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International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38

The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

Energy management of wind/PV and battery hybrid system

M. F. Almi a,b, M. Arroufb, H.Belmilia, S. Bouloumaa, B. Bendiba


a
Unité de Développement des Equipements Solaires. UDES/Centre de Développement des Energies
Renouvelables, CDER, Bou Ismail, 42415, W. Tipaza, Algérie
b
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Batna 05000, Algeria
fayalmi@hotmail.fr

ABSTRACT dependability for some region where power


transmission is not convenient such as frontier
This paper deals with power control of a wind and defenses and sentry, relay stations of
solar hybrid generation system for interconnection communication, a farming or pasturing area and so
operation with electric distribution system. Power on, but also inaugurate a new area which resolve
control strategy is to extract the maximum energy the crisis of energy sources and environment
available from varying condition of wind speed and pollution.
solar irradiance while maintaining power quality at a It is very difficult to make use of the solar and
satisfactory level. In order to capture the maximum wind energy all weather just through solar system
power, variable speed control is employed for wind or wind system individually, for the restriction of
turbine and maximum power point tracking is applied time and region. So a system that is based on
for photovoltaic system. The grid interface inverter renewable resources but at the same time reliable is
transfers the energy drawn from the wind turbine and necessary and wind/solar hybrid system with
PV array into the grid by keeping common dc voltage battery storage can meet this requirement.
constant. To ensure safety these inverters automatically
shut down in the event of : High/Low grid AC-voltage;
High/Low grid frequency; Grid Failure; or Inverter 2 HYBRID SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
malfunction. Modeling and simulation study on the
entire control scheme is carried out using a power A typical hybrid energy generation system is
system transient analysis tool, Matlab Simulink. shown in Fig. 1
The simulation results show the control performance
and dynamic behavior of the wind/PV system.

KEYWORDS

Wind; PV; Control; islanding; Protection.

1 INTRODUCTION

Advances in wind turbine and photovoltaic


generation technologies have brought opportunities
for utilizing wind and solar resources for electric
power generation. They have unpredictable
random behaviors. However, some of them, like Figure 1. The studied hybrid system configuration
solar radiation and wind speed, have
complementary profiles [1, 2].
The Wind/solar complementary power supply
system is a reasonable power supply which makes
good use of wind and solar energy. This system
can not only provide a bargain of low cost and high

30
International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38
The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

3 WIND MODELING  Mechanical drive train :


d
Tme  Tem  f .  j (13)
3.1 Wind Speed dt
Tme : Mechanic torque
The wind speed is modeled as a deterministic, Tem : Electromagnetic torque
non-stationary signal given as the sum of sinusoids f . : Friction torque
as follows [1]:
j : Moment of inertia.
Vv t   10  0.2 sin 0.1047t   2 sin 0.2665t   f : Viscous Coefficient friction.

 sin 1.293t   0.2 sin 3.6645t 
3.4 MPPT Control Strategy For Wind Turbine
3.2 Wind Turbine System

The mechanical power PWind of the wind turbine According to the operation theory of wind
is given by: turbine, the maximum output power of wind
generator depends on the optimal tip speed ratio
1 opt . In terms of this, the MPPT is controlled to
 Pwind  ..St .C p ( ,  ).V 3 
2 track the maximum power of the wind turbine and
the battery charging voltage in such a way [4]:
The wind turbine used corresponds to the one
with the numerical approximation developed in [2]. 1
Pwind  . .St .C p ( ,  ).V 3 (14)
18.4
2
 151   i C p max  C p (max )
C p  0.73  0.58  0.002 2.14  13.2 e (3)
 i  Popt  K opt.3ref (15)
1 5
i  (4) K opt 
1 R
. . .C p max . 3 (16)
1 0.003
 3 2 
  0.02   1 V .max
 R  ref  (17)
 (5) R
Vw
3.3 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator 4 PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATOR MODEL

