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ENCYCLOPEDIA
OF ItHYTHAIS
maoiw
OF RHYTHMS
By
JOSEPH SCHILLINGER

INSTRUMENTAL FORMS OF HARMONY

cl massive collection of rhythm ’patterns


(evolved according to the Schillings theory of interference)
arranged in instrumental form

DA CAPO PRESS • NEW YORK • 1976


Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Schillinger, Joseph, 1895*1943.


Encyclopedia of rhythms.

fDa Capo Press music reprint series)


Reprint of the ed. published by C. Colin, New
York.
1. Musical meter and rhythm. I. Title.
MT42.S37 1976 781.6*2 76-10326
ISBN 0-306-70782-9

This Da Capo Press edition of Encyclopedia of Rhythms is an unabridged


republication of the first edition published in New York in 1966.
It is reprinted with the permission of Mrs. Prances Schillinger.
■0

©Copyright 1966 by Chas. Colin

Published by Da Capo Press, Inc


A Subsidiary of Plenum Publishing Corporation
227 West 17th Street, New York, N. Y. 10011

All Rights Reserved

Manufactured in the United States of America


workshop for pianists/guitarists/drummers/arrangers/composers

eiCrCMPGMA
HP RHYTHMS
By JOSEPH SCHILLINGER
INSTRUMENTAL FORMS OF HARMONY
a massive collection of rhythm patterns
(evolved according to the Schillinger M
theory of interference) (m
arranged in instrumental form ^

CHARLES COLIN — 315 West 53rd St.. New York. N. Y. 10019


JOSEPH SCHILLINGER
Joseph Schillinger possessed one of chc brilliant,
analytical minds of our time. His intellect was keen
enough to perceive the close relationships existing
between fields that ordinarily arc regarded as having
little, if any, common ground. He made great ad¬
vances towards convincing skeptical esthetes that
science and art arc not divergent, that the materials
of art includt science. The results achieved by his
students, one of whom was George Gershwin, have
been eloquent demonstrations of the soundness of
his teachings.
Besides being a composer, conductor, and teacher
of composition, Joseph ochillinger was active in visual
arts and in scientific pursuits. He was born in Khar¬
kov, Russia, in 1895. His earliest musical education
was largely the result of his own experiments. In
1914 he began formal training at the St. Petersburg
Conservatory. He held posts as Professor and Dean of
the State Academy of Music, Ukraine (1918-22);
conductor of the United Students Symphonic Orchestra, Kharkov (1918-20) and of the
Ukraine Symphony Orchestra (1920-21); official of the music departments of the Ukraine
and Moscow Boards of Education (1918-22); teacher of composition at the Leningrad
State Institute of Musical Education (1922-28); and composer for the State Academy
Theatre of Drama (1925-28); and for the State Institute of the History of Arts, Leningrad
(1926-28). 6
In 1928, at the invitation of the American Society for Cultural Relations with Russia,
Schillingcr came to the United States to lecture on contemporary Russian music. He dc^
cidcd to settle in New York. Among his many activities were those of teacher and lecturer
at the New School for Social Research, at New York University, and at Teachers College
of Columbia University.
Schillingcr wrote extensively on several subjects and collaborated with Leon Theremin
in research in acoustics and in the design and construction of electronic instruments. In
his book. The Mathematical Basis of the Arts , he evolved a most comprehensive scientif¬
ic theory of the arts, dealing with individual and compound forms based on the five senses'
perception of space and time. He evolved a new system of projective geometry and, in the
field of the visual arts, produced pure and industrial designs.
Schillinger's musical compositions have been performed extensively in Europe; among
those which have been heard by audiences in the United States are Octohtr, a symphonic
rhapsody with piano solo; the First Airphonie Sum for Theremin and orchestra; and the
North Russian Symphony for accordion and orchestra. In addition to these compositions,
Mr. Schillingcr wrote other suites, some ballets and chamber music, as well as various
pieces for piano and other solo instruments.
We know of many systems of music since those evolved by ancient Greek theorists,
and, over the centuries, one system has replaced another. But the theories of music and the
facts of the practised art have often had little in common with each other. Schillingcr
evolved a svstem by drawing on facts of the practised art of music that had previously been
unexploitcd or unexplored. To thousands of actual works of the concededly great com-
^ozart» Beethoven,. Brahms, and Wagner, among others—he applied the
powerful instrument of advanced mathematical ana scientific analysis. Schillinger dis¬
covered for himself that great music of all ages Kfcs been constructed according to accurate
and precise principles, principles often unsuspected or unrecognized by theories of the past;
j/. . ^icd to systematize his material and to evolve from it and his own imagination
additional principles and new procedures.
Then came the decisive step—to determine whecher these principles could be expounded
in terras comprehensible to persons not trained in science and mathematics, so that such
persons might successfully apply the principles in actual composition. This final step
was a sullcss. trough composers, musical directors, and conductors who were his stu-
ents, Joseph Schillingcr, before his death in 1943, had exerted his influence in every field
of contemporary musical composition. Obviously, no musician who wishes to write in
a modern idiom can afford to ignore this work.

