Sunteți pe pagina 1din 4

CHM578/674 2020

Experiment 2: Electrolytic Cell (20 marks)


Name: NURUL HUSNA BINTI IBRAHIM ID: 2018226626 Group: AS2224M1

(Refer Lab manual Exp. 2 CHM674 and Lecture Notes CHM578/674 to answer this
Post Laboratory Questions)

Table 1 : Observations

Electrolyte Electrodes Observations (ie: Gas Evolved? Pink colour at


Solution electrode?)

A small amount of bubbles formed at anode and


Distilled Water Carbon/Carbon cathode.
(C/C) Pink solution appeared at cathode surface.

More bubbles evolved at anode and cathode


0.001M NaCl Carbon/Carbon surface.
(C/C) Pink solution appeared at cathode surface.

A cloudy solution with pungent odor formed at


0.5 M NaCl Carbon/Carbon anode. Litmus paper turned to white.
(C/C) A lot of bubbles formed at cathode surface and the
formation of pink solution at its surface.

A yellow-orange solution formed at anode surface.


0.5 M NaBr Carbon/Carbon A lot of bubbles formed at cathode surface and the
(C/C) formation of pink solution at its surface.

A lot of bubbles formed at both electrode surfaces


0.5 M Na2SO4 Carbon/Carbon but the amount of bubbles was about doubled at
(C/C) cathode than anode.
Pink solution formed at cathode surface.

At anode, the solution slowly turned to blue and no


0.5M Na2SO4 Copper/Copper evolution of bubbles.
(Cu/Cu) Initially, a lot of bubbles formed at cathode surface
but slowly the bubbles became less.
In the bulk solution, the formation of light blue
suspension and also the formation of black solid.

1
CHM578/674 2020

Table 2 (8 marks)

Electrolyte Possible Migrating Expectation of selected ion discharged


Solution Species/Ions and product formed

Species/Ions migrating to Species/Ion discharged at cathode:


0.001 M NaCl cathode: H2O
(Dilute) Na+, H2O
Product formed at cathode: H2 gas
C/C electrodes Species/Ions migrating to
anode: Species/Ion discharged at anode:
H2O
Cl- , H2O
Product at anode: O2 gas

0.5 M NaCl Species/Ions migrating to Species/Ion discharged at cathode: H2O


(Concentrated) cathode:
Na+, H2O Product at cathode: H2 gas

C/C electrodes Species/Ions migrating to Species/Ion discharged at anode: Cl-


anode:
Cl-, H2O Product at anode: Cl2 gas

Species/Ions migrating to Species/Ion discharged at cathode: H2O


0.5 M NaBr cathode:
Na+, H2O Product at cathode: H2 gas

Species/Ion discharged at anode: Br-


C/C electrodes Species/Ions migrating to
anode: Product at anode: Br2 gas
Br-, H2O

Species/Ions migrating to Species/Ion discharged at cathode: H2O


0.5 M Na2SO4 cathode:
Na+, H2O Product at cathode: H2 gas

C/C electrodes Species/Ions migrating to Species/Ion discharged at anode: H2O


anode:
SO42-, H2O Product at anode: O2 gas

Species/Ions migrating to Species/Ion discharged at cathode: H2O


0.5 M Na2SO4 cathode:
Na+, H2O Product at cathode: H2 gas

Cu/Cu Species/Ions migrating to Species/Ion discharged at anode: Cu


electrodes anode:
SO42-, H2O Product at anode: Cu metal dissolves and

2
CHM578/674 2020

forms Cu2+.

Post-Laboratory Questions (12 marks):

1. Would solid NaCl conduct electricity? Why did the salt make the water more conductive
to electricity?
- No, solid NaCl (salt) do not have free electron to allow electric current to pass through
the substances. In the presence of water and when a voltage is applied, it aids the salt to let
the ions to be free, thus they are more in response to an electric field which makes NaCl to
be able to conduct electricity.

2. What gases were formed at anode and cathode in beaker containing 0.5M NaCl? Write the
half-reaction that occurred in this beaker.
At anode: Gas formed : O2 gas Half-reaction: 2H2O → O2 + 4H+ + 4e
At cathode: Gas formed : H2 gas Half-reaction: 2H2O + 2e → H2 + 2OH-

3. What was the purpose of adding phenolphtalein to the solution?


- Phenolphthalein acts as indicator which enables any change to be observed.

4. If copper electrodes had been used instead of the carbon (graphite) electrodes for the
electrolytic cells, the observed reactions may have been different. Why?
- This is because the redox reaction take placed also considering the factor of types of
electrodes used. In this case, if the copper electrode is used, which is less electropositive than
graphites which tends to be more reactive and undergo redox reaction. As we know, carbon
(graphite) is allotrope carbon which is chemically inert as it is the same element that can have
different arrangement which is stable and inert in most chemical reagents and survived while
the other fail, but copper is reactive metal so that it will undergo reactions.

5. Why does more gas form at one electrode than at the other electrode for electrolysis of
0.5M Na2SO4 solution?
- Anode: 2H2O → O2 + 4H+ + 4e
- Cathode: 2H2O + 2e → H2 + 2OH-
At cathode, reduction occurs and the H2 gas evolved while at anode, oxidation takes place.

3
CHM578/674 2020

6. Calculate the volume of H2 gas that will be collected at cathode when an aqueous solution
of Na2SO4 is electrolyzed for 2 hours with a 10 A current at 0.5 atm.

Answer:
Anode: 2H2O → O2 + 4H+ + 4e
Cathode: 2H2O + 2e → H2 + 2OH-
Q=It
Q= (10 )( 2 ×60 ×60 )
Q=7200 C

2 mol of electron ≡1 F ≡96500 C


7200
=0.0746 mol
96500

2 mol of electrons ≡1 mol of H 2


0.0746 ×1
0.0746 mol=
2
¿ 0.0373 mol of H 2

PV =nRT
( 0.0373 ) ( 0.08206 ) ( 273 )
V=
0.5

V =1.671 L

7. Fill in the blanks based on your findings of Exp. 2 which describing the electrolysis of
water process (including the electrochemical reactions occur at both electrodes, the
suitable electrode and electrolyte used).

Electrolysis of water - Electrochemical Reactions:


Anode: 2H2O → O2 + 4H+ + 4e
Cathode: 2H2O + 2e → H2 + 2OH- (x 2)
4H2O + 4e → 2H2 + 4OH-
Overall: 2H2O → O2 + 2H2

Suitable Electrodes: Copper


Justification: Halide ions are reducing at cathode and OH- are oxidizing at anode

Electrolyte: Na2SO4 solution


Justification: SO42- is the best anion because it is the most difficult anion to oxidize.