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Camelia Neagu

LIMBA ENGLEZĂ 4
- suport de curs -

EDITURA UNIVERSITĂŢII „NICOLAE TITULESCU”


BUCUREŞTI

2020
Acest material este destinat uzului studenţilor, forma de învăţământ la distanţă.

Conţinutul cursului este proprietatea intelectuală a autorului/autorilor; designul, machetarea şi


transpunerea în format electronic aparţin Departamentului de Învăţământ la Distanţă al
Universităţii „Nicolae Titulescu” din Bucureşti.

Acest curs este destinat uzului individual. Este interzisă multiplicarea, copierea sau
difuzarea conţinutului sub orice formă.
UNIVERSITATEA „NICOLAE TITULESCU” DIN BUCUREŞTI
DEPARTAMENTUL PENTRU ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNTUL LA DISTANŢĂ

Camelia Neagu

Limba engleză 4
Editura Universităţii „Nicolae Titulescu”

Calea Văcăreşti, nr. 185, sector 4, Bucureşti


Tel./fax: 0213309032/0213308606
Email: editura@univnt.ro

ISBN: 978-606-751-815-3
CUPRINS
INTRODUCERE ................................................................................................................................................ 7
OBIECTIVELE CURSULUI ............................................................................................................................. 7
COMPETENȚE ................................................................................................................................................. 7
RESURSE ŞI MIJLOACE DE LUCRU ............................................................................................................. 8
STRUCTURA CURSULUI ............................................................................................................................... 9
TEME DE CONTROL ....................................................................................................................................... 9
CERINŢE PRELIMINARE PENTRU PARCURGEREA CURSULUI ........................................................... 10
DURATA MEDIE DE STUDIU INDIVIDUAL .............................................................................................. 10
EVALUAREA ................................................................................................................................................. 10
BIBLIOGRAFIE: ............................................................................................................................................. 11
UNIT 1: THE TRIAL IN THE UNITED STATES ...................................................................................... 12
1.1. INTRODUCERE ....................................................................................................................................... 12
1.2. OBIECTIVE .............................................................................................................................................. 12
1.3. CONŢINUT............................................................................................................................................... 12
1.4. DEZVOLTARE APTITUDINILOR ......................................................................................................... 14
1.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM... ............................................................................................................................. 15
1.6. REZUMAT ................................................................................................................................................ 15
1.7. TEST ......................................................................................................................................................... 15
1.8. BIBLIOGRAFIE ....................................................................................................................................... 16
UNIT 2: PASSIVE VOICE ........................................................................................................................... 17
2.1. INTRODUCERE ....................................................................................................................................... 17
2.2. OBIECTIVE .............................................................................................................................................. 17
2.3. CONŢINUT............................................................................................................................................... 17
2.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR....................................................................................................... 20
2.5. SĂ NE REAMINITIM... ............................................................................................................................ 21
2.6. REZUMAT ................................................................................................................................................ 21
2.7. TEST ......................................................................................................................................................... 21
2.8. BIBLIOGRAFIE ....................................................................................................................................... 22
UNIT 3: OFFENCES AGAINST PERSON (I) ............................................................................................ 23
3.1. INTRODUCERE ....................................................................................................................................... 23
3.2. OBIECTIVE .............................................................................................................................................. 23
3.3. CONŢINUT............................................................................................................................................... 23
3.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR....................................................................................................... 25
3.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM... ............................................................................................................................. 26
3.6. REZUMAT ................................................................................................................................................ 26
3.7. TEST ......................................................................................................................................................... 27
3.8. TEMA DE CONTROL 1 ........................................................................................................................... 27
3.9. BIBLIOGRAFIE ....................................................................................................................................... 27
UNIT 4: VERB PATTERNS ........................................................................................................................ 28
4.1. INTRODUCERE ....................................................................................................................................... 28
4.2. OBIECTIVE .............................................................................................................................................. 28
4.3. CONȚINUT............................................................................................................................................... 28
4.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR....................................................................................................... 30
4.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM... ............................................................................................................................. 32
4.6. REZUMAT ................................................................................................................................................ 32
4.7. TEST ......................................................................................................................................................... 32
4.8. BIBLIOGRAFIE ....................................................................................................................................... 33
UNIT 5: OFFENCES AGAINST PERSON II.............................................................................................. 34
5.1. INTRODUCERE ....................................................................................................................................... 34
5.2. OBIECTIVE .............................................................................................................................................. 34

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5.3. CONȚINUT............................................................................................................................................... 34
5.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR....................................................................................................... 36
5.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM... ............................................................................................................................. 37
5.6. REZUMAT ................................................................................................................................................ 37
5.7. TEST ......................................................................................................................................................... 38
5.8. BIBLIOGRAFIE ....................................................................................................................................... 38
UNIT 6: NOUNS AND PREPOSITIONS..................................................................................................... 39
6.1. INTRODUCERE ....................................................................................................................................... 39
6.2. OBIECTIVE .............................................................................................................................................. 39
6.3. CONȚINUT............................................................................................................................................... 39
6.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR....................................................................................................... 41
6.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM... ............................................................................................................................. 43
6.6. REZUMAT ................................................................................................................................................ 44
6.7. TEST ......................................................................................................................................................... 44
6.8. TEMA DE CONTROL 2 ........................................................................................................................... 46
6.9. BIBLIOGRAFIE ....................................................................................................................................... 46
LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS .................................................................................................................. 47

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LIMBA ENGLEZĂ 4

Coordonator curs: lect.univ.dr. Camelia NEAGU

INTRODUCERE
Limba engleză 4 se adresează în principal studenţilor din anul al II-lea, semestrul al
II-lea, din cadrul sistemului de Învăţământ la Distanţă (ID) al Universităţii „Nicolae
Titulescu”, Facultatea de Drept, cu un nivel mediu de cunoaştere a limbii engleze şi doreşte să
le ofere acestora posibilitatea de a recapitula cunoştinţele acumulate şi de a-şi însuşi noi
elemente – noţiuni avansate din limbajul juridic. De asemenea, cursul îşi propune dezvoltarea
unor strategii care să conducă la autonomia studenţilor în învăţare, prin conştientizarea
nevoilor personale, efort individual şi autoevaluare permanentă.
Cursul este structurat în 6 unităţi de învăţare. Textele sunt însoţite de exerciţii, care au
rolul de a facilita procesul de înţelegere şi de a favoriza acumularea lexicală.

OBIECTIVELE CURSULUI

Obiectivele cursului sunt:

1. să formeze deprinderilor necesare pentru a folosi limba engleză în mod flexibil şi eficient
atât în scopuri sociale cât şi profesionale
2. să îmbogăţească vocabularul studenţilor prin achiziţia de termeni juridici în limba engleză.
3. să crească încrederea studenţilor în capacităţile personale de îndeplinirea sarcinilor
comunicative în limba engleză

COMPETENȚE

Competenţele pe care trebuie să le dobândească studenţii se înscriu în precizările


oferite de Cadrul European Comun de Referinţă pentru Limbi: Învăţare, Predare, Evaluare
(2001). Astfel, nivelul pe care îl au studenţii la începutul acestui curs ar trebui să fie B1 sau
B2, şi ne dorim ca nivelul atins la finalizare (sfârşitul anului al II-lea = patru semestre de
studiu) să fie B2+ sau chiar C1.

Competenţele de comunicare lingvistică pe care studentul le poate dobândi cuprinde


următoarele componente:

1. Competenţa lingvistică generală: să se exprime clar şi fără a lăsa impresia că


este nevoit să restrângă ceea ce vrea să spună;
a. competenţa lexicală: să stăpânească o gamă bogată de vocabular pentru subiectele
legate de domeniul juridic şi subiectele cele mai generale;
b. competenţa gramaticală: să menţină un control gramatical bun, să nu facă greşeli care
să conducă la neînţelegeri;

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c. competenţa fonologică: pronunţie şi intonaţie fireşti;
d. competenţa ortografică: să producă un text scris coerent, clar şi inteligibil ce respectă
regulile curente de dispunere în pagină şi de organizare.

2. Competenţa sociolingvistică: să se exprime cu siguranţă, simplu şi politicos într-


un registru oficial şi neoficial potrivit cu situaţia şi persoanele în cauză.

3. Competenţa pragmatică:

a. competenţa discursivă:
- să poată face o descriere sau alcătui un discurs clar dezvoltând şi argumentând
punctele importante cu ajutorul detaliilor şi al exemplelor semnificative;
- să poată interveni într-o discuţie într-o manieră adecvată;
- să poată utiliza cu eficacitate o varietate de cuvinte de legătură pentru a marca clar
legăturile dintre idei.

b. competenţa funcţională:
- să poată comunica cu spontaneitate, demonstrând adeseori o remarcabilă uşurinţă şi o
facilitate de exprimare chiar şi în enunţurile complexe şi destul de lungi;
- să poată transmite o informaţie amănunţită în mod fiabil.

RESURSE ŞI MIJLOACE DE LUCRU

Propunem utilizarea următoarelor resursele si mijloacele de lucru:


 prezentul curs practic de limba engleză;
 o gramatică a limbii engleze, pentru referinţe (să poată fi consultată la nevoie1);
 un dicţionar general englez-român, român englez;
 un dicţionar juridic englez-român / român-englez2

De asemenea, sugerăm şi folosirea resurselor digitale online (e.g.


www.wikipedia.com, www.britannica.com pentru clarificarea unor termeni şi concepte
specific limbajului juridic; www.esl-lounge.com student pentru explicaţii privind regulile
specific limbii engleze; www.linguee.com pentru traduceri).

