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Earthquake Resistant Buildings made of Reinforced Concrete: Static and


Dynamic Analysis according to Eurocodes

Book · July 2013


DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2881.8082/2

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CONTENTS

1. GENERAL ....................................................................................................................... 15
1.1 Eurocodes ....................................................................................................................... 15
1.2 Units of measurement ..................................................................................................... 16
1.3 Symbols ........................................................................................................................... 17

2. LIMIT STATES DESIGN


2.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 21
2.2 Actions on structures ....................................................................................................... 21
2.2.1 Classification of actions ................................................................................................... 21
2.2.2 Nominal/ Characteristic values of loads ........................................................................... 22
2.2.2.1 Materials self-weights ........................................................................................ 22
2.2.2.2 Floor coverings self-weights .............................................................................. 22
2.2.2.3 Brick masonry loads .......................................................................................... 22
2.2.2.4 Imposed loads ................................................................................................... 24
2.2.2.5 Snow loads and wind loads ............................................................................... 24
2.2.3 Design values of actions ................................................................................................... 24
2.2.3.1 Non-seismic actions ........................................................................................... 24
2.2.3.2 Seismic actions .................................................................................................. 25
2.2.4 Combinations of actions .................................................................................................... 25
2.2.5 Wind influence ................................................................................................................. 26
2.2.6 Effects of indirect actions .................................................................................................. 26
2.3 Effects of actions ............................................................................................................. 27
2.3.1 Deformation-stress definition of structures for combinations without
seismic actions (STR/GEO) [EC0, 6.4.1.] ........................................................................ 27
2.3.2 Deformation-stress definition of structures for combinations with
seismic (or accidental) actions ........................................................................................ 28
2.3.3 Deformation-stress envelope definition ............................................................................ 28
2.4 Strength of structural elements ......................................................................................... 28
2.5 Exercise ............................................................................................................................. 29

3. STRUCTURAL MODEL AND ANALYSIS ....................................................................... 35


3.1 Structural model .............................................................................................................. 35
3.1.1 Effective span of beams and slabs .................................................................................. 35
3.1.2 Effective width of flanges ................................................................................................. 36
3.1.3 Rigit bodies ...................................................................................................................... 38
3.1.4 Diaphragmatic behaviour ................................................................................................ 40
3.2 Seismic loading model..................................................................................................... 41
3.3 Deformations - Stresses .................................................................................................. 44
3.3.1 Frame model ................................................................................................................... 44
3.3.2 Slab analysis ................................................................................................................... 45
3.3.3 Frame analysis ................................................................................................................ 46
3.3.4 The effect of torsional stiffness on indirect beam-beam supports.................................... 56
3.3.5 Modelling floor diaphragms using two-dimensional finite elements ................................. 62
3.3.6 Modelling slabs using members and finite elements ........................................................ 64
3.3.6.1 The frame behaviour in regions of columns ........................................................ 66
3.3.6.2 Deflection of beams ........................................................................................... 68
3.3.6.3 Torsional stiffness of beams ............................................................................... 70
3.3.6.4 Final conclusion ................................................................................................... 71

4 SLABS ............................................................................................................................. 75
4.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 75
4.2 Two-dimensional finite elements ...................................................................................... 77
4.2.1 Assumptions .................................................................................................................... 77
4.2.2 Stress resultants and deflections ..................................................................................... 84
4.2.3 Unfavourable loadings and envelopes of stresses – deflections ................................... 116
4.2.4 Clarifications .................................................................................................................... 129
4.3 Analyses using tables .................................................................................................... 134
4.3.1 Assumptions .................................................................................................................. 134
4.3.2 Application width of concentrated load on slab ............................................................. 134
4.3.3 Distribution width of concentrated load ........................................................................... 135
4.3.4 Support moments of continuous slabs ........................................................................... 140
4.3.5 Contribution of pinned slab supports ............................................................................. 141
4.4 Cantilevers .................................................................................................................... 142
4.4.1 Static analysis ............................................................................................................... 142
4.4.2 Deflection ...................................................................................................................... 142
4.5 One-way slabs ............................................................................................................... 146
4.5.1 Static analysis ............................................................................................................... 146
4.5.2 Deflection ...................................................................................................................... 150
4.5.3 Effective of live load on the static analysis of one-way slabs ........................................ 154
4.5.3.1 Accurate analysis method ................................................................................ 154
4.5.3.2 Simplified method for envelope estimation ....................................................... 162
4.6 Two-way slabs ............................................................................................................... 163
4.6.1 Shear forces and support reaction forces ...................................................................... 163
4.6.1.1 Simplified method ............................................................................................ 163
4.6.1.2 Czerny’s elasticity method ............................................................................... 166
4.6.2 Fundamental support and span moments – Deflections ............................................... 167
4.6.2.1 MARCUS method ............................................................................................ 167
4.6.2.2 CZERNY’s elasticity method ............................................................................ 171
4.6.3 Bending moments in continuous two-way slabs ............................................................ 171
4.6.3.1 Continuous strip method .................................................................................. 171
4.6.3.2 Accurate method (manual) .............................................................................. 173
4.6.3.3 Practically accurate method ............................................................................. 174
4.6.4 Influence of live load ...................................................................................................... 174
4.7 Slabs supported on three edges ................................................................................... 179
4.8 Slabs supported on two adjacent edges ........................................................................ 179
4.9 Exercises ......................................................................................................................... 180

5. SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF FRAMES............................................................................ 209


5.1 One-storey plane frames (or coupled columns) ............................................................ 209
5.1.1 Bending and shearing effect on deformations and stresses .......................................... 209
5.1.2 The degree of fixity effect of columns ............................................................................. 212
5.1.3 The effect of columns moment of inertia........................................................................ 217
5.1.4 The effect of columns differential height ........................................................................ 220
5.1.5 Frame column stiffness ................................................................................................. 224
5.1.5.1 One-storey frame structural systems ............................................................... 225
5.1.5.2 One-storey dual structural systems ................................................................. 229
5.2 Coupled one-storey plane frames ................................................................................. 233
5.3 Multistorey plane frames ............................................................................................... 237
5.3.1 Multistorey plane frame systems ................................................................................... 237
5.3.2 Multistorey plane dual systems ....................................................................................... 240
5.3.3 Comparison of multistorey frame and dual systems ....................................................... 242
5.4 Space frames ................................................................................................................ 251
5.4.1 Diaphragmatic behaviour .............................................................................................. 251
5.4.2 Centre of mass and radius of gyration ........................................................................... 252
5.4.3 Centre of stiffness and elastic displacements of the diaphragm .................................... 254
5.4.3.1 Subject description .......................................................................................... 254
5.4.3.2 Translation of centre of stiffness CT along x direction ...................................... 255
5.4.3.3 Translation of centre of stiffness CT along y direction ...................................... 256
5.4.3.4 Rotation of the diaphragm by an angle θz about CT ......................................... 257
5.4.3.5 Torsional stiffness ellipse, torsional radii and equivalent system ..................... 259
5.4.3.6 Work methodology ........................................................................................... 262
5.4.4 Assessment of building torsional behaviour……. .......................................................... 268
5.4.5 One-storey space frame with rectangular columns in parallel arrangement……. .......... 269
5.4.5.1 Analysis using manual calculations, assuming fixed-ended columns (k=12) ..270
5.4.5.2 Analysis using the Excel file, assuming fixed-ended columns (k=12) .............. 270
5.4.5.3 Analysis using the Excel file, assuming columns with k=6 ............................... 270
5.4.5.4 Analysis using software, assuming actual beam and column
torsional stiffnesses ……………………………………………………………. ..... 270
5.4.6 Multistorey space frame of rectangular columns in parallel arrangement…… ............... 274
5.4.6.1 Analysis using manual calculations, assuming fixed-ended columns (k=12) ..275
5.4.6.2 Analysis using the Excel file, assuming fixed-ended columns (k=12) .............. 275
5.4.6.3 Analysis using the Excel file, assuming columns with k=6 ............................... 275
5.4.6.4 Analysis using software, assuming actual beam and column
torsional stiffnesses ........................................................................................... 275

5.4.7 Exercises ......................................................................................................................... 276

6. SEISMIC ACCELERATIONS AND LOADINGS OF BUILDINGS .................................. 291


6.1 Seismic response of buildings ....................................................................................... 291
6.1.1 Seismic zones [EC8, §3.2.1] ......................................................................................... 291
6.1.2 Importance factors [EC8, §4.2.5] ................................................................................... 292
6.1.3 Ground type [EC8, §3.1.2] ............................................................................................. 292
6.1.4 Viscous damping ............................................................................................................. 294
6.1.5 Behaviour factor q ......................................................................................................... 294
6.1.5.1 Structural types [EC8 §5.2.2.1] ........................................................................ 294
6.1.5.2 Regularity in plan [EC8 §4.2.3.2] ..................................................................... 296
6.1.5.3 Regularity in elevation [EC8 §4.2.3.3].............................................................. 297
6.1.5.4 Ductility classes [EC8 §5.2.1] .......................................................................... 301
6.1.5.5 Basic value of the behaviour factor qo [EC8 §5.2.2.2] ...................................... 302
6.1.5.6 Failure mode factor kw [EC8 §5.2.2.2] .............................................................. 304
6.1.5.7 Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 304
6.1.6 Design spectrum of horizontal seismic actions [EC8, §3.2.2.5 & §3.2.1(3)] .................. 305
6.1.7 Design spectrum of vertical seismic actions [EC8, §3.2.2.5(5)] ..................................... 307
6.2 Dynamic analysis και natural periods of structure ......................................................... 308
6.3 Seismic stresses ............................................................................................................. 311
6.3.1 Seismic accelerations .................................................................................................... 311
6.3.2 Seismic forces, shear forces, bending moments ........................................................... 312
6.3.3 Approximate method for the calculation of seismic accelerations [EC8, §4.3.3.2.2] ...... 313
6.3.4 Cracking and plasticity effects ....................................................................................... 314
6.4 Applications ................................................................................................................... 315
6.4.1 Frame type structure ..................................................................................................... 315
6.4.2 Wall-equivalent dual type structure ............................................................................... 322
6.4.3 Approximate analysis of the frame and wall type structures ......................................... 328
6.5 Loading envelopes .......................................................................................................... 330
6.6 Special cases .................................................................................................................. 333
6.6.1 Columns not belonging in a diaphragm ......................................................................... 333
6.6.2 Vertical component of seismic action [EC8, §4.3.3.5.2]

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: MODELLING SLABS WITH FINITE ELEMENTS

Α.1 Modelling slabs with finite elements in a structural frame ............................................. 337
Α.1.1 The frame behaviour in the regions close to columns................................................... 341
Α.1.1.1 Model using members ..................................................................................... 341
Α.1.1.2 Model with finite elements ............................................................................... 343
Α.1.1.3 First Conclusion ............................................................................................... 344
Α.1.2 Deflection of beams ...................................................................................................... 344
Α.1.2.1 Model using members ..................................................................................... 355
Α.1.2.2 Model using finite elements ............................................................................. 348
Α.1.2.3 Second Conclusion ......................................................................................... 351
Α.1.3 Torsional stiffness of beams ......................................................................................... 351
Α.1.3.1 Model using members ..................................................................................... 352
Α.1.3.2 Model using finite elements ............................................................................. 355
Α.1.3.3 Third Conclusion ............................................................................................. 358
Α.1.3.4 FINAL CONCLUSION ..................................................................................... 358

APPENDIX B: STIFFNESS OF MULTISTOREY PLANE FRAMES

Β.1 Stiffness of frame crossbar ........................................................................................... 361


Β.2 Equivalent multistorey frame – crossbar relative stiffness ............................................ 363
Β.3 Relative stiffness of crossbar column ........................................................................... 364
Β.4 Effect of slabs on stiffnesses using finite elements ....................................................... 365
Β.5 Effect of walls on stiffnesses using finite elements ....................................................... 369
APPENDIX C: DIAPHRAGMATIC BEHAVIOUR OF ONE-STOREY
SPACE FRAME – GENERAL CASE

C.1 Subject description ........................................................................................................ 375


C.2 Axis transformation ....................................................................................................... 377
C.3. Case 1: Translation of centre of stiffness CT along x direction by δxο ............................ 379
C.4 Case 2: Translation of centre of stiffness CT along y direction by δyο ............................ 381
C.5 Case 3: Rotation of the diaphragm by an angle θz about CT ......................................... 382
C.6 Torsional stiffness ellipse, torsional radii and equivalent system .................................. 384
C.7 Superposition of the three cases .................................................................................. 386
C.8 Work Methodology ........................................................................................................ 389
C.9 Expressions relating the initial system X0Y and the principal system xCTy .................. 390
C.10 One-storey space frame with rectangular columns in random arrangement ................ 390
C.10.1 Analysis using manual calculations, assuming fixed columns (k=12) ............. 391
C.10.2 Analysis using the Excel file, assuming fixed-ended columns (k=12) ............. 391
C.10.3 Analysis using the Excel file, assuming columns with k=6 .............................. 392
C.10.4 Analysis using software, assuming actual beam
and column torsional stiffnesses .……………………………………………... 392

APPENDIX D: DIAPHRAGMATIC BEHAVIOUR OF MULTISTOREY


SPACE FRAME – GENERAL CASE

D.1 Subject description ........................................................................................................ 395


D.2 General method for the calculation of the diaphragm i data ......................................... 398
D.3 Diaphragm lateral stiffnesses ........................................................................................ 406
D.4 Diaphragm torsional stiffness ........................................................................................ 406
D.5 Torsional stiffness distribution ....................................................................................... 407
D.6 Equivalent system – Relative lateral stiffness – Relative torsional stiffness ................. 408
D.7 Examples
Static and Dynamic Analysis

2.5 Exercise
The residential building of the sketch includes a basement of area 12×18 m2 and height 3 m, a
ground floor and four storeys of identical dimensions and a top floor of area 4×6 m2 and height
2.5 m. The masses at levels 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 are equal to MG=220 t and MQ=44 t, at level 5 to MG=180
t and MQ=44 t, while at the top level to MG=20 t and MQ=4 t. The building is situated in the seis-
mic area Z1 and the distribution of seismic accelerations is triangular. The design seismic accel-
eration of magnitude 0.12g is applied at the center of mass of the building.
The calculation of the seismic and wind forces as well as a comparison between them is asked.

Figure 2.5-1: The geometrical and loading model of the building's wind and seismic actions

Mi [t]: masses, w [kN/m2]: wind loads, ai [m/sec2]: seismic accelerations

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 29


Volume B

Since the building is residential ψ2=0.30 and consequently during an earthquake the dynamic
masses are evaluated as M=MG+0.30⋅MQ. Thus, the dynamic masses at levels 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4
are equal to MG+0.30Q,i=0-4=220+0.30×44=233 t, at level 5 is equal to MG+0.30Q,5=180+0.30×44=193 t,
while at the top level is equal MG+0.30Q,6=20+0.30×4=21 t.

