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The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

a

Unité de Développement des Equipements Solaires. UDES/Centre de Développement des Energies

Renouvelables, CDER, Bou Ismail, 42415, W. Tipaza, Algérie

b

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Batna 05000, Algeria

fayalmi@hotmail.fr

transmission is not convenient such as frontier

This paper deals with power control of a wind and defenses and sentry, relay stations of

solar hybrid generation system for interconnection communication, a farming or pasturing area and so

operation with electric distribution system. Power on, but also inaugurate a new area which resolve

control strategy is to extract the maximum energy the crisis of energy sources and environment

available from varying condition of wind speed and pollution.

solar irradiance while maintaining power quality at a It is very difficult to make use of the solar and

satisfactory level. In order to capture the maximum wind energy all weather just through solar system

power, variable speed control is employed for wind or wind system individually, for the restriction of

turbine and maximum power point tracking is applied time and region. So a system that is based on

for photovoltaic system. The grid interface inverter renewable resources but at the same time reliable is

transfers the energy drawn from the wind turbine and necessary and wind/solar hybrid system with

PV array into the grid by keeping common dc voltage battery storage can meet this requirement.

constant. To ensure safety these inverters automatically

shut down in the event of : High/Low grid AC-voltage;

High/Low grid frequency; Grid Failure; or Inverter 2 HYBRID SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

malfunction. Modeling and simulation study on the

entire control scheme is carried out using a power A typical hybrid energy generation system is

system transient analysis tool, Matlab Simulink. shown in Fig. 1

The simulation results show the control performance

and dynamic behavior of the wind/PV system.

KEYWORDS

1 INTRODUCTION

generation technologies have brought opportunities

for utilizing wind and solar resources for electric

power generation. They have unpredictable

random behaviors. However, some of them, like Figure 1. The studied hybrid system configuration

solar radiation and wind speed, have

complementary profiles [1, 2].

The Wind/solar complementary power supply

system is a reasonable power supply which makes

good use of wind and solar energy. This system

can not only provide a bargain of low cost and high

30

International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38

The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

d

Tme Tem f . j (13)

3.1 Wind Speed dt

Tme : Mechanic torque

The wind speed is modeled as a deterministic, Tem : Electromagnetic torque

non-stationary signal given as the sum of sinusoids f . : Friction torque

as follows [1]:

j : Moment of inertia.

Vv t 10 0.2 sin 0.1047t 2 sin 0.2665t f : Viscous Coefficient friction.

sin 1.293t 0.2 sin 3.6645t

3.4 MPPT Control Strategy For Wind Turbine

3.2 Wind Turbine System

The mechanical power PWind of the wind turbine According to the operation theory of wind

is given by: turbine, the maximum output power of wind

generator depends on the optimal tip speed ratio

1 opt . In terms of this, the MPPT is controlled to

Pwind ..St .C p ( , ).V 3

2 track the maximum power of the wind turbine and

the battery charging voltage in such a way [4]:

The wind turbine used corresponds to the one

with the numerical approximation developed in [2]. 1

Pwind . .St .C p ( , ).V 3 (14)

18.4

2

151 i C p max C p (max )

C p 0.73 0.58 0.002 2.14 13.2 e (3)

i Popt K opt.3ref (15)

1 5

i (4) K opt

1 R

. . .C p max . 3 (16)

1 0.003

3 2

0.02 1 V .max

R ref (17)

(5) R

Vw

3.3 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator 4 PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATOR MODEL

Permanent magnet synchronous generators Generally, the PV panel can be modeled using

(PMSG’s) are typically used in small wind turbines the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 2.

for several reasons including high efficiency,

gearless, simple control...etc. [3]. RS IPanel

dIsd Io

Vsd Rs I sd Lsd Lsq I sq (6)

dt ILight RL 50%

RSH VPanel

dI sq

Vsq Rs I sq Lsq Lsd I sd f (7)

dt

3

Tem p( sd I sq sq I sd ) (8)

2 Figure 2. Equivalent circuit of the PV cell

sd Lsd I sd f (9)

sq Lsq I sq (10) This lumped circuit includes a current generator

providing the short-circuit current (ILight), which is

Tem f I sq p( Lsd Lsq ) I sd I sq (11) a function of the solar irradiation, a diode to

Tem f I sq (12) account for the typical knee of the current–voltage

curve through the reverse saturation current (I0), a

31

International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38

The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

series resistor (RS), and a shunt resistor (RSH), The MPPT flow returns the desired PV array

emulating intrinsic losses depending on PV cell voltage for the dc/dc converter.

series and parallel connections. The PV module

current at a given cell temperature and solar

irradiance is given by: 5 MODELING OF THE BATTERY

V I Panel RS

I Panel I Light I 0 e a 1 Panel (18)

RSH equivalent circuit of the battery has been used [9,

10].

a: is the modified panel ideal factor defined by a is Rb

N s . .K .Tc

a

Cb

(19)

q Voc

Vb

constant, γ is the usual PV single-cell ideal factor

(typically ranging between 1 and 2), NS is the

number of cells in series, and TC is the PV panel Figure 3. Thevenin’s equivalent circuit of the battery

temperature [5, 6]. The equivalent capacitance Cb is given by,

q .VOC

V KWh 36001000

I SC I 0 e K .TC

1 OC (20) Cb

RSH

0.5 Voc2 max Voc2 min (25)

Since the ratio between VOC and RSH is typically 6 MODELING OF POWER ELECTRONICS

negligible, VOC can be derived from the diode

saturation current as

6.1 Three-Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier

K .TC I SC

VOC ln 1 (21) The diode rectifier is the most simple, cheap,

q I0 and rugged topology used in power electronic

applications [11].

