pressure, = Close by-pass vaive, ~ Open trap valve and by-pass valve to receive next pig. LONG CRUDE OF MULTI PHASE TRUNK PIPELINE General Description A wunk pipeline of significant length, without intermediate stages, carrying liquids between a manned platform and a shore terminal, 3.72 Decommissioning Steps Steps 1-3. As case 3.4, Step 4 Based on the data obtained select the most effective mechanical and chemical cleaning methods available to perform the operations as described in case 3.6. Steps 5-10 As per case 3.4, 219 3.8 SHORT PIPELINE TRANSPORTING WATER, CHEMICAL OR GAS INJECTION 3.8.4 General Description ‘Short pipeline with complex geometry and without pig traps, eg. platform to wellhead, 3.82 Decommissioning Steps Step 1 Carry out initial survey on pipeline system to determine its integrity and stability. Locate possible connections where chemicals, gels and propellant fluid can be injected and pumped, In atypical case, this is carried out from the platform, Step 2 Study design as-built drawings and specifications, maintenance and operating records and collect samples of product and residues for chemical analysis. Step 3. Determine the extent of temporary facilities or modifications to be fabricated or manufactured and installed on site, These will consist of bulk supply and storage facilities for chemicals, gels and mixing units, pumping and injection units, seawater lifting equipment and arrangements for insertion of foam pigsiif required. Step 4 Based on the available data, select the nocessary pigging and cleaning techniques. In a typical case, foam or get pigs or a combination are adequate, followed by chemical cleaning if required. The propellant fluid is usually seawater, with inhibitors which depend on the type of abandonment intended. Step 5. Tic-in all temporary facilities which are associated with decommissioning. Ensure that all facilities are hydrostatically tested, checked for operation and function and calibrated. Step 6 Start running pig train by pumping propellant fluid in the direotion of noemal flow, ie. into the wellhead reservoir. Step 7 Ensure that all pipeline contents are purged into the wellhead and fully replaced by water. Step 8 Shut down wellhead valve and isolate temporary facilities. Depressurise the system and disconnect all temporary facilities for removal from site. 3.9 PIPELINE WITH REMOVABLE PIG TRAP ASSEMBLY ON THE SEA BED 3.9.1 General Description ‘The decommissioning procedure is similar to that described earlier, with the exception of lowering and tying-in the pig trap assembly. 3.9.2 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Decommissioning Steps Install guide wires for lowering pig trap assembly. Lower pig trap assembly into position. Pig trap should be mounted on a mad platform or base slab positioned on the seabed. Puil mechanical connections into position and activate hydraulic actuator to complete make up of the joint. Connect central umbilicals to valves on pig trap skid and test operation of actuators. Carry out leak test on the assembly. Seabed pig traps would be similar in operation to those used top - sides; however, the safety of divers and hazards of leakage and pollution must be considered. ‘Iwo options are available for the recovery of pigs from subsea pig traps: a) return pig trap assembly to surface, still under pressure after receiving the pig, by isolating the valves. Relieve the pressure between the valves, disconnect the mechanical connection and bring the pig trap assembly complete to the surface, or ) purge the trap and recover the pigs subsea, This will involve purging the subsea trap with nitrogen, using hoses from the sueface, and subsequently displacing the product and residues into the pipeline or viaa retum line ¢o the surface for collection and disposal. 3.10 FLEXIBLEPIPELINES 3.10.1 General Description Flexible pipelines carrying chemicals, hydraulic oil or multiphase flow, e.g platform to weilhead, umbilicals and flow lines. 3.10.2 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Decommissioning Steps Carry out initial survey on the pipeline system to determine its integrity and stability. ‘Study as-built drawings, specifications, maintenance and operating records. Collect samples of product and residues for chemical analysis, Determine the extent of temporary facilities or modifications to be manufactured or fabricated and installed, Based on the available data, select the appropriate pigging and chemical cleaning method. Check whether selected chemicals and solvents are 221 Step 5 Step 6 compatible with the lining material of the flexible line and will not soften or dissolve it, which in turn may cause the pigging tools to be held up in the pipeline. Tie in all temporary facilities to launch or inject pigging tools and chemicals. Product, residues and chemicals shall either be purged into the wellhead reservoir, after which the weilhead will be shutdown or, by installing tempotary arrangements, the pipeline contents, chemicals and residues may be purged up to the platform for collection into temporary storage facilities and disposal. 