1
Sugerăm următoarele variante posibile:
 Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar, Bucureşti: ALL Educational
 Vince, Michael (2008) - Macmillan English Grammar In Context Student's Book – Intermediate,
London: Macmillan
 Preda, Ioan; Leviţchi, Leon (2008) – Gramatica limbii engleze, Bucureşti: Gramar
 Docherty, Vincent; Brough, Sonia (2009) – Gramatica standard a limbii engleze, Bucureşti:
Niculescu
2
Sugerăm următoarele variante posibile:
 Dicţionar dicţionar juridic englez-român / român-englez, (2008), Bucureşti: C.H.Beck
 Dicţionar dicţionar juridic englez-român / român-englez, (2009), Bucureşti: Lumina Lex

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STRUCTURA CURSULUI

Cursul pentru semestrul al II-lea este compus din 6 unităţi de învăţare, după cum
urmează:
1. Unitatea de învăţare 1 – THE TRIAL IN THE UNITED STATES
2. Unitatea de învăţare 2 – THE PASSIVE VOICE
3. Unitatea de învăţare 3 – OFFENCES AGAINST PERSON (I)
4. Unitatea de învăţare 4 – VERB PATTERNS
5. Unitatea de învăţare 5 – OFFENCES AGAINST PERSON (II)
6. Unitatea de învăţare 6 – NOUNS AND PREPOSITIONS

Fiecare unitate este alcătuită din:

1. INTRODUCERE – se oferă o scurtă descriere a conţinutului unităţii de învăţare.


2. OBIECTIVE – reprezintă ceea ce studenţii trebuie să atingă prin parcurgerea unităţii
respective (aceste obiective sunt stabilite pentru a coordona procesul de învăţare,
pentru a-i motiva pe studenţi să-şi însuşească conţinutul şi de asemenea pentru a-i
ajuta să se autoevalueze).
3. CONȚINUT – această secțiune include fie explicații cu privire la regulile specific
limbii engleze, fie un text care conține informaţii despre SUA.
4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR – include activităţi menite să dezvolte
competenţele lexicale și de traducere, necesare exprimării corecte în domeniul juridic.
5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM – punctează principalele aspecte furnizate în unitate până la
momentul respectiv.
6. REZUMAT – în această secțiune se oferă o sinteză a principalelor puncte dezbătute în
cadrul unităţii de învăţare, făcându-se legătura cu următoarele unităţi de învăţare.
7. TEST – rezolvările vor fi dezbătute în cadrul tutorialelor
8. BIBLIOGRAFIA

Cheia exerciţiilor este postată pe platforma eLis.

TEME DE CONTROL

Acest curs conține și 2 TEME DE CONTROL:

TEMA DE CONTROL 1

Write a concise presentation (450-500 words) of a famous Romanian case.

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TEMA DE CONTROL 2

Read three articles in the Romanian Criminal Code on three types of offences
committed against the person and translate them into English, paying particular
attention to the penalties applied to them.

Rezolvarea celor două teme de control reprezintă 30% din nota finală.
Prima temă de control trebuie rezolvată şi încărcată pe platforma eLis, o săptămână înainte de
prima întâlnire tutorială prevăzută în orar, iar cea de-a doua temă, cu o săptămână înainte de
cea de-a doua întâlnire tutorială prevăzută în orar.

CERINŢE PRELIMINARE PENTRU PARCURGEREA CURSULUI

Este necesar un nivel cel puţin mediu de limba engleză pentru parcurgerea acestui curs (de
exemplu obţinerea cel puţin a calificativului B1 la examenul de bacalaureat sau al unui
calificativ similar).

DURATA MEDIE DE STUDIU INDIVIDUAL

90 minute pentru fiecare unitate.

EVALUAREA

La sfârşitul semestrului, studentul va primi o nota care va fi compusă din:

1. 70% evaluarea finală, care va avea loc în sesiunea de examene, sub formă scrisă.
2. 30% evaluarea pe parcurs, prin notarea celor două teme de control obligatorii.

Examenul scris de la sfârşitul semestrului al II-lea va evalua competenţele lingvistice,


sociolingvistice şi pragmatice dobândite prin parcurgerea unităţilor de învăţare 1-6 şi va avea
o durată de 60 de minute.

Structura examenului scris poate fi următoarea:

1. Un text şi şase întrebări. Trebuie să citiţi textul şi să alegeţi varianta corectă de răspuns
(A, B, C sau D).
2. Un text cu 15 spaţii goale. Fiecare spaţiu gol reprezintă un cuvânt sau o expresie.
Trebuie să citiţi textul şi să alegeţi cuvântul sau expresia potrivită (A, B, C sau D).
3. Opinia cu privire la o afirmaţie dată. Trebuie să redactaţi un text (200-240 de cuvinte)
cu argumente susţinând sau combatând ideea prezentată.

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4. Traducerea unui text de 60-70 de cuvinte, preluat dintr-o text asemănător ca tematică
celor incluse în acest manual.
5. Retroversiunea a 5 propoziţii/fraze care să conţină structuri gramaticale sau funcţii ale
limbii revizuite în cadrul unităţilor din semestrul al II-lea.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:

1. Caraiman, Carmen Daniela (2013). Limba engleza pentru juristi. Bucureşti: Editura
Universitară
2. Dracsineanu, Cătălin; Haraga, Radu (2012). Manual de limba engleză pentru
profesionişti. Iaşi: Editura Polirom
3. Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar. Practice Book,
Bucureşti: ALL Educational
4. Seidl, Jennifer; Schwarz, Hellmut (2012). English Grammar, Bucureşti: ALL
Educational
5. Walenn, Jeremy (2009). English for law in higher education studies. London: Garnet
Publishing.

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Unit 1: THE TRIAL IN THE UNITED STATES

Conţinut:

1.1. Introducere
1.2. Obiective
1.3. Conţinut
1.4. Dezvoltare lexicală
1.5. Să ne reaminitim
1.6. Rezumat
1.7. Test
1.8. Bibliografie

1.1. INTRODUCERE

După parcurgerea acestei unităţi de învățare, studenții vor dobândi un set de


termeni juridici de bază, cu ajutorul cărora aceștia vor putea enumera și descrie
participanții la un proces în SUA.
Spre deosebire de sistemul judiciar din România, în SUA procesele penale (cu
precădere) și civile sunt judecate în prezența juriului, al cărui verdict este hotărâtor în
ceea ce privește rostirea sentinței de către judecător.

1.2. OBIECTIVE

După studierea acestei unități, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


 să enumere participanții la process;
 să folosească în mod corect oral și în scris termenii noi studiați în acest capitol;
 să explice atribuțiile care îi revin judecătorului în instanța de judecată;
 să precizeze rolul şi componența juriului în SUA.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 de minute.

1.3. CONŢINUT

THE TRIAL IN THE UNITED STATES

Although there is an absolute right to trial in both civil and criminal cases, trials are
often enough expensive, and a person may not wish to exercise the right to trial. If the
court grants a summary judgment to either party or decides to dismiss the case, no trial
is held. Thus, over 90% all civil cases never come to trial and about 80% of criminal
defendants plead guilty and are sentenced without trial.

THE JURY
For federal criminal cases there are 12 jurors but for federal civil cases the number

12
varies between 6 and 12.

Before each trial, prospective jurors are asked questions to help the judge and lawyers
determine whether the jurors can be impartial in deciding the particular case. The
lawyers have the right to reject a certain number of jurors without giving any
justification.

THE JUDGE
Federal appellate judges and district judges are appointed by the President with the
approval of the Senate. They can be removed only by Congress through a process
called impeachment.
Bankruptcy judges and magistrates judges assist the district judges. They do not have
life tenure, but serve for an appointed term.

Role of judge and jury. If the parties choose a jury trial, the jury must determine the
facts over which parties disagree. If the parties leave it to the judge, the trial is called
bench trial. In either kind of trial, the judge decides what legal standards apply and
whether the evidence is illegal or improper. The judge also conducts the proceedings
and sees that the order is maintained.

THE LAWYERS In criminal cases, the lawyer who prosecutes the claim is the U.S.
attorney (or an assistant). The attorney is selected by the President, with the approval
of the Senate.
The judge appoints lawyers to represent criminal defendant who cannot afford to hire a
lawyer.

The parties
Defendants in criminal cases have a constitutional right to be present. Parties in civil
cases may be present if they wish.

The witnesses
Witnesses are individuals who testify under oath about the facts in dispute. They are
often referred to as plaintiff’s witnesses or defense witnesses.

In a criminal case, the defendant can be convicted if the jury or judge believes that the
government has proven guilt “beyond any reasonable doubt”. A jury verdict must be
unanimous.

In civil cases, the jury or the judge decides for the plaintiff if a preponderance of the
evidence shows that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty.

Sentencing
The judge sets a date for sentencing hearing for criminal defendants who plead guilty
or are found guilty.
Before the sentencing hearing, a federal probation officer prepares a report to help the
judge determine the proper sentence.