Figure 2.5-2: Wind forces Fw are less significant comparing to seismic forces Fs.
W [kN]: gravity loads Fw [kN]: wind forces Fs [kN]: seismic forces

Assessment of seismic forces


The total mass of the building during earthquake is M=4×233+193+21=1146 t, while the CM
(mass center) is located at distance zο from the ground floor basis:

233×3.0 + 233×6.0 + 233×9.0 + 233×12.0 +193×15.0 + 21×18.0 10263tm


z0 = = = 9.0 m
1146 1146t

30 Apostolos Konstantinidis
Static and Dynamic Analysis

The design acceleration at the CM is 0.12g. Therefore acceleration at the 1st level is equal to
a1=(3.0/9.0)×0.12g=0.04g. Respectively, at the rest levels:
a2=0.08g, a3=0.12g, a4=0.16g, a5=0.20g και a6=0.24g.
The seismic force imposed on level ‘i’ is:
Fs,i=MG+0.30Q,i⋅ai
therefore
Fs,0=0
Fs,1=233t·(0.04×9.81)m/sec2=91 kN
Fs,2=233t·(0.08×9.81)m/sec2=183 kN
Fs,3=233t·(0.12×9.81)m/sec2=274 kN
Fs,4=233t·(0.16×9.81)m/sec2=366 kN
Fs,5=193t·(0.20×9.81)m/sec2=379 kN
Fs,6=21t·(0.24×9.81)m/sec2=49 kN
The total seismic force (or the total seismic base shear force) Fs,tot is equal to the sum seismic
forces at different levels and its center of application is located at about 2/3 of the building
height.
Fs,tot=1146t⋅(0.12×9.81)m/sec2=1349 kN

Assessment of wind forces


For maximum wind load w=1.50 kN/m2, the corresponding force towards the most unfavourable
vertical direction of the 18.0 m on each storey is Fw=18.0m⋅3.0m⋅1.50kN/m2=81 kN, while on the
top floor is Fw=6.0m⋅2.5m⋅1.50kN/m2=23 kN. The wind load on each storey is equally shared be-
tween the two levels defining it. Therefore,
6th level: Fw,6=23/2=12 kN
5th level: Fw,5=23/2+81/2=52 kN
Rest levels: Fw,i=0-4=81/2+81/2=81 kN
The total wind force is Nw,tot=12+52+4×81=388 kN and its point of application is located at about
1/2 of the building height.

Comparison of wind and seismic forces


Wind forces represent 388/1349=29% of the seismic forces and their CM is at (1/2)/(2/3)=75%
of the CM of seismic forces. Consequently the seismic forces are of much greater value as well
as importance than the wind forces11.

11 Theoretically the less significant seismic forces could result in seismic area Ζ1 in soil type Α (S=1.0) with γI=1.0 and q=6.75. The interval
0.15≤T≤0.50 gives spectral acceleration Sd=γI⋅agR⋅S⋅2.5/q=0.16g⋅2.5/6.75=0.059g  Fs,tot=1146t⋅(0.059×9.81)m/sec2=663kN.
Theoretically the most critical rectangular building plan of area 12×18=216 m2 with respect to wind forces is the one with sides aspect ratio
1/4 [EC8 4.2.3.2(5)], resulting to plan dimensions 30×7.2 approximately. The wind force for the side of 30 m width, is
Fw=30.0×3.0×1.50=135 kN for each storey while at the top floor remains Fw=6.0×2.5×1.50=22.5 kN. Therefore the wind load at the 6th lev-
el is Fw,6=22.5/2=11 kN, at the 5th level Fw,5=22.5/2+135/2=79 kN, while at the rest Fw,i=135/2+135/2=135 kN.
The total wind force is Fw,tot=11+79+4×135=630 kN.
Therefore, even in this extreme case, the seismic forces are greater than the wind forces.

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 31


Volume B

3.1.4 Diaphragmatic behaviour


In general, when there is eccentric loading at a floor, e.g. imposed by the horizontal seismic ac-
tion, the in-plane rigidity of the slab forces all the in-plane points (therefore all column heads1 on
the slab) to move the same way.
The 3 displacements δz, φx, φy of each node belonging to the diaphragm are independent of each
other, while the rest δx, δy, φz are depended on the 3 displacements of point CT called Center of
Elastic Torsion of the diaphragm. Displacements δxi, δyi, φzi at the point i of the horizontal dia-
phragm are expressed as:
φzi=φz
δxi=δxCT-yi⋅φz
δyi=δyCT+xi⋅φz

Figure 3.1.4-1: Diaphragmatic behaviour of floor Figure 3.1.4-2: The displacements of a random
point i of the diaphragm due to φz

In a floor diaphragm of 20 main and 14 slave nodes, the number of the unknown displacements
(degrees of freedom) is equal to 20×3+3=63.

1 The term ‘column’ refers to columns as well as to walls.

40 ΙApostolos Konstantinidis
Static and Dynamic Analysis

is indicated by the red dashed line at the Interface of the related software so that the engineer is
able to check the order of magnitude of the distribution of the seismic accelerations. Further-
more, using this method there is no need for additional dynamic response spectrum analysis.

Notes
• The main comparison is performed on seismic accelerations. This is based on the fact
that seismic forces provide the same fast visual outcome with respect to their vertical
distribution, provided that all floor masses are identical.
• When the principle system is inclined, for earthquake in x direction only, the seismic ac-
celerations are developed in both x, y directions. Τhe same stands for earthquake in y
direction only.
• The earthquake in x direction generates components in x direction only when the struc-
ture is symmetrical, otherwise it generates components in both directions.

Earthquake in Y Direction
Masses a/g H[kN] V[kN]

Figure 3.2-4: Ten-storey building of a


non-symmetrical dual system Figure 3.2-5: Distribution of Seismic
(project <B_547-3b>) Accelerations-Forces-Shears

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 43


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Figure 3.3.3-1: The structural model of the frame considering loadings: g and q and the seismic W

The general analysis of the frame subjected to vertical uniform load w, from table 1 is:
I 2 h 52.125 3.0
k= ⋅ = ⋅ = 1.47
I1 l 21.33 5.0

l2 ( 5. 0 m ) 2
H = H A = −H B = ⋅w = ⋅ w = 0.60 m ⋅ w ,
4h ⋅ ( k + 2 ) 4 ⋅ 3.0 m ⋅ ( 1.47 + 2 )
l 5.0m
VA = VB = ⋅ w = ⋅ w = 2.50m ⋅ w
2 2
h 3.0m
M A = −M B = ⋅ H = ⋅ 0.60m ⋅ w = 0.60m2 ⋅ w
3 3
2 2
M CA = M CD = M DC = −M DB = − h ⋅ H = − ⋅ 3.0m ⋅ 0.60m ⋅ w = −1.20m2 ⋅ w
3 3
The general analysis of the frame subjected to horizontal load W, from table 39 is:
W
H A = HB = − = −0.50W
2
3⋅ h ⋅ k 3 ⋅ 3.0m ⋅ 1.47
VA = −VB = − ⋅W = − ⋅W = −0.27 ⋅W
l ⋅( 6k + 1 ) 5.0m ⋅ ( 6 ⋅ 1.47 + 1 )

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 47


Static and Dynamic Analysis

1st combination: w=1.35g+1.50q=1.35×33+1.50×10.0=59.55 kN/m


MA=-MB=1.35MA,g+1.50MA,q=1.35×19.8+1.50×6.0=35.7 kNm
MCA=MCD=MDC=-MDB=1.35MCA,g+1.50MCA,q=-1.35×39.6-1.50×12.0=-71.5 kNm,
HA=-HB=1.35HA,g+1.50HA,q=1.35×19.8+1.50×6.0=35.7 kN,
VA=VB=1.35HA,g+1.50HA,q =1.35×82.5+1.50×25.0=148.9 kN
VCD=w⋅l/2+(MDC-MCD)/l=59.55×5.0/2+(-71.5+71.5)/5.0=148.9 kN,
VDC=VCD-w⋅l=148.9-59.55×5.0=-148.9 kN 7
NΑ=-VCD-1.35⋅(self-weight of column)=-148.9-1.35×12.0=-165.1 kN
NB=VDC- 1.35⋅( self-weight of column)=-148.9-1.35×12.0=-165.1 kN
x=VCD/w=148.9/59.55=2.50 m 8, Mmax= MCD + (VCD⋅x)/2=-71.5+(148.9×2.50)/2=114.6 kNm 9,
w⋅l2/8=59.55×5.02/8=186.1 kNm

Figure 3.3.3-2 Figure 3.3.3-3

Figure 3.3.3-4 Figure 3.3.3-5

7 Τhis stress resultant, as well as most of the following, could be calculated by the simple observation of the symmetry both of structure and
loading. However this general process is handling asymmetries as well, e.g. as in the 2nd loading.
8 x is the point of zero shear force corresponding to position of maximum bending moment.
9 From structural analysis it is known that the maximum bending moment Mmax in a span i,j is located at the point m at distance x from the
end i, where shear forces become zero. The moment at that point is given by the expression Mmax=Mi,j + AV where AV is the area under
the shear forces diagram from the point i to the point m. In this example, since there is only uniform load, the area is AV=(Vi,j⋅x)/2.

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 49


Volume B

2nd combination: w=g + 0.30⋅q + “Εx”=33.0+0.30×10.0 + “Ex”=36.0 kN/m + “Ex”


MA=MA,g+0.30MA,q+ MA,W =19.8+0.30×6.0-100.8 =-79.2 kNm, MB =-19.8-0.30×6.0-100.8 =-122.4 kNm
MCA= MCD=-39.6-0.30×12.0+82.2=39.0 kNm,
MDC=-39.6-0.30×12.0-82.2=-125.4 kNm, MDB=39.6+0.30×12.0+82.2=125.4 kNm,
HA= HA,g+0.30HA,q+ HA,W =19.8+0.30×6.0-61.0=-39.4 kN, HB=-19.8-0.30×6.0-61.0=-82.6 kN,
VA= VA,g+0.30VA,q+ VA,W =82.5+0.30×25.0-32.9=57.1 kN, VB=82.5+0.30×25.0+32.9=122.9 kN
VCD=w⋅l/2+(MDC-MCD)/l=36.0×5.0/2+(-125.4-39.4)/5.0=90.0-33.0=57.0 kN,
VDC=VCD-w⋅l=57.0-36.0×5.0=-123.0 kN
NΑ=-VCD- self-weight of column =-57.0-12.0=-69.0 kN
NB=VDC- self-weight of column =-123.0-12.0=-135.0 kN
x=VCD/w=57.0/36.0=1.58 m, Mmax= MCD + (VCD⋅x)/2=39.0+(57.0×1.58)/2=84.0 kNm,
w⋅l2/8=36.0×5.02/8=112.5 kNm

Figure 3.3.3-6 Figure 3.3.3-7

Figure 3.3.3-8 Figure 3.3.3-9

50 ΙApostolos Konstantinidis
Volume B

Combinations and Envelopes of stress resultants

Figure 3.3.3-14

Figure 3.3.3-15

Figure 3.3.3-16

52 ΙApostolos Konstantinidis
Static and Dynamic Analysis

3rd combination: g+0.30q-EX (additional combination U2)

Figure 3.3.3-22: Figure 3.3.3-23:


Bending moment diagram and elastic line Shear force diagram
Combinations and Envelopes of Bending Moments

Figure 3.3.3-24: Figure 3.3.3-25: Envelope of bending moments.


The three combinations of bending moments The values given per 0.20 m are needed for the rein-
forcement design and the reinforcement detailing

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 55


Volume B

3.3.6 Modelling slabs using members and finite elements


Finite element method assists in defining slabs behaviour with significant accuracy. However, in
order for the results to represent the reality, suitable assumptions should be adopted. The ef-
fects of the following factors are examined thoroughly in Appendix A:
1) The frame behaviour at the regions close to columns
2) The deflection of beams
3) The torsional stiffness of beams
The above factors affect the behaviour of slabs. In order to investigate this effect, a simple
structure is being modelled in two ways:
(i) Using members, according to which the slab is modelled as a grid of main and secondary
joists, without the assumption of rigid bodies.
(ii) Using triangular finite elements.
The summary of Appendix A is presented below:

Figure 3.3.6-1: The structure of project <B_331> of the related software


(column sections 400/400, beam sections 300/500, slab thickness 170 mm)

64 ΙApostolos Konstantinidis
Static and Dynamic Analysis

Figure 3.3.6-2: Slab modelled with members


and the displaced structure (project <B_336>)

Figure 3.3.6-3: Slab modelled with triangular finite elements (project <B_331>, pi-FES)
(a=beam-slab common deflection curve)

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 65


Volume B

3.3.6.1 The frame behaviour in regions of columns

The model using both members and more accurate two-dimensional finite elements, takes into
account the slab frame behaviour in regions close to columns, in contrast to the inexpensive
approach of simply supported slab throughout its length. However, in order for the slab to be-
have as a common frame with the columns in the actual structure, the slab-columns connec-
tions (where strong negative bending moments are developed) should be reinforced with
strong, correctly placed and well anchored negative top reinforcement at slabs. For this reason,
the slab analysis using finite elements in common worksheets should consider pinned supports
on columns.

Figure 3.3.6.1-1: Bending moment diagrams of joists of structure modelled with


members (project <B_336>)

In case of members, the two main side joists (of slab) forming a common frame with the col-
umns, have greater torsional rigidity than the intermediate nearly simply supported main joists
and bear heavier loads, thereby to develop strong negative bending moments at their supports
and relatively low positive bending moments at their spans. The interim main joists develop
strong positive bending moments at their spans, while being supported on the end joists through
the secondary joists stressed by significant positive bending moments at their spans.

66 ΙApostolos Konstantinidis
Static and Dynamic Analysis

In the more accurate model using two-dimensional finite elements, the main side strips behave
intensively as frames. Τhe results are similar to those of using members with the following dif-
ferences: (a) In the main side strips (corresponding to the main side joists) the frame behaviour
is more intensive, since the moments at the supports are greater and moments at the spans are
smaller, (b) In the interim main strips (corresponding to the interim main joists) the span mo-
ments are smaller, (c) The span moments of the secondary strips (corresponding to secondary
joists) end up to be greater. This is due to the fact that the internal torsional stiffness of the slab
elements (torsion) is stronger than the respective of members.

Figure 3.3.6.1-2: Bending moment diagrams of slab strips modelled


with triangular finite elements (project <B_331>, pi-FES)

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 67


Volume B

Example 4.2.1 (project <Β_422-1>)


The project deals with a simple one-storey building consisting of 9 columns, 12 beams and 4
slabs, as illustrated in the figure.

