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MRYUSUF.

COM IGCSE ICT 0417 SECTION 6: HACKERS AND VIRUSES

Is using e-mails pretending to be the target's bank


Phishing Is installing malicious code on a pc or server to redirect to fake websites
Fake email to get personal details Pharming
Redirecting users to websites which look authentic to get personal details

Someone who understands computer technologies


Someone who commits fraud using a computer
Is the sending or receiving of unsolicited/junk emails Spam Someone who can break passwords
They spread viruses
What is a hacker?
Part of a large underground community
Can be an employee with a grudge
Is a Computer Program They break into systems for fun
Viruses can cause you to lose all your data off your hard disc Someone who has criminal intent
Designed to make a computer system unreliable
between computers / within one computer They can delete important files
Floppy disks What hackers do They can change important data
The Internet They can copy & pass on personal files
E-mail attachments How they spread
Pirated software Use Digital certificates: Transactions are digitally signed/authenticated/
Solid State Devices (i.e. Pen Drives transaction is linked to the PC being used to carry out online banking
Use anti-virus software/virus checker/killer Install Anti Spyware: Prevents spyware from invading
Scan files regularly your computer and gaining personal information
Don't download attachments from strangers via e-mail Viruses User ID/Password/PIN entered is compared with that held on system/never
Stay away from certain web sites tell anyone your password/regularly change password/make it not easy to
Securing the transfer
Do not use disks from unknown sources guess/only person who knows password can access account
of data online
Do not connect to the Internet/network/WAN/LAN Encryption: Data is scrambled up/key must be known to
Use a firewall which Prevents unauthorised users unscramble it/prevents people from understanding data
How to protect against
and/or computers from accessing network Use a firewall which Prevents unauthorised users
Do not stay on Internet too long because of risk of viruses and/or computers from accessing network
Do not use CD ROMs/Floppy from unknown sources Make sure website is secure: Look for the
Disable macros and scripts Locked padlock is present on display
You should regularly change your password to make it
more difficult for hackers to access your data Can copy data without leaving a trace
You should always log off after using a networked computer Can delete data without leaving a trace
Do not need to physically break in to a building
Loss of business & profits Benefits hackers have Can spend as much time as it takes to break
Loss of trust from customers password security without being detected
Companies can be blackmailed Copies on disc can be smuggled out easier
Why is it a problem? than on paper because it is compact
Security will be expensive
Hard to replace data & files
Use locks and bolts
Bank details can be change
Use alarm systems & keypads
Use video cameras
Usually networked PC's
Employ security guards
Computers with Internet access What is affected?
Disconnect from networks
Office machines, Banks, Web sites Customer databases, Security services
Use smart cards
Physical measures
Use photo badges
Aimed at reducing hacking & the threat from viruses Store the original file in a seperate
1. Unauthorised access to computer material & copying software illegally storage medium away from PC
2. Gaining unauthorised access to a computer to commit fraud or blackmail You should always log off after
How to protect against
3. Unauthorised changing of computer files including planting viruses using a networked computer
Conviction for any of the above can lead to an unlimited fine or five years in prison. You should never tell people your password
Computer Misuse Act (1990) Encrypt the data
Gaining unauthorised access to any
program or data held in a computer Use passwords on file or computer
You can be fined or Use firewall software
Committing computer fraud/blackmail
Go to prison for Use Special access rights & levels for administrators
Writing programs designed to change or impair the Using software
performance of a computer or data stored on a computer (viruses) Create activity logs
Use Anti-spyware
Use of biometrics
Use Digitally signed Certificates

Title: SECTION 6: Effects of Using IT Author: Mr. Yusuf Alert Date: Sep. 10, 2010

File: S6HackersAndViruses.twd Company: www.mryusuf.com

10/09/2010