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I. Correct the mistakes in the sentences below:

1. Parties in civil cases are bound to be present in court while the case they are
involved in is tried.
……………………………………………………………………………..
2. In a bench trial, the verdict is passed by the jury.
………………………………………………………….............................
3. In the USA the number of jurors is the same in both civil and criminal cases.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. Is there any right to trial in both civil and criminal cases in the U.S.?
2. How many of the civil and criminal cases never come to trial?
3. How many jurors are there in the jury for criminal and civil cases?
4. What is the task of a judge in a trial?
5. What do they mean by jury trial and bench trial?
6. How are the lawyers called in the U.S.?
7. Who are the witnesses and what do they do?
8. When can a defendant be convicted in a criminal case?
9. What does the jury or the judge decide in a civil case?
10. What does the federal probation officer prepare before sentencing?

1.4. DEZVOLTARE APTITUDINILOR

I. Find the English phrases in the text below that correspond to the following
Romanian phrases:
a. a fi eliberat condiţionat
b. h.persoane eliberate condiţionat
c. reducerea pedepsei
d. închisoare pe viaţă
e. a ispăşi o pedeapsă
f. j. pedeapsa cu închisoare
g. pedeapsă
h. k. pedeapsa cu moartea
i. închisori de maximă securitate
j. l. ţinut în arest preventiv
k. pedeapsa cea mai grea
l. m. când se dă pedeapsa cea mai grea
m. aripă a închisorii pentru cei aflați în arest preventiv

The most serious form of punishment, besides capital punishment, is a prison


sentence. When such a sentence is handed down, the judge must sign a committal
warrant before the defendant is taken to prison to serve his or her sentence. Habitual
offenders are sent to maximum-security prisons and the heaviest sentence they can get
is life imprisonment. A prisoner may not serve his or her full sentence and may be
granted a remission of sentence for good behavior in jail. Prisoners having served one
third of their sentence may be released on parole. They are then called parolees. Of
course, prisoners may also be offenders who have been remanded in custody waiting
for trial. They are usually kept in the remand wing of a prison.

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II. Translate the following text into Romanian:

“Amendment VI – in all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime
shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by
law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted
with the witnesses against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in
his favor, and to have assistance of counsel for his defense.”
(The Bill of Rights, The Constitution of the United States)

1.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM...

În SUA, spre deosebire de țara noastră, la proces iau parte nu doar judecătorul,
procurorul, avocatul apărării, avocatul acuzării și martorii, ci și juriul (jurații), care
sunt prezenți mai ales când sunt judecate cauze penale.
În SUA, numărul juraților variază în funcție de cauza judecată în instanță. Într-
un proces penal, numărul juraților este de 12. Într-un proces civil, numărul acestora
variază între 6 și 12.
Reamintim studenților să nu confunde terminologia folosită pentru a desemna
părțile implicate într-un proces civil (plaintiff – reclamantul și defendant - pârâtul),
respectiv într-un proces penal (prosecutor – procurorul și defendant - acuzatul). De
asemenea, într-un proces de divorț, terminologia se modifică: petitioner (reclamantul)
și respondent (pârâtul).

1.6. REZUMAT

Terminologia juridică din textul inclus în această unitate de învățare include, cu


siguranță, termeni noi, dificil, uneori, de tradus de studentul român înscris la facultatea
de drept.
Ne referim în special la următorii termeni:
 magistrate judges – judecători ai instanțelor inferioare (Magistrates Courts)
 district judges – judecători ai curților de district
 federal appellate judges – judecători ai curții de apel.
În privința traducerii termenului bankruptcy judge recomandăm varianta
judecător-sindic. În privința traducerii termenului probation officer recomandăm
varianta ofițer de probațiune.

Vom continua să aflăm informaţii despre SUA şi în următoarele unităţi ale acestui
manual.

1.7. TEST

I. Put the following steps in the civil proceedings into their logical order

1. The trial is opened by the plaintiff’s counsel.


2. Each counsel makes a closing address.

15
3. A copy of the writ is issued and served by sending it to the usual address of the
defendant.
4. The plaintiff’s counsel calls his/her witnesses.
5. The judge gives judgment and awards costs and damages.
6. The plaintiff obtains a writ of summons.
7. The plaintiff’s witnesses are cross-examined by the defence.
8. The defendant decides to contest the claim.
9. The plaintiff endorses the nature of his claim against the defendant on the writ
(statement of claim).
10. The defendant’s counsel proceeds in the same way.

II. Read the following typical legal phrases. What preposition do you use to obtain
correct phrases?

1. to accuse someone _____ something


2. to be liable ______ something
3. to sentence someone ____ a punishment
4. to claim damages ____ something
5. to be entitled ____ compensation
6. to bring a case _____ someone
7. to be guilty ____ an offence
8. to fine someone ____ something

Make-up sentences of your own with the above given phrases.

1.8. BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Caraiman, Carmen Daniela (2013). Limba engleza pentru juristi. Bucureşti:


Editura Universitară
2. Dracsineanu, Cătălin; Haraga, Radu (2012). Manual de limba engleză pentru
profesionişti. Iaşi: Editura Polirom
3. Walenn, Jeremy (2009). English for law in higher education studies. London:
Garnet Publishing.

16
Unit 2: PASSIVE VOICE

Cuprins:

2.1. Introducere
2.2. Obiective
2.3. Conţinut
2.4. Dezvoltare abilităţilor de traducere
2.5. Să ne reaminitim
2.6. Rezumat
2.7. Test
2.8. Bibliografie

2.1. INTRODUCERE

După parcurgerea acestei unităţi de învățare, studenții vor recapitula cunoștințele


necesare pentru a folosi corect diateza pasivă în limba engleză.

2.2. OBIECTIVE

După studierea acestei unități, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


 să folosească în mod corect diateza pasivă în limba engleză, semnalând
asemănările și diferențele existente între engleză şi română;
 să identifice formele speciale ale diatezei pasive din limba engleză în funcție de
aspectele timpurilor folosite (simplu, perfect sau continuu).

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute.

2.3. CONŢINUT

PASSIVE VOICE

FORM: the verb to be in Present/Past/Future Tense + past participle of the verb

The subject of the active verb becomes the “agent” of the passive verb.

The agent is very often not mentioned. When it is mentioned it is preceded by BY and
placed at the end of the clause:

E.g. This judgment was delivered by Judge George Smith.

Present Tense Simple: I am seen


You are seen

17
He, she is seen … etc.

Present Tense Continuous I am being seen


You are being seen
He, she is being seen … etc.
Present Perfect Tense: I have been seen
You have been seen
She, he has been seen … etc.

Past Tense Simple: I was seen


You were seen
He, she was seen…etc

Past Tense Continuous I was being seen


You were being seen
He, she was being seen … etc.
Past Perfect Tense: I had been seen
You had been seen ….etc

Future Tense Simple: I shall be seen


You will be seen
He, she will be seen …etc.

Future Perfect: I will have been seen


You will have been seen
He, she will have been seen… etc.

Present Conditional: I would be seen


You would be seen
He, she would be seen … etc

Perfect Conditional: I, you, he would have been seen … etc.

 In colloquial speech get is sometimes used instead of be:


e.g. The windows got (were) broken.

 In sentences containing a direct and an indirect object, we could have two


passive forms:

e.g. Somebody gave her some flowers.


She was given some flowers.
Some flowers were given to her.

USES OF THE PASSIVE

 The passive is used when it is not necessary to mention the doer of the action:
o The rubbish hasn’t been collected.
o Your hand will be X-rayed.

18
 It is also used when the subject of the active verb would be “people”:
o He is suspected of receiving stolen goods (People suspect him of …)
o They are supposed to be living in New York (People suppose that …)

 When we are more interested in the action than the person who does it:
o A new public library is being built (by our local council)
o The house next door has been bought (by a Mr. Jones).

 The passive may be used to avoid awkward or ungrammatical sentence. This is


usually done by avoiding a change of subject:
o When he arrived home a detective arrested him.
This sentence could be better expressed:
o When he arrived home he was arrested (by a detective).

Prepositions with passive verbs

When a verb + preposition + object combination is put into the passive, the preposition
will remain immediately after the verb:

We must write to him. He must be written to.


They threw away the old newspapers. The old newspapers were thrown away.
He looked after the children well. The children were looked after.

I. Correct the mistakes in the sentences below:

1. Recently a large number of cases have solved by the first instance courts.
……………………………………………………………………………..
2. So far many students are asked to hand in the test papers because they did not
comply with the examination rules mentioned at the beginning of the semestrial test.
………………………………………………………….............................
3. At the moment the bankruptcy file is analyzed by the specialists.
.………………………………………………………………………………..

II. Put the following into the passive voice. The agent should not be mentioned:
1. We use this room only on special occasions.
2. They are pulling down the old theatre.
3. Someone switched on a light and opened the door.
4. The police asked each of us about his movements on the night of the crime.
5. Someone will serve refreshments.
6. The burglars had cut an enormous hole in the steel door.
7. No one can do anything unless someone gives us more information.
8. The judge gave him two weeks in which to pay the fine.
9. People must not leave bicycles in the hall.
10. The librarian said that they were starting a new system because people were not
returning books.