Figure 4.2.1-1

The four slabs have identical dimensions of 4.0 mx6.0 m, thickness of 150 mm, covering load
ge=1.0 kN/m2 and live load q=5.0 kN/m2. Concrete class: C30/37.

78 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis
Volume B

Figure 4.2.1-6: Button “Show All” re-diplays the model.


Button “Contours” shows, using color gradation,the displacements contours.

Each color (on the 3D color scale bar)


corresponds to a range of displacements
(mm).
For many years, the method of color
gradation display of displacement contours
was a 2D method of representing 3D
information.
Today, provided the 3D abilities, the direct
3D or 4D display is preferable, especially for
stereoscopic display.
Figure 4.2.1-7

82 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis
Static and Dynamic Analysis

Figure 4.2.1-8: The following button sequence displays the 3D deformation of the structure:
“Details”  in FEM results, “Diagrams at Dx=Dy=0.1m”, “OK”, “Selection” , “Displacements” “Z” & “Diagrams” .
For better viewing “Light 2”  is switched on.

Figure 4.2.1-9: In the previous screen button sequence “Menu” , “Full Screen Mode”  and “4D” ,
provides stereoscopic display using “blue-red glasses”.

Displacements which induse stresses help the engineers understand better the structural
behaviour (engineering perception). When the deflected structure is concave upwards, the
bending moments are positive, considering that the fibers under tension are located at the
bottom face of the slabs.

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 83


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Figure 4.2.2-10: In ‘Slab Results’ section: Button “Displacements” for 2nd time hides deformations.
In ‘FEM Results’ section: Button “Details” defines distribution per 0.1 m. Button sequence “Selection”, “Bending”, “V11”,
“Diagrams” displays the 3D view of the distribution of shear forces [Vx].

Figure 4.2.2-11: Button sequence “M”, “View”, “Options”, “Front”, “OK”, “Quad” displays the front view
of 3D distribution of shear forces [Vx].

Figure 4.2.2-12: Button sequence “View”, “Options”, “Rear” displays the rear view of the 3D distribution of shear forces [Vx].

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 87


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Figure 4.2.2-16: Button “Selection”, “Bending”, “M11” “Diagrams” displays the 3D view of distribution of bending moments [Mx].

Figure 4.2.2-17: Button sequence “Selection”, “Bending”, “M11”, “Diagrams” displays the
3D view of distribution of bending moments [Mx].

Figure 4.2.2-18: Button sequence “View”, “Options”, “Rear” displays the rear view of the
3D distribution of bending moments [Mx].

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 89


Volume B

Figure 4.2.2-19: Button sequence “Selection”, “Bending”, “M22” “Diagrams” displays


the 3D view of distribution of bending moments [My].

Figure 4.2.2-20: Button sequence “View”, “Options”, “Front”, “Quad” displays the front view of the
3D distribution of bending moments [My].

Figure 4.2.2-21: Button sequence “View”, “Options”, “Rear” displays the rear view of the
3D distribution of bending moments [My].

90 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis
Volume B

Figure 4.2.2-42: The actual stucture in 3D.

Figure 4.2.2-43: The deformation of slabs in 3D.

102 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Volume B

Figure 4.2.2-45: Distribution of shear forces [Vx] ([V11] in ‘FEM Results’, detailed per 0.10 m) in 3D.

Figure 4.2.2-46: Front view of the 3D distribution of shear forces [Vx] ([V11] in ‘FEM Results’).

Figure 4.2.2-47: Side view of the 3D distribution of shear forces [Vx] ([V11] in ‘FEM Results’).

104 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Figure 4.2.2-52: Distribution of bending moments [Mx] ([M11] in ‘FEM Results’, details per 0.10 m) in 3D.

Figure 4.2.2-53: Front view of the 3D distribution of bending moments [Mx] ([M11] in ‘FEM Results’).

Figure 4.2.2-54: Side view of the 3D distribution of bending moments [Mx] ([M11] in ‘FEM Results’).

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGSΙ 107


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Figure 4.2.2-63: Shear forces [Vy] ([V22] in ‘FEM Results’, detailed per 0.1 m)
extend only in the regions of middle supports.

Figure 4.2.2-64: Front view of the 3D distribution of shear forces [Vy] ([V22] in ‘FEM Results’).

Figure 4.2.2-65: Side view of the 3D distribution of shear forces [Vy] ([V22] in ‘FEM Results’).

At the points of the slab (in this case of the cantilever) where fixed transverse support exist, nu-
merous peaks are created, mainly for shears (in this case 130.8 and 138.6 kN) and secondarily
for moments. These regions are forced to carry large part of the load of the adjacent slabs main-
ly near the supports. This is the reason why the occurrence of high shears shortly before and
shortly after the support. However, these shears are taken into account in detail by considering
their average values in a width, e.g. 1.0 m, which equals to 47.0 kN (‘Slab Results’).

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGSΙ 111


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Figure 4.2.2-67: Distribution of bending moments [Mx] ([M11] in ‘FEM Results’, detailed per 0.10 m) in 3D.

Figure 4.2.2-68: View of the 3D distribution of bending moments [Mx] ([M11] in ‘FEM Results’).

Figure 4.2.2-69: Side view of the 3D distribution of bending moments [Mx] ([M11] in ‘FEM Results’).

The positive peak moments forming a sharp “hole”, at the region of the support exactly behind
the cantilever, results from the negative load created at this region by the cantilever’s moment.
Notice that the influence of the strong cantilever, both in negative and positive moments, de-
creases in a small distance from the cantilever support.
The insignificant differences in values of moments Mx between ‘FEM results’ and ‘Slab results’
are due to the relatively small curvature of the 3D moment diagram Mx.

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGSΙ 113


Volume B

4.2.3 Unfavourable loadings and envelopes of stresses – deflections


The minimum load applied on a slab is equal to g whereas the maximum load is equal to p=(γg-
1)⋅gi + γq⋅qi. Τhe general problem concerns the way that the slabs should be loaded for develop-
ing maximum stresses.
This is a complicated issue since, even for a simple case of six slabs arranged in a grid seven
unfavourable loadings are required, as illustrated in the following figure. The analysis of such a
simple example via tables can be performed only for equally grid axes.

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4

5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6

max M1, max M2,


max M4, max M3,
max |M1-2|
max M5, max M6, max |M1-3|, max |M2-4|, max |M3-5|, max |M4-6|,
max |M5-6|
min M2, min M1, min |M2-4| min |M1-3| min |M4-6| min |M3-5|
min |M3-4|
min M3, min M4,
min M6 min M5

The problem becomes even more complicated when slabs are not arranged in a grid.
General and accurate analysis can only be achieved by means of the the finite element method.
However, the resources for such an analysis require sophisticated algorithms and modern com-
puters. The related software performs parallel processing of such algorithms on all available
cores of a personal computer providing solutions to such complicated problems within seconds.
The unfavourable loadings on the three previously resolved examples will be examined next.

Calculations, taking into account


the unfavourable loadings, are
performed by selecting “Adverse\
Slabs”  in the tab ‘Loads’ of pi-
FES interface.
Results are displayed by press-
ing, “Adverse”  and the stress
resultant required e.g.
“Shears”.

Figure 4.2.3-2

Figure 4.2.3-1

116 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Volume B

Figure 4.2.3-6: Bending moment envelopes

The most unfavourable bending moments are equal to:


• x direction: Mx=12.3 (10.8), Mx,erm=-22.8 (-22.0) [kNm]
• y direction: My=4.9 (4.1), My,erm=-18.8 (-16.3) [kNm]

Figure 4.2.3-7: Front view of 3D bending moment diagrams, corresponding to the envelope of [Mx]

Figure 4.2.3-8: Side view of 3D bending moment diagrams, corresponding to the envelope of [My]

Note that although the live load has a relatively high value, the differences between the bending
moments are small and less than15%.

118 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Figure 4.2.3-9: Deflection envelopes

The largest slab deflection is equal to y=-2.00 (-1.53) mm and y=+0.24 mm. It is concluded that
the slab is lifted, which is in contrast with the responseof the global loading case, due to sym-
metry of course.

Figure 4.2.3-10: Front view of 3D deflection diagrams

Figure 4.2.3-11: Side view of 3D deflection diagrams

Notice that the deflections are as high as 30% while opposite sign deformations also arise (blue
lines).

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 119


Volume B

• The “BUILDING” module

Figure 4.2.4-7: In module ‘BUILDING’, the interaction of the slabs with the structure is taken into account
resulting from point to point more or less favourable stresses compared to the module ‘SLABS’.
.

As explained in detail in chapter 3 and Appendix Α, the influence of beams and columns on the
behaviour of a building is very important. In this example, the bending moment of the slabs S1-
S2 is significantly smaller compared to the ‘SLABS’ module. The support moment, in this mod-
ule, is provided directly on the side faces of the beams, wherein the detailing takes place. How-
ever, the peak moment in the middle of the support (in the middle of the beam) is much higher.

Project <B_411-1> (Adverse\Slabs – Active module\BUILDING), dense meshing gives:


26672 triangular elements, 16,417 nodes, 3856 linear members, system of 98,502 equations,
memory 680 MB, time 12 sec, FPS=56

132 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

• Multistorey buildings and envelopes

Figure 4.2.4-8: The actual structure in 3D Figure 4.2.4-9: The structure’s model in 3D

For the slab analysis, the unfavourable loadings are created per floor, i.e. loading of any floor
slab has no effect on slabs of other floors. In “SLABS” module this effect is obvious while in
“BUILDING” module is rather insignificant.

Project <Japan5>, running only in the professional version, consists of 10 floors with an area of
200 m2. The following measurements are obtained using the following meshing parameters:
“Overall size” = 0.20 m, “Perimeter size” = 0.10 m.

Adverse\Slabs – Active module\“SLABS”:


134,292 triangular elements, 77,131 nodes, 6,507 linear members, 462,786 equations, memory
3.8 GB, time 125 sec, FPS=37

Adverse\Slabs – Active module\ “BUILDING”:


183,217 triangular elements, 120,239 nodes, 34,727 linear members, 721,434 equations,
memory 5.3 GB, time 209 sec, FPS=28

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 133


Volume B

4.5 One-way slabs


One-way slabs are those supported on two opposite edges, such as slab s1 in figure of §4.1.
If a one-way slab is supported on more than two edges and its aspect ratio, i.e. the ratio of the
larger to the smaller theoretical span, is greater than 2.0 (such as slab s3 in the same figure), it
is considered as one-way slab in the principal direction while taking into account the secondary
stresses in rest edges.

4.5.1 Static analysis


Continuous one-way slabs are analysed considering a frame of continuous member s of rectan-
gular shape cross-section, having width equal to 1.00 m and height equal to the thickness of the
slab. The strip loads comprise self-weight, dead and live loads.
Analysis is performed:
α) approximately, by applying all design loads p=1.35g+1.50q (when live load is relatively small)
β) accurately, by taking into account unfavourable loadings.

Figure 4.5.1-1: Three-span continuous slab

146 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Example:
The three slabs (previous figure) have L1=4.50 m, h1=180 mm, g1=10.0 kN/m2, q1=2.0 kN/m2, L2=4.00 m,
h2=140 mm, g2=5.0 kN/m2, q2=2.0 kN/m2, L3=4.00 m, h3=140 mm, g3=5.0 kN/m2, q3=2.0 kN/m2, where
loads g include self-weight. Perform static analysis considering global loading in ultimate limit state.
Design load in each slab is equal to pi=γg⋅gi+γq⋅qi=1.35⋅gi+1.50⋅qi, thus on 1.00 m wide strip, it is:
p1=1.35×10.0+1.50×2.0=16.5 kN/m
p2=p3=1.35×5.0+1.50×2.0=9.75 kN/m
The three-span continuous slab will be solved through Cross method.
Fundamental design span moments (table b3)
M10=-p1⋅L12/8=-16.5×4.502/8=-41.8 kNm
M12=M21=-p2⋅L22/12=-9.75×4.002/12=-13.0 kNm
M23=-p3⋅L32/8=-9.75×4.002/8=-19.5 kNm
Moments of inertia I
I01=Ic=1.0×0.183/12=4.86×10-4 m4
I12=I23=1.0×0.143/12=2.29×10-4 m4=0.47Ic
Stiffness factors k, distribution indices υ
3I 3 0.167
k10 = 4I ·L10 = 4×4.5 = 0.167 υ01 = 0.285 0.586
c 01

4I 4×0.47Ic 0.118
k12 = 4I ·L12 = 4Ic ×4.0
= 0.118 υ12 = 0.285 0.414
c 12

0.285 1.000

0.118
k21 =k12 = 0.118 υ21 = 0.573
0.206
3I23 3×0.47I 0.088
k23 = = 4I ×4.0c = 0.088 υ01 = 0.206 0.427
4Ic ·L23 c

0.206 1.000
1 2
0.586 0.414 0.573 0.427
+41.8 -13.0 +13.0 -19.5
-[+41.8-13.0]×0.586→ - 16.9 -11.9 →0.50 - 6.0
+ 3.6 0.50← + 7.2 + 5.3 ← 0.427×[-(+13.0-19.5-6.0)]
-[+3.6]×0.586→ - 2.1 - 1.5 →0.50 - 0.8
+ 0.3 0.50← + 0.5 + 0.3 ← 0.427×[-(-0.8)]
-[+0.3]×0.586→ - 0.2 - 0.1
+22.6 -22.6 +13.9 -13.9
M1=-22.6 kNm M2=-13.9 kNm

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 147


Volume B

V01=16.5×4.50/2-22.6/4.50=32.1 kN
V10=-16.5×4.50/2-22.6/4.50=-42.1 kN
V12=9.75×4.00/2+(-13.9+22.6)/4.00=21.7 kN
V21=-9.75×4.00/2+(-13.9+22.6)/4.00=-17.3 kN
V23=9.75×4.00/2+13.9/4.00=23.0 kN
V32=-9.75×4.00/2+13.9/4.00=-16.0 kN
maxM01=32.12/(2×16.5)=31.2 kNm
maxM12=21.72/(2×9.75)-22.6=1.5 kNm
maxM23=16.02/(2×9.75)=13.1 kNm

Figure 4.5.1-2: Shear force diagram

Figure 4.5.1-3: Bending moment diagram

148 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Volume B

4.5.2 Deflection
Slab member AB of length L, moment of inertia I, elasticity modulus E, is subjected to uniform
load p. Given shear force VA,R (at left support) and bending moment MA, calculate equation of
elastic line due to bending and maximum deflection.