Permanent magnet synchronous generators Generally, the PV panel can be modeled using
(PMSG’s) are typically used in small wind turbines the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 2.
for several reasons including high efficiency,
gearless, simple control...etc. [3]. RS IPanel

dIsd Io
Vsd   Rs I sd  Lsd  Lsq I sq (6)
dt ILight RL 50%
RSH VPanel
dI sq
Vsq   Rs I sq  Lsq  Lsd I sd   f (7)
dt
3
Tem  p( sd I sq  sq I sd ) (8)
2 Figure 2. Equivalent circuit of the PV cell
 sd  Lsd I sd  f (9)
 sq  Lsq I sq (10) This lumped circuit includes a current generator
providing the short-circuit current (ILight), which is
Tem   f I sq  p( Lsd  Lsq ) I sd I sq (11) a function of the solar irradiation, a diode to
Tem   f I sq (12) account for the typical knee of the current–voltage
curve through the reverse saturation current (I0), a

31
International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38
The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

series resistor (RS), and a shunt resistor (RSH), The MPPT flow returns the desired PV array
emulating intrinsic losses depending on PV cell voltage for the dc/dc converter.
series and parallel connections. The PV module
current at a given cell temperature and solar
irradiance is given by: 5 MODELING OF THE BATTERY

 VPanel  I Panel RS  For the battery bank modeling, Thevenin’s


  V  I Panel RS
I Panel  I Light  I 0  e a  1  Panel (18)
  RSH equivalent circuit of the battery has been used [9,
  10].
a: is the modified panel ideal factor defined by a is Rb

the modified panel ideal factor defined by: Rin Ib

N s . .K .Tc
a
Cb
(19)
q Voc
Vb

q is the electron charge, K is Boltzmann’s


constant, γ is the usual PV single-cell ideal factor
(typically ranging between 1 and 2), NS is the
number of cells in series, and TC is the PV panel Figure 3. Thevenin’s equivalent circuit of the battery
temperature [5, 6]. The equivalent capacitance Cb is given by,
 q .VOC
 V KWh  36001000
I SC  I 0  e K .TC
 1  OC (20) Cb 
  RSH 
0.5 Voc2 max  Voc2 min  (25)

Since the ratio between VOC and RSH is typically 6 MODELING OF POWER ELECTRONICS
negligible, VOC can be derived from the diode
saturation current as
6.1 Three-Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier
 K .TC   I SC 
VOC    ln   1 (21) The diode rectifier is the most simple, cheap,
 q   I0  and rugged topology used in power electronic
applications [11].
I0 and ILight depend on irradiance and temperature.
 q . E G   1 1  P  3.V .I  VDC .I DC
3
T   K .T 


TC 
(26)
I 0  I 0, STC  C  e

C   Tref
(22) 

 Tref 
6
VDC 
3
V LL max . cos  .d (27)





1 1 
I Light  I Light, STC S   
I SC   


6

 Tref T C  3

(23) VDC  V (28)
 LL max
4.1 Maximum Power Point Tracking
VLL max  2.VLL (29)
3
Incremental conductance method has been VDC  2 .VLL (30)
implemented in this study. If the array is operating 
at voltage V and current I, the power generation is From this, the relationship between VDC and
P=VI, at the maximum power point, dP/dV should phase voltage V is
be zero and the sign of dP/dV may be identified by 3
VDC  6 .V (31)
equation (24). Increase or decrease in the PV array 
voltage is determined by judging the sign of this Then the relation between IDC and I is
equation. 
I DC  I (32)
I dP d VI  I dI 6
   (24)
V dV VdV V dV

32
International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38
The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

6.2 DC/DC Boost Converter a) Calculation of L and C low passes band


filter [16, 18].
In this model, the boost converter has been At load less I2=0 if we neglect the internal
controlled to yield constant output DC voltage resistance of the inductor (R=0)
level, V0 by varying the duty ratio,  in response The filter transfer function become:
V s 
FT s   c 
to variations in Vi [12]. 1
(38)
Vo 
1
Vi (33) V s  LCs2  1
1 s  j (39)
I o  1   I i (34) V  j 
FT  j   c
1
 (40)
V  j  LC j 2  1
6.3 DC/DC Buck Converter
FT  j  
1
(41)
The average output voltage of the buck 1  LC 2
converter is given by:
Vo   .Vi (35) In order that the filter operates without
Assuming negligible converter losses, the diminution of output signal magnitude, it must be
that:
FT  j   1
average output current is of the buck converter is
(42)
given by [13].
Ii 1  LC 2
Io  (36) c  2. . fc
 (43)
6.4 Inverter Modeling Where: fc is the cut-off frequency (resonance)
of LC filter.
The output voltage of the inverter, Vop, is the 1
L (44)
voltage between VA and VB, where VA and VB are 4. . f c2 .C
2