19
2.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR

I. Turn the following sentences into the active voice. If no agent is mentioned, you
must supply it:

e.g. School notice: This door must be kept shut.


Students must keep shut this door.

1. This speed limit is to be introduced gradually.


2. Someone will have to be found to take her place.
3. Your money could be put to good use instead of being left in bank.
4. This scientific theory has now proved to be false.
5. This copy hasn’t been read. The pages haven’t been cut.
6. For a long time the earth was believed to be flat.
7. The stones were thrown by a student who was afterwards led away by the police.
8. This excellent opportunity was taken advantage of immediately.
9. If I am offered this job I shall, of course, accept it.
10. We have not been taught to deal with such problems.

II. Translate into English:

1. Ni s-au spus multe lucruri interesante în legătură cu acest subiect.


2. Ni se vor da amănunte mai târziu.
3. Li s-a cerut să fie punctuali.
4. Ne vor comunica rezultatele până mâine.
5. Au fost întâmpinaţi cu entuziasm.
6. Li s-a spus să aştepte profesorul în clasă.
7. Cărţile ne-au fost trimise prin poştă.
8. Au fost sfătuiţi să viziteze oraşul.
9. Turiştilor le-au fost arătate monumentele istorice mai importante din capitală.
10. S-a constatat că toate condiţiile au fost îndeplinite.
translate into English:
11. Sper să fiu consultat în această problemă.
12. Instrucţiunile dumneavoastră vor fi respectate.
13. Oaspeţii vor fi întâmpinaţi la gară, nu-i aşa?
14. Sunt sigură că această investigaţie a fost făcută cu cea mai mare grijă.
15. S-a insistat foarte mult asupra ultimului aspect al problemei.
16. Este regretabil că ele n-au putut veni.
17. Nu li s-a permis să ia bagaje prea multe în avion.
18. Li s-au arătat planurile şi li s-au dat toate explicaţiile necesare.
19. Am auzit că prietenului tău i s-a acordat un mare premiu la olimpiadă.
20. Trebuie să facem ceva să ne ajutăm colegul; este într-o situaţie foarte grea.

III. Make up sentences in the passive voice using each of the following terms:

application, claimant, plaintiff, petitioner, impeachment, infringement, remission,


social peril

20
2.5. SĂ NE REAMINITIM...

 În limba engleză, diateza pasivă se construiește cu ajutorul verbului to be și


participiul verbului de conjugat.
 Studenții trebuie să fie atenți să păstreze întocmai aspectul verbului din
exemplele dat, atunci când efectuează transformarea de la diateza activă la cea
pasivă.

2.6. REZUMAT

TENSE ACTIVE PASSIVE

Prez. simplu The judge hears the The witness is heard.


witness.

Trecut The judge heard the The witness was heard.


simplu witness.
Viitor simplu The judge will hear the The witness will be heard.
witness.

Prez. They are analysing the The evidence is being analysed.


continuu evidence.
Trecut They were analysing the The evidence was being analysed.
continuu evidence.

Prezent We have cross-examined the The witness has been cross-


perfect witness. exmanied.
Trecut We had cross-examined the The witness had been cross-
perfect witness. exmanied.
Viitor We will have cross-examined The witness will have been cross-
perfect the witness. exmanied.

Condițional I would sign this This document would be signed on


prezent document on one one condition.
condition.
Condițional I would have signed the The document would have been
perfect document on one signed by me on one condition.
condition.

Vom continua recapitularea principalelor reguli de folosire a limbii engleze în


următoarele unităţi ale acestui manual.

2.7. TEST

I. Use the verbs in brackets in the correct tense:

1. Under these conditions the experiment (not to carry out).

21
2. Can English (to learn) well in six months?
3. Must this work (to do) at once?
4. Paper that absorbs ink (to call) “blotting paper”.
5. The atomic structure (to study) since the end of the last century.
6. Paintings from many countries (to show) in a special exhibition next month.
7. Many houses in our town (to be demolished) this year.
8. The new design (to be looked into) by an expert.
9. During the fair many foreigners can (to see) in our town.
10. A number of books (to publish) on this subject in the last few years.

II. Answer the questions using a Passive form of the verbs in brackets, together
with a suitable adverbial particle (off, on, in, out, up, down etc):

Example: What generally happens to houses that are unfit to live in? (pull)
They are generally pulled down.

1. What should happen if mistakes appear in a student’s work? (point)


2. What must be done with a bad tooth? (pull)
3. What might happen if you crossed a busy road without looking? (knock)
4. What has to be done with dirty dishes and cutlery at the end of a meal? (wash)
5. What would happen to a lighted candle if there were a sudden gust of wind? (blow)
6. What often happens to negotiations that looked like being unsuccessful? (break)
7. What must be done if a plan or an idea proves unworkable? (give)
8. A notice has disappeared from a notice board. What must have happened? (take)
9. I dropped a coin in the street, and can’t find it. What could have happened to it?
(pick)
10. What may happen to a man who has committed his first offence? (let)

2.8. BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Caraiman, Carmen Daniela (2013). Limba engleza pentru juristi. Bucureşti:


Editura Universitară
2. Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar. Practice Book,
Bucureşti: ALL Educational
3. Seidl, Jennifer; Schwarz, Hellmut (2012). English Grammar, Bucureşti: ALL
Educational

22
Unit 3: OFFENCES AGAINST PERSON (I)

Cuprins:

3.1. Introducere
3.2. Obiective
3.3. Conţinut
3.4. Dezvoltare lexicală
3.5. Să ne reaminitim
3.6. Rezumat
3.7. Test
3.8. Temă de control 1
3.9. Bibliografie

3.1. INTRODUCERE

După parcurgerea acestei unităţi, veţi putea enumera și defini câteva dintre cele
mai importante infracţiuni îndreptate împotriva persoanei, așa cum sunt acestea
prevăzute de legislația americană în vigoare.
Totodată, unitatea de învățare nr. 3 încurajează studentul să consulte și Codul
Penal Român tradus în limba engleză, pentru a-și însuși cât mai mulți termeni de
specialitate și pentru a observa modul diferit în care infracțiunile la care se face referire
în unitatea de învățare nr. 3 (definite conform legislației americane) sunt încadrate de
Codul Penal Român.

3.2. OBIECTIVE

După studierea acestei unități, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


 să enumere câteva dintre cele mai importate infracțiuni îndreptate împotriva
persoanei;
 să definească infracțiunile enumerate în această unitate de învățare;
 să dobândească un număr important de termeni juridici/expresii juridice,
folosite în traducerea din română în engleză a articolelor referitoare la
infracțiunile îndreptate împotriva persoanei, conform prevederilor Codului
Penal Român.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute.

3.3. CONŢINUT

OFFENCES AGAINST PERSON (I)

According to the American Criminal Law, the main offences against person are:
I. HOMICIDE

23
II. INFANTICIDE
III. RAPE AND OTHER SEXUAL OFFENCES
IV. UNNATURAL OFFENCES
V. INDECENCY
VI. PROSTITUTION
VII. ASSAULTS AND WOUNDINGS

I. HOMICIDE Means the killing of a human being. It may be culpable or non-


culpable (lawful or unlawful) or excusable. It depends on the circumstances in which
the act of homicide takes place.

1. Culpable homicide can be:

a. Murder – means the unlawful killing of a person by another. Murder is committed


when the killer acts with malice aforethought. The punishment for murder is life
imprisonment.
b. Manslaughter is the unlawful killing of a human being without malice
aforethought. It may be voluntary (death results from an assault made under
provocation) or involuntary (death results from an accident or from an unlawful act).

c. Causing death by dangerous driving.

d. Causing death by careless driving.

e. Causing death by aggravated taking of mechanically vehicle.

2. Non culpable homicide

a. Justifiable: The lawful action of a criminal or a killing person who results or


prevents a constable in the execution of his duty.

b. Excusable: like accidents, reasonable self-defence in a sudden conflict.

3. Genocide: is a deliberate destruction of a national racial, religious or ethnic group


defined by exterminators as undesirable.

4. Aiding and abetting suicide: is an arrestable offence for a person to aid, abet or
counsel for suicide.

5. Child destruction: when a person with intention destroys the life of a child capable
to be born alive, punishable with life imprisonment.

6. Abortion: the premature expulsion of the child before his birth.

II. INFANTICIDE – appears when a woman, by any willful act or omission, causes
the death of her child.

III. RAPE AND OTHER SEXUAL OFFENCES ARE:

a. Unlawful sexual intercourse: when a man has sexual intercourse with a woman

24
who is under the age of 16, mentally defected or a blood relative.

b. Rape: is an arrestable offence for a man to rape. The punishment for such an
offence is life imprisonment.

c. Defilement: when a man has unlawful sexual intercourse with a girl under 13.

d. Seduction or prostitution: when a person having custody or care of a girl under 16


years old causes and encourages her seduction or prostitution. He shall be punished
with two years imprisonment.

e. Incest: appears when a man has sexual intercourse with a woman whom he knows to
be his daughter, granddaughter or mother; or when a girl of 16 allows a man she knows
to be her grandfather, father, brother or son to have sexual intercourse. Stepbrothers
and sisters are not blood relations.