Figure 4.5.2-1: General case of bending of member (slab or beam)

Considering coordinate z origin at the left end:


V ( z ) = V A ,R − p ⋅ z

p ⋅ z2
M ( z ) = M A + V A ,R ⋅ z −
2
d 2 y( z )
The basic equation of elastic line E ⋅ I ⋅ = − M ( z ) is solved in two steps:
dz 2
Step 1
dy( z ) 1 1 p ⋅ z2
φ( z ) = = ⋅ ∫ − M ( z )dz = ⋅ ∫ ( − M A − V A ,R ⋅ z + )dz →
dz E⋅I E⋅I 2
1 V ⋅ z2 p ⋅ z3
φ( z ) = ⋅ ( − M A ⋅ z − A ,R + + C1 )
E⋅I 2 6
Hence, the equation of the elastic line tangents is:
1 p V
φ( z ) = ⋅ ( ⋅ z 3 − A ,R ⋅ z 2 − M A ⋅ z + C1 ) ( 1 )
E⋅I 6 2

150 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Step 2
1 p V
y( z ) = ∫ φ( z )dz = ⋅ ∫ ( ⋅ z 3 − A ,R ⋅ z 2 − M A ⋅ z + C1 )dz →
E⋅I 6 2
1 p 4 V A ,R 3 M A 2
y( z ) = ⋅( ⋅z − ⋅z − ⋅ z + C1 ⋅ z + C 2 )
E ⋅ I 24 6 2
y(0)=0  C2=0
Hence, the equation of the elastic line is:
1 p 4 V A ,R 3 M A 2
y( z ) = ⋅( ⋅z − ⋅z − ⋅ z + C1 ⋅ z ) ( 2 )
E ⋅ I 24 6 2

y(L)=0 
3 2
1 p ⋅ L4 VA ,R ⋅ L M A ⋅ L2 p ⋅ L3 V A,R ⋅ L M A ⋅ L
0= ⋅( − − + C1 ⋅ L ) → C1 = − + + (3)
E⋅I 24 6 2 24 6 2
Thus, the equations of the elastic line tangents (1) and deflections (2) are determined.

The maximum deflection is at the location where the first derivative of the elastic line equation is
zero, i.e. at the point z where φ(z) =0.
2
p ⋅ z 3 V A ,R ⋅ z
(1)  − − M A ⋅ z + C1 = 0 (4)
6 2
The real positive root of the cubic equation (3) gives the desired point zmax, which replaced in
equation (2) yields the maximum deflection ymax.

Example: Deflection of first slab (example of §4.3.1):

For L=4.5 m, p=16.5 kN/m, VA,R=32.1 kN and MA=0.0, expression (3) yields:
16.5×4.53 32.1×4.52
C1 =- + kN·m2 =45.7 kN·m2
24 6
(4)  (16.5/6)⋅z3-(32.1/2)⋅z2-0+45.7=0  2.75z3-16.05z2+45.7=0  zmax=2.112 m
1
(2)  y(z)= E·I ·(0.6875·z4 -5.35·z3 +45.7·z) (1.2)
1 59.8
y(2.112)= ·(0.6875×2.1124 -5.35×2.1123 +45.7×2.112)·103 N·m3 = ·103 N·m3
E·I E·I

For slab thickness h=180 mm and modulus of elasticity for concrete E=32.80 GPa:
I=(b⋅h3)/12=(1.0×0.183)/12=486×10-6 m4
E⋅I=32.8×109N/m2×486×10-6m4=15.9408×106 N⋅m2, therefore,
59.8·103 N·m3
y1,max =y(2.112)= =0.00375 m=3.75 mm
15.9408·106 N·m2

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 151


Static and Dynamic Analysis

The elastic line of the continuous slab given by expressions (1.2), (2.2), (3.2) is illustrated in the
following figure:

Figure 4.5.2-2: The elastic line of the three slabs (from the equations)

Project <B_451> (pi-FES) produces identical deflections:

Figure 4.5.2-3: Front view of the elastic line (from pi-FES with active module\SLABS)

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 153


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Maximum support moments (void loading on adjacent spans and alternating with the rest)

Figure 4.5.3.1-4

Example:

Figure 4.5.3.1-5

The continuous slab shown in the figure, of span length L=5. 00 m and of thickness h=160 mm, is sub-
jected to covering load ge=1.0 kN/m2 and live load q=5.0 kN/m2. Concrete class C50/60. Calculate the
shear forces and bending moments envelopes for the three slabs, in ultimate limit state.
Solution:
Self-weight: go = 0.16m⋅25.0kN/m3 = 4.00 kN/m2
Covering load: ge = 1.00 kN/m2
Total dead loads: g = 5.00 kN/m2
Total live loads: q = 5.00 kN/m2
The design dead load for each slab is gd=1.00×5.0=5.0 kN/m and the total design load is
pd=γg⋅g+γq⋅q=1.35×5.0+1.50×5.0=14.25 kN/m.
Manual calculations: I=(b⋅h3)/12=(1.0×0.163)/12=341×10-6 m4
Modulus of elasticity for concrete C50/60 is equal to E=37.3 GPa.
E⋅I=37.3×109N/m2×341×10-6m4=12.719×106 N⋅m2
For I10=I12=I23=Ic, stiffness factors k distribution indices υ are:
3I 10 3 0.150
k10 = = = 0 . 150 υ01 = = 0 . 429
4 I c ⋅ L01 4 × 5.0 0.350
4 I 12 4 0.200
k 12 = = = 0 . 200 υ12 = = 0 . 571
4 I c ⋅ L12 4 × 5.0 0.350
0 . 350 1.000
Due to the symmetry of the structure : υ21 = 0.571 και υ 23 = 0 . 429

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 155


Volume B

Loading 1: w1=w3=pd=14.25 kN/m, w2=gd=5.0 kN/m (V01,max, M01,max, M12,min, |V32,max|, M23,max)
Principal support moments from table b3 
Μ10=Μ23=-w1⋅L2/8=-14.25×5.02/8=-44.5 kNm, Μ12=Μ21=-w2⋅L2/12=-5.0×5.02/12=-10.4 kNm

0.429 0.571 0.571 0.429


+44.5 -10.4 +10.4 -44.5
-[+44.5-10.4]×0.429→ -14.6 -19.5 →0.50 - 9.8
+12.5 0.50← + 25.1 +18.8← 0.429×[-(+10.4-44.5-9.8)]
-[+12.5×0.429]→ -5.3 - 7.2 →0.50 - 3.6
+ 1.1 0.50← + 2.1 + 1.5 ← 0.429×[-(-3.6)]
-[+1.1×0.586]→ -0.6 - 0.5 →0.50 -0.3
+0.2 + 0.1 ← 0.429×[-(-0.3)]
+24.1 -24.1 +24.1 -24.1
M1=-24.1 kNm M2=-24.1 kNm

V01=14.25×5.0/2-24.1/5.0=35.63-4.82=30.8 kN
V10=-35.63-4.82=-40.5 kN
V12=5.0×5.0/2=12.5 kN
M01,max=V012/(2⋅w1)=30.82/(2×14.25)=33.3 kNm
w1⋅L2/8=14.25×5.02/8=44.5 kNm
M12,min=V122/(2⋅w2)+M1=12.52/(2×5.0)-24.1=15.6-24.1=
12
=-8.5 kN
w2⋅L2/8=5.0×5.02/8=15.6 kNm
01: (3) 
C1=(-14.25×5.03/24+30.8×5.02/6)=54.1 kN⋅m2
(4)(14.25/6)z3-(30.8/2)z2-0+54.1=0 
2.375z3-15.4z2+54.1=0 gives zmax=2.347 m
(2)y(z)=1/12.719×[(14.25/24)×2.3474-
(30.8/6)×2.3473+0×2.3472+54.1×2.347)]
y(2.335)=6.18 mm

12: Due to symmetry of both structure and loading


zmax=2.5 0m
C1=(-5.00×5.03/24+12.5×5.02/6-24.1×5.0/2)kN⋅m2=
=-34.2 kN⋅m2
(2)  y(z)=1/12.719×[(5.00/24)×2.504-(12.5/6)
×2.50 +24.1×2.502/2-34.2×2.50)  y(2.50)=-2.72 mm
3

Figure 4.5.3.1-6

12 The alternative calculation is: Μ12=w1·L2/8+M1=5.0·5.02/8-24.1=15.6-24.1=-8.5 kNm

156 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Loading 2: w1=w3=gd=5.0 kN/m, w2=pd=14.25 kN/m (V01,min, M01,min, M23,max, |V32,min|, M23,min)
Principal support moments from table b3 
Μ10=Μ23=-w1⋅L2/8=-5×5.02/8=-15.6 kNm, Μ12=Μ21=-w2⋅L2/12=-14.25×5.02/12=-29.7 kNm

0.429 0.571 0.571 0.429


+15.6 -29.7 +29.7 -15.6
-[+15.6-29.7]×0.429→ +6.1 + 8.0 →0.50 +4.0
- 5.2 0.50← -10.3 -7.8←0.429×[-(+29.7-15.6+4.0)]
-[-5.2]×0.429→ +2.2 + 3.0 →0.50 +1.5
- 0.5 0.50← -0.9 -0.6 ← 0.429×[-(+1.5)]
-[+0.5]×0.586→ + 0.2 + 0.3 →0.50 +0.2
- 0.1 - 0.1 ← 0.429×[-(+0.2)]
+24.1 -24.1 +24.1 -24.1
M1=-24.1 kNm M2=-24.1 kNm

V01=5.0×5.0/2-24.1/5.0=12.5-4.8=7.7 kN
V10=-12.5-4.8=-17.3 kN
V12=14.25×5.0/2=35.6 kN
M01,max=V012/(2⋅w1)=7.72/(2×5.0)=5.9 kNm
w1⋅L2/8=5×5.02/8=15.6 kNm
M12,max=V122/(2⋅w2)+M1=35.62/(2×14.25)-24.1=44.5-
24.1=20.4 kNm
w2⋅L2/8=14.25×5.02/8=44.5 kNm
01: (3) 
C1=(-5.00×5.03/24+7.7×5.02/6)kN⋅m2=6.0 kN⋅m2
(4)  (5.00/6)z3-(7.7/2)z2-0+6.0=0 
0.833z3-3.85z2+6.0=0 gives zmax,1=1.53 m και zmax,2=4.21
m
(2)  y(z1)=1/12.719× [(5.00/24) ×1.534-(7.7/6)
×1.533+0×1.532+6.0×1.53)  y(1.53)=0.45 mm
(2)  y(z2)=1/12.719× [(5.00/24) ×4.214-(7.7/6)
×4.213+0×4.212+6.0×4.21)  y(4.21)=-0.39 mm
12: Due to symmetry of both structure and loading
zmax=2.50 m
C1=(-14.25×5.03/24+35.6×5.02/6-24.1×5.0/2)kN⋅m2=
=13.9 kN⋅m2
(2)  y(z)=1/12.719×[(14.25/24)×2.504-(35.6/6)
×2.50 +24.1×2.502/2+13.9×2.50)  y(2.50)=3.18 mm
3
Figure 4.5.3.1-7

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 157


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Loading 4: w1=gd=5.0 kN/m w2=w3=pd=14.25 kN/m


This loading is an antisymmetric case of loading 3 with respect to the middle.

Envelopes of the results of all loadings:

Figure 4.5.3.1-9: Envelopes of shear forces – bending moments - deflections

Analysis using table b4


gd/pd=5.0/14.25=0.35
m1=10.695, mB=-9.025, m2=17.425, p1A=2.315, p1B=-1.635, p2B=1.805
V01,max=pd⋅L/p1A=14.25×5.0/2.315=30.8 kN
V10,min=pd⋅L/p1B=-14.25×5.0/1.635=-43.6 kN
V12,max=pd⋅L/p2B=14.25×5.0/1.805=39.5 kN
M01,max=pd⋅L2/m1=14.25×5.02/10.695=33.3 kNm
M1,min=pd⋅L2/mB=-14.25×5.02/9.025=-39.5 kNm
M12,max=pd⋅L2/m2=14.25×5.02/17.425=20.4 kNm
Analysis using the table is easy, however it fails to provide the negative value of bending moment at mid-
dle span.

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 159


Volume B

Figure 5.3.1-1: Four-storey frame type structure comprising three columns

In case of a basement, seismic forces developed at its roof level have a zero value. However,
fixed end condition applies only to the base of the columns along the basement perimeter walls.
If the frame also comprises walls, as presented in the following paragraph, the stiffnesses and
the moment distribution of the walls differ between them. This difference becomes more distinc-
tive as the number of stories increase.
The total joint displacements and column stress resultants (shear forces and bending moments)
are obtained from the frame analysis. Quantities K, k and a derive from the previous results. The
apparent stiffness Ki of storey i derives from the expression Ki=Vi/δi, while the apparent stiffness
of column j of storey i from the expression Ki,j=Vi,j/δi.

238 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Seismic Shear force Bending moment Elastic


forces diagram diagram line

Figure 5.3.1-2: Column frame type structure with triangular distribution of seismic forces
(practical graphical representation)

Example 5.3.1 (3rd storey):


Column stiffnesses: K3,1=9.6/0.823=12, K3,2=15.8/0.823=19, K3,3=9.6/0.823=12.
Storey stiffness: Κ3= (20+15)/0.823=43. The same value is obtained if calculated as the summation of the
column stiffnesses of the storey, i.e. K3= K3,1+K3,2+ K3,3=43.
If shear effect is taken into account (Shear effect=ON), the displacements are δ1=0.85, δ2=1.05, δ3=0.84,
δ4=0.50 mm, i.e. the difference is insignificant.
If rigid bodies effect is taken into account (Rigid body=ON), the displacements are δ1=0.80, δ2=0.97,
δ3=0.77, δ4=0.45 mm, i.e. both decrease of displacements and increase of stiffnesses are small but meas-
urable.

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 239


Volume B

Eight-storey frame type structure under triangular seismic loading

Figure 5.3.3-7: FRAME type structure Figure 5.3.3-8: Equivalent


comprising three column structure of one fixed-
with cross-section 400/400 ended column per storey

Notes:
• In all types of structures, frame or dual, the sum of column shear forces of a storey is
equal to the sum of the seismic forces of all the above storeys. Indicatively, for the first
storey the sum is 54.3+71.4+54.3=180, while for the last 10.7+18.6+10.7=40. The middle
column of the first storey carries the 71.4/180=40% of the total shear force, while each of
the end columns carries 30%. In the last storey the middle column carries the
18.6/40=46%, while each of the end columns carries 27%.
• In both frame and dual systems, for each column Mo-Mu=V⋅h, where Mo is the moment at
the top, Mu is the moment at the base, V is the shear force and h is the height of the col-
umn. For instance, for the middle column of the previous structure 98.7-(-115.6)=71.4×3.0
(214.3≈214.2).