From THE SCHILLINGER SYSTEM OF MUSICAL COMPOSITION


Publfihed by Carl Fischer, Inc,
Reprinted by permliiion
A Note to the Teacher and Student

by Arnold Shaw

Co-Editor, The Schillinger System ol Musical Composition


Editor, The Mathematical Basis of the Arts

It is now twenty years since THE SCHILLINGER SYSTEM OF MUSICAL COM¬


POSITION made its appearance in book form. For years prior to its publication, and
while its originator was alive, rumors had regularly swept the academic musical com¬
munity concerning the wonders of the System. Traditionalists had not been too concerned
in this period over the possible challenge to their established concepts and procedures
because those who studied the System with Schillinger himself were mainly musicians/
arrangers/composers in the fields of radio/recording/movies, in shore, popular or utili¬
tarian music. To be sure, the devotees were an important group of men, numbering as
they did, a long list of luminaries from Glenn Miller and Benny Goodman to Oscar Le¬
vant and George Gershwin. The fact that Vernon Duke consulted with Schillinger con¬
cerning some of the serious art works he composed as Vladimir Dukelsky, was impres¬
sive. But Duke was a countiyman and, despite his ballets, orchestral works and art
songs, he could still be discounted as a composer of popular show music.

When the System appeared in print, however, and became accessible to all who
studied or taught theory and composition, the Establishment mounted a major assault.
This was both inevitable and necessary since Schillinger* s work grew out of a wide -
spread dissatisfaction with traditional theory and represented a revolutionary rapture
with concepts that had hardened into dead-end dogmas. Of course, there had been other
theorists and academicians like Hindemith and Walter Piston who had made forays on
aspects of traditional theory. But they were merely trying to patch a crumbling edifice.
It was Schillinger who set about erecting a completely new structure. Boldly breaking
down the isolation of music theory from scientific advances, he employed concepts de¬
rived from mathematical logic, electronics and modem psychology to devise a wholly
new, and workable, system of musical thought.

What was so Btartling about it? In pre-computer days, the use of graph paper by
muBic students and the resort to mathematical terminology and scientific concepts be¬
came matters for criticism, if not derision. But quite recently the following appeared in
High Fidelity Magazine: “Any existing sound or noise which can be recorded is, per se,
available to the composer; a whole new set of sounds - theoretically all possible sounds
- can be created artificially by the use of sound wave generators and other, more elabo¬
rate, electronic equipment which transfer electromagnetic impulses directly to tape; and
all sounds can be manipulated, mixed and juxtaposed in virtually any possible combina¬
tion.” Now, there is no mention of Schillinger in the article from which this passage is
quoted. But the ideas of “Music from the Electronic Universe,” hardly startling today,
are straight out of Schillinger. They represent a testimonial to the way that Schillinger’s
ideas, once treated critically if not superciliously, have today been taken up, generally
without acknowledgement, by the academic community.

A
Back in the thirties, Schillinger proposed that the rule-book approach to musical
theory be discarded and that the methodology of combinations and permutations be sub¬
stituted. SCALES DON'T HAVE TO CONSIST JUST OF EIGHT NOTES. They can be
made up of any number from 2 to 12 tones. Harmony is not a matter of consonance and
dissonance but of the vertical combination of any number of tones to produce a desired
sound or emotional effect. Progressions are not limited to those that have proved at¬
tractive in the past but to the mathematical number that can be devised from available
resources. There was nothing sacred about symmetry and. even members; asymetrical
patterns and odd-numbered formations could yield interesting music. And so it went. And
so went traditional theory — down the drain.