I. Correct the mistakes in the sentences below:

1. Infanticide refers to the defilement of a child.


……………………………………………………………………………..
2. Manslaughter is similar to first degree murder.
………………………………………………………….............................
3. Abortion is permitted in all states and it is now regarded as a religiously and
politically settled matter.
.………………………………………………………………………………..

II. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the meaning of homicide?


2. How many types of homicide do you know?
3. When is a murder committed?
4. What do you mean by manslaughter?
5. What is the meaning of genocide?
6. What do you understand by infanticide?
7. What is the difference between rape and defilement?
8. Is incest ever permitted?

3.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR

I. Match the crimes in the table with their definitions listed below:

1. arson 2. assault and battery


3. petty theft 4. burglary
5. gross indecency 6. rape
7. manslaughter 8. hijacking
9. smuggling 10. bribery

A. Using force or threatening force to take control of an aircraft during flight.

25
B. Taking people or things illegally into a country or place.
C. An illegal sexual act that falls short of sexual intercourse.
D. Intentional damage to property by setting fire to it.
E. Sexual intercourse with another person without his or her consent.
F. An attempt to influence an official by offering him or her some kind of reward.
G. Stealing objects of little value.
H. Entering a place of habitation with the intention of stealing.
I. Intentional physical harm inflicted on a person without his or her consent.
J. Murder that is either unintentional or else has mitigating circumstances.

II. Associate each description of the crimes (1-5) with the appropriate term (A-E).

A. assault
D. shoplifting
B. grievous bodily harm
E. vandalism
C. murder with extenuating circumstances

1. A woman kills her husband after finding him in compromising circumstances with
another woman.
2. A schoolboy smashes a shop window and causes damage in the shop after a football
match.
3. A group of young men take an old lady’s handbag after threatening her with
physical violence.
4. A lady slips a small piece of jewelry into her handbag in a department store.
5. A man attacks another man and injures him so badly that the victim has to undergo
an operation.

3.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM...

Această unitate de învățare ne oferă câteva informații cu caracter general despre o parte
din infracțiunile îndreptate împotriva persoanei, așa cum sunt acestea definite de legea
penală americană: HOMICIDE, INFANTICIDE, RAPE AND OTHER SEXUAL
OFFENCES, UNNATURAL OFFENCES, INDECENCY, PROSTITUTION,
ASSAULTS AND WOUNDINGS.

3.6. REZUMAT

În această unitate de învățare, studentul trebuie să își însușească în mod corect


terminologia de specialitate în limba engleză, pentru a putea defini o câteva dintre
infracțiunile îndreptate împotriva persoanei.
Textul unității face referire la următoarele infracțiuni: HOMICIDE (omorul),
INFANTICIDE (pruncuciderea), RAPE AND OTHER SEXUAL OFFENCES (violul
și alte infracțiuni referitoare la viața sexuală), UNNATURAL OFFENCES (perversiuni
sexuale), INDECENCY (exhibitionismul, publicarea de materiale obscene),
PROSTITUTION (prostituția), ASSAULTS AND WOUNDINGS (lovirile și rănirile).
Vom continua să aflăm informaţii despre SUA şi în următoarele unităţi ale
acestui manual.

26
3.7. TEST

I. Make the logical correspondence between the following terms:


culpable homicide genocide
mentally disturbed rape
two years imprisonment abortion
daughter defilement
excusable premature expulsion
personal violence incest
girl under 13 infanticide
exterminator manslaughter
deception seduction

II. Read three articles provided by the Romanian Criminal Law on the offences
committed against the person. Translate them into English.

3.8. TEMA DE CONTROL 1

Write a concise presentation (450-500 words) of a famous Romanian case.

Această temă de control trebuie încăcată în contul dumneavoastră, pe platforma


eLis, la rubrica TEME ONLINE, cu o săptămână înainte de primul tutorial.

Tema de control 1 reprezintă 15% din nota dumneavoastră finală.

3.9. BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Caraiman, Carmen Daniela (2013). Limba engleza pentru juristi. Bucureşti:


Editura Universitară
2. Dracsineanu, Cătălin; Haraga, Radu (2012). Manual de limba engleză pentru
profesionişti. Iaşi: Editura Polirom
3. Walenn, Jeremy (2009). English for law in higher education studies. London:
Garnet Publishing.

27
Unit 4: VERB PATTERNS

Cuprins:

4.1. Introducere
4.2. Obiective
4.3. Conţinut
4.4. Dezvoltare lexicală
4.5. Să ne reaminitim
4.6. Rezumat
4.7. Test
4.8. Bibliografie

4.1. INTRODUCERE

După parcurgerea acestei unităţi, veţi putea folosi în mod corect construcțiile
infinitivale cu acuzativul și nominativul, care sunt extrem de uzuale în limba engleză.

4.2. OBIECTIVE

După studierea acestei unități, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


 să folosească în corect construcțiile infinitivale cu acuzativul și nominativul;
 să identifice situațiile de folosire a acestor construcții în vorbirea curentă (mai
ales după verbe la pasiv).

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute.

4.3. CONȚINUT

VERB PATTERNS

The nominative with the infinitive represents a combination of:

a Noun or Pronoun in the Nominative case + an infinitive

There are no such constructions in Romanian, we generally translate the construction


by means of clauses. The nominative with infinitive is a complex subject.

Examples:
 He is known to be a good student.
Se ştie că este un student bun.

28
 He was said to have made an oral confession.
Se spunea că ar fi făcut o mărturisire.

 He is said to be a good doctor.


Se spune că este un doctor bun

 He is said to have won the gold cup.


Se spune că ar fi câştigat cupa de aur.

The construction is used:


1. With the following verbs in the passive voice: verbs expressing perception – to hear,
to see, to fell, to watch, to notice, to perceive; verbs expressing mental activities – to
consider, to think, to suppose, to find, to feel, to understand; the verb to say and to
report.

PAY ATTENTION THAT MOST OF THESE VERBS ARE ALSO USED IN THE
ACCUSATIVE WITH INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION.

Examples to be compared:

 I heard him sing (Acc + inf)/He was heard to sing (Nom. + inf)
A fost auzit cântând/ A fost auzit în timp ce cânta.

 They knew you to be right (Acc+inf)


Se ştia (de către ei) că ai dreptate.

 You were known to be right (Nom. + inf)


Se ştia că ai dreptate.

 I expect you to come (Acc+inf)


Mă aștept să vii./Te aștept să vii (ton imperativ).
You were expected to come (Nom. + inf)
Trebuia să vii.

2. With the verbs to seem, to appear, to happen, to prove, to turn out:

e.g. I happen to know them.


Se întâmplă să-i cunosc/ Întâmplător îi cunosc.

The boy proved to be very good at mathematics.


Băiatul se dovedi a fi foarte bun la matematică.

The deal turned out to have been a failure.


Afacerea s-a dovedit a fi fost un eşec.

3. With the word-groups to be likely, to be sure/certain.

e.g. He is sure to learn the rule.


Va învăţa regula negreşit.

29
They are likely to attend the conference.
E probabil ca ei să asiste la conferinţă/ După toate probabilităţile, vor asista la
conferinţă.

!!! A characteristic feature of the nominative with infinitive is that it may be


extended into a clause introduced by IT.

e.g. He is known to be a good lawyer. =>> It is known that he is a good lawyer.

I happen to remember them. =>> It happened that I remember them.

He is likely to be late. =>> It is probable that he will be late.

I. Correct the mistakes in the sentences below:

1. I happen remembering this person.


……………………………………………………………………………..
2. Manslaughter is thought not being as serious a crime as murder.
………………………………………………………….............................
3. She turned out being the most important witness at the trial.
.………………………………………………………………………………..

II. Transform the following sentences using the nominative with infinitive
constructions:
Model:

a. It seemed that she was worrying b. She seemed to be worrying


a. I asked him to leave b. He was asked to leave
a. It seemed that they had come together b. They seemed to have come together

1. It happened that I knew him.


2. It happened that we had met before.
3. Susan believed her husband to be greatest actor in the world.
4. It chanced that her brother was present.
5. We determined the man to tell the truth.
6. It is known that water boils at 1000C.
7. The Browns asked Jim to have dinner with them.
8. Why didn’t you allow the boy to play in the garden?
9. It was reported that he had found his death two days ago.
10. I persuaded him to come to the pictures with me.

4.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR

I. Replace the group of words underlined by an infinitive or an infinitive


construction:
Model:
 It is important that he should understand this.
It is important for him to understand this.

30
 He was the first man who arrived.
He was the first man to arrive.

1. I was astonished when I heard that he had left the country.


2. It is necessary that everyone should know the truth.
3. It seems that crime was committed by a left-handed man.
4. It is expected that he will broadcast a statement tonight.
5. It is said that he was a brilliant scientist.
6. It is advisable that we should leave the house separately.
7. It is said that the murderer is hiding in the woods near the house.
8. Is it likely that he will arrive before six?
9. It is said that she has a frightful temper.
10. They believe that he is honest.
11. It is better that he should hear it from you.
12. The strikers decided that the strike should continue.

II. Transform the following sentences into one, using accusative with infinitive:

Model:
a. I asked him.
I asked him to bring me the book
b. He brought me the book.
a. George saw his sister.
George saw his sister open the door
b. She opened the door.

