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CURS 2 – LESSON 2 [les(ə)n tu:]

1. FONETICA – EXERCITII (PHONETICS – EXERCISES) [fənetiks - eksərsaizis]

# Cititi urmatoarele cuvinte conform pronuntiei alfabetului englezesc (Spell the


following words) [spel δə fələwiη wərds]

what, engineer, foreigner, afternoon, intelligent, teacher, to study, training,


nationality, name, surname, cassette recorder

# Cititi urmatoarele nume proprii, conform alfabetului englezesc (Spell the following
proper names) [spel δə fələwiη propər neims]:

White, McDonald, Johnson, McCloud, Leo Jones, Richard Alexander, Michael


Swan, Catherine Walter, Val Mercer, Eric Linsell, Steve Hall, Sally Palmer – Smith, Neil
Howe.

2. VERBUL ‘TO BE’ = A FI (THE VERB ‘TO BE’) [δə vərb ‘tu: bi:’]

• Interogativul (The Interrogative) [δi intərogətiv]

In limba engleza interogativul (intrebarea) se formeaza prin inversarea ordinii de la


afirmativ. Daca afirmativul il formam prin Subiect (substantiv/ pronume) + verb, la
interogativ vom avea Verb + Subiect

Am I……..? [em I…..] = Sunt eu……?


Are you……? [ar ju:…] = Esti tu……..?
Is he………? [iz hi:…] = Este el……?
Is she……..? [iz ∫I:…] = Este ea…….?
Is it…………? [iz it….] = Este el/ea….?
Are we……? [ar wi:….] = Suntem noi…..?
Are you…..? [ar ju:…..] = Sunteti voi……?
Are they…..? [ar δei….] = Sunt ei/ele…..?

* Negativul (The Negative) [δə negətiv]

In limba engleza negativul se formeaza prin adaugarea particulei ‘not’ (nu), la forma
de afirmativ a verbului.

I am not [ai em not] = Eu nu sunt


You are not [ju: ar not] = Tu nu esti
He is not [hi: iz not] = El nu este
She is not [∫I: iz not] = Ea nu este
It is not [it iz not] = El/ea nu este
We are not [wi: ar not] = Noi nu suntem
You are not [ju: ar not] = Voi nu sunteti
They are not [δei ar not] = Ei/ele nu sunt

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* Interogativul negativ (The Interrogative – Negative) [δi intərogətiv - negətiv]

In limba engleza, interogativul – negativ (intrebarea negativa) se formeaza prin


adaugarea particulei ‘not’ formei de interogativ (Vb + Subiect):

Am I not…..? [em I not] = Nu sunt eu……?


Are you not….? [ar ju: not] = Nu esti tu….?
Is he not….? [iz hi: not] = Nu e el…..?
Is she not…..? [iz ∫I: not] = Nu e ea….?
Is it not…..? [iz it not] = Nu e el/ea…..?
Are we not….? [ar wi: not] = Nu suntem noi…..?
Are you not….? [ar ju: not] = Nu sunteti voi….?
Are they not….? [ar δei not] = Nu sunt ei/ele….?

# Exercitii:

Alcatuiti propozitii folosind cuvintele urmatoare, conform modelului (Make up


sentences using the following prompts, according to the model) [meik Λp sent(ə)nsiz ju:ziŋ δe
fələwiη prompts, əkordiŋ tu δe mod(ə)l]:

wrong/right [roŋ / rait] = gresit/corect; busy/available [bizi / əveiləb(ə)l] =


ocupat/disponibil; interested/bored [intrəstid / bo:rd] = interesat/plictisit; pretty/ugly [priti /
Λgli] = frumos/urat; new/old [nju: / əuld] = nou / vechi; ill/healthy [il/ helθi] = bolnav/sanatos

Model: I……………..(not) wrong.


I am not wrong.
I am right.

1. He ……………….(not) busy. …………………………………….


2. We……………….(not) interested. …………………………………….
3. They………………(not) pretty. …………………………………….
4. You……………….(not) new. ……………………………………
5. She………………..(not) ill. …………………………………….

3. VERBUL ‘TO BE’ – FORMELE CONTRASE (THE VERB ‘TO BE’ – SHORT FORMS)
[δə vərb ‘tu: bi:’ - ∫ort forms]

Afirmative Negative Interrogative-Negative


I’m [aim] I’m not [aim not] --------
You’re [ju:r] You’re not/ you aren’t [arənt] Aren’t you……?
He’s [hi:z] He’s not / he isn’t [izənt] Isn’t he……?
She’s [∫I:z] She’s not / she isn’t Isn’t she….?
It’s [its] it’s not / it isn’t Isn’t it………..?
We’re [wi:(ə)r] We’re not / we aren’t Aren’t we……..?
You’re [ju:r] You’re not/ you aren’t [arənt] Aren’t you……?
They’re [δei(ə)r] They’re not / They aren’t Aren’t they……..?