Perhaps the most original and novel phase of Schillinger’s approach was that
it was the first system of musical theory based, not on harmony, but on rhythm. To be
sure, he conceived of rhythm in more comprehensive terms than simply the variation of
metre achieved by manipulating note durations, accents, rests and tempo. To Schillinger,
while rhythm is initially a matter of note durations, it is an all-embracing concept that
means PATTERN-MAKING of every conceivable type, the organization of sound in time.
Not only the distribution of notes within a measure, but the arrangement of measures
into groups. Not only the duration of notes within a phrase, but the length and recur¬
rence of phrases themselves. There is also harmonic and instrumental rhythm, the former
having to do with patterns of harmonic progression, the latter with the patterns of entry
and exit of instruments in an orchestral work. In the present book, “instrumental forms
of harmony” refers to the distribution of the segments of a chord according to a pre¬
developed rhythm pattern.
KEY TO MATERIAL IN BASS CLEF
The material is presented in the bass clef to emphasize that is the rhythmic
basis or substructure - - the OOM-PAH, OOM-PAH so to speak - over which a melodic
line can be written or superimposed. You can use it, in short, as the rhythm pattern for
creating your own melodies.

Schillinger’s approach to rhythm stems from the scientific theory of interference.


Stated in mathematical terms: if two uniform, and different, periodicities overlap, or if
one is superimposed on the other, a non-uniform pattern emerges, which is the fusion of
the two. Without terminology: if the windshield wipers of a car are moving in identical
durations, you hear a single, uniform swish-swash, swish-swash, etc.; but if one wiper
is moving faster than the other, the contrasting periodicities produce an uneven pattern
that may go S-W-A-S-H, swish-swish, S-W-A-S-H, etc. A similar non-uniform pattern may
be produced by setting two metronomes clicking with different note values. If one metro¬
nome clicks three times in the period that the other clicks twice, the resulting sound
pattern would take the following shape: C-L-I-OK, click-click, C-L-I-C-K, etc. The re¬

lative durations would have a ratio of 2-1-1-2. In musical notation: J J or

J J J J . The accents occur where the two metronomes click together. En¬
closed within conventional bars, the first would yield a typical 6/8 pattern while the

B
second would give us four bars of 3/4 or eight bars of 2/4. This is precisely what the
student will find on page 4.

At the top of page 4, the student will also find the notation 3:2 and further down
the page, 4:3. In Schillinger terminology, the colon does not represent a ratio or division
relationship, but interference or synchronization. (The resultants of interference may be
worked out visually, as well as aurally, through the use of graph paper, as Schillinger
demonstrates in Book I of the System.) The number of rhythm patterns that may be e-
volved through these procedures is virtually inexhaustible, and their variety and com¬
plexity are not infrequently beyond the reach of trial-and-error groping.

Once we have the resultants of interference, it is possible to augment them by


splitting, or as Schillinger terms it, by fractioning the note durations. Beginning with
page 41, this process is presented here in detail. The student will find it‘instructive
to compare the basic patterns presented in the early pages with the more complex pat¬
terns presented later, For example, the one-bar pattern appearing on page 4 in 6/8 nota¬
tion becomes a two-bar pattern in 9/8 on page 41.

Extensive and varied though they are, the instrumental patterns presented in
this book represent only a portion of the mathematically derivable resultants. For it is
possible to combine three or more uniform periodicities, instead of just two. Variable
velocities, or acceleration and growth series, also yield a large number of usable pat¬
terns, Among those that Schillinger explores in his Theory of Rhythm are the following:
1. Natural Harmonic Series: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
2. Arithmetical Progressions': 1,3,5,7,9,11,13, etc.
3. Geometrical Progressions: 1,2,4,8,16,32, etc.
4. Power Series: 2,4,16, etc.
5. Summation Series: 1,2,3,5,8,13,21, etc.
6. Arithmetical Progressions with Variable Differences: 1,2,4,7,11,16,22,29, etc.
7. Prime Number Series: 1,2,3,5,7,11,13,19,23, etc.
These patterns may be run backwards as well as forwards and they may be developed
sequentially as well as simultaneously.