1. I expected him.
He came by plane.
2. Ralph wanted Barbara.
Barbara lent Richard her dictionary.
3. We noticed the sky.
It turned dark.
4. They prevailed upon the man.
He came to the meeting.
5. Did Mr. Thomas persuade him?
He went to Bath.
6. I heard the little birds.
They sang early in the morning.
7. We saw Mrs. Brown
She went out.
8. The boys helped their little brother.
He passed over the bridge.

II. Translate into English

1. Se presupune că el a fost martor la accident.


2. Se ştie că hoţul a furat maşina în timpul nopţii.
3. S-a raportat că ea este în viaţă.
4. El s-a dovedit a fi un martor mincinos..
5. Se crede că a intrat în ţară ilegal.
6. Se spune că cei doi tineri au jefuit o bancă.
7. Se aşteaptă de la tine să depui mărturie.

31
8. Se consideră de către instanţă că el este vinovat de crimă.
9. Sunt sigur că argumentele mele o vor face să se răzgândească.
10. L-am sfătuit să renunţe la slujba aceea.
11. Se gândeşte să participe la acest concurs.
12. Ei au insistat să mă duc acolo în seara aceea.

4.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM...

Această unitate de învățare prezintă o temă importantă în gramatica limbii


engleze: folosirea corectă a formelor de infinitiv (scurt, lung, perfect, continuu) după
anumite verbe/prepoziții/în cadrul unor fraze + o formă de nominativ/acuzativ.
În limba engleză, așa cum am spus mai sus, putem vorbi despre mai multe
forme de infinitiv:
 infinitivul scurt (fără to): commit, prosecute, seize etc.
 infinitivul lung (cu particula to): to commit, to prosecute, to seize etc.
 infinitivul perfect: to have committed, to have prosecuted, to have seized etc.
 infinitivul perfect pasiv: to have been committed, to have been prosecuted, to
have been seized etc.
 infinitivul continuu: to be committing, to be prosecuting, to be seizing etc.

4.6. REZUMAT

Construcțiile infinitivale cu nominativul apar în special după/pe lângă:


 o formă verbală la diateza pasivă (infinitivul lung)
 expresii de tipul: to be likely, to be unlikely, to be sure, to be certain etc.
 verbe de tipul: seem, appear, turn out, prove (infinitivul lung).
Construcțiile infinitivale cu acuzativul apar după:
 verbe precum: advise, recommend
 verbe de percepție: see, hear, notice etc.
 prepozițiile corelative for ... to.

Vom continua recapitularea principalelor reguli de folosire a limbii engleze în


următoarele unităţi ale acestui manual.

4.7. TEST

I. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. Make any necessary changes:

I (sit) in my office the other day when I (tell) that someone (want) (see) me. It was Ana
Radulescu, an old friend of mine. My personal assistant (invite) her in and (ask) us
what we (want) to drink. After she (bring) us coffee and water she (leave) us alone.
When I (ask) Ana how she (be), she (tell) me a rather sad story. She told me that she
(have) to close down her business because of financial difficulties and that she look for
a job. She (add) that she (be) in such situation because she (not listen) to those who
(advise) her to hire a good accountant. If she (not find) a job quickly, she (be) in
serious trouble. She (ask) me whether I (can) (do) anything (help) her (find) something
interesting. I (assure) her (do) my best and (ask) her (call) me in a few days.

32
II. Rephrase the following sentences using a Nominative + Infinitive construction:

1. It is supposed that they are living at the same address.


2. It is unlikely for our client to have a remission of the penalty.
3. It is said that he is a good judge.
4. It is thought that the author of the crime is left-handed.
5. It is certain that the team will collaborate well.

4.8. BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Caraiman, Carmen Daniela (2013). Limba engleza pentru juristi. Bucureşti:


Editura Universitară
2. Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar. Practice Book,
Bucureşti: ALL Educational
3. Seidl, Jennifer; Schwarz, Hellmut (2012). English Grammar, Bucureşti: ALL
Educational

33
Unit 5: OFFENCES AGAINST PERSON II

Cuprins:

5.1. Introducere
5.2. Obiective
5.3. Conţinut
5.4. Dezvoltare lexicală și traducere
5.5. Să ne reaminitim
5.6. Rezumat
5.7. Test
5.8. Bibliografie

5.1. INTRODUCERE

În această unitate vom continua să oferim informaţii despre câteva dintre cele
mai importante infracţiuni îndreptate împotriva persoanei, așa cum sunt acestea
prevăzute de legislația americană în vigoare.

5.2. OBIECTIVE

După studierea acestei unități, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


 să enumere și să definească o parte dintre cele mai frecvente tipuri de
infracțiuni comise împotriva persoanei, așa cum sunt acestea definite de legea
penală americană;
 să enumere și să definească o parte dintre cele mai frecvente tipuri de
infracțiuni comise împotriva persoanei, așa cum sunt acestea definite de Codul
Penal Român;
 să folosească în mod corect termenii de specialitate studiați în această unitate
de învățare.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 de minute.

5.3. CONȚINUT

OFFENCES AGAINST PERSON II

UNNATURAL OFFENCES

a) Gross indecency appears when a male person commits an act of gross indecency
with another male person. It is punishable of two to five years.
b) Persistently soliciting in a public place for immoral purposes is also an arrestable

34
offence.
c) Homosexual acts are not offences when they are committed in private, with both
parties’ consent, and they have attained the age of 21 years. Any homosexual act
committed outside the scope of the above provisions is an offence.

INDECENCY

a) Indecent language or behaviour is gross outrage on public decency and represents


a common law misdemeanour.
b) Indecency with children means committing an act of gross indecency with or
towards a child under 14 years or determining such a child do such an act with
him or any other person.
c) Abduction means to take away by force or fraud. Here we include abduction of a
woman by force or for the sake of her property; abduction of an unmarried girl
under the age of 18.

PROSTITUTION

A prostitute is a person who, for rewards offers his or body for sexual connection.

a) Loitering or soliciting for the purpose of prostitution. It is an offence for a


common prostitute to loiter or solicit in a street or public place for the purposes
of prostitution. The police can arrest without warrant anyone he suspects to be a
prostitute in the street or public place.

b) Trading in prostitution is an offence of any man living wholly or in part of the


earning of prostitution. It is an arrestable offence punishable with seven years of
imprisonment.

c) Habitual uses of premises for prostitution.

ASSAULTS AND WOUNDINGS

a) Assaults are intentional or reckless acts causing another person unlawful personal
violence. Justifiable assaults happen under the following circumstances:
administrating lawful correction (parents punishing their children); self-defence,
defence of a member of the family; defence of property.

There are more kinds of assaults:


 Common assault (beating a person);
 Aggravated assault (by violence);
 Assault with intent to resist arrest;
 Assaults on police.

b) Woundings are of two kinds:

 Grievous bodily harms are unlawful and malicious woundings; it is an


arrestable offence, punished with five years imprisonment;
 Grievous bodily harms with intent are unlawful and malicious woundings; the
penalty is life imprisonment.

35
I. Correct the mistakes in the sentences below:

1. Gross indecency is punished with 1 year imprisonment in the USA.


……………………………………………………………………………..
2. The police cannot arrest without warrant anyone he suspects to be a prostitute in the
street or public place.
………………………………………………………….............................
3. Grievous bodily harm is punished with 3 years imprisonment in the USA.
.………………………………………………………………………………

II. Answer the following questions:

1. When does gross indecency appear?


2. Are homosexual acts arrestable offences?
3. What do you mean by abduction?
4. What is a prostitute?
5. What is the punishment for trading in prostitution?
6. What are intention assaults?
7. What do you mean by justifiable assaults?
8. What kinds of assaults do you know?
9. What types of woundings do you know?
10. Give some examples of assaults and woundings.

5.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR

I. A crime is any act or omission (of an act) that violates the law and is punishable
by the state. Crimes are considered injurious to society or the community. They
include both felonies (more serious offences – like murder or rape) and
misdemeanours (like petty theft or speeding). A criminal is someone who commits
a crime.
Read the following 12 phrases using the word criminal. Link each phrase to its
definition.

Phrase Definition
1. Court of Criminal a. Barrister or solicitor who specialises in felonies and
Appeal misdemeanours.
2. Criminal contempt b. A person charged with or convicted of crimes against
humanity.
3. Criminal negligence c. Previous crimes of which an individual has been
convicted.
4. Criminal court d. Rules governing the investigation of crimes, the arrest
charging, and trial of accused criminals; and the sentencing
of those convicted (found guilty of a crime).
5. Criminal law e. One of the higher courts of law which hears cases sent
up for review.
6. Criminal lawyer f. Disorderly behaviour, disrespect, or disobedience of a
judge’s orders, particularly during a trial.
7. Criminal procedure g. A person who repeatedly commits offences.
8. Criminal record h. Where an individual fails to exercise a duty of care and

36
the resulting action leads to the commission of a crime.
9. Habitual criminal i. The branch of law which deals with felonies and
misdemeanours.
10. Criminal liability k. A court with jurisdiction to hear felonies and
misdemeanours.
11. War criminal l. Responsibility for committing a crime (excluded persons
include minors and insane).