I0 and ILight depend on irradiance and temperature.

q . E G 1 1 P 3.V .I VDC .I DC

3

T K .T

TC

(26)

I 0 I 0, STC C e

C Tref

(22)

Tref

6

VDC

3

V LL max . cos .d (27)

1 1

I Light I Light, STC S

I SC

6

Tref T C 3

(23) VDC V (28)

LL max

4.1 Maximum Power Point Tracking

VLL max 2.VLL (29)

3

Incremental conductance method has been VDC 2 .VLL (30)

implemented in this study. If the array is operating

at voltage V and current I, the power generation is From this, the relationship between VDC and

P=VI, at the maximum power point, dP/dV should phase voltage V is

be zero and the sign of dP/dV may be identified by 3

VDC 6 .V (31)

equation (24). Increase or decrease in the PV array

voltage is determined by judging the sign of this Then the relation between IDC and I is

equation.

I DC I (32)

I dP d VI I dI 6

(24)

V dV VdV V dV

32

International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38

The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

filter [16, 18].

In this model, the boost converter has been At load less I2=0 if we neglect the internal

controlled to yield constant output DC voltage resistance of the inductor (R=0)

level, V0 by varying the duty ratio, in response The filter transfer function become:

V s

FT s c

to variations in Vi [12]. 1

(38)

Vo

1

Vi (33) V s LCs2 1

1 s j (39)

I o 1 I i (34) V j

FT j c

1

(40)

V j LC j 2 1

6.3 DC/DC Buck Converter

FT j

1

(41)

The average output voltage of the buck 1 LC 2

converter is given by:

Vo .Vi (35) In order that the filter operates without

Assuming negligible converter losses, the diminution of output signal magnitude, it must be

that:

FT j 1

average output current is of the buck converter is

(42)

given by [13].

Ii 1 LC 2

Io (36) c 2. . fc

(43)

6.4 Inverter Modeling Where: fc is the cut-off frequency (resonance)

of LC filter.

The output voltage of the inverter, Vop, is the 1

L (44)

voltage between VA and VB, where VA and VB are 4. . f c2 .C

2

the neutral potential (VN=0) [14, 15].

The voltage vector [VA VB]T can be expressed 6.6 Phase looked loop (PLL)

as:

VA 1 1 1 a The PLL can track the instantaneous network

V VDC 1 1 .b (37) fundamental voltage phase and find its frequency.

B 2 Other methods were developed but the majority of

them are used only if the voltage signal is purely

6.5 LC Filter sinusoidal [16]....

The Phase Locked Loop (PLL) is by far the most

A system with forced commutation like MLI or technique used to extract the direct fundamental

other control techniques of voltage source inverter component voltage phase in the low voltage

generates chopping harmonics. In order to electrical supply networks.

eliminate these harmonics the insertion of a filter

between the converter and the load, in the majority

of the cases is a low passes band filter. This makes

it possible to carry out the objective.

Figure 4. Equivalent circuit of LC filter

33

International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38

The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

Vthreshold 220 33V

The electric power is provided in voltage form

constituting mono-phase sinusoidal system with

the followings characteristic parameters: The two RMS voltages are measured. It is

necessary that both are below thresholds to start

frequency temporization. The same latency time is

Voltage magnitude considered: 0.1 s. This monitoring is necessary for

Wave form an overvoltage or an under voltage.

The measurement of these parameters makes it

possible to judge the voltage quality. A

deterioration of the one of them or several at the

same time let’s suppose the presence of an

anomaly in the electrical supply network.

decoupling body must be installed at the generator

output [17]. This device must respond to the

design and operation technical specifications for

connection with a distribution public network of an Figure 6. Block Diagram of Frequency and voltage

electric generating station. monitoring

a) Frequency monitoring

PLL, this allows the estimation of the angular

frequency from the estimated voltage.This

estimated pulsation makes it possible to have the

estimated frequency by dividing it by 2 the

frequency can be thus supervised. It is compared

with two thresholds values corresponding

to f est 1%Hz . This frequency must lie between:

f min threshold fest f max threshold

fthreshold 50 0.5Hz

Figure 7. Wind control

The monitoring system activates a temporization

if a threshold is crossed during more than 0.1s. The

inverter operation is stopped and isolated from the

network thanks to the control switchgear envisaged

for this purpose. If the frequency returns between

these thresholds values temporization is given to

zero.

b) RMS Voltage network monitoring

frequency. A minimum and maximum threshold is

given Vanest 15%V .