3.11 FLOWLINE BUNDLE 3.11.1 General Description ‘Short pipeline/flowline bundle less than Skm long, laid in asingle section contained within a casing which may be partly corroded, Transported product is crude, gas, condensate, water, chemical or gas/water injection, 3.14.2 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 222 Decommissioning Steps Carty out initial site survey to check integrity of bundle casing, tow sleds, flowline spoolpieces and jumpers, location of bundle anchors if any and freespans. Check tie-in connections at terminations, e.g. wollhead/template or platform, and establish locations for tie-in of temporary facilities and injection of chemicals, gels and propellant fluids. Check maintenance and operating records. Review design and as-built drawings and specifications. Collect samples of product and residue for chemical analysis. Determine the extent of modifications and temporary facilities to be ‘manufactured, fabricated and installed, ‘These will consist of bulk supply and storage facilities forchemicals, gels, inhibitors, pumping and. injection units, seawater lifting equipment and pumping equipment, diving support units, flexible hoses with dry breaker and mechanical connectors to minimise spillage, Based on the data obtained, establish which pigging equipment can be used with each flowline and select the most effective mechanical and chemical cleaning methods available, For flowlines which cannot be pigged conventionally, a typical sweeping and cleaning operation will involve the use of foam or gel pigs for cleaning followed by chemical cleaning if required. Use inhibited seawater as propellant fluid with inhibitors selected appropriate to the abandonment method, For flowlines to bé purged to a surface facility, estimate size of storage required to collect debris, residue and chemicals. Step 6 Incases where flowlines are used for well service, itis necessary to ensure that all flowline contents are purged into the wellhead and fully replaced by inhibited water, 3.12 LATERAL OIL PIPELINE WITH PIGGING FACILITY 3.12.1 General Description Lateral oil pipeline from a manned platform to amain line via a subsea valve assembly, with provision for connecting temporary pigging facilities. All product will be displaced into the main fine, which is assumed to continue operating after decommissioning of the lateral. 3.122 Decommissioning Steps Step 1 Review as-built drawings and inspection, maintenance and operating records, Step 2 Cary out ROV survey of unburied sections and detailed survey of tie-in area. Removal of dumped material or protection frame covers may be. necessary to access the tie-in piping and valve assembly. A DSV is required to support all subsea work. Step 3. Test all subsea valves to ensure that manual and remote operation is satisfactory. Step 4 Install guide wires for lowering pig trap assembly. Step 5 Install pig trap assembly and pressure test joint, Step 6 Connect all control umbilicals and hoses, and pressure test. Step 7 Install temporary equipment on platform for launching pigs and despatch of flushing and cleaning chemicals. Its assumed that all scraping, cleaning and flushing pigs will be received subsea and all chemicals will be received on the DSV through hoses. Step 8 Launch bi-directional gauging pig train from platform using product as propellant. Step 9 Close mainline valves when pig signaller indicates arzival of the pigs at the subsea trap. Retrieve trap, using same options as case 3.9. Step 10 Replace subsea trap, open mainline valves, and launch bi-directional pig train from platform to displace product into mainline using inhibited seawater as propellant. An intermediate slug of oil separated from the water by high sealant pigs may be zequired, to prevent ingress of water to the main pipeline. Step 11 Close mainline valves as per 9 above. 223 Step 12 Replace trap and connect hoses from DSV to receive pig propellant and chemicals. Step 13 Launch mechanical cleaning pig train from platform and displace to subsea ‘ap, using inhibited seawater as propellant. Propellant and residual product displaced to DSV. Step 14 Close trap valve when pig signaller indicates that last pig is in trap, Step 15 Recover trap, as case 3.9. Step 16 Replace trap. Step 17 Launch chemical cleaning pig train from platform using treated seawater as propellant, Continue water flush until concentration of chemicals in water arriving at DSV is acceptable. Step 18 Close trap valve and recover teap, as case 3.9. Step 19 Replace trap and dewater line if required. Step 20 Ensure that lateralis isolated from main pipeline by locking the appropriate valves in closed position. 3.18 LATERAL OIL PIPELINE WITHOUT PIGGING FACILITY 3.13.1 General Description Lateral oil pipeline connected toa mainline via a subsea valve assembly with no provision for connection of temporary pigging facilities. All product to be displaced into the mainline which is assumed to continue operating after decommissioning of the lateral pipeline, 3.13.2 Decommissioning Steps Steps 1-3 As case 3.12, Step 4 install temporary equipment on platform for launching foam pigs or spheres, and despatch of flushing and cleaning chemicals. It is assumed that foam pigs and spheres can enter main pipeline and that the main pipeline can be isolated to allow ail chemicals, residues and flushing liquids to be recovered through hoses connected to an EXISTING small bore valve on the lateral ‘UPSTREAM of the isolation vaives. It is assumed that a smafl bore drain and flushing valve is available to remove liquids and residues from the piping between the isolation valves. Since conventional pigs cannot enter the main pipeline, gauging and pig tracking are not possible. 