Students and teachers who wish fully to understand the methodology and theory
underlying the resources presented here, must turn for illumination to The Schillinger
System of Musical Composition itself. In composition and in improvisation, there are no
substitutes for judgment, taste, imagination and depth of feeling. But in order to exer¬
cise these faculties with discernment and impact, the performer and the composer must
have as complete a knowledge as possible of the resources available to him. Earlier
theorists thought of resources largely in terms of what had been successfully used.
Schillinger was concerned with what had not been used and with making the student
aware of all resources. Mathematics and other sciences provided the instruments for
unlocking a rich storehouse of musical material that intuition by itself could only par¬
tially uncover. As the present work suggests, with the Schillinger System, the composer,
the arranger, the performer embark on an exciting voyage of musical discovery that can
only serve to enhance their creations.

C
PART I

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
to
INSTRUMENTAL FORMS
of
HARMONY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE
coco

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 3:2 = 4


23 ao

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 4:3 = 4


toco

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 5:2 = 5


1000

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 5:3 = 6


ioqo

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 5:4 = 8


cooo

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 6:5 - 9


nqo

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 7:2 = 11


soo

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 7:3 = 12

7 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 7:4 = 14

D
Rhythmic Resultants - Cont.

PAGE
*-«

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 7:5 = . 16

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 7:6 = 20


OO®

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 8:3 = 21


®«

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 8:3 = 22


«®

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 8:5 =

22
COM

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 8:7 =

JJ.+AJ-J
2 6 17
24

JJ + J + J + JUJ + J + JJ
05®

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 9:2 = 26

+ J + J-+ J + J + J+ J+ J*+ J + J
J441342243144
OS®

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 9:4 = 28

W + WJtkJJ + W^+J +
05®

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 9:5 =


5 4 1 5 2 2 5 2

AAJ + AAJ-A<W.. 29

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 9:7 = JoA J + A^A A J.+ A A AAA A


7 25 43617 16

J- + J + AA J + .

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 9:8 =


AJ + A AAJ + A A AJ + J5-J.+
8 1 7 2 6 3 7 4

JrA J-—-J.+J.+ AJ%+ AAAAA.


4 5 3 6 2 7 1 8
38

E
PART II

ANALYZING RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS


with
FRACTIONING

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
9 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 3:2 J +A A AAAJ
2 111112

4/16\ RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS


4\16/ with FRACTIONING 4:3 J.+ JVJ + Ai) + i)+ A J+ AJ«. 44
3 12 11112 13

5 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
4 with FRACTIONING 5:2
2 2 12 2

5 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
4 with FRACTIONING 5:3 J.+ JJJ+(9,(J)J + J + J J.
3 2 12 1 2 12 3

5 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
4 with FRACTIONING 5:4 0+J+-J-+J+J + J + J + J+ J + J +J-+J + o ...
4131121211314

6 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 6:5 Jr-AAJ.-AAAAAAAAA
5 14 113 12 2 13

AAAJ-AJtJ....
12 4 14
7
8
RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
with FRACTIONING 7:2 ,j.j_...
7 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 7:3 J, i>, J, ,12,(A.Am,y>). J, J> J
3 3 12 12 1 1 12 12

AJ.J..
1 3 3
7 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 7:4 J+J.+ A AAJ + A A J+(13,(A+ J ♦ A A
4313 12112 1 211

._.
7 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 7:5 AAJ a^v^.a aa
5 2 3 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

(3)(A+(2tJ) + A(2,(J)+J. J hA-J.


1 2 1 2 3 2 5
Analyzing Rhythmic Resultants - Cont.

PAGE
7 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 7:6 = J.+AJr-J+AAJ+AJJ. + AJ.+J+A
615 114123 13 21
J + J^+ +«f^+ J.. 1 ]6
4 115 16
8 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 8:3 = J.* J. ♦ J, A J ♦ AJ AAA
3 3 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2