246 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Eight-storey dual type structure under triangular seismic loading

Figure 5.3.3-9: DUAL type structure comprising two columns Figure 5.3.3-10: Equivalent structure of
and one wall with cross-sections 400/400 and 2000/300 respectively. one fixed-ended column per storey

Notes:
• In the first storey, the sum is 10.6+158.9+10.6=180. The wall carries 158.9/180=88% of the
total shear force, while each column carries 11%. In the last storey, the sum is
13.8+12.5+13.8=40. The wall carries 12.5/40=32% of the total shear force, while each col-
umn 34%. It is concluded that the wall has a favourable effect on the first storey columns,
in contrast to that corresponding to the last storey.
• The expression Mo-Mu=V⋅h, applies for both columns and wall. Indicatively, for the first
storey wall -309.9–(-786.4)=158.9×3.0 (476.5≈476.7), while for that of the last storey 89.8-
52.3=12.5×3.0 (37.5=37.5).
• The maximum displacement of the dual type structure is equal to 8.08 mm, i.e. almost
three times smaller than the one corresponding to the frame type structure (22.51 mm).

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 247


Volume B

Fifteen-storey frame type structure under triangular seismic loading

Figure 5.3.3-11: FRAME type structure Figure 5.3.3-12: Equivalent structure of one
comprising three columns with cross-section 400/400 fixed-ended column per storey

Note:
It should be emphasised that in all previous examples, the comparison of the two struc-
tural systems is important rather than the absolute quantities, which after all derive from
specific values of the seismic forces. These values have been selected arbitrarily, yet
satisfying the triangular distribution rule.

248 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Fifteen-storey dual type structure under triangular seismic loading

Figure 5.3.3-13: DUAL type structure Figure 5.3.3-14: Equivalent


comprising one wall with a cross section of 2000/300 and two columns with a cross structure of one fixed-ended
section of 400/400 with cross-sections 400/400 and 2000/300 respectively column per storey
Note:
The maximum displacement of the frame type structure is equal to 160 mm, i.e. almost
twice of that corresponding to the dual type structure (75 mm).

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 249


Volume B

5.4.3 Centre of stiffness and elastic displacements of the diaphragm


The current paragraph examines the special case of orthogonal columns in parallel arrange-
ment. The general case is examined in Appendix C.
5.4.3.1 Subject description

Centre
of stiffness

Centre
of mass

Figure 5.4.3.1-1: Simple one-storey structure comprising four columns,


whose tops are connected by a rigid slab-diaphragm.

Figure 5.4.3.1-2: Parallel translation of the diaphragm in both directions and rotation ,
due to a force Η applied to the centre of mass CM
(Χ0Υ initial coordinate system, xCTy main coordinate system)

254 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

When a horizontal force H acts on a storey level, all the points of the slab including the column9
tops move in accordance with the same rules due to the in-plane rigidity of the slab.
These rules induce the diaphragm to develop a parallel (translational) displacement by δxo, δyo
and a rotation θz about the centre of stiffness CT(xCT, yCT) in xCTy coordinate system, which is
parallel 10 to the initial coordinate system X0Y and has as origin the point CT.
The diaphragmatic behaviour may be considered as a superposition of three cases:
(a) parallel translation of the diaphragm along the X direction due to horizontal force component
HX,
(b) parallel translation of the diaphragm along the Y direction due to horizontal force component
HY,
(c) rotation of the diaphragm due to moment MCT applied at the centre of stiffness CT.
The horizontal seismic forces are applied at each mass point, while the resultant force is applied
at the centre of mass CM.
In case the direction of the force H passes through the point CT as well as CM the moment has
zero value and therefore the diaphragm develops zero rotation.

5.4.3.2 Translation of centre of stiffness CT along x direction

Figure 5.4.3.2: Parallel translation along the x direction due to force Hx applied at CT

9 Henceforth the term ‘column’ accounts for terms column and wall.
10 In the general case, i.e. in the case of columns with inclined local principal axes with respect to the initial system X0Y, the inclination angle
of the principal system with respect to the initial system is a≠0˚ (see Appendix C). Therefore, when the system of orthogonal columns is
parallelly arranged then KX=Kx, VX=Vx, KXY=Kxy=0, meaning that a horizontal force applied at the centre of stiffness in x direction results in
a displacement only along x (the same applies for y direction).

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 255


Volume B

In case a horizontal force Hx is applied at CT in x direction, the following 2 equilibrium equations


apply:
• The sum of forces in x direction is equal to Hx, i.e. Hx=Σ(Vxoi) (i).
• The sum of moments Vxoi about the point CT is equal to zero, i.e. Σ(Vxoi⋅yi)=0 (ii).
Each column i carries a shear force Vxoi=δxo⋅Kxi.
Σ(Vxoi)=Σ(δxo⋅Kxi)=δxo⋅Σ(Kxi), expression (i) gives Hx=δxo⋅Σ(Kxi) 
Hx=Kx⋅δxo where Kx=Σ(Kxi).
Expression (ii) gives Σ(Vxoi⋅[Yi-YCT])=0  Σ(Vxoi⋅Yi )-Σ(Vxoi⋅YCT)=0  YCT⋅Σ(Vxoi)= Σ(Vxoi⋅YCT) 
YCT=Σ(δxo⋅Kxi⋅Yi)/Σ(δxo⋅Kxi)  YCT=Σ(Kxi⋅Yi)/Σ(Kxi)

5.4.3.3 Translation of centre of stiffness CT along y direction

Figure 5.4.3.3: Parallel translation in y direction due to force Hy applied at CT


Accordingly, the corresponding expressions are derived for direction y.
Hy=Ky⋅δyo where Ky=Σ(Kyi) and XCT=Σ(Kyi⋅Xi)/Σ(Kyi)
Summarising, the centre of stiffness and the lateral stiffnesses are defined by the following ex-
pressions:
Centre of stiffness and lateral stiffnesses:

X CT =
∑ ( X ⋅ K ) , H x = K x ⋅ δxo where Kx = ∑( Kxi )
i yi
(4’)
∑( K ) yi

YCT =
∑ ( Y ⋅ K ) , H = K ⋅ δ where K y = ∑( K yi )
i xi
y y yo (5’)
∑( K ) xi

256 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

5.4.3.4 Rotation of the diaphragm by an angle θz about CT

Figure 5.4.3.4: Displacements due to rotation developed from moment M applied at CT


To determine the deformation developed by external moment M, applied at the centre of stiff-
ness CT, the initial system X0Y is transferred (by parallel translation) to the principal system
xCTy. The centre of mass is transferred to the principal system along the structural eccentrici-
ties11 eox, eoy in accordance with the following expressions:
Principal coordinate system
xi = X i − X CT , yi = Yi − YCT , eox = xCM , eoy = yCM (6’)

The displacement of the diaphragm consists essentially of a rotation θz about the CT, inducing a
displacement δi at each column top i with coordinates xi,yi in respect to the coordinate system
with origin the CT. If the distance between the point i and the CT is ri, the two components of the
(infinitesimal) deformation δi are equal to δxi=-θz·yi and δyi=θz·xi.
The shear forces Vxi and Vyi in each column developed from the displacements δxi, δyi are:
Vxi=Kxi⋅δxi=Kxi⋅(-θz⋅yi)  Vxi=-θz⋅Kxi⋅yi and Vyi=Kyi⋅δyi=Kyi⋅(θz⋅xi)  Vyi=θz⋅kyi⋅xi
The resultant moment of all shear forces Vxi, Vyi about the centre of stiffness is equal to the ex-
ternal moment MCT, i.e.
MCT=Σ(-Vxi⋅yi+Vyi⋅xi+Kzi)  MCT= θz⋅Σ(Kxi⋅yi2+Kyi⋅xi2+Kzi)
Torsional stiffness Kzi of column i
Columns resist the rotation of the diaphragm by their flexural stiffness expressed in terms Kxi⋅yi2 ,
Kyi⋅xi2 (in N⋅m), and their torsional stiffness Kzi, which is measured in units of moment e.g. N⋅m.

11 The eccentricities eox, eoy are called structural because they depend only on the geometry of the structure and not on the external loading.
As presented in chapter 6, besides structural eccentricities, accidental eccentricities also exist.

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 257


Volume B

5.4.4 Assessment of building torsional behaviour


The degree of the torsional stiffness of a diaphragmatic floor is determined by the relation be-
tween the equivalent mass inertial ring (CM, ls) and the torsional stiffness ellipse (CT, rx, ry). The
optimal location of the two curves is where the torsional stiffness ellipse encloses the mass iner-
tial ring.

Figure 5.4.4: Equivalent mass inertial ring (CM, ls) and torsional stiffness ellipse (CT, rx, ry)

A building is classified as torsionally flexible [EC8 §5.2.2.1] if either rx<ls or ry<ls is satisfied in at
least one diaphragm storey level. In this example both conditions are satisfied.

For a building to be categorized as being regular in plan, the two structural eccentricities eox, eoy
at each level shall satisfy both conditions eox≤0.30rx & eoy≤0.30ry [EC8 §4.2.3.2]. In this particular
example the first condition is satisfied eox=0.94 m ≤ 0.30rx (=0.30×3.91=1.173 m), whereas the
second one is not eox=1.34 m ≤ 0.30rx (=0.30×3.08=0.924 m). Therefore the building that compris-
es that specific floor diaphragm is not regular in plan.
Simplified seismic analysis may be performed, provided that the following conditions are met for
each x, y direction:

rx2 > ls2 + eox2


ry2 > ls2 + eoy2 [EC8 §4.3.3.1(8) d)].
In this example the first condition is satisfied
3.912(=15.3)>2.812+0.942(=7.9+0.9=8.8),
whereas the second one is not
3.082(=9.5)<2.812+1.342(=7.9+1.8=9.7).
We therefore conclude that the simplified seismic analysis may not be performed at the building
including this particular floor diaphragm.

268 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Volume B

Calculation22 of the diaphragmatic behaviour


1st (and unique) floor level

Figure 5.4.5.4-2 Figure 5.4.5.4-3 Figure 5.4.5.4-4


1st Loading: 2nd Loading: (1st Loading) minus (2nd Loading):
HX=90.6 kN HX=90.6 kN HX=0
eccentricity 23 cY=1.0 m Diaphragm restrained MCT,X=90.6⋅yCM+90.6⋅cY
MCM,X=90.6 kNm against rotation

Figure 5.4.5.4-5 Figure 5.4.5.4-6 Figure 5.4.5.4-7


The displacements of each point i The diaphragm develops zero The diaphragm develops only a
δX,i , δY,i rotation and moves parallelly24 to rotation θXZ about CT.
and the rotation angle of the the axes X, Y. The displacements of each point
diaphragm Each point of the diaphragm i due to rotation are equal to:
θXZ=9.681×10-5 (therefore the CT as well ) has the δXt,i=δX,i-δXXo, δYt,i=δY,i-δXYo .
same principal displacements The CT derives from the
δXXo=0.684 mm, δXYo=0. expressions:
25
XCT =X1-δYt,1/θXZ=3.646 m
YCT =Y1+δXt,1/θXZ=3.316 m

22 The analysis of the diaphragmatic floor is performed automatically by the software. Algorithms are verified using the tools provided by the
software. In this example with zero angle a of the principal system, all the diaphragm data may be calculated by two simple analyses and
by the equations of the special case a=0, already presented in the previous paragraphs. Here, the general case of columns arranged ran-
domly is been used, which applies even in the special case of the rectangular columns in parallel arrangement. The method is explained in
detail in Appendix D.
23 The horizontal seismic load is applied at the CM. The eccentricity of the loading can be given also as equivalent torsional moment
MCM,X=HX⋅cY, which in this case is equal to MCM,X=90.6×1.0=90.6 kNm. This additional eccentricity aims to increase the effect of the rota-
tion, i.e. to give larger displacements due to rotation, in order to calculate the torsion related data of the diaphragm more accurately.
24 In the special case of an one-storey building comprising only rectangular columns arranged parallelly to the axes X,Y, the horizontal force
acting in X or Υ displaces the diaphragm only in X or Υ.
25 The equations determining the CT coordinates are general and may be applied for each point.
Indicatively, for column 4:

272 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Calculation of the diaphragmatic behaviour (continued)


1st (and only) floor level

Figure 5.4.5.4-8
3rd Loading:
HY=90.6 kN
Diaphragm restrained against
rotaion

Figure 5.4.5.4-10

Figure 5.4.5.4-9
Analysis results: Definition of the principal system26, of the torsional stiffness radii
The diaphragm is not rotated, and of the equivalent system (see §C.6):
but only translated in parallel to tan(2a)=2δXYo/(δXXo-δYYo)=0.0  2a=0°  a=0°
the axes X, Y.
δxxo=δXXo=0.684 mm,
Each point of the diaphragm
(therefore and the CT) has the δyyo=δYYo=0.824 mm
same principal displacement: Kxx=Hx/δxxo=90.6×103m/0.684×10-3m=132.5×106 N/m
δYXo=0, δYYo=0.824 mm. Kyy=Hy/δyyo=90.6×103m/0.824×10-3m=110.0×106 N/m
The 3 rd analysis completes the MCT,X=90.6⋅yCM+90.6⋅cY=90.6×(3.316-2.500)+90.6×1.0=164.5 kNm
necessary series of analyses for
the determination of all dia- Kθ=MCT,X/θXZ=164.5/9.681×10-5=17.0×105kNm
phragm data. rx=√Kθ/Kyy=√17.0×108N/m/110.0×106N/m=3.931m
ry=√Kθ/Kxx=√17.0×108N/m/132.5×106N/m=3.582 m

XCT=X4-δYt,4 /θXZ=6.0-0.228×10-3m/(9.681×10-5)=6.0-2,355=3.645 m
YCT=Y4+δXt,4/θXZ=5.0-0.163×10-3m/(9.681×10-5)=5.0-1.684=3.316 m.
26 In this example, it is already determined that the angle of the principal system is zero, if the type of the structure is considered and the 2nd
analysis (according to which δXYo=0). The calculation has been performed for the sake of generality. To this end, other quantities have also
been calculated, such as the centre of stiffness, which in this case is obtained from the simple application of moment at the point CM.

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 273


Volume B

• The area of the shear forces diagram and heights represents the total moment of the floors
and is larger in the triangular distribution than in the rectangular one.
• The maximum displacement, developed at the 10th level in column c13, is 70/10=7.0 times
greater than the one of the ground floor, i.e. δxx,10,13=7.0×5.60=39.2 mm and
δxy,10,13=7.0×0.97=6.8 mm.

