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BJT Transistors

A transistor is a device which

acts like a controlled valve. The Figure 92: pnp BJT circuit
current flow permitted can be symbol.

The bipolar junction transistor

(BJT) is a three-terminal
electronic valve - the output
(collector) terminal current-
voltage characteristics are
controlled by the current
injected into the input port
(base). The BJT is a The terminals are named: base
semiconductor device (B), emitter (E), and collector
constructed from two pn (C), as shown.
junctions. There are two types of
BJT: pnp and npn. Figures 91 We will be looking mostly at npn
and 92 show the circuit symbols transistors; pnp transistors
and common current and operate similarly except for
voltage polarities during normal polarities.
(active) operation.
Basic npn transistor relations
Figure 91: npn BJT circuit are
Figure 116: p-channel JFET
circuit symbol.

FET Transistors

A Field effect transistor (FET) is

a three terminal electronic valve -
the output (drain) terminal current
is controlled by the voltage applied
to the input (gate) terminal. Unlike
BJTs, conduction in FETs is via
majority carriers only. There are Figure 117 shows depletion and
several of types of FETs. enhancement types of metal oxide
semiconductor field effect
Two types of junction field effect transistors (MOSFET). They are
transistor (JFET) are shown in either n or p channel.
Figures 115 and 116. They are
either n or p channel. Figure 117: MOSFET circuit
Figure 115: n-channel JFET
circuit symbol.

The terminals are named: gate (G)

at left, source (S) at bottom, and
drain (D) at top.
When , there is little
JFET Construction and Operation voltage drop along the length of the
channel, and the depletion regions
A schematic representation of an n
are parallel, Figure 119. As vGS is
channel JFET is shown in Figure increased negatively, they
118. An n-type channel is formed eventually touch reducing iD to
between two p-type layers which zero. The value of vGS at which this
are connected to the gate. Majority occurs is called the pinch-off
carrier electrons flow from the voltage, Vp (or vGS(off)).
source and exit the drain, forming Figure: n-channel JFET
the drain current. The pn junction
is reverse biased during normal structure for
operation, and this widens the showing parallel depletion
depletion layers which extend into regions.
the n channel only (since the
doping of the p regions is much
larger than that of the n channel).
As the depletion layers widen, the
channel narrows, restricting
current flow.
Figure 118: n-channel JFET

When , there is a
voltage drop along the length of the
channel, and the depletion regions
are no longer parallel, but are
closer together towards the drain,
Figure 120. As vDS is increased,
they will touch (pinch-off) towards
the drain, and the drain current iD
can increase no longer. At the
threshold of pinch-off, vGS-vDS=Vp.
As vDS is further increased, iD
remains constant, and the JFET is
in its current saturation region, the
normal mode of operation. (This
constant current region is a
characteristic feature of any
transistor, FET or BJT.) The JFETS are high input impedance
channel shape remains unchanged, devices, and so (due to the
with a small region of touch near reverse bias pn junctions).
the drain, and further increases in
vDS occurs across this small MOSFET transistors have metal
region. gates which are insulated from the
semiconductor by a layer of SiO2 or
Figure: n-channel JFET other dielectric. In enhancement
type MOSFETs, the application of
structure for a gate voltage activates the channel
showing non-parallel depletion (by inducing a layer of carriers
regions. between source and drain under
the gate, Figure 121). In depletion
type MOSFETs, there is a small
strip of semiconductor of the same
type as that of the source and
drain, and the gate voltage can
either reduce (by depleting
carriers) or increase (by increasing
carriers) the channel current
(Figure 122). In an n channel
MOSFET, the conducting channel
exists in a p type substrate.

Figure 121: n-
channel E FET

Note the additional B terminal on

the substrate, which is often
connected directly to the source.

Figure 122: n-channel D FET

structure. The lower most curve is for
VGS(Th).When VGS <
VGS(Th)drain current is almost
zero.When VGS >VGS(Th) the
device is ON.As in the case of other
FET,the device can operate in the
ohmic,active or cutoff(break
down)region.The rising part of
curve (fromVDS=0 to VDS=few
volts)is the ohmic region.The
The drain characteristics of device behaves as a resistor,when
operated in this region.The drain
enhancement type MOSFET is
current is almost constant when the
given below.This depicts the device operates in the active
variation of drain current(ID)with region.when VDS exceeds the rated
drain to source voltage(VDS)for value,avalanche breakdown occurs
different values of gate to source and the device is in the breakdown
voltage(VGS). region.

Transconductance curve of
enhancement MOSFET is shown
ID =[(VGS -VGS(TH)) /
(VGS(ON)- VGS(TH))] ×

MOSFEts have a very thin

silicon dioxide layer.This layer
is kept very thin to ensure that
the gate has good control over
the gate current.This layer could
be destroyed if a voltage higher
than rated value is applied to the
gate.If the MOSFET has a
This curve start from VGS(Th) rated VGS of -30V,we should
because the device is off and never apply a voltage higher
drain current is zero when than +30V or lower than -
VGS<VGS(Th).In addition two 30V.Moreover they should not
other quantities specified are be connected or disconnected in
VGS(ON) and ID(ON).Drain the circuit when the circuit is
current is given by ON.