Sunteți pe pagina 1din 16

TEST OF SYMMETRY

SYMMETRY TEST OF SYMMETRY


X-Axis f(-y)=f(y)
Y-axis f(-x)=f(x)
Origin -f(x)=f(x)
Diagonal f(xy)=f(yx)

ROOTS OF MULTIPLICITY
MULTIPLICITY GRAPH
EVEN GRAPH DOES NOT CROSS
ODD GRAPH CROSSES THE AXIS

LIMIT AS IT APPROACHES +∞

CONDITION LIMIT
DEGREE OF P(x) = Q(x) IF DEGREE BOTH ARE
POSITIVE: +∞
OTHERWISE, -∞
DEGREE OF P(x) < Q(x) 0
DEGREE OF P(x) > Q(x) QUOTIENT OF THE
COEFFICIENTS OF THE
HIGHEST DEGREE TERMS
PANGNGALAN NOUN
PANGHALIP PRONOUN
PANG-URI ADJECTIVE
PANG-ABAY ADVERB
PANDIWA VERB
PANG-UKOL PREPOSITIONS
PANGATNIG CONJUNCTIONS

Ng Nang
 Sagot sa ano at sino  Katumbas ng noon,
 Bilang pang-ukol upang, para, when, in
(preposition) order/so that
 Pag-aari  Sinusundan ng pang-
 Sinusundan ng abay (adverb)
pangngalan  Inuulit na salita
 Sinusundan ng  Na+na
taggawa ng pandiwa  Na+ng
 Na+ang

Pinto Pintuan
Door Doorway
“Buksan mo ang pinto.” “Natanggal ang pinto sa
pintuan.”
May Mayroon
 Sinusundan ng  Sinusundan ng
pangngalan, pandiwa, ingklitik/kataga
pang-uri, panghalip  Sinusundan ng
na paari, mga, sa panghalip na palagyo
 Pamalit sa
“mayaman”

Hagdan Hagdanan
Stairs Stairway
Inakyat niya ang “Ilagay mo ang hagdanan
hagdan. sa tapat ng bintana.”

Pahiran/Punasan Pahirin/Punasin
To apply (lagyan) Wipe off (tanggalin o
alisin)

Subukan Subukin
To see secretly To test/try

Walisin Walisan
Specific na bagay lugar
Ooperahin Ooperahan
Specific organ general

Iwan Iwanan
To leave To leave something to
somebody

Bumili Magbili
To buy To sell(magbenta)

Pam-p,b
Hal. pampunas

Pan-d, l, r, s, t
Hal. pantakip

Pang-(patinig, atbp.)
Hal. pang-almusal

Walang gitling kung may 3rd meaning.


Hal. Bahaghari
MOLECULAR GEOMETRY OF MOLECULES:

3 LINEAR NONPOLAR
3 BENT POLAR
4 TRIGONAL PLANAR NONPOLAR
4 TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL POLAR
5 TETRAHEDRAL NONPOLAR
5 SEE-SAW SHAPED POLAR
6 TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL NONPOLAR
6 SQUARE PYRAMIDAL POLAR

HYDROCARBONS ARE USUALLY NONPOLAR.


IF ELECTRONEGATIVITY DIFFERENCE IS >0.4,
THERE EXISTS A POLAR BOND. THEREFORE,
THE MOLUECULE IS A POLAR MOLECULE.

ATOMIC MODELS:
 BILLIARD BALL MODEL (JOHN DALTON)
 PLUM PUDDING MODEL (JJ THOMSON)
 NUCLEAR MODEL (ERNEST RUTHERFORD)
 PLANETARY MODEL (NIELS BOHR)
 QUANTUM MODEL
COHESION (CONVEX) ADHESION (CONCAVE)
THE MOLECULES OF THE THE MOLECULES OF THE
LIQUID ARE ATTRACTED LIQUID ARE ATTRACTED
TO ONE ANOTHER AND TO THE TEST TUBE THAN
AVOID THE TEST TUBE. TO ONE ANOTHER.

CONSTANTS:
R=0.0821

G=6.67 N
Avogadro’s number=6.02
(molecules, atoms, electrons,
F.U./mole)
C=3.0
SPEED OF SOUND IN AIR=343m/s

MAGNITUDE – RICHTER SCALE (1-10)