II. Read the following 14 crimes. Firstly, link each crime to its definition and then
classify each crime as violent (V) or non-violent (NV):

NAME OF CRIME DEFINITION OF CRIME

a. Assault 1. A generic term for the killing of another person


b. Drug dealing 2. Any instance in which one party deceives or takes unfair
advantage of another
c. Money laundering 3. Attempt to use illegal force on another person
d. Battery 4. Attempt to use illegal force on another person in the
absence of consent to sexual relations
e. Homicide 5. Attempt to transform illegally acquired money into
apparently legitimate money
f. Manslaughter 6. Driving a vehicle in excess of the permitted limit
g. Fraud 7. Leaving one’s vehicle in an area or for duration in
contravention of the law
h. Murder 8. Possession of and/or trading illegal substances
i. Armed robbery 9. Taking the property of another without right or
permission
j. Sexual assault 10. The actual use of illegal force on another person
k. Burglary 11. The crime of breaking into a private home with the
intention of committing a felony
l. Theft 12. The unlawful killing of a person with intent
m. Parking 13. The unlawful killing of a person without malicious
intent and therefore without premeditation
n. Speeding 14. The unlawful taking of another’s property using a
dangerous weapon.

5.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM...

Această unitate de învățare ne oferă câteva informații cu caracter general despre o parte
din infracțiunile îndreptate împotriva persoanei, așa cum sunt acestea definite de legea
penală americană: UNNATURAL OFFENCES, INDECENCY, PROSTITUTION,
ASSAULTS AND WOUNDINGS.

5.6. REZUMAT

În această unitate se face referire la următoarele infracțiuni: UNNATURAL


OFFENCES (perversiuni sexuale), INDECENCY (exhibitionismul, limbajul obscen,
publicarea de materiale obscene), PROSTITUTION (prostituția), ASSAULTS AND

37
WOUNDINGS (lovirile și rănirile).

5.7. TEST

I. Read the following words and phrases, then link each item to its definition.

1. to appeal a. Permission of the court to institute appeal proceedings from a


single judge or lower court to a full court or higher court
respectively
2. Appellate b. The person against whom an appeal is taken (usually, but not
always, the winner in the lower court)
3. Appealable c. To ask more senior court or person to review a decision of a
subordinate court or person
4. Leave to d. A court to which appeals are made on points of law resulting
appeal from the judgement of a lower court
5. Appellant e. Describes a judgement which can be appealed against
6. Court of f. Money put up by someone appealing a court’s decision. This
appeal money is to pay the other side’s costs in case the person
appealing fails to go forward with an honest appeal
7. Appellee g. A party who appeals against a judicial decision which is not in
that party’s favour
8. Appeal bond h. Refers to a higher court that can hear appeals from a lower
court

II. Complete the following text about appellate procedure using the
words/expressions above:

_______ procedure consists of the rules and practices by which a _______


reviews trial court judgements. The procedure focuses on several main themes:
- what judgements are ______________;
- how an __________ is to be brought before the court,
- what will be required for a reversal of the lower courts;
- what procedures the parties must follow.
Often an ________ will be requested by the _______, who is seeking a review
of the decision of a subordinate court or person. The other party, the _____, is usually,
but not always, the winner in the lower court.

5.8. BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Caraiman, Carmen Daniela (2013). Limba engleza pentru juristi. Bucureşti:


Editura Universitară
2. Dracsineanu, Cătălin; Haraga, Radu (2012). Manual de limba engleză pentru
profesionişti. Iaşi: Editura Polirom
3. Walenn, Jeremy (2009). English for law in higher education studies. London:
Garnet Publishing.

38
Unit 6: NOUNS AND PREPOSITIONS

Cuprins:

6.1. Introducere
6.2. Obiective
6.3. Conţinut
6.4. Dezvoltare lexicală și traducere
6.5. Să ne reaminitim
6.6. Rezumat
6.7. Test
6.8. Temă de control 2
6.9. Bibliografie

6.1. INTRODUCERE

Această ultimă unitate cuprinde o serie de exerciţii menite să atragă atenţia studenţilor
asupra prepoziţiilor utilizate după substantive în limba engleză.

6.2. OBIECTIVE

După studierea acestei unități, studentul trebuie să fie capabil să folosească în mod
corect prepoziţiile.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute.

6.3. CONȚINUT

NOUNS AND PREPOSITIONS

 It can be difficult to know what preposition comes after a noun.

The insurance industry last week published a code of practice on genetics. It says
companies will seek medical advice on how to interpret tests.

Internal reorganisation was cited as the main reason for redundancies by49.8%
of the organisations surveyed.

The English do not put the same resources into language teaching as others, and
since the 17th century there has never been any particular interest in foreign

39
languages.

 Here is a list of nouns and the prepositions that follow them:

attention to detail interest in my idea the solution to the problem


a cheque for $2.000 a need for change a vote of confidence
a value for money an order for goods an application for a grant
a fall of 3% a request for more time the alternative to job cuts
a rise in prices the return on the reason for the change
a rise of 5% investment fall in demand
a tax on cigarettes

 Prepositional phrases. Prepositional phrases are formed when a noun


follows a preposition. All the phrases below are common:

AT your disposal / our expense / your risk / short notice


BEYOND our control / reasonable doubt / our wildest dreams
BY accident / law / mistake
IN advance / arrears / bulk / demand / debt / force / due course / full /
good condition / stock / transit
ON approval / arrival / closer inspection / delivery / display / loan /
regular basis / sale / schedule
OUT OF date / order / stock / work
THROUG the usual channels / no fault of your own
H
UNDER pressure / separate cover / way
WITHIN a week / the next few months

I. Complete these sentences with a suitable preposition:

1. Thank you for your interest ______ our proposal.


2. There has been a fall ______ demand for their products.
3. There has been a fall ______ 2.5% in the volume of sales.
4. What was the reason ______ his resignation?
5. The government is increasing the tax ______ cigarettes.
6. I made out a cheque ______ 300 euros.
7. She is meticulous and pays great attention ______ detail.
8. Plans are ______ way for a new link road.

II. Which preposition completes each set of three sentences?

a) The error was due to circumstances _______ our control.


It started off good-humouredly but then went _______ a joke.
Roger Penrose, _______ a doubt, is one of the great minds of our time.
b) _______ law, you have to carry an identity card in many countries.
I met her quite _______ chance in the street in Munich.
Someone left the door open _______ mistake.

c) I will be in touch _______ due course.


We’re _______ luck; there’s still one left.

40
The debt must be paid _______ full by 31 January.

d) Mr Evans will meet you _______ your arrival.


I don’t always use the car; I try to go _______ foot whenever possible.
The goods seemed all right, but _______ closer inspection at least 30% were
defective.

e) Mr Gonzales cannot see you _______ such short notice.


A chauffeur-driven car will be put _______ your disposal.
I attended the reception _______ the chairman’s invitation.

III. Complete each sentence by using a word or phrase from the list. Use each
word once only.

at by for in on off out of to under without

a. Police officers don't have to wear uniform when they are _________ duty.
b. I feel very tired._________ times I consider giving up work.
c. The children were all upset, and some were _________ tears.
d. This factory needs modernising. Everything here is _________ date.
e. Don't worry, everything is _________ control.
f. Sorry, I seem to have taken the wrong umbrella _________ mistake.
g. Please hurry. We need these documents _________ delay.
h. That wasn't an accident! You did it _________ purpose.
i. We thought the two films were very similar _________ a great extent.
j. We decided to take a holiday in Wales _________ a change.

6.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR

I. Choose the most suitable phrase.

a) I can't disturb John now. He's at bed / in bed.


b) Tony always arrives exactly in time / on time for his lesson.
c) Two pounds for each ticket, that makes £12 in all / with all.
d) I can't pick that last apple. It's out of hand / out of reach.
e) Joe and I met on the plane completely by chance / by surprise.
f) The children spend most of their time out of doors / out of place.
g) I'm sorry but Jane isn't here at present / at a time.
h) How can Sam love Lucy? They have nothing in common / in general.
i) They should be here soon. They are in the way / on the way.
j) Terry isn't here. He's away in business / on business.

II. Complete each sentence with a suitable word from the list. Use each word once
only.

breath fail impression secret strike


costs hurry return stock words

a) This is important. You must catch the two men at all _________.

41
b) He says he's ill. Or in other _______, he doesn't want to come.
c) I was under the _______ that you enjoyed working here.
d) Sorry, I can't stop. I'm in a _______.
e) Please hand your work in on Tuesday, without _______.
f) We can't go by train. The train-drivers are on _______.
g) Martin is supposed to have given up smoking, but he smokes in _______.
h) I'm afraid we don't have your size, we are out of _______.
i) If I give you the information, what will you give me in _______?
j) I ran for the bus, and now I'm out of _______.

III. Complete each sentence with a suitable word from the list. Use each word
once only.

average force particular profit sight


detail himself practice public whole

a. Harry managed to sell his house at a _________.


b. What was he doing here all by _______?
c. Larry is so famous that he doesn't appear in _______ very often.
d. That was a terrible shot! I'm rather out of _______.
e. How many cars do you sell, on _______, every week?
f. The police are coming! Stay out of _______ until they leave.
g. I might be able to help you. What do you want to know in _______?
h. I suppose I enjoyed my holiday on the _______.
i. Can you tell me about the plans in _______?
j. The gun had to be taken away from David by _______.