+ .. 133
12 3 3
8 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 8:5 = J—AJ.+AJ.+A AAJ +AA AAAA
5 3232122121112
'“(A J, AA A J *J> J J ,A J; J. J J.,
1 2111212212323
JLJ . 142
5
8 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 8:7 = J--J.. AAAAAAAJ *A AJ.J.* A
7 16115 124133 1
J +J + + JV J.+ J^+ Jr^J. 149
4 2 1114 116 17
9 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 9:2 =
2222 11 12222
. ,«
RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
with FRACTIONING 9:4 = AAA-J + A AA J.+J + A J + A A A
4 4 1 3 13212112
““(A, AI“’(J>), A A A A A A J. ♦
1 1 12 112 113
J^+ J* + J^+ 168
9 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 9:5 = jr-AA AA AAA AJ.* AAAA
5 41413113 1121
A AJ +<8,( A+ J>+(8<J»+J + A A A J + A
112 11 1211121

A J- + A J^+J.+A J + A J + AA.... i78


13 113 14 14 5
9 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 9:7 = A-A J + AA J + J + AJ+J + J + A J + J +
7 25 22322 2, 122
AAAA AAA AJ. AJ+AA A
211232113 22122
J 4- J.+ J + J + J + A-J . 211
2 3 2' 2 5 2 5
9 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 9:8 = J.~J + X J.-A A A J.+A J+Jr-J + A J. +
AAAAAAjJJ UAW,
212315 21 6115
. . 232
1 8
SUPPLEMENTARY and EXPLANATORY

KEY to

PART I

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
to
INSTRUMENTAL FORMS
of
HARMONY
By CHARLES COLIN

PAGE

6 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 3:2 = • • .. «••••••••»«•»•»*•••• MMlnttlMotaHtlfl 4


8 2 112

3:2
B 1
J H * -
*
Hh a -
j-4. \ -
FF+HfS-=-
-h ■ • A 1
J.
6"7~*F^
=S

v - a 1 ~ - i-*?—pn—
£il|=7 .Jr*—
-€■
*
^ -
4
-6
t . - j— ' J) /-
-« :

These rhythmic examples are basic orchestration for a variety of musical situations.
The arranger or composer needs to use each example as a catalyst and the most diffi¬
cult portion of the work is completed. The most arduous part of any new composition
is the actual beginning. Here Schitlinger has done this for you in capsule form.

The obvious applications are:

6 March, Tarantella
2 March
Waltz
8 4 "

H
For the arranger with a scientific bent the following suggestions may prove valuable.
The various resultants (3:2 or 4:3) correspond to the acoustical ratios of the harmonic
overtone series. This means that the rhythmic resultant of 4:3 is slightly more dissonant
than the rhythmic resultant of 3:2. The former corresponds to the perfect 4th and the lat¬
ter to the perfect 5th.

The 5 rhythm is traditional in many oriental cultures, e.g., Greeks, Indians.


8

| RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 5:3 = J.J +AJ..AJ J.


° 3 2 13 12 3'

Because rhythmic resultants are complete units, they are exceptionally useful at ca¬
dences, introductions, modulations, and endings.

I
5 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 5:4 = 8
8

The greater the number of times a resultant is repeated, the more is its psychological
impact. This is the equivalent of playing a melodic tone louder.

This is commonly used in modem atonal writing. The modem composer has a wealth of
ideas based on these resultants.
J
ary_ary RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 7.3- J.+J-+J^+J
3 3 1 2
+ J.+J
3 2
+ JV
1
J*+J*....
3 3

This can be used similarly as 7:2 except that the unit is now three measures long.

\
b.®

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 7:4 = +


4314224X34

7:4

Whenever a rhythmic unit is changed from J^to J


, the effect is to make the orchestration
sound more dramatic. Thi6 can be compared to playing a melody an octave lower. Play
over these examples:

(J>-0 J j. j> j j j j j. j
4 3 1 4 2 2 4 13 4

(J = l) 0 j. j 0 j j 0 J J- 0
4 3 1 4 2 2 4 1 *3 4
1

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 7:5 = 4- J* J +


+

A very useful rhythmic sketch for the arranger working in poly-harmony,

K
You will notice as the rhythms become more dissonant, their total durations are longer.
The orchestration of a Schillinger student is thus psychologically assured.

This is another good rhythmic sketch for poly-harmony. Poly-harmony is the use of dif¬
ferent chordal structures at different strata levels.