The behaviour of the actual structure under orthogonal and triangular seismic force distribution
is subsequently considered. In the related software, in <project B_547-1>, the seismic forces
are input in the dialog “Seismic Forces” located at “Parameters”, “Horizontal Forces”. For or-
thogonal distribution input Hx=200 at all levels, while for triangular distribution input values from
364.0 to 36.4. Always check “Apply seismic forces”=ON in order to use in the analysis the given
seismic forces, instead of the default derived from the modal response spectrum analysis,. To
perform the analysis press “Solve Building” and finally to review the results press “Analysis Re-
sults”.

Figure 5.4.7.2-3: The actual structure of the building Figure 5.4.7.2-4: Seismic action with base shear 2000 kN
with the wireframe model and orthogonal distribution of seismic actions

Due to the bisymmetric geometry, in each diaphragm, the center of stiffness CT is located al-
most at the centre of the floor and therefore its displacement is almost equal to the average of
the displacements of columns c4, c13.
To compare all cases, the displacements are divided by a=0.4635 mm.
The displacements of the center of stiffness CT and of columns c4 and c13 are listed in the fol-
lowing table:

280 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

6.3 Seismic stresses


6.3.1 Seismic accelerations
The seismic accelerations aXX, aXY, aXZ 10 of each diaphragm are obtained under the X horizontal
component of the seismic action using appropriate methods (e.g. the CQC method applied by
the related software) from the combination of the modal analysis results. Their application point
of the seismic accelerations is the diaphragm’s centre of mass. For nodes not belonging to a
diaphragm, such as the nodes of the corner column of the building illustrated in the figure, the
application point of the seismic accelerations is the node position.

Seismic action in X direction


Mass a/g H[kN] V[kN]

0.010

35
0.104 348

0.

72
02
334.8 t

2
348

0.015

72
3000

51
0.079 269

0.

13
01
340.7 t

0
7
618

0.013

58
3000

44
0.066 224
0.

17
01
340.7 t

8
4 842
0.014

48
3000

47
0.067 230
0.

22
01

340.7 t

7
4

1072
0.008

48
3000

28
0.070 238
0.

27
01

340.7 t

6
5

1310
0.006

50
3000

20
0.121
0.071 240
0.

32
01

340.7 t

7
5

1550
0.004

51
3000

15

0.074 251
0.

37
01

340.7 t

9
5

1801
0.003

52
3000

10

0.071 243
0.

42
01

340.7 t 9
5

2044
0.003

50
3000

10

0.053 180
0.

46
01

340.7 t
5
1

2224
0.003

36
3000

0.021 73
0.

48
00

340.7 t
0
4

2298
15
3000

Figure 6.3.1-1: Ten-storey building of mixed sys- Figure 6.3.1-2: Page from the software report
tem. Diaphragmatic and non-diaphragmatic Distribution of seismic
nodes. Project <B_547-2> accelerations-forces-shear forces

The nodal seismic forces HXX, HXY και HXZ are obtained from the nodal seismic accelerations
multiplied by the nodal mass. The seismic accelerations and forces due to a horizontal compo-
nent (X and Y) of the seismic action are not only developed in the direction considered but also
in the other horizontal direction and the vertical.

10 Seismic acceleration aXX means acceleration in X due to seismic action in X, aXY means acceleration in Y due to seismic action in X and
aXΖ means acceleration in Ζ due to seismic action in X.

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Static and Dynamic Analysis

Modal analysis results of the frame type structure


Fixed condition at the ground level (project <Β_641-1>)

Figure 6.4.1-2: 1st mode in X: Figure 6.4.1-3: 2nd mode in X:


T=0.975 sec, participation 84% T=0.321 sec, participation 10%

Figure 6.4.1-4: 3rd mode in X: Figure 6.4.1-5: 4th mode in X:


T=0.189 sec, participation 3.5% T=0.134 sec, participation 1.6%
The sum of the effective modal masses of the first four modes amounts to 99% of the total
mass. The first mode is the fundamental one as its effective mass is the 84% of the total mass.
All four modes are translational and not torsional, as expected, due to the double symmetry of
the structure.

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Static and Dynamic Analysis

Case 2: Foundation with footing beams (project <Β_641-2>)

Figure 6.4.1-11: Structure and model Figure 6.4.1-12: Seismic acceleration-forces-shear forces
Frame system with q=3.60 1st fundamental period:T1=1.012 sec, participation 85%

Bending moments of ground floor columns

Figure 6.4.1-13: Displacements under seismic action in x Figure 6.4.1-14: Figure 6.4.1-15:
δmax=25.7 mm Ground floor column Ground floor column
0c2 (400/400) 0c6 (500/500)
Due to stronger cross-sections of footing beams compared to those of columns, the displace-
ment of the structure is slightly larger than that of assumed fixity at the base (25.7 against 24.5).
The structural system remains intact while the behaviour factor q is taken equal to 3.60.
The bending moments of columns at the footing neck are roughly the same as in the fixed con-
dition.
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Volume B

6.4.2 Wall-equivalent dual type structure

Figure 6.4.2-1: Structure comprising only columns and perimeter walls, project <B_642-1>

The structure derives from the frame type structure of §6.4.1 by replacing columns c2, c5, c8
and c11 of cross-section 400/400 with four perimeter walls of cross-section 2000/300.
The main mode shapes of the modal analysis of the first case of the wall system are illustrated
in the following page (The modes of the other three cases are similar). In the next four pages,
the characteristic quantities for all cases are presented.
It is extremely useful to compare between the variants of the wall system, but also between the
frame and wall systems.

General conclusions of the wall system:

1) In all cases, the natural period of the first mode shape is of the order of 0.70 sec. If however
the stiffnesses of the elements are taken as being 100% of the elastic, the value of periods
is of order of 0.50 sec (see §6.3.3).
2) The wall system behaviour is clearly better than the behaviour of the frame system, particu-
larly when in the presence of a basement with perimeter walls.

322 ΙApostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Modal analysis results of the wall type structure


Fixed condition at the ground level (project <Β_642-1>)

Figure 6.4.2-2: 1st mode: Figure 6.4.2-3: 2nd mode:


Tx=0.644 sec, Cx=6.6%, Cy=70.7% Tx=0.639 sec, Cx=70.5%, Cy=6.6%

Figure 6.4.2-4: 3rd mode: Figure 6.4.2-5: 4th mode:


Tx=0.456 sec, Cx=0.5%, Cy=0.0% Tx=0.187 sec, Cx=1.8%, Cy=10.7%
In the absence of symmetry in y direction, the fundamental mode shape in x (the 2nd) has also a
component in y, meaning that both translational and torsional responses are developed.
The sum of the effective modal masses of the 12 first modes amounts to 99.5% and 98.1% of
the total mass of the structure in x and in y directions respectively.

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Static and Dynamic Analysis

Case 4: Basement with perimeter walls (project <Β_642-4>)

Figure 6.4.2-21: Structure and model Figure 6.4.2-22: Seismic acceleration-forces-shear forces
Ductile wall system in X and Y with q=3.60 1st fundamental period:T1X=0.643 sec, participation 61%

Bending moments of ground floor columns

Figure 6.4.2-23: Displacements under seismic action in x Figure 6.4.2-24: Figure 6.4.2-25:
δmax=16.4 mm Ground floor wall Ground floor column
0c2 (2000/300) 0c6 (500/500)

The overall behaviour of the structure is much better compared to that of the strong foundation
at the ground floor approaching that of the assumed fixed conditions at the base.

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Static and Dynamic Analysis

APPENDIX D
DIAPHRAGMATIC BEHAVIOUR
OF MULTISTOREY SPACE FRAMES
GENERAL CASE
D.1 Subject description
The assessment of the behaviour of one-storey plane frames under horizontal seismic forces
was presented in paragraph 5.1, where the structural unit examined was the column (or wall). In
appendix Β’, the crossbar was used to assess the behaviour of the multistorey plane frame.
In this chapter, the composition of space frames, through beams and slabs, is considered. The
diaphragm is the structural unit for the assessment of coupled space frames.
Studying paragraph 5.4 and Appendices B and C is recommended in order to better understand
this chapter.

Figure D.1-1: The structural frame with 6 levels, project <B_d1>

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A diaphragm is the horizontal part of the floor consisting of slabs, connecting beams and col-
umns. A floor may comprise more than one diaphragm, as shown in the example building of the
present paragraph.

Figure D.1-2: The space frame structural model with bars of columns and beams and diaphragms

The most characteristic point of the diaphragm is the centre of stiffness, described in para-
graphs 3.1.4, 5.4.3.4 and C.5.

The centre of stiffness CT of a specific floor diaphragm is defined as the point about which the
diaphragm rotates, under horizontal seismic force H.
The CT point depends only on the geometry of the floor and is independent of the loadings,
meaning that regardless the magnitude of the force, which may become equal to 2H, or 3H, or
any other value, the centre of stiffness will remain the same. Of course, it depends on the ge-
ometry of the overlying and the underlying floors.

Principal axis system of diaphragm is defined as the orthogonal axis system xCTy, in which
when a horizontal seismic force H is applied on CT, along axis x (or y), it results in translating CT
only along axis x (or y respectively). The angle a of the principal system, as to the initial system
X0Y, is called principal angle of the diaphragm.
The above diaphragm data as well as the torsional stiffness Kθ and torsional ellipse stiffness el-
lipse (CT, rx, ry), should be calculated in a general way. The method to be used should deal with
more than one diaphragm per floor. Moreover, the general solution should account for the influ-

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Static and Dynamic Analysis

ence of non-diaphragmatic frames as well as the uneven level foundation. All possible special
cases met in practice are included in the example presented in this paragraph, except for foun-
dations, just for simplification reasons. Full scale analysis (including the foundation), can be per-
formed by the engineer using the related software.

Figure D.1-3: Floor plan of 5th level and diaphragm on the left examined next.
The cross-sections of columns, walls and beams are 500/500, 2000/300 and 300/500 respectively.
The behaviour of diaphragm on the left at the 5th level, analysed next is directly affected by the
L-type frame C21-C26-C27-C28 connected to it and indirectly by column C6 and the diaphragm on
the right, through the frames of other floors.

A general method for the calculation of the diaphragm data is presented next.

This method creates a condition allowing the diaphragm only to rotate about the centre
of stiffness CT, which remains stationary with respect to the ground.

The method comprises four steps, the first three of which include a space frame analysis.

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D.2 General method for the calculation of the diaphragm i data

Step 1: Analysis under force HΧ and concentrated moment MCM,X applied at the centre of
mass of diaphragm i.

Figure D.2-1: Loading: Force HX=100 and moment MCM,X on centre of mass CM of diaphragm i
Results: total displacements of structure and displacements of diaphragm i

The two displacements δXX1, δXY1 of point 1 of diaphragm i and its angle θXZ are required.
Any value may be given to force HΧ, as long as it is the same for the analyses of the three first
steps. In this example, HΧ is given equal to 100 kN. The application point of force H is irrelevant,
but for higher accuracy in calculations, the force is assumed applied at an arbitrary eccentricity
cy, e.g. 2.0 m, in relation to the centre of mass, in order to produce a significant rotation of the
diaphragm and thus achieve a higher accuracy in the calculations. That eccentricity is essential,
especially in cases where the centre of stiffness is close or coincides with the centre of mass.
Therefore, in addition to force HΧ, moment MCM,x=100kN2.00m= 200 kNm is also applied at CM.

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Static and Dynamic Analysis

The magnitude of force H needs to be important enough to result in significant diaphragm trans-
lations that can be distinguished from the translations due to moment.
The application of the sole moment in the absence of force H results in rotation, but also in
translations, which cannot be calculated since the centre of stiffness is still unknown.
Point 1 corresponds to column Κ2 joint, but could be any point of the diaphragm.

Figure D.2-2: The diaphragm displacements in plan, due to 2 parallel translations δXXo, δXYo and one rotation θXZ
The only results needed from this analysis are the translations of point 1 δXX1=2.681 mm, δXY1=-
0.231 mm and the angle θXZ=4.5613×10-5 of the diaphragm. The displacements of point 2 will be
used only to verify the generality of the method.

All displacements are absolute with respect to the ground.

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Step 2: Analysis under force HΧ applied at the centre of mass of diaphragm i with rota-
tional restraint.

Figure D.2-3: Loading: HX=100 on diaphragm i with rotational restraint


Results: the total displacements of structure and the two parallel translations of diaphragm

The two translations of point 1 δXXo, δXYo, are only required, being identical for any point of the
diaphragm i, thus also for CT, since the angle of rotation of the diaphragm is zero.

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Static and Dynamic Analysis

Figure D.2-4: The 2 parallel translations of the diaphragm δXXo, δXYo, in plan.
All diaphragm points, thus also CT, have identical displacements.
Diaphragm is restrained against rotation, therefore θXZ=0.

Due to zero rotation of diaphragm i, point 1 has only two parallel translations, δXXo=2.103 mm and
δXYo=-0.047mm, being identical for all diaphragm points, thus also for CT. In other diaphragms
located in the same, upper or lower level, small, yet measurable rotations exist, thus every point
on them has different displacements.

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Step 3: Analysis under force HΥ applied at the centre of mass of diaphragm i with rota-
tional restraint

Figure D.2-5: Loading: HY=100 on diaphragm i with rotational restraint Results: the total displacements of structure and the two
parallel translations of diaphragm

The two translations of point 1 δXXo, δXYo, are only required, being identical for any point of the
diaphragm i, thus also for CT, provided that the angle of rotation of the diaphragm is zero.

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Static and Dynamic Analysis

Figure D.2-6: The 2 parallel diaphragm translations δXXo, δXYo, in plan.


All diaphragm points, thus also CT, have identical displacements.
Diaphragm is restrained against rotation, therefore θXZ=0.
Due to zero rotation of diaphragm i, point 1 has only two parallel translations, δYXo=-0.047 and
δYYo=1.668 mm, being identical for all diaphragm points, thus also for CT. As in step 2, in other
diaphragms located in the same, upper or lower level small, yet measurable rotations exist, thus
every point on them has different displacements.
The secondary displacements δXYo of loading 1 and δYXo of loading 3 are always equal, i.e.
δXYo=δYXo should always derive from the space frame analysis.
Analysis 3 is performed only to obtain translation δYYo needed for the calculation of angle a of the
principal system.

The angle a of the principal system of diaphragm i is calculated by means of the equation C.9.1
of §C.9 using the 2nd and 3rd analysis results:
tan(2a)=2δXYo/(δXXo-δYYo)=2×(-0.047)/(2.103-1.668)=-0216  2a=-12.2º  a=-6.1º

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Step 4: Analysis results from loading 1 minus analysis results from loading 2, meaning
that only moment and only rotation exists about the centre of stiffness CT, which
remains stationary with respect to the ground.