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# Exercitii:

Utilizati formele contrase ale verbului ‘to be’ conform modelului. Traduceti apoi
fiecare intrebare. (Practise the short forms of the verb ‘to be’ according to the model. Then
translate each question. [præktis δə ∫ort forms of δə vərb ‘tu: bi: əkordiŋ tu δe mod(ə)l]

Model: They are not friends, are they?


They aren’t friends, are they? (Nu sunt prieteni, nu-I asa?)

She is a Romanian, is she not?


She’s a Romanian, isn’t she? (Este romanca, nu-I asa?)

1. My children are not nasty, are they?


………………………………………….
2. Mr Caren is a translator, is he not?
………………………………………..
3. We are late this afternoon, are we not?
…………………………………..
4. I am not a boring person, am I/
……………………………………………..
5. He is not an actor, is he?
…………………………………………….
6. They are hard-working students, are they not?
………………………………………..

Alegeti forma verbala corespunzatoare ( Choose the right form of the verb) [t∫u:z δə
rait form of δə vərb]:

Model: We am/is/are all students at the Hyperion University.


We are all students at the Hyperion University.

1. Harry am / is / are a smart boy.


2. The day after tomorrow am / is / are Saturday.
3. They am/ is / are my best friends.
4. Am / Is / Are I a good student?
5. Is / Are / Am we late?
6. You is / am/ are absent – minded.

Completati spatiile libere cu pronumele corespunzator formei verbului ‘to be’. ( Insert
the personal pronoun corresponding to the form of the verb ‘to be’) [ insərt δə pərsən(ə)l
prəunəun korispondiŋ tu δə form of δə vərb ‘tu: bi:].

Model: …..is not American English, ……is British English.


It is not American English, it is British English.

1. ……… are in their room.


2. ………am not at the office now.
3. ……….is my boy-friend.
4. ……….aren’t an engineer, ……are a banker.
5. ……….is a letter.
6. ……….am a Romanian. …..am not a Spaniard.

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Completati spatiile libere cu formele corespunzatoare ale verbului ‘to be’. (Fill in the
blanks with the suitable forms of the verb ‘to be’) [fil in δə blæŋks wiδ δə su:təb(ə)l forms of
δə vərb ‘tu: bi:]

1. We………….students at the Hyperion University.


2. I………….a hard-working type of person.
3. They……..not my enemies, they……..my friends.
4. She……..a very good typist.
5. You……..in the seminar room right now.
6. My girl-friend……..a good dancer.

Scrieti formele verbale contrase corespunzatoare exemplelor de mai jos (Change the
long verbal forms into short ones) [t∫eindЗ δə loŋ vərbəl forms intu ∫ort wΛns]

Model: He is not my colleague.


He’s not / He isn’t my colleague.

They are my colleagues.


They’re my colleagues.

1. She is my friend.
………………….
2. Are you not an assistant to the General Manager?
………………………………
3. They are not interpreters, they are translators.
………………………………….
4. I am always early, I am never late for school.
……………………………….
5. It is a new college, it is not an old one.
………………………………….
6. Are they not your teachers?
…………………………….

Transformati urmatoarele propozitii la forma interogativa (Make these sentences


interrogative) [meik δi:z sent(ə)nsiz intərogətiv]:

Model: He is a hard-working student.


Is he a hard-working student?

1. They both are famous doctors.


………………………………
2. The colour of my pen is blue.
……………………………….
3. I am always at home after 8 p.m.
…………………………………
4. She is present.
……………………………….
5. You are at the office before 9 a.m.
………………………………….

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6. We aren’t guilty.
……………………..

Dati raspunsuri scurte intrebarilor de mai jos si apoi scrieti traducerea lor (Give short
answers to the following questions and translate them into Romanian) [giv ∫ort ansərs tu δə
fələwiη kwest∫(ə)ns ænd trænsleit δem intu rəumeiniən]:

Model: Are all the students present? Yes, they are.


(Sunt toti studentii prezenti?) (da)

Is the teacher nervous? No, she is not.