224 A typical mechanical and cleaning cycle consists of: one foam brush pig run, following by fresh water to avoid affecting gel sokution, ~ two gel solution runs, separated by high sealant pigs picking up suspended residues, and + one foam brush pig, toremove deposits adhering to pipeline interior walls, Step 5 Launch foam brush and batching pigs from platform to clean pipe wall and displace oil into main pipeline using inhibited seawater as propellant. Estimate {ime of arrival of last pig at lateral tie-in. ‘Step 6 Close main pipeline isolation valve; open valve for surface return line and resume flow in main pipeline, Step 7 Inject gel solution at platform to pick up suspended residues and displace seawater to surface for treatment priorto disposal. Propellant is treated seawater, Step 8 Continue flushing with treated seawater and collect samples for chemical analysis to determine the effectiveness of the cleaning method. Repeat ‘cleaning cycle until desired level of cleanliness is achieved. Step 9 Close surface return line valve, disconnect hose and connect water flush hose. Step 10 Deploy container for collection of residual oil, liquids and residues from tie- in piping. Connect hose to drain valve and flush out contents of piping using treated water from DSV. 3.14 LATERAL GAS/CONDENSATE PIPELINE WITH PIGGING FACILITY 3.144 General Description Lateral pipeline connected from a platform to a maintine via a subsea valve assembly, with facility for connection of temporary pigging facilities. Pig launching facilities are also available on the platform. Transported product is gas or multi-phase flow of liquid and gas mixtures. It is assurmed that product will be displaced to a surface vessel ‘with facility for venting or flaring off gas and collection and treatment of liquid residues and propellant, 3.14.2 Decommissioning Steps Steps 1-9 As case 3.12, Step 10 Replace subsea trap. Launch bi-directional pig train from platformto displace product through hoses to surface facility for gas venting or flaring and liquid collection. Propellant is inhibited seawater, Step 11-20 As case 3.12. 225 3.15 LATERAL GAS/CONDENSATE PIPELINE WITHOUT PIGGING FACILITY 3.15.1 General Description Lateral pipeline connected to a main line via a subsea valve assembly, with no arrangements for connecting temporary pigging facilities, Transported product is gas, ‘or multi-phase flow of liquid and gas mixtures, All product will be displaced to surface support vessel, with facility for venting or flaring-off gas and collecting hydrocarbon liquids. 3.16.2 DecommissioningSteps Steps 1-4 As case 3.13. Step 5 Launch foam brush and batching pigs from temporary launcher on platform, using a methanol slug between pigs and propelling by treated seawater, Bstimate transit time of methanol slug and close valve on raain pipeline to prevent ingress of water into main pipeline. ‘Some methanol will enter main pipeline with foam pigs and be swept out by spheres. Residual methanol in the lateral will either be purged to the DSV or drained from the piping between the mainline isolation valves. Steps 6-9 As case 3.13. Step 10-11 As case 3.13 to remove residual methanol and water. 3.16 OFFSHORE LOADING LINE 3.16.1 General Description Offshore crude loading fine froma fixed or floating platform facility toa tanker loading system via a pipeline end manifold (PLEM). It is assumed that the PLEM can be isolated from the pipeline and loading hoses and that the main PLEM bareel pipe has, small bore valve attachments for venting and draining, and there is a blind flange for attachment of a temporary launcher/receiver. 3.16.2 Decommissioning Steps Step 1 As case 3.12. Step 2 Carry out ROV survey of unburied sections and detailed survey of PLEM. Removal of protective cover may be required to access PLEM piping and valves. A DSV will be required to support all subsea work. Step 3-4 As case 3.12. ‘Step 5 Isolate PLEM from loading lines and main line by closing appropriate valves. Step 6 Connect vent and drain hoses to PLEM barrel, depressurise and drain. 226 Step 7 As stages 4-5 of case 3.12. Pig trap assembly requires valves to allow removal of receiver barrel, Step 8 As stages 6-9 of case 3.12. During gauging, displaced product is stored in, offshore loading system, e.g. SBM, SPM, CALM. Step 9 As stage 10, case 3,12, except that product is displaced to loading facility. Step 10 As stages 11-19, case 3.12. ‘Step 1 Ensure that pipeline and PLEM valves are locked in closed position, 3.17 PIGGY-BACK PIPELINE 3.17.1 Generat Description ‘Sail diameter piggy-back line less than 150mm nominal bore, supplying chemicals from a manned platform to another platform or wellhead. 3.17.2 Decommissioning Steps As case 3.8. 3.18 PIPELINE FROM SHORE TO OFFSHORE PLATFORM 3.181 General Description Lifeline to supply chemicals from shore terminal. to offshore platform. Itis assumed that no permanent pigging facilities exist and that temporary launching and receiving facilities will be installed on the platform and shore terminals respectively. 3.182 Decommissioning Steps As case 3.3. 3.19 SHORT PIPELINE FROM SUBSEA WELLHEAD TO SUBSEA ‘TEMPLATE/MANIFOLD 3.19.1 General Description Production or service pipeline from subsea wellhead to nearby subsea template or manifold. Product is oil, gas or multi-phase gas/condensate. Service line can be water, chemical or gas injection. Itis assumed that all injection operations will be carried out from a DSV with either remote control of valve operation from a production platform or local control from DSV via a temporary power supply and control umbilical, 3.19.2 Decommissioning Steps As case 3.8, 221 Printed and published by the Health and Safety Executive C2 9T = - HSE BOOKS MAIL ORDER HSE priced and free publications are available from: HSE Books PO Box 1999 . Sudbury Suffolk CO10 6FS Tel: 01787 881165 Fax: 01787 313995 RETAIL HSE priced publications ate available from 00d booksellers % > HEALTH AND SAFETY ENQUIRIES HSE-InfoLine Tel: 0541 545500 or mite to: HSE Information Cente Broad Lane ISBN 0-7176-1421-2 Sheffield $3 780 : HSE home page on the World Wide Web: 9°780717'6 £105.00 net Tens