Figure D.2-7: The only load acting on diaphragm i is moment on CT


Diaphragm displacements are induced only due to rotation
The centre of stiffness CT remains stationary with respect to the ground

Using this trick, namely by subtracting analysis 2 results from analysis 1 results, the diaphragm i
develops only rotation, while the remaining diaphragms develop both translations and rotation.
However only diaphragm i is examined here. The most important result of this trick is that the
diaphragm i is rotated about CT, which remains stationary with respect to the ground, allowing
the calculation of its precise location. The rotation angle of diaphragm i is the rotation angle θXZ
calculated in step 1 under the corresponding loading.

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Static and Dynamic Analysis

The displacements of an arbi-


trary point j of the diaphragm,
due to rotation θXZ derive form
the expressions:

δΧtj=δXXj-δXXo, δYtj=δXYj-δXYo

The CT coordinates corre-


sponding to these displace-
ments are (see §C.5):

XCT=Xj-δYtj/θXZ
YCT=Yj+δXtj/θXZ

Figure D.2-8
In the example considered, for point 1:
δΧt1=δXX1-δXXo=2.681-2.103=0.578 mm
δYt1=δXY1-δXYo=-0.211-(-0.047)=-0.164 mm
The diaphragm rotation is identical to that of analysis 1, i.e. θXZ=4.5613×10-5.
The coordinates of point 1 are (6.0, 0.0), thus:
XCT=X1-δYt1/θXZ=6.0-(-0.164)×10-3/(4.5613×10-5)=9.6 m
YCT=Y1+δXt1/θXZ=0.0+0.578×10-3/(4.5613×10-5)=12.7 m

Note:
To verify the generality of the method, CT coordinates are calculated from point 2 (12.0, 0.0)
as well:
δΧt2=δXX2-δXXo=2.681-2.103=0.578 mm
δYt2=δXY2-δXYo=0.063-(-0.047)=0.110 mm
XCT=X2-δYt2/θXZ=12.0-0.110×10-3/(4.5613×10-5)=9.6 m
YCT=Y2+δXt2/θXZ=0.0+0.578×10-3/(4.5613×10-5)=12.7 m
In the same way, CT coordinates may be verified using any point of the diaphragm.

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D.3 Diaphragm lateral stiffnesses

Each diaphragm has two lateral stiffnesses in the two principal directions.
Lateral stiffness of diaphragm Kxx (or Kyy) along the principal x (or y) direction, is defined as the
ratio of the seismic force H to the corresponding δxo (or δyo) displacement of the diaphragm,
when force acts on CT along the principal direction considered, i.e.:
Kxx=Hxx/δxxo , Kyy=Hxy/δxyo or equivalent: Kxx=Hyx/δyxo , Kyy=Hyy/δyyo
Using analysis 2, the external force HX=100 of the initial system X0Y is resolved into two equiva-
lent principal forces Hxx=100cosa and Hxy=-100sina (see §C.2) acting in x,y directions of the
principal system. In the present case, a=-6.154º, therefore Hxx=100×0.994=99.4 kN and Hxy=-
100×(-0.107)=10.7 kN.
Respectively, the two translations of the centre of stiffness in X0Y, derived from analysis 2, are
δXXo=2.103, δΧΥο=-0.047, which transferred in the principal system yield (§C.2):
δxxo=δXXocosa-δXYosina=2.103×0.994-(-0.047)×(-0.107)=2.090-0.005=2.085 mm
δxyo=-δXXosina+δXYocosa=-2.103×(-0.107)+(-0.047)×0.994=0.225-0.047=0.178 mm, άρα
Kxx=Hxx/δxxo=99.4×103N/2.085×10-3m=47.7×106 N/m
Kyy=Hxy/δxyo=10.7×103N/0.178×10-3m=60.1×106 N/m

Notes:
 If analysis 3 is usedthen:
Hyx=100sina=-10.7 kN and Hyy=100cosa=99.4 kN
δyxo=δYXocosa+δYYosina=(-0.047)×0.994+1.668×(-0.107)=-0.047-0.178=0.225,
δyyo=-δYXosina+δYYocosa=-(-0.047)×(-0.107)+1.668×(0.994)=-0.005+1.658=1.653
Kxx=Hyx/δyxo=-10.7×103N/(-0.225×10-3m)=47.6×106 N/m
Kyy=Hyy/δyyo=99.4×103N/1.653×10-3m=60.1×106 N/m
Namely the same stiffness values are obtained, as expected.
 The expressions C.9.2 and C.9.3 of §C.9 could be used for the calculation of stiffnesses Kxx,
Kyy, therefore:
Kxx=H/(δXXo+δXYotana)=100.0/(2.103-0.047×0.107)×106N/m=47.6×106 N/m
Kyy=H/(δYYo-δXYotana)=100.0/(1.668+0.047×0.107)×106N/m=60.0×106 N/m
 In case the centres of mass and stiffness coincide, Kxx should be calculated from analysis 2,
while Kyy from analysis 3, avoiding division by zero.

D.4 Diaphragm torsional stiffness


Torsional stiffness of diaphragm Kθ is defined as the ratio of moment MCT acting on the centre of
stiffness CT, to the rotation angle θz of the diaphragm.
Moment acting on CT is equal to
MXCT=100.0(YCT-YCM)+100.0cY=100×(12.685-12.323)+200.0=36.2+200.0=236.2 kNm
Kθ=MXCT/θXZ=236.2×103Nm/4.5613×10-5=5178×106 Nm

Note:
Moment MXCT of external forces is the sum of MXH=36.2 kNm due to external force H and the
external moment MXM=200.0 kNm. Respectively, the rotation angle θΧΖ of the diaphragm is
the sum of
θXZΗ=(MXH/MXCT)θXZ=(36.2/236.2)× 4.5613×10-5=0.699×10-5 and
θXZM=(MXM/MXCT)θXZ=(200/236.2)× 4.5613×10-5=3.8622×10-5

406 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Also Kθ=MXH/θXZH=MXM/θXZM=5178×106 Nm.


The constant moment value in all diaphragms and the respective calculation of torsional stiff-
ness is utilized in the determination of the equivalent system of §D.6.

D.5 Torsional stiffness distribution

Torsional stiffness distribution of diaphragm is the curve on which, if the idealised columns with
the same lateral stiffnesses as those of the diaphragm, are placed symmetrically with respect of
the centre of stiffness, the torsional stiffness derived is the same as that of the diaphragm.

Figure D.5
Torsional stiffness ellipse of diaphragm is defined as the ellipse having CT as centre and
rx=√(Kθ/Kyy), ry=√(Kθ/Kxx) as radii.
rx=√Kθ/Kyy=√[5178×106Νm/60.1×106N/m]=9.28 m
ry=√Kθ/Kxx=√[5178×106Nm/47.7×106N/m]=10.42 m

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D.6 Equivalent system – Relative lateral stiffness – Relative torsional


stiffness
A simple, yet equivalent building is created on the basis of appendix Β’, §Β.1 and §Β.2 and the
previous paragraphs of the present appendix. The equivalent building should comprise same
number of floors and diaphragms. The columns of each floor should have specific dimensions,
thus for each floor relative lateral and torsional stiffnesses are used (see §5.4.3.5 and §5.4.4).
Each diaphragm is replaced by an equivalent one consisting of 4 fixed-ended columns placed
symmetrically with respect to its centre of stiffness.
The equivalent diaphragm i is assumed to behave as an one-storey structure of fixed-ended
columns. The four relative translations of the centre of stiffness along X, Y axes δXXoΖ,i, δXYoΖ,i ,
δYXoΖ,i, δYYoΖ,i 1 as well as the rotation angle θXZMZ,I are defined as functions of the actual building
displacements as follows
δXXoΖ,i= δXXo,i-δXXo,i-1 , δXYoΖ,i=δXYo,i-δXYo,i-1 ,
δYXoΖ,i= δYXo,i-δYXo,i-1 2, δYYoΖ,i=δYYo,i-δYYo,i-1,
θXZΜZ,i = θXΖΜ,i –θXZΜ,i-1 3.
Therefore, the data of the equivalent diaphragm are: rotation angle az,i=2δXYoΖ,i/( δXXoΖ,i- δYYoΖ,i),
torsional stiffness KθZ,i=HcY/ θXZΜZ,i, lateral stiffnesses KxxZ,i= H/(δXXoZ,i+δXYoZ,itanaZ,i) and
KyyΖ,ι=H/(δYYoZ,i-δXYoZ,itanaZ,i) (expressions C.9.2 and C.9.3 of §C.9).
Also rxZ,i=√KθZ,i/KyyZ,i, ryZ,i=√KθZ,i/KxxZ,i.

The location of the equivalent diaphragms is determined by translating the centre of stiffness to
point 0.0, 0.0. In this way the equivalent building is created and for its diaphragms i the following
relations apply:
δXXo_equal,i=Σ(δXXoΖ,k) όπου k=i έως 1  δXXo_equal,i=Σ(δXXo,i-δXXo,i-1)= (δXXo,i-δXXo,i-1)+ (δXXo,i-1-δXXo,i-2)+…+
(δXXo,1-0.0)=δXXo,i  δXXo_equal,i=δXXo,i
Using the same logic δXYo_equal,i=δXYo,i , δYYo_equal,i=δYYo,i and θXZ_equal,i= θXZΜ,i
Therefore all diaphragm quantities Kxx_equal,i , Kyy_equal,i , Kθ_equal,i are equal to those of the actual
building.
Two analytical examples for the application of the method are presented in the following para-
graph.
The seismic assessment of the actual building can be performed in an easy, direct and
descriptive way by means of the equivalent building.

Notes:

 In ground floor diaphragms, their torsional stiffness ellipse coincides with the ellipse of
the corresponding equivalent diaphragms.
 1/Kθ_equal,i=Σ(1/KθΖ,j), 1<j ≤ i

1 Subscript Z, before, i denotes that the value of the quantity considered is relative rather than absolute.
2 Always dXYoZ,i=dYXoZ,i due to δXYo,i=δYXo,i and δXYo,i-1=δYXo,i-1, thus the same is valid for their difference.
3 Subscript M implies rotation angle of the diaphragm due to moment MM=Hc as described in the note of §D.4.

408 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Figure D.6: The equivalent diaphragm of the diaphragm on the left of 4th floor
(n=4 equivalent columns of 567/621 cross-section)

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D.7 Examples
Two examples are analysed applying the general method on the same simple structure of Ap-
pendix C.1. The choice of a simple structure is useful for easy monitoring of the results and the
comprehension of the diaphragmatic floor behaviour of floors.
Example D.7.1:
In the one-storey structure of project <B_d9-1> the two translations of node 5 (column C1) and
the diaphragm rotation θXZ should be calculated, using either the related software or any other
relevant software. Optionally, the translations of the remaining points of the diaphragm may be
calculated. All diaphragm data can derive based on these displacements.

Figure D.7.1-1: The simple structure of 4 columns


C1:400/400, C2:400/400, C3:800/300 φ=30º, C4:300/600 φ=45º,
h=3.0 m, beams 250/500

After entering into “Element Input”, select “Tools” from the menu and then “Diaphragm calcula-
tion”. In the dialog opened, enter H=90.6 kN, cY=1.0 m, select “Use fixed columns=OFF1” and
press “ΟΚ”. The screen displaying the inertial mass ring, the centre of stiffness, the torsional
stiffness ellipse and the 4 columns equivalent structure of appears.

1 If “fixed columns=ON” then the results are based on the assumption of fixed-ended columns and the results are identical with those of the
first two cases. The slight differences in the results versus the ones obtained by the manual calculations, as well as the ones resulting from
the excel file are due to the small differences of the centre of mass, due to the uneven loads from the columns self-weight.

410 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

The mass inertial ring is the


same as in the previous case,
since it depends only on the
loads. However all other re-
sults are different, as ex-
pected.
The values of the coordinates
of the centre of stiffness CT
are (2.806, 4.193), and the tor-
sional radii are rx=4.390 m,
ry=3.842 m versus the values
2.688, 4.897, rx=4.411 and
ry=3.381 obtained from the as-
sumption of fixed-ended col-
umns in Appendix C.
All results are displayed in de-
tail by selecting from the menu
“View” and then “Diaphragm
results”, “report”.
θXZ=11.952×10-5.

Figure D.7.1-2: Output image of the software

The remaining results are better displayed in 3D, by selecting from the menu “View”, “Dia-
phragm results”, “3D floor” combined with “free rotation analysis” or “fixed rotation analysis” or
“rotation only”, as presented in the two following pages.

Note:
In the one-storey structure considered the “only rotation” condition can derive directly
from the analysis by applying only moment as external loading, the reason being that the
centre of stiffness CT in one-storey diaphragms remains, by definition, stationary with re-
spect to the ground.

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 411


Volume B

Calculation 2 of the diaphragmatic behaviour

Figure D.7.1-3 Figure D.7.1-4 Figure D.7.1-5


Loading 1: HX=90.6 kN with Loading 2: HX=90.6 kN Loading 3: HY=90.6 kN
loading eccentricity 3 cY=1.0 m Diaphragm restrained against Diaphragm restrained against
resulting in moment MXCM =90.6 rotation rotation
kNm

Figure D.7.1-6 Figure D.7.1-7 Figure D.7.1-8


Analysis results: Analysis results: Analysis results:
The translations of point 1 are The diaphragm develops only The diaphragm develops only
δXX1=1.178, δXY1=-0.395mm and parallel translations in X,Y direc- parallel translations in X,Y direc-
the diaphragm rotation is tions, being restrained against tions, being restrained against
θXZ=11.952×10-5 rotation. Thus all diaphragm rotation, which are:
points (including CT) develop the
δYXo=-0.0600, δYYo=0.839 mm
same displacements:
The angle of the principal system
δXXo=0.677 mm, δXYo=-0.060. derives from the expression:
tan(2a)=2δXYo/(δΧΧο-δYYo)=
=2×(-0.060)/(0.677-0.839)=
=0.741  2a=36.5°  a=18.2°

2 The software performs the calculations of the diaphragm automatically. The verification of the algorithms using the software tools is pre-
sented here.
3 The horizontal seismic force acts on the centre of mass CM. The loading eccentricity, cy=1.0, may also be given as equivalent moment
MCM,X=HXcY. In this case MCM,X=90.6×1.0=90.6 kNm. This additional eccentricity increases the effect of rotation producing larger transla-
tions due to rotation, thus leading to a more accurate calculation of diaphragm torsional data. Besides that, the moment induced by the ec-
centricity moment provides solutions even in cases that the centres of mass and stiffness are close or coincide.