(Profesoara este emotionata?) (nu)

1. Is Betty a good student? Yes, ………………………………………..


2. Are you at home now? No, …………………………………………
3. Are you a French citizen? No, …………………………………………
4. Is this your English book? Yes, ………………………………………
5. Is Mrs Sarbu your new neighbour? Yes, ……………………………………………
6. Are you at home in the afternoon? No, ………………………………………..

3. ARTICOLUL NEHOTARAT (THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE) [δi indefinit artic(ə)l]

In limba engleza articolul nehotarat este ‘a’[ə] sau ‘an’ [ən] se foloseste in fata
substantivelor sau adjectivelor la singular. ‘A’ preceda substantivele sau adjectivele care incep
cu o consoana:

Ex: a student [ə stju:d(ə)nt] = un elev/student


A teacher [ə ti:t∫ər] = un/o profesor/profesoara

Conform atat acestui ‘Curs de Engleza Generala’ cat si manualului pentru examenul
Teofl, partea de gramatica, articolul nehotarat ‘a’ = ‘un/o” se foloseste in fata cuvintelor care
incep cu sunet consonantic. Sunetul consonantic este definit ca: “U” [ju:] este considerat
vocala in scris, dar consoana in vorbire. In cuvinte ca ‘use’ [ju:z] ‘utilizare’, ‘universal’
[ju:nivərs(ə)l] ‘universal’, ‘usual’ [ju:Зuəl] ‘de obicei’, este considerat sunetul ‘Y’ si deci
consoana. Va fi deci precedat de ‘a’. Un alt exemplu este litera ‘H’, considerata consoana in
scris, dar sunet vocalic in cuvinte ca ‘hour’ [auər] ‘ora’, sau ‘honor’ [onər] ‘premiu, onoare’.
Nu insa si in cuvinte ca ‘history’ [histəri] ‘istorie’, si ‘horror’ [horər] ‘groaza’, unde sunetul
‘h’ este pronuntat ca atare. Acestea din urma vor fi precedate de articolul nehotarat ‘a’.
Forma ‘an’ preceda substantivele sau adjectivele care incep cu o vocala sau un sunet
vocalic.

Ex: an economist [ən ikonəmist] = un economist


An intensive course [ən intensiv k‫ن‬:s] = un curs intensiv
An egg [ən eg] = un ou

# Exercitii:

Care este forma corecta a articolului nehotarat pentru urmatoarele substantive? (What
is the right form of the indefinite article for the following nouns? [wΛt iz δə rait fo:rm of δi
indefinit artic(ə)l fər δə fələwiη nauns]

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…..brother [brΛδər] (frate), ….economy [ikonəmi] (economie), …..record [rek‫ن‬rd]
(inregistrare), ….Eskimo [eskiməu] (locuitori din N. Canadei, Alaska, Gruenlanda si E.
Siberiei), …….picture [pikt∫ər] (desen, tablou, pictura), …..dance [da:ns] (dans),
…..Australian [ostreiliən], …..language [læŋgwidЗ] (limba, limbaj), ….issue [isju:] (editie,
subiect de dezbatere), ….problem [probləm] (problema), …..business [biznis] (afacere),
….English [ingli∫] (englezesc), ….newspaper [nju:speipər] (ziar), ….youth [ju:θ] (tinerete),
….student [stju:d(ə)nt], …..village [vilidЗ] (sat), ….Italian [itæljən], …..story [st‫ن‬:ri]
(poveste), ….family [fæmili] (familie), ….leaf [li:f] (frunza), …..way [wei] (drum, fel)

4. NUMERALUL – VARSTA (THE NUMERAL – THE AGE) [δə nju:mərəl – δi eidЗ]

In limba engleza, varsta se poate exprima intr-un mod mai elegant si modern utilizand
numeralul cardinal corespunzator zecilor, la plural, insotit de una dintre urmatoarele trei
diviziuni: ‘early -’ [ərli] (devreme), ‘mid –‘ (mijloc, jumatate), si ‘late’ [leit] (tarziu)”

Ex: Am 32 de ani = I am 32 / I am in the early-thirties (early-30ies).


El are 48 de ani. = He is 48 / He is in his late-forties (late-40ies).

# Exercitii:

Exprimati varsta urmatoarelor persoane conform modelului (Express the relative age
of the following people, using ‘early-….’, ‘mid- …’ or ‘late - …’:)

Model: Angela: I’m 25. Angela is in her mid-twenties.


George: I’m 39. George is in his late-thirties.

1. Dan: I’m 29. …………………………………


2. Grandmother: I’m 71. ………………………………….
3. My boy-friend: I’m 24. ………………………………….
4. Father: I’m 42. …………………………………..
5. Mother: I’m 38. …………………………………..
6. Grandfather: I’m 76. …………………………………..