FACTOR OF 10.
INTENSITY – MERCALLI SCALE 1-12.
FORMULAS: People can hear 15-
F= +32
20,000 Hz.
Hz= 1 vibration or
C= cycle per second.
K=C+273 EM SPECTRUM
F=ma (DECREASING
SERIES (CONSTANT WAVELENGTH)
CURRENT)
Radio waves
RT=R1+R2+…+Rn Microwaves
PARALLEL (CONSTANT Infrared
VOLTAGE) Visible light
1/RT= UV rays
1/R1+1/R2+…+1/Rn X-ray
V=IR Gamma rays
P=I2R=V2/R Note: Red light bends
the least. Violet light
MOMENTUM=mv
bends the most.
IMPULSE= CHANGE IN
MOMENTUM
IMPULSE=Ft
F=1/T
CONCAVE RESULTING IMAGE
 REAL, INVERTED,
REDUCED,
BETWEEN C & F.
 REAL, INVERTED,
SAME SIZE,
PARALLEL TO C.
 REAL, INVERTED,
ENLARGED,
BEFORE C.
 NO IMAGE IS
FORMED IF
OBJECT IS AT
FOCAL POINT.
 VIRTUAL,
UPRIGHT,
ENLARGED.
QUESTION ANSWER
Concave vs. Plane mirrors always produce virtual images which are upright and located
Plane mirrors behind the mirror; they are always the same size as the object
Concave mirrors can produce both real and virtual images; they can be upright (if
virtual) or inverted (if real); they can be behind the mirror (if virtual) or in front
of the mirror (if real); they can also be enlarged, reduced, or the same size as
object.
REAL IMAGE Only a concave mirror can be used to produce a real image; and this only occurs
if the object is located at a position of more than one focal length from the
concave mirror.
Plane mirrors never produce real images.
VIRTUAL IMAGE A plane mirror will always produce a virtual image. A concave mirror will only
produce a virtual image if the object is located in front of the focal point.
UPRIGHT IMAGE A plane mirror will always produce an upright image. A concave mirror will only
produce an upright image if the object is located in front of the focal point.
INVERTED Only a concave mirror can be used to produce an inverted image; and this only
IMAGE occurs if the object is located at a position of more than one focal length from
the concave mirror.
Plane mirrors never produce inverted images.
Are all real images No. Real images can be larger than the object, smaller than the object, or the
larger than the object? same size as the object.
SHAPES PROPERTIES
QUADRILATERAL  4 SIDES, 4 VERTICES, INTERIOR ANGLES=360
PARALLELOGRAM  OPPOSITE SIDES AND ANGLES ARE EQUAL
 DIAGONALS BISECT THE ANGLES
 HAS 2 PAIRS OF PARALLEL SIDES
RECTANGLE  HAS 4 RIGHT ANGLES
 DIAGONALS ARE EQUAL
RHOMBUS  ALL SIDES ARE EQUAL
 HAS ALL THE PROPERTIES OF A
PARALLELOGRAM
 DIAGONALS ARE PERPENDICULAR TO EACH
OTHER
SQUARE  HAS ALL THE PROPERTIES OF A
PARALLELOGRAM, RECTANGLE, AND
RHOMBUS
 ALL ANGLES ARE EQUAL (90 )
NOTE:
 A PARALLELOGRAM IS SOMETIMES A RECTANGLE.
 A RHOMBUS IS ALWAYS A PARALLELOGRAM.
 A SQUARE IS ALWAYS A RHOMBUS.
 A TRAPEZOID IS NEVER A PARALLELOGRAM.
 A RHOMBUS IS SOMETIMES A SQUARE.
 A SQUARE IS ALWAYS A PARALLELOGRAM.
 A RHOMBUS IS SOMETIMES A RECTANGLE.
 A SQUARE IS ALWAYS A RECTANGLE.
 A TRAPEZOID NEVER HAS TWO PAIRS OF PARALLEL SIDES.
 A TRAPEZIUM SOMETIMES HAS TWO CONGRUENT SIDES.
 A PARALLELOGRAM SOMETIMES HAS FOUR RIGHT ANGLES.
CONIC SECTIONS:
2 2 2
CIRCLE: (x-h) +(y-k) =r Center: (h,k)
Radius: r
PARABOLA VERTEX (V): (h,k)
VERTICAL AXIS: Focus point (F): (h, k+p)
(x-h)2=4p(y-k) Focal length: |p|
p>0, opening upward Directrix: y=k-p
p<0, opening downward Length of latus rectum: |4p|
HORIZONTAL AXIS: VERTEX (V): (h,k)
2
(y-k) =4p(x-h) Focus point (F): (h+p, k)
p>0, opening to the right Focal length: |p|
p<0, opening to the left Directrix: y=h-p
Length of latus rectum: |4p|
1. If b2-4ac>0, it is a hyperbola.
2
2. If b -4ac<0, it is an ellipse.
3. If b2-4ac=0, it is a circle.
TECHNIQUE: ECCENTRICITY
e= , where c is the distance from the center
to a focus.
a is the distance from the focus to a
vertex.
1. e=1, parabola
2. e=0, circle
3. e<1, ellipse
4. e>1, hyperbola
MIDSEGMENT OF A TRAPEZOID: ½(b1+b2)
POLYGON INTERIOR ANGLE: (n-2)180
INTEREST=
COMPOUND
INTEREST:
ORDER OF ADJECTIVES: DOSSACOMPQ.
Determiner One
Observer lovely,
Size small,
Shape round,
Age new,
Color brown,
Origin Italian,
Material wooden,
Purpose/Qualifier wedding ring.
IN vs. ON vs. AT
in on at
 enclosed space  surface  precise &
 large location  public transport small
 nonspecific  dates & days location
time  names of  event
 abstract streets,  time
(photograph, avenues  address
book)  before map,
farm, island,
holiday website
to into
 +verb of movement &  +verb of movement & a space
final destination  Use for abstract places.
 an invitation/visit to
Ex. Go into the garden.
Run into the house.
Ex. Go to work. He entered the data into the
Go to Oxford. computer.
Note:
Do not use ”to” with the word “home”. = Let’s go home.
Do not use “into” with “enter” for a physical place. = He entered the room.
TOWARD=TOWARDS (INTERCHANGEABLE)
As well as, along with != and