®
8
RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 8:3 * J*+J*+ J JV J.+J.+JV J J.+J
+ +
3321331233

Schillinger’s conception of Strata Harmony encompassed musical planes of melody and


harmony in different registers.
L
g
o
RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 8:5 = J~J>+ J* J J~J>+ J> J J A J~J>t
5 3 2
,
5 1 4
+
4
4.
1 5
22

JJ-Jt-J
8:5 * 2 3 5
xlla-:-£—
% jamm jmh 1-t : * / -=-=---l

■MM—MHMI '■M ■
1^ - - ^ r-— —«-■

This example can also be considered to be in ^ or C time, another example of


Schillinger’6 accuracy in rhythmic notation.

8 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 8.7 =

These examples are not meant to be static but rather dynamic, e.g.,

j.-m. j. - j j> j. - j.
9 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 9:2 = 26

9:2
^M-- -vw:

1W
■n ■
This iB a wonderful example of an orchestral pyramid.

M
RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 9:4 = ' + AAAJ + AJ+AAAAJ

Each rhythm can be so divided so as to be applicable for florid strings, e.g.,

j j -nn -imnn , etc.

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 9:5 =


5
+ A-J.+ A AJ.+ J. + J + AJr-'A J
4 1 5 2 2 5 2

J.+AJ + AAJ-AJ~J

RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 9:7 = JoA-J + AAJ + J.+J.+A Jr-A AJ


7 2 5 4 3 6 1 7 1 6

J- + J + AA J + Jr-'J)

Students aspiring to the highest in symphonic composition should analyze this example
carefully.
CD CO RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS 9:8 = Jr-J
8
+ AJr~A-
1 7
J
2
+ J.+J.+
6 3
JrJ
7
+ AJ.
4
+ 38

Jr-A
4
<KI.
6 '
+ J.+J.+J
3 6 2
+ AJ.+
7 18
v ^
t
f&\ -r--1— r~~ *
-=?- . - M— f—?, -7-
JJft—— l i= it i _d ~ r
|i-

-A _,_
. — ■ ? -1-fc-^-- ■ i 7
^-

This example does not complete the possibilities of rhythmic examples. Rhythmic lines
can interact in the same manner as chords do. Here is a rhythmic resultant of the ra¬
tions: 2:3:5

J-2 JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

J* = 3 JJJJ JJJJ JJJJ jjjj jjjj

JJJ « 5 jjjJJJ JJJ iU JJJ JJ J

J JJ JJ J JJJ J JJJ J JJJ J JJJJ


2 11112 112 2 112 2 112 11112

0
SUPPLEMENTARY and EXPLANATORY

KEY TO

PART II

ANALYZING RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS


with
FRACTIONING
By CHARLES COLIN

These rhythmic resultants, result when the smaller unit rhythm is repeated canonically.

3 3 3
3
Larger unit rhythm
4 r r r
3
2. 22
Smaller unit rhythm
4 r r rr
The unit two (J ) rhythm is 2 2^
repeated rhythmically as in
“Row, Row, Row, Your Boat’'
3
4 r r 'r r
3
Resultant
4 r r rrr rr

A Canon is when a melody is repeated exactly after a rest. It is sometimes called a


“Round.”

P
PAGE
0 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS I K h h h h I
8 with FRACTIONING 3:2= d 4 J'+ J'+ d\ d\ d’+ d.- 41
2 111112

The technique of fractioning increases the possibilities for the composer. The total du¬
ration is always the larger generator squared. In this example (3^ - 3x3-9 units)
each measure is a complete resultant or nine 1 notes.
o

4/16\ RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS


A\W with FRACTIONING 4:3 = J.+
3 12
J + J^+ J) + J^+
11112
J + At- J.
13
44

An easy explanation of what 16 meant by the interference of two or more generators is:
this is the merging of two or more rhythmic patterns, so that you do not hear the original
patterns but rather a new and unique pattern.

5 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS | I (17) / 1 \ I I


4 with FRACTIONING 5:2 = fi)+d+ vj7 + 6 + d. 47
2 2 12 2

This is another useful rhythmic sketch for orchestration, demanding an oriental flavor.
Q
5 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
4 with FRACTIONING 5:3 = 50
3 2 12 l 2 12 3

This example need not be used exclusively in 4 time. A good project is to place this
resultant into a variety of meters. The results will open up new worlds for orchestration.