5. TARI SI OAMENI - COUNTRIES AND PEOPLE (kΛntriz ænd pi:pəl]

Country People Inhabitant Adjective


Denmark the Danes a Dane Danish
[denmark] [δə deinz] [ə dein] [deini∫]
(Danemarca) (Danezi) ( un danez) (danez)

Finland the Finns a Finn Finnish


[finlənd] [δə fins] [ə fin] [fini∫]
(Finlanda) (finlandezi) (un finlandez) (finlandez)

The Netherlands the Dutch a Dutchman Dutch


[δə neδələnds] [δə dΛt∫] [ə dΛt∫mæn] [dΛt∫]
(Olanda) (olandezi) (un olandez) (olandez)

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Norway the Norwegians a Norwegian Norwegian
[norwei] [δə norwi:dЗ(ə)nz] [ə norwi:dЗ(ə)n] [norwi:dЗ(ə)n]
(Norvegia) (norvegieni) (un norvegian) (norvegian)

Peru the Peruvians a Peruvian Peruvian


[pəru:] [δə pəru:viənz] [ə pəru:viən] [pəru:viən]
(Peru) (peruani) (un peruan) (peruan)

Poland the Poles a Pole Polish


[pəulənd] [δə pəulz] [ə pəul] [pəuli∫]
(Polonia) (polonezi) (un polonez) (polonez)

Spain the Spaniards a Spaniard Spanish


[spein] [δə spænjərds] [ə spænjərd] [spæni∫]
(Spania) (spanioli) (un spaniol) (spaniol(esc)

Sweden the Swedes a Swede Swedish


[swi:d(ə)n] [δə swi:ds] [ə swi:d] [swi:di∫]
(Suedia) (suedezi) (un suedez) (suedez)

Switzerland the Swiss a Swiss Swiss


[switsələnd] [δə swis] [ə swis] [swis]
(Elvetia) (elvetieni) (un elevetian) (elvetian)

Turkey the Turks a Turk Turkish


[tərki] [δə tərk] [ə tərk] [tərki∫]
(Turcia) (turci) (un turc) (turcesc)

# Exercitii:

Vorbiti: imaginati-va ca sunteti un patron ce intervieveaza un candidat in vederea


angajarii. Dvs trebui sa-I puneti 4 intrebari in legatura cu cunostintele sale geografice,
utilizand informatia de mai sus. [Speak: imagine that you are the employer interviewing a job
applier. You need to ask him 4 questions about his geographical knowledge, using the
information above]:

Model: Name the country of a Dane.


Name the people of Norway.
Name the adjective for Poland.
Name the inhabitants of Spain.

Traduceti in engleza (Translate into English):

1. Dumneavoastra sunteti la birou sau acasa?


2. Daca sunteti la birou, puteti sa ma sunati la interior 18, peste 10 minute.
3. Sora mea are 13 ani. Ea este minora.
4. Adultii au varsta peste 18 ani.
5. Cifra 13 poarta ghinion.
6. Noi suntem 15 studenti in aceasta grupa.
7. Tatal meu are 53 de ani. Si mama are 52 de ani.

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8. Sunt casatorit si am 2 copii.
9. John este casatorit. El are treizeci si ceva de ani.
10. Mary este divortata. Ea are aproape patruzeci de ani.
11. El se afla la birou.
12. Ei nu sunt ingineri. Eu sunt bancheri.
13. Ea este profesoara noastra de limba engleza.
14. Cati ani are?
15. Profesoara de engleza are cam 30 de ani.

1. Sunteti de serviciu astazi?


2. Colega mea este o mare iubitoare de animale.
3. Maine dupa-amiaza nu sunt acasa.
4. Sunteti cetateni britanici?
5. Toti prietenii mei sunt romani.
6. Nu sunt sigur de rezultatul eforturilor mele.
7. Daca suntem atenti in clasa, ne este usor sa rezolvam exercitiile acasa.
8. Nu sunteti la scoala?
9. Profesorii nostri sunt foarte exigenti.
10. Imi pare rau, am intarziat.

Teoria si exemplele pentru acest curs au fost luate din Olea Ciuciuc, Eugenia Tanasescu, CURS DE ENGLEZA
GENERALA, Teora, 2005, si din volumul de gramatica pentru Teofl. Pentru transcrierea fonetica s-a utilizat THE
OXFORD ENCYCLOPEDIC ENGLISH DICTIONARY.