IV. Complete each sentence with one of the phrases from the list. Use each phrase
once only.

by heart in difficulties in turn on holiday out of work


by sight in pain in two on sale without a doubt

a) When I sat on the pencil, it broke _________.


b) Most of the people in the office are _______ at the moment.
c) This is _______ the best washing machine on the market.
d) Graham has been _______ ever since he came to London.
e) I know her _______, but I don't know her name.
f) The lifeguard dived in to save a swimmer _______.
g) John learned his first speech _______.
h) Why don't you share the bike? You can ride it ___________.
i) You could tell he was _______ by the way he kept groaning.
j) Cigarettes and ice-cream are _______ in the foyer.

V. Complete each sentence with one of the phrases from the list. Use each phrase
once only.

at any rate by surprise in person out of danger out of tune


by all means from now on in private out of order under orders

42
a. Jim's excuse was that he was acting _________ from his boss.
b. Things have changed. _______, no-one will leave before 5.00.
c. Thank goodness. All the passengers are now ___________.
d. The president would like to meet you and thank you _______.
e. Your violin sounds awful! I think it's ___________.
f. It's a warm country. We won't need our pullovers, _______.
g. Excuse me, but I'd like to have a word with you _______.
h. You can't use the phone. It's ___________.
i. The news about Shirley took me completely _______.
j. Yes, of course. Take the chairs, _______.

6.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM...

UNITARY (adjective)

1. (specialist) (of a country or an organization) consisting of a number of areas or


groups that are joined together and are controlled by one government or group

 a single unitary state


 (British English) a unitary authority (= a type of local council, introduced in
some areas from 1995 to replace existing local governments which consisted of
county and district councils)

2. (formal) single; forming one unit

FEDERAL (adjective)

1. having a system of government in which the individual states of a country have
control over their own affairs, but are controlled by a central government for national
decisions, etc.

 a federal republic

2. (within a federal system, for example the US and Canada) connected with national
government rather than the local government of an individual state

 a federal law
 state and federal income taxes

DELEGATE [verb]

1. [intransitive, transitive] to give part of your work, power or authority to somebody
in a lower position than you

 Some managers find it difficult to delegate.


 delegate (something) (to somebody) The job had to be delegated to an
assistant.

2. [transitive] delegate somebody to do something [usually passive] = to choose

43
somebody to do something

 I've been delegated to organize the Christmas party.

JURISDICTION (noun)

1. [uncountable, countable] jurisdiction (over somebody/something); jurisdiction


(of somebody/something) (to do something) = the authority that an official
organization has to make legal decisions about somebody/something

 The Court of Appeal exercised its jurisdiction to order a review of the case.
 These matters do not fall within our jurisdiction.

2. [countable] an area or a country in which a particular system of laws has authority

Practice varies between different European jurisdictions.

6.6. REZUMAT

 Many nouns have particular prepositions which normally follow them.


 A good learner’s dictionary will tell you which prepositions to use after or
before nouns.

6.7. TEST

(I) Fill in the blanks with the correct preposition: FOR / IN / BY / ON.

1. _______ my opinion, she would make a splendid wife.


2. I'm afraid I took your coat _______ mistake.
3. Where would you like to go _______ holiday this year?
4. Where should we go _______ a drink?
5. That book was written _______ Stephen King.
6. Donata came across the business idea _______ accident!
7. She bought a painting _______ Waterhouse.
8. We went _______ a short business trip to Gdansk.
9. Would you like to come _______ a walk with me?
10. He fell _______ love with Joanna over the course of several months.
11. How long were you _______ the phone for?
12. What did you have _______ lunch?
13. I'm afraid it's time for her to go _______ a diet.
14. Did you see Donata _______ chance?
15. Let's drive today. I think the bus drivers are _______ strike.

II. Fill in the blanks by using one of the following prepositional phrases:

 In support of = în ajutorul, în spijinul


 In the center of/in the heart of = în centrul, în mijlocul
 For lack of/for want of = din lipsă de

44
 In consideration of/in recognition of = ca răsplata pentru, ca recunoaştere a
 In danger of = în pericol de
 In the employ of/in the pay of/in the service = în slujba, în plata, în serviciul
 In the center of / in the thick of = în centrul
 Under the command of/under the order of = sub ordinele
 In accordance with/in compliance with = în conformitate cu / în înţelegere cu
 In the eyes, in the sight of = în ochii
 Out of keeping with = în contrast, în opoziţie, în dezacord cu
 In spite of = în ciuda

1. His work couldn’t be finished ______ information.


2. Our plans were ____ being given up.
3. The scenery was ___ the atmosphere play.
4. The two friends have always been _____ all disputes.
5. The troops are ______ the best of our generals.
6. We are called to solve this matter _______ the needs of our theatre.
7. He is guilty _____ the court.
8. Our trip wasn’t cancelled ___ the bad weather.
9. Our home is placed _____ the town.
10. The trial found the officer ______ a foreign power.
11. My friend was promoted _____ his merits.
12. This is a new reason ____ my proposal.

III. Which is correct?

1. All her dreams have _____ true.


a) become b) come c) gone d) taken

2. I got your name and address from a friend of _______.


a) me b) mine c) my d) myself

3. They all shake hands and said “How do you do!” to _________.
a) another b) each other c) one another d) themselves

4. Do you want ______?


a) me going b) me to go c) my going d) that I go

5. He suggested ______ the house together


a) that you should search b) for them to search
c) to their searching d) to them to search

6. We look forward ________ you here.


a) at having b) having c) to have d) to having

7. Instead ______ the car, he mowed the lawn.


a) of repairing b) repairing c) that he repaired d) o repair

8. The ring was nowhere to _____.


a) be found b) being found c) find d) found

45
9. There were no decent flats _______ in those day
a) for having b) to be had c) to have d) to have had

10. I’m sure you’ll find lots of pleasant things _______ here in London
a) for doing b) to be done c) to do d) to doing.

6.8. TEMA DE CONTROL 2

Write a documented paper (450-500 words) on one of the following topics:

1. The evolution of punishment for homicide under the Romanian legal system (1864-
present).

OR

2. Juvenile crime: contemporary methods of punishment & their effectiveness.

Această temă de control trebuie încăcată în contul dumneavoastră, pe platforma


eLis, la rubrica TEME ONLINE, cu o săptămână înainte de cel de-al doilea tutorial.

Tema de control 2 reprezintă 15% din nota dumneavoastră finală.

6.9. BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Caraiman, Carmen Daniela (2013). Limba engleza pentru juristi. Bucureşti:


Editura Universitară
2. Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar. Practice
Book, Bucureşti: ALL Educational
3. Seidl, Jennifer; Schwarz, Hellmut (2012). English Grammar, Bucureşti: ALL
Educational

46
LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS

TRANSLATION
INFINITIVE PAST TENSE PAST PARTICIPLE
INTO ROMANIAN
to arise arose arisen a se ridica
to awake awoke/awaked awaked a se trezi
to be was/were been a fi
to bear bore borne a purta
born a naşte
to beat beat beaten a bate
to become became become a deveni
to begin began begun a începe
to bend bent bent a îndoi
to bid bid bid a ruga
to bind bound bound a lega
to bite bit bitten a muşca
to bleed bled bled a sângera
to blow blew blown a sufla
to break broke broken a sparge
to breed bred bred a creşte
a educa
to bring brought brought a aduce
to build built built a clădi
to burn burnt burnt a arde
to burst burst burst a crăpa
to buy bought bought a cumpăra
to cast cast cast a arunca
to catch caught caught a prinde
to choose chose chosen a alege
to come came come a veni
to cost cost cost a costa
to creep crept crept a se târî
to cut cut cut a tăia
to know knew known a şti
to lay laid laid a pune
to lead led led a conduce
to leave left left a lăsa
to lend lent lent a împrumuta
to let let let a lăsa
to lie lay lain a zăcea
to lose lost lost a pierde
to make made made a face
to mean meant meant a însemna
to meet met met a întâlni
to pay paid paid a plăti
to put put put a pune
to read read read a citi
to ride rode ridden a călări

47
to ring rang rung a suna
to rise rose risen a răsări
to run ran run a alerga
to say said said a spune
to see saw seen a vedea
to seek sought sought a căuta
to sell sold sold a vinde
to send sent sent a trimite
to set set set a pune
to shake shook shaken a scutura
to shoot shot shot a împuşca
to show showed shown a arăta
to shrink shrank shrunk a se strânge
to shut shut shut a închide
to sing sang sung a cânta
to sink sank sunk a se scufunda
to sit sat sat a şedea
to sleep slept slept a dormi
to speak spoke spoken a vorbi
to spend spent spent a cheltui
to spring sprang sprung a izvorî
to stand stood stood a sta
to steal stole stolen a fura
to stick stuck stuck a lipi
to strike struck struck a lovi
to swear swore sworn a jura
to sweep swept swept a mătura
to swim swam swum a înota
to take took taken a lua
to teach taught taught a învăţa
to tear tore torn a rupe
to tell told told a spune
to think thought thought a se gândi
to throw threw thrown a arunca
to understand understood understood a înţelege
to wake woke woken a se trezi
to wear wore worn a purta
to weep wept wept a plânge
to win won won a câştiga
to wind wound wound a răsuci
to write wrote written a scrie

48

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