5 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
4 with FRACTIONING 5:4 o+ + o 57
4 13 112 12 113 1 4

This example utilizing the (- 1) unit has a greater gestalt of excitement.

6 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 6:5

This rhythmic sketch would make a wonderful conclusion to any type of “who done it”
type of program.

R
7 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 7:2 = 64
2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2

7:2

The psychological impact of this rhythm is visually obvious. With minor orchestration,
a wonderful background can be written to a scene depicting an obsessive compulsive
conflict.

73
T RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 wilfi FRACTIONING 7:3 = AJ.+AAAJ
3 3 12 12
(A+A(12I(J>) J + AJ
11 12 1 2

AJ. +J.

Sl —f-4=4— 4- -4 Sr.
t\*): 7,H—i- E-T~|—1-L- 7 p _4
*--'
j- j .-L- —- l—r■
f SAZ—, P=r-- b
L-U±-^^ j 1 1
^ 7' j” <s 4« -4 4 Ft ■4
This is a good example of how to intelligently increase the rhythmic complexity or or¬
chestration.

7 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 7:4 =

7M
- _
^ n
-^4-
* ■.
K.fi
_£--,-1-
4 L V f 1 ^ 1 $- J p
v—n-—«=——c—
7=p—5— —r—] p
iq; 7 -A—■
j' * 1^ j j 71 V 7 J 7 A
The constant inter-play of upper and lower voices makes this a useful device for orches-
trating humor.
98

7 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 7:5 =

This is excellent for a pastoral scene. Be careful to keep the dynamic level of the upper
voices at p and the attacks, legato.

s SSTa . AAAA A AJ * AJ J. . AA J t A
615 114123 13 21
J.AAJ-AAJ.
4 115 16
*r • a

These rhythmic sketches have immediate application for modem composers working in
electronic composing devices.

133
8 RHYTHMIC RESULTANT5
8 with FRACTIONING 8:3 = A J.t
3 3
AAJ*
2 1 2
AA,,
1 2
lJv
1
l(J>)t
12
J * AJ
12
8 18 4

AAAJ.

The feeling of humor and excitement is obvious to the eye, in this little gem of orches¬
tration. T
142
8 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING t:5 =

Because resultants are symmetrical, i.e., they are the same forward and backward, they
are extremely valuable for rhythmic cadences.
5323212212111 2121112122123235

8 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 8:7

0 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 9:2 162
Modem arrangers and composers have a wealth of rhythmic orchestration in the Schillinger
resultants. With a little experimentation this will be obvious.

Notice the change of syncopation that occurs when this rhythm is placed in t or 9 time
(where J) = 1).

V
9 RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
6 with FRACTIONING 97

By this time, the student is surely aware of the possibilities that can come oilt of these
resultants. These rhythms can be used in any register and for any group of instruments.

g RHYTHMIC RESULTANTS
8 with FRACTIONING 9:8 =
JoJ + A JoA A AJ.+AJ + Jr>J + A J. + 232
8 17 116 12 5 13

J+AJ + J.+ A AAJ+J* J.+AAAJ +


2 1 2 3 1 6 2 1 6 1 1 6
A A'J.
1 8
9:8
/WTq -- -.t M— 4 4v-r—
=,
—5^—n ~—i
L - X ■
_ _L_ i-—* --P--
* *i r*-

•===s=z2=x= —- 11 —j-1-?-1- -4'-r i •?—ft-


. F) r H
^ J'

Some of the possibilities have now been shown you. These rhythmic structures in con¬
junction with Schillinger’s “Kaleidophone”, will open up new areas of creativity until
now, undreamed of.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Mrs. Joseph Schillings wishes to acknowledge the work done by Arnold Shaw
and by Charles Colin. Mr, Shaw wrote the Preface, "A Note to the Teacher and Student*\
and Mr. CoJin wrote the 1'Supplementary and Explanatory Key”

W
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RHYTHM

by

JOSEPH SCHHUNGER

This is a practical handbook of rhythm patterns, one that performers, students, teach*

ers, arrangers, and composers hove needed for centuries, Jn easily usable form, it

presents for the first time, the entire range of rhythm resources, making accessible to

all who are interested in music the most novel, the most complex, and the most simple

rhythm forms. One finds patterns that have been used again and again down the years,

also hundred that have never been used before. This Is a book to be studied and

treasured.
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