412 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Calculation of the diaphragmatic behaviour (continued)

Figure D.7.1-9
Loading 1 minus loading 2:
HX=0, MXCT=90.6(YCT-
YCM)+90.6

Figure D.7.1-11
Figure D.7.1-10
Subtraction results: Determination of stiffnesses and torsional radii:
The diaphragm only rotates by The lateral stiffnesses Kxx, Kyy are calculated using the expressions
θXZ about the centre of stiffness C.9.2 and C.9.3 of §C.9, with a=18.186° and tana=0.329:
CT. The translations of the first Kxx=H/(δXXo+δXYotana)=[90.6/(0.677-0.0600.329)]106N/m=
point due to rotation: = 137.8×106 N/m
δXt,1=δX,1-δXXo=1.178-0.677 Kyy=H/(δYYo-XYotana)=[90.6/(0.839+0.0600.329)]106N/m=
=0.501 mm, =105.5×106 N/m
δYt,1= δY,1-δXYo =-0.395+0.060
=-0.335mm and MXCT4=90.6(ΥCT-YCM)+90.6cY=90.6×(4.193-2.509)+90.6×1.0=
=243.2 kNm,
XCT=X1-δYt,1/θXZ= Kθ=MXCT/θXZ=243.2/11.952×10-5=20.3×105 kNm
=0.0+0.335×10-3/11.952×10-5 rx=√Kθ/Kyy=√[20.3×108Nm/105.5×106N/m]=4.39 m
=2.803 m ry=√Kθ/Kxx=√[20.3×108Nm/137.8×106N/m]=3.84 m
YCT =Y1+δXt,1/θXZ=
0.0+0.501×10-3/11.952×10-5
=4.192 m

Note:
The expressions determining the CT coordinates are general and they apply to any point
of the diaphragm. For instance, from column 4:
XCT=X4-δYt,4/θXZ=6.0-0.382×10-3m/11.952×10-5=6.0-3.20=2.80 m
YCT=Y4+δXt,4/θXZ=5.0-0.096×10-3m/11.952×10-5=5.0-0.80=4.20 m

4 Moment, rotation and torsional stiffness Kθ have the same values in both the initial system X0Y and the principal system xCTy. It is prefer-
able to work in the initial system, as the calculations are simpler.

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 413


Volume B

Equivalent system:
In this example consid-
ered, since the structure
is one-storey (the same
applies to the ground
floor of any multistorey
building), the torsional
stiffness ellipse of the
equivalent system is
identical to that corre-
sponding to the actual
floor.
Selecting “Equivalent
system/Draw”=ON, the
torsional stiffness ellipse,
verified previously, with
the 4 equivalent columns
of 424/373 cross-section
located on its vertices,
are displayed by the
software (see figure D.7-
12). The equivalence of
these 4 fixed-ended col-
umns is checked next:
Figure D.7.1-12: Equivalent system of 4 columns of 424/371 cross-section
(at the “ Equivalent system” field enter k=1  n=4k=4)

The calculations are effected in the principal coordinates system, where each column stiffness
in its local system, is the same with that of the principal. Kx=12ΕΙx/h3 and Kx=12ΕΙy/h3 (see
§5.1.1), since in the example considered the shear effect, in any case insignificant had been
ignored, and therefore kva=1.
Ix=0.373×0.4243/12=23.693×10-4 m4, Iy=0.424×0.3733/12=18.336×10-4 m4
Given E=32.8 GP and h=3.0 m  Kx=1232.8109Pa23.69310-4m4/3.03m3=34.54×106 N/m
Ky=1232.8109Pa18.33610-4m4/3.03m3=26.73×106 N/m
For 4 equivalent columns Kxx=Σ(Kx)=4×34.54=138.2×106 N/m,
Kyy=Σ(Ky)=4×26.73=106.9×106 N/m,
Therefore equal to the actual stiffness (slight differences are justified by the need to use integer
mm).
The torsional stiffness of the equivalent diaphragm is Kθ=Σ(Kxiyi2+Kyixi2+0.0) (expression 7,
§C.5)  Kθ=2Κx3.8422+2Ky4.3902=234.54106N/m14.76m2 + 226.73106N/m19.271m2=
(10.2+10.3)×105 kNm =20.5×105 kNm, therefore equal to the actual torsional stiffness. It is obvious
that rx, ry values are also identical, being equal to the square root of the ratio of equal quantities
rxΖ=√(Kθ/Kyy)=4.39 m, ryΖ=√(Kθ/Kxx)=3.84 m.
The equivalent building may comprise only 4 columns, or any number of columns n=4k, where κ
is nonzero integer, e.g. 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, … These columns by groups of four, are placed sym-
metrically with respect to the centre of stiffness.
For instance, the case of 8 columns of 356/312 cross-section, yields:
Ix=0.312×0.3563/12=11.731×10-4 m4, Iy=0.356×0.3123/12=9.010×10-4 m4

414 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Given E=32.8 GP and h=3.0 m  Kx=1232.8109Pa11.73110-4m4/3.03m3=17.01×106 N/m,


Ky=1232.8109Pa9.01010-4m4/3.03m3=13.13×106 N/m.
For 8 equivalent columns  Kxx=Σ(Kx)=8×17.01=136.8×106 N/m and Kyy=
Σ(Ky)=8×13.13=105.1×106 N/m. To calculate the torsional stiffness, the coordinates (±3.105 m,
±2.717 m) of the 4 intermediate points are used, which are displayed both at the screen and in
the “report” (if “coords” selected).

Alternative equivalent structures

Figure D.7.1-13: Case of 8 columns (k=2, n=4k=8) Figure D.7.1-14: Case of 16 columns (k=4, n=4k=16)
of 356/312 equivalent cross-section of 299/262 equivalent cross-section

Figure D.7.1-15: Case of 24 columns (k=6, n=4k=24) Figure D.7.1-16: Case of 48 columns (k=12, n=4k=48)
of 271/237 equivalent cross-section of 227/199 equivalent cross-section

Kθ=Σ(Kxiyi2+Kyixi2)= 2Κx3.8422+4Κx2.7172+2Ky4.3902+4Ky3.1052=
=[17.01×(29.52+29.53)+13.13×(38.54+38.56)]×103 kNM=[10.1+10.1]×105 kNM =20.2×105 kNM
Thus, the system of 8 fixed-ended columns is also equivalent to the actual structure.
In this way all systems with n=4k are verified to be equivalent to the initial actual structure.

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 415


Volume B

Example D.7.2:
In the three-storey structure of project <B_d9-2> using the related software or any other rele-
vant software, for each of the three loadings in this particular example the two translations of
node 9 (column C1) and the rotation of the diaphragm of level 2 are calculated. Optionally, the
translations of the other diaphragm points may be calculated. All diaphragm data are computed
based only on the displacements of node 9.

Figure D.7.2-1: The simple structure of 3 storeys and 4 columns.


The floor is typical, identical to the floor of first example

416 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

After entering into “Element Input”, select “Tools” from the menu and then “Diaphragm calcula-
tion”. In the dialog opened, enter H=90.6 kN, cY=1.0 m, select “Use fixed columns=OFF” and
press “ΟΚ” and the diaphragm data of the current floor are displayed. Floor 1, that corresponds
to level 2 is then selected..
The coordinates of the centre of
stiffness CT are (2.847, 3.785), and the
torsional radii are rx=4.305 m, ry=3.979
m (versus the coordinates 2.688,
4.897, rx=4.411 and ry=3.381 derived
by the assumption of fixed-ended
columns). The cross-section of the
equivalent columns is 335/321 (versus
521/399 derived by the assumption of
fixed-ended columns).
All results are displayed analytically
by selecting from the menu “View”,
“Diaphragm results”, “report”. In level
2 θXZ=30.2962×10-5.
The rest of results are better dis-
played in 3D, by selecting from the
menu “View”, “Diaphragm results”,
“3D floor” combined with “free rota-
tion analysis” or “ restrained rotation
analysis” or “rotation only”, as pre-
sented in the two following pages.

Figure D.7.2-2: Output image of the software

Note:
In the structure considered, being multistorey, the “only rotation” condition of a dia-
phragm, i.e. with CT remaining stationary with respect to the ground, may only derive us-
ing the trick of the following general method,.

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 417


Volume B

Calculation of the diaphragmatic behaviour of level 2

Figure D.7.2-3 Figure D.7.2-4 Figure D.7.2-5


Loading 1: HX=90.6 kN with Loading 2: HX=90.6 kN Loading 3: HY=90.6 kN
loading eccentricity cY=1.0 m Diaphragm restrained against Diaphragm restrained against
resulting in moment MXCM=90.6 rotation rotation
kNm

Figure D.7.2-6 Figure D.7.2-7 Figure D.7.2-8


Analysis results: Analysis results: Analysis results:
The translations of point 1 are The diaphragm develops only The diaphragm, being restrained
δXX1=3.318, δXY1=-0.986mm and parallel translations in X,Y direc- against rotation, develops only
the diaphragm rotation is tions, being restrained against parallel translations in X,Y direc-
θXZ=30.2962×10-5 rotation. Thus all diaphragm tions, which are:
points (including CT) develop the δYXo=-0.1235, δYYo=2.4362 mm
same displacements: The angle of the principal system
δXXo=2.1712 mm, δXYo=-0.1235 derives from the expression:
tan(2a)=2δXYo/(δΧΧο-δYYo)=
2×(-0.1235)/(2.1712-2.4362)=
0.932  2a=43.0°  a=21.5°

418 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

Calculation of the diaphragmatic behaviour of level 2 (continued)

Figure D.7.2-9
Loading 1 minus loading 2:
HX=0, MXCT=90.6(YCT-
YCM)+90.6

Figure D.7.2-11
Figure D.7.2-10
Subtraction results: Determination of stiffnesses, torsional radii and equivalent system:
The diaphragm only rotates by The lateral stiffnesses Kxx, Kyy are calculated using the expressions
θXZ about the centre of stiffness C.9.2 and C.9.3 of §C.9 with a=21.49°  tana=0.393:
CT. The translations of the first Kxx=H/(δXXo+δXYotana)=
point due to rotation:
=[90.6/(2.1712-0.12350.393)]106N/m= 42.7×106 N/m
δXt,1=δX,1-δXXo=
=3.3180-2.1712 =1.1468, Kyy=H/(δYYo-XYotana)=
δYt,1= δY,1-δXYo = =[90.6/(2.4362+0.12350.393)]106N/m= 36.5×106 N/m
=-0.9859+0.1235 =-0.8624 MXCT=90.6(ΥCT-YCM)+90.6cY=90.6×(3.785-2.525)+90.6×1.0=
and 204.8 kNm,
XCT=X1-δYt,1/θXZ= Kθ=MCT,X/θXZ=204.8/30.2962×10-5=6.759×105 kNm
0.0+0.8624×10-3/30.2962×10-5 rx=√Kθ/Kyy=√[6.759×108Nm/36.5×106N/m]=4.30 m
=2.847 m ry=√Kθ/Kxx=√[6.759×108Nm/42.7×106N/m]=3.98 m
YCT =Y1+δXt,1/θXZ=
0.0+1.1468×10-3/30.2962×10-5
=3.785 m

Note:
The expressions determining the CT coordinates are general and they apply to any point
of the diaphragm. For instance, from column 4:
XCT=X4-δYt,4/θXZ=6.0-0.9553×10-3m/30.2962×10-5=6.0-3.153=2.847 m

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 419


Volume B

YCT=Y4+δXt,4/θXZ=5.0-0.3681×10-3m/30.2962×10-5=5.0-1.215=3.785 m
Equivalent system:
The equivalent system of
the three-storey building
comprises three dia-
phragms, equivalent to
the actual ones.
The results for both the
actual and the equivalent
diaphragms are given in
the “report” of the related
software. The two follow-
ing tables of the equiva-
lent diaphragms are tak-
en from the report.

Figure D.7.2-12: Equivalent diaphragm of level 2 with


4 columns of 335/321 cross-section
(at the “ Equivalent system” field enter k=1  n=4k=4)

Equivalent system displacements


Elevation dXXo,i dXYo,i XZM,i dYYo,i dXXoZ,i dXYoZ,i dYYoZ,i XZMZ,i
mm mm 1.0e-5 mm mm mm mm 1.0e-5

1 0.612 -0.079 4.2009 0.773 0.612 -0.079 0.773 4.2009

2 2.171 -0.123 13.4045 2.436 1.559 -0.044 1.663 9.2036

3 4.198 -0.072 24.6910 4.437 2.026 0.052 2.001 11.2865

Equivalent system cross-sections


Elevation hi αZ,i MXM,i KZ,i KxxZ,i KyyZ,i rxZ,i ryZ,i AxZ,i AyZ,i
m deg KNm MNm MN/m MN/m m m mm mm
1 3.00 22.3069 90.60 2156.7 156.30 112.45 4.379 3.715 441 374
2 3.00 20.1371 90.60 984.4 58.72 53.95 4.271 4.094 335 321
3 3.00 38.0593 90.60 802.7 43.83 46.21 4.168 4.279 306 314

Verification of the tabulated results using the theory presented in §D.6:


δXXoΖ,1= δXXo,1-0.0=0.612 , δXYoΖ,1=δXYo,1-0.0=-0.079,
δYYoΖ,1=δYYo,1-0.0=0.773, θXZΜZ,1 = θXΖΜ,1 –0.0=4.2009
δXXoΖ,2= δXXo,2-δXXo,1=2,171-0.612=1.559, δXYoΖ,2=δXYo,2-δXYo,1=-0.123-(-0.079)=-0.044
δYYoΖ,2=δYYo,2-δYYo,1=2.436-0.773=1.663, θXZΜZ,2= θXΖΜ,2 –θXZΜ,1=13.4045-4.2009=9.2036

420 Ι Apostolos Konstantinidis


Static and Dynamic Analysis

δXXoΖ,3= δXXo,3-δXXo,2=4.198-2.171=2.026, δXYoΖ,3=δXYo,3-δXYo,2=-0.072-(-0.123)=0.051


δYYoΖ,3=δYYo,3-δYYo,2=4.437-2.436=2.001, θXZΜZ,3= θXΖΜ,3 –θXZΜ,2=24.6910-13.4045=11.2865
Diaphragm data for all levels derive from these quantities, therefore specifically for level 2:
tan(2az,2)=2δXYoΖ,2/( δXXoΖ,2- δYYoΖ,2)=2(-0.044)/(1.559-1.663)  tan(2az,2)=0.8462 
az,2=20.12º and tanaz,2=0.3667
KθZ,2=ΜΧΜ,2/θXZΜZ,2 =90.6×1.0/9.2036=984.4,
KxxZ,2=H/(δXXoZ,2+δXYoZ,2tanaZ,2)=90.6/(1.559+(-0.044)×0.3667)=58.7 and
KyyΖ,2=H/(δYYoZ,2-δXYoZ,2tanaZ,2)=90.6/(1.663-(-0.044) ×0.3667)=53.95
rxZ,2=√KθZ,2/KyyZ,2=√(984.4/53.95)=4.27, ryZ,2=√KθZ,2/KxxZ,2 =√(984.4/58.72)=4.094
quod erat demonstrandum.

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS Ι 421

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