Figure 8. GPV control

34

International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38

The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

1000

900

800

700

Irradiation E(W/m2)

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Time t(s)

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Time t(s)

Figure 10. DC/AC Inverter control Figure 14. Rotational speed of PMSG

3500

9 SIMULATION RESULTS

3000

2500

Power Ppv(W)

2000

1500

1000

500

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Time t(s)

Figure 11. Configuration used for the vérification off system

protection Figure 15. Power of GPV

12

11.8 60

Vdc*

11.6

Vdc

50

11.4

Wind speed Vw(m/s)

11.2

40

Voltage Vdc(V)

11

10.8 30

10.6

10.4 20

10.2

10

10

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Time t(s)

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Time t(s)

Figure 12. Wind speed

Figure 16. Voltage of DC bus

35

International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38

The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

The network frequency undergoes a variation of The aim of this simulation is to show that the

(ramp) type. The aim of this simulation is to check decoupling system detects overvoltage and isolate

the well operation of the block “frequency the inverter from the network. A progressive over

monitoring” of figure.6. voltage starts at t = 0.4s. The maximum threshold

This variation starts at t = 0.42 s of 50 Hz and voltage is reached at 0.6s as shown in the figure

attain 50.5 Hz at t = 0.54s as shown in figure.18 .19 (a). The current reacts since the network

(a). The currents and voltages follow the variations voltage increases and thus the power should be

which appear insignificant. transmitted on the network is constant. The

After a second at t = 0.64 s, the system activate networks currents I decrease as shown in the

the switchgear and stops the inverter as shows in figure.19 (b). The system reacts 0.6 after the

figures .18 (b, c). The network currents and voltage maximum threshold was reached. The

voltages then became zero. currents and voltages become null at 0.7s.

400

300

200

100

Voltage Van(V)

0

-100

-200

-300

-400

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

(a) Time t(s)

400 (a)

30

300

20

200

100 10

Voltage Van(V)

Curent I(A)

0 0

-100

-10

-200

-20

-300

-400 -30

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Time t(s) Time t(s)

(b)

(b)

20

Figure 18. (a, b): System application on an overvoltage from

the network. (a) Network voltage; (b) Network current

15

5

0

The network voltage decreases from t = 0.4 as

shown in figure.20(a). The minimal threshold

-5

value is reached at t = 0.6 s. The current increases

-10 up to its authorized maximum value as shown in

-15

figure .20(b) whereas the voltage decreased. The

under voltage activates the whole system at nearly

-20

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Time t(s)

0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.7 s; this parameters became zero.

(c)

Figure 17. (a, b, c): System application with frequency

variation. (a) Network frequency ;(b) Network current;

(d) Network voltages

36

International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38

The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

400 5

I

4

300 V

3

200

2

100 1

Voltage Van(V)

0

0

-1

-100 -2

-200 -3

-4

-300

-5

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

-400 Time t(s)

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Time t(s)

Figure 21. Voltage and current of AC load

(a)

40 10 CONCLUSION

30

10

solution to remote electrification. This cost can be

reduced by adding wind turbine generators to

Curent I(A)

0

reduce the reliance on PV.

-10 In this paper, We have focused on the study of

-20

photovoltaic wind production of electrical energy

optimization as well as its transfer to the mono-

-30

phase electrical network supply through an

-40

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

inverter with minimum possible losses. The

Time t(s) adopted approach was to improve the chain various

(b)

parts point by point. a pv/wind system protection

Figure 19. (a, b): System application on under voltage from device is implemented i.e. This system is able to

the network (a) Network voltage; (b) Network current react to overvoltage, under voltages and

frequency variations. It was subjected to an

In the two simulations cases, of overvoltage and overvoltage, an under voltage and frequency

under voltage, it would be desirable to have a variation. The system showed good results in each

faster cutoff time according to the importance of cited case.

overvoltage or under voltage . This determination The small price difference between the classic

could possibly be done by a training algorithm

using the techniques of neuro-fuzzy, genetic solution and the island grid solution is justified by

algorithms, neurons networks or other forms of the flexibility and extendibility offered by the

artificial intelligences. SMA system, in particular the addition of

additional generation equipment at a later date.

The type of connection of the different

components to the system is just as important. The

AC coupling with inverter allows we to connect

nearly any type of electricity generator and any

type of consumer to our system. This makes our

system easily extendable on the consumer side as

well as on the generator side.

Finally, we see that the energy produced by the

system remains constant, according to the load

with a voltage of (220V/50Hz). This is due to the

power stored in the batteries, which will be used to

compensate energy lacks and the efficiency of the

control strategy we have used.

Figure 20. Configuration used for the vérification off system

islanding

37

International Journal of New Computer Architectures and their Applications (IJNCAA) 4(1): 30-38

The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications, 2014 (ISSN: 2220-9085)

Procedia 18 ( 2012 ) 954 – 965.

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