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Students at Work Math Tutoring Center

Tomas Saco St. cor. Jupiter St.


Macasandig, Cagayan de Oro City MATHEMATICS
Contact Number : 0908-934-7327
sawmtc2007@gmail.com

Lesson: THE CARTESIAN PLANE∧THE LINEAR FUNCTIONS


A. The Cartesian Plane (Rectangular Coordinate System) - named after French mathematician René Descartes, is defined by two perpendicular lines:
the x-axis, horizontal, and the y-axis, vertical. The plane is divided into 4 quadrants and any ordered pair (point) can be described by its
location on the plane.
 Each point is represented by an ordered pair (x, y)
B  The x-coordinate is called the abscissa
 The y-coordinate is called the ordinate
C A  The origin is the intersection of the two axes
D H J
Point  Location Point  Location
Ex: A (3, 2)  Quadrant 1 E (-5, -4)  Quadrant 3
E F B (0, 5)  y-axis F (0, -3)  y-axis
G C (-2, 2)  Quadrant 2 G (6, -5)  Quadrant 4
D (-4, 0)  x-axis H (0, 0)  origin
J (5, 0)  x-axis

B. Linear Functions

1. The slope (m) of a line  a constant value for any two points of the line that indicates its steepness/inclination/gradient.
rise y 2− y 1
 can be measured using m= or by the coordinates of any two points such that m= .
run x 2−x 1

Ex: (a) given the graph: (b) given the two points: A (−¿4, 1) and B (2, 4)

rise 8 4−1 3 1
run (left) = -4 m= = =−2 m= = =
run −4 2+ 4 6 2

m=−2 m=1/2
rise (up) = 8
Note: −¿slope, leans left Note: +¿ slope, leans right

(c)

horizontal line : m=0


y=3
vertical line : m does not exist (undefined)

x=3

2. The midpoint between two given points: 3. The distance between two given points: (Euclidean Distance Form.)

M ( x +2 x , y +2 y )
2 1 2 1
√ 2
d= ( x 2−x 1 ) + ( y 2− y1 )
2

ex: Find the midpoint of ( 4 ,−3 ) and (6 , 2) ex: Find the distance between ( 4 ,−3 ) and (6 , 2)
∴M ( 6+2 4 , 2−3
2 )
 (
M 5 ,−
1
2 ) sol: 2
d= √( 6−4 ) + ( 2+3 ) = √ 29
2

d= √ 29

Students at Work Math Tutoring Center


Tomas Saco St. cor. Jupiter St.
Macasandig, Cagayan de Oro City MATHEMATICS
Contact Number : 0908-934-7327
sawmtc2007@gmail.com

Lesson: THE CARTESIAN PLANE∧THE LINEAR FUNCTIONS


C. Forms of Linear Equations
Form Example
General Ax+ By+C=0 A, B, and C are integers, A > 0 3 x−4 y+ 2=0
Standard Ax+ By=C A, B, and C are integers, A > 0 x +4 y=−1
m is the slope and b is the 3
Slope-intercept y=mx+b y= x −5
y-intercept (0 , b) 2
used to determine the equation given: m=2 and P(3, -1)
Point-slope y− y1 =m( x−x 1) of a line given the slope and a ∴ y +1=2( x−3)
point:
given: A(2, 1) & B(-3,6)
Two-point y − y1 used to determine the equation
y− y1 = 2 ( x−x 1) of a line given two points 6−1
x2− x1 ∴ y−1= ( −3−2 ) ( x−2)
Intercept x y a is the x-intercept x
+ =1 + y=1
a b b is the y-intercept 2
D. Parallel and Perpendicular Lines
L2
L1 L3
1. Two lines L1 and L2 are parallel if and only if : L4
m1=m2 and b 1 ≠ b2

ex: L1  y=2 x−3 ∴ m1 =2∧m 2=2


L2  y=2 x +1 b 1=−3∧b2=1

2. Two lines L3 and L4 are perpendicular if and only if:


−1
m 3=
m4
parallel lines perpendicular lines
ex: L3  y=2 x−3 ∴ m3 =2∧m 4 =−1/2
−1
L4  y= x +1 m 3 m 4=−1
2
PRACTICE EXERCISES

1. Locate the following points on the Cartesian plane. 4. Determine the equation of the line in standard form given:
(a) W (−¿3, 4) (b) U (2, −¿2) (c) R (5,0) (a) m=−3 /4 & b=6 (b) C (2, 3) & G (1, −¿
1)

Q/axis? (a)________ (b)________ (c)________

2. Find the slope of the following: 5. Graph the lines given:


(a) (b) 2 x−3 y=4 (a) 6 x−4 y=4

x y
(c) A (6, 4) and B (−¿2, 10) (b) + =1
2 2
(d) x +2=6
6. State whether the
(e) 3−2 y =0 lines are parallel or
perpendicular.
3. Find the midpoint and distance of the following pairs of points. (a) L1  y=3 x−1 (b) L3  y=4 x−8
L2  3 y + x=6 L4  y=−4 x +5
(a) H (0, 8) & K (6, 4) (b) D (−¿3/2, 2) & E (1, 1.25)