the potentials at the points A and B with respect to


the neutral potential (VN=0) [14, 15].
The voltage vector [VA VB]T can be expressed 6.6 Phase looked loop (PLL)
as:
VA  1  1  1 a  The PLL can track the instantaneous network
V   VDC  1 1 .b  (37) fundamental voltage phase and find its frequency.
 B 2    Other methods were developed but the majority of
them are used only if the voltage signal is purely
6.5 LC Filter sinusoidal [16]....
The Phase Locked Loop (PLL) is by far the most
A system with forced commutation like MLI or technique used to extract the direct fundamental
other control techniques of voltage source inverter component voltage phase in the low voltage
generates chopping harmonics. In order to electrical supply networks.
eliminate these harmonics the insertion of a filter
between the converter and the load, in the majority
of the cases is a low passes band filter. This makes
it possible to carry out the objective.

Figure 5. General structure of a single phase PLL


Figure 4. Equivalent circuit of LC filter

33
International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38
The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

7 ELECTRICAL PERTURBATIONS Vmin threshold  Vanest  Vmax threshold


Vthreshold  220  33V
The electric power is provided in voltage form
constituting mono-phase sinusoidal system with
the followings characteristic parameters: The two RMS voltages are measured. It is
necessary that both are below thresholds to start
 frequency temporization. The same latency time is
 Voltage magnitude considered: 0.1 s. This monitoring is necessary for
 Wave form an overvoltage or an under voltage.
The measurement of these parameters makes it
possible to judge the voltage quality. A
deterioration of the one of them or several at the
same time let’s suppose the presence of an
anomaly in the electrical supply network.

7.1 Protection of Decoupling

A device made up of a protection and a


decoupling body must be installed at the generator
output [17]. This device must respond to the
design and operation technical specifications for
connection with a distribution public network of an Figure 6. Block Diagram of Frequency and voltage
electric generating station. monitoring

8 PROPOSED CONTROL STRATEGY


a) Frequency monitoring

The frequency monitoring is achieved using a


PLL, this allows the estimation of the angular
frequency from the estimated voltage.This
estimated pulsation makes it possible to have the
estimated frequency by dividing it by 2 the
frequency can be thus supervised. It is compared
with two thresholds values corresponding
to f est  1%Hz . This frequency must lie between:
f min threshold  fest  f max threshold
fthreshold  50  0.5Hz
Figure 7. Wind control
The monitoring system activates a temporization
if a threshold is crossed during more than 0.1s. The
inverter operation is stopped and isolated from the
network thanks to the control switchgear envisaged
for this purpose. If the frequency returns between
these thresholds values temporization is given to
zero.
b) RMS Voltage network monitoring

It is made in the same manner as that of


frequency. A minimum and maximum threshold is
given Vanest  15%V .
Figure 8. GPV control

34
International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38
The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

1000

900

800

700

Irradiation E(W/m2)
600

500

400

300

200

100

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Time t(s)

Figure 9. DC/DC Boost control Figure 13. Solar irradiation


70

60

50

rotational Speed W(rd/s)


40

30

20

10

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Time t(s)

Figure 10. DC/AC Inverter control Figure 14. Rotational speed of PMSG

3500
9 SIMULATION RESULTS
3000

2500
Power Ppv(W)

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Time t(s)
Figure 11. Configuration used for the vérification off system
protection Figure 15. Power of GPV
12

11.8 60
Vdc*
11.6
Vdc
50
11.4
Wind speed Vw(m/s)

11.2
40
Voltage Vdc(V)

11

10.8 30
10.6

10.4 20

10.2
10
10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Time t(s)
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Time t(s)
Figure 12. Wind speed
Figure 16. Voltage of DC bus

35
International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38
The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

 Simulation of frequency variation  Over voltage simulation


The network frequency undergoes a variation of The aim of this simulation is to show that the
(ramp) type. The aim of this simulation is to check decoupling system detects overvoltage and isolate
the well operation of the block “frequency the inverter from the network. A progressive over
monitoring” of figure.6. voltage starts at t = 0.4s. The maximum threshold
This variation starts at t = 0.42 s of 50 Hz and voltage is reached at 0.6s as shown in the figure
attain 50.5 Hz at t = 0.54s as shown in figure.18 .19 (a). The current reacts since the network
(a). The currents and voltages follow the variations voltage increases and thus the power should be
which appear insignificant. transmitted on the network is constant. The
After a second at t = 0.64 s, the system activate networks currents I decrease as shown in the
the switchgear and stops the inverter as shows in figure.19 (b). The system reacts 0.6 after the
figures .18 (b, c). The network currents and voltage maximum threshold was reached. The
voltages then became zero. currents and voltages become null at 0.7s.
400

300

200

100

Voltage Van(V)
0

-100

-200

-300

-400
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
(a) Time t(s)

400 (a)
30

300
20
200

100 10
Voltage Van(V)

Curent I(A)

0 0

-100
-10

-200

-20
-300

-400 -30
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Time t(s) Time t(s)

(b)
(b)
20
Figure 18. (a, b): System application on an overvoltage from
the network. (a) Network voltage; (b) Network current
15

10  Under voltage simulation


5

0
The network voltage decreases from t = 0.4 as
shown in figure.20(a). The minimal threshold
-5
value is reached at t = 0.6 s. The current increases
-10 up to its authorized maximum value as shown in
-15
figure .20(b) whereas the voltage decreased. The
under voltage activates the whole system at nearly
-20
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Time t(s)
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.7 s; this parameters became zero.
(c)
Figure 17. (a, b, c): System application with frequency
variation. (a) Network frequency ;(b) Network current;
(d) Network voltages

36
International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38
The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

400 5
I
4
300 V

Current I(A) and Voltage Van(pu)


3
200
2

100 1
Voltage Van(V)

0
0
-1
-100 -2

-200 -3

-4
-300
-5
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
-400 Time t(s)
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Time t(s)
Figure 21. Voltage and current of AC load
(a)
40 10 CONCLUSION
30

20 Solar power is well known to be an expensive


10
solution to remote electrification. This cost can be
reduced by adding wind turbine generators to
Curent I(A)

0
reduce the reliance on PV.
-10 In this paper, We have focused on the study of
-20
photovoltaic wind production of electrical energy
optimization as well as its transfer to the mono-
-30
phase electrical network supply through an
-40
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
inverter with minimum possible losses. The
Time t(s) adopted approach was to improve the chain various
(b)
parts point by point. a pv/wind system protection
Figure 19. (a, b): System application on under voltage from device is implemented i.e. This system is able to
the network (a) Network voltage; (b) Network current react to overvoltage, under voltages and
frequency variations. It was subjected to an
In the two simulations cases, of overvoltage and overvoltage, an under voltage and frequency
under voltage, it would be desirable to have a variation. The system showed good results in each
faster cutoff time according to the importance of cited case.
overvoltage or under voltage . This determination The small price difference between the classic
could possibly be done by a training algorithm
using the techniques of neuro-fuzzy, genetic solution and the island grid solution is justified by
algorithms, neurons networks or other forms of the flexibility and extendibility offered by the
artificial intelligences. SMA system, in particular the addition of
additional generation equipment at a later date.
The type of connection of the different
components to the system is just as important. The
AC coupling with inverter allows we to connect
nearly any type of electricity generator and any
type of consumer to our system. This makes our
system easily extendable on the consumer side as
well as on the generator side.
Finally, we see that the energy produced by the
system remains constant, according to the load
with a voltage of (220V/50Hz). This is due to the
power stored in the batteries, which will be used to
compensate energy lacks and the efficiency of the
control strategy we have used.
Figure 20. Configuration used for the vérification off system
islanding

37
International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38
The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

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