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01

SYSTEM MODELING AND SIMULATION

1. Objective(s):

This activity aims to

1. introduce the modeling and simulation tools of MATLAB and LabVIEW to the students;

2. equip the students with the skills and knowledge in using MATLAB and LabVIEW to model and

simulate systems; and

3. equip the students with the skill to measure the major performance indicators of a control system,

namely: time response parameters, error performance and stability.

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

At the end of this activity, the student shall be able to

1. create MATLAB and LabVIEW programs that will simulate electrical, mechanical and position

control systems; and

2. determine the effects of component values to the system’s time response parameters, error and

stability of dynamic systems.

3. Discussion

One of the steps involved in the design of a control system is to model the system itself from its schematic.

The system’s model is very important since it will provide information on the system’s various parameters,

such as time response, error and stability information. These parameters will then help the designer to

come up with a control system that would make the system perform at its desired state. Thus, modeling

and simulation is an important step in the design of control systems.

Systems can be modeled as transfer functions using the Laplace transform of the differential equation

representing the system, or as state-space models which expresses the system in terms of state and

output vectors. Solutions of both models can be highly simplified by the use of computer aided tools, such

as MATLAB and LabVIEW. In this activity, MATLAB and LabVIEW are to be used to model and simulate

dynamic systems after obtaining their transfer functions.

MATLAB has the control system toolbox which can be used to create transfer function s-domain models of

dynamic systems and plot and obtain information on the systems step response. In the same manner,

LabVIEW has the control design and simulation module which can be used to simulate dynamic systems.

This activity will demonstrate how these tools can be used to model and simulate dynamic systems.

4. Resources:

To perform this activity, a computer workstation with MATLAB R2012a or higher and LabVIEW 8.6 or

higher installed is required. For MATLAB, the control systems toolbox is required and for LabVIEW, the

control design and simulation module.

5. Procedure:

Activity 1.1 – Modeling and simulation of a series RLC electrical network.

1. Consider the simple series RLC circuit shown below. This circuit will be modeled in s-domain and will

be simulated using LabVIEW. Let L=1 H, C=1 F and R=1 Ω. For the questions to follow, write the

solutions onto separate sheets of paper.

Q1.1(a) For this circuit, find the transfer function G ( s )=V c ( s ) /V ( s ) .

Q1.1(b) For a step input, find an expression for the output capacitor voltage.

Q1.1(c) Using this expression, plot the output capacitor voltage and roughly sketch the plot below.

2. MATLAB. The transfer function can be created in MATLAB by creating a row vector matrix containing

the coefficients of the numerator and the denominator of the transfer function. For the transfer function

of the form

m m−1

N ( s ) a m s + am−1 s + …+a1 s +a 0

G ( s )= =

D ( s ) b n s n+ bn−1 s n−1+ …+b1 s+ b0

where n> m, create a row vector num equal to

num=[ am a m−1 ⋅⋅⋅ a1 a0 ]

den=[ bn bn−1 ⋅⋅⋅ b 1 b0 ]

in the workspace. Then create the object sys which contains the transfer function whose numerator

and denominator coefficients in num and den by using the command tf() in the following format

In defining numerator and denominator coefficients, the command poly() is also useful. Type in

the command help poly() for more information on this function and how can it be used.

3. To plot the step response of the system whose transfer function is sys use the command

step()in the following format:

>> step(sys)

Q1.3(a) Roughly sketch the plot of the transfer function of the above circuit. Use this graph to determine the

time response and error of the system.

4. LabVIEW. Build the front panel (FP) and the block diagram (BD) as shown below, calling this VI act01-

01.vi.

In the BD, place a Simulation Loop. Right-click on one of the boundaries of the loop and choose

Configure Simulation Parameters. Change the Simulation Time’s Final Time to 20.

Place a Step Signal, a Transfer Function, a Build Array and the SimTime Waveform functions

inside the simulation loop. Configure the transfer function block to contain the transfer function

obtained from Q1.1(a).

In the FP, a Waveform Chart will automatically be placed. Configure the Legend on the top right

part of the chart and name them as Input and Output as shown. Right click on the chart and

choose X Scale >> Properties. In the Display Format tab, choose Type as Floating-point, then click

OK. Change the scale of the x-axis of the waveform chart to 0-20.

Q1.4(a) Use the VI to plot the step response of the circuit above. Roughly sketch the plot below and label

the necessary time response and error information in the plot. The plots obtained in the previous steps

must be the same.

Q1.4(b) Based on the plots obtained, is the system stable? Why or why not?

Q1.4(c) Change some of the parameters of the RLC circuit and obtain a new transfer function. Simulate this

new transfer function. Use both MATLAB and LabVIEW. Conduct several trials (at least ten trials) and plot

the step response of the system in each trial. Comment on the effect of the values of the resistor, inductor

and capacitor on the output capacitor voltage.

Q1.4(d) Discuss the different timing options in the Configure Simulation Parameters of the simulation loop.

Q1.4(e) Create a virtual instrument using the control design and simulation module and MathScript node of

LabVIEW to simulate the electrical network below. Provide a screenshot of the block diagram and the front

panel of the VI on a separate sheet of paper. Plot the step response on the space provided below.

Activity 1.2 – Modeling and simulation of mechanical systems.

1. In this part of the activity, the response of the mechanical system such as the one shown below to a

step input will be simulated.

Q2.1(a) Find the transfer functions G1 ( s )=X 1 ( s ) / F ( s ) and G2 ( s )=X 2 ( s ) / F ( s ). Fill up the spaces

provided below.

Q2.1(b) Compute for the output displacement of the system x 1 ( t ) and x 2 ( t ) to a step force input and plot

them on the space provided.

2. Repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 of Activity 1.1 to simulate the mechanical system given.

Q2.2(a) Roughly sketch the plot of x 1 ( t ), x 2 ( t ) and the step input as seen in the waveform chart on the

space provided.

Q2.2(b) Interpret the waveforms. How does the position of the masses vary as a step force is applied to the

system at f ( t )? (Hint: what happens when you apply a step force to the system above?)

Q2.2(c) Determine what happens when the surface at which the masses moves on has friction which is

f v =1 N /m for both masses. Plot the new response on a separate sheet of paper and interpret the results.

Q2.2(d) Simulate the rotational mechanical system below, plotting the responses θ1 ( t ) and θ2 ( t ) with

respect to an input step torque.

Q2.2(e) Interpret the waveforms. How does the angular position of the inertia vary as a step torque is

applied to the system at T ( t )?

Course: Experiment No.:

Group No.: Section:

Group Members: Date Performed:

Date Submitted:

Instructor:

6. Data and Results:

Q1.1(a) For this circuit, find the transfer function G ( s )=V c ( s ) /V ( s ) .

Q1.1(b) For a step input, find an expression for the output capacitor voltage.

Q1.1(c) Using this expression, plot the output capacitor voltage and roughly sketch the plot below.

Q1.3(a) Roughly sketch the plot of the transfer function of the above circuit. Use this graph to determine the

time response and error of the system.

Q1.4(a) Use the VI to plot the step response of the circuit above. Roughly sketch the plot below and label

the necessary time response and error information in the plot. The plots obtained in the previous steps

must be the same.

Q1.4(b) Based on the plots obtained, is the system stable? Why or why not?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Q1.4(c) Change some of the parameters of the RLC circuit and obtain a new transfer function. Simulate this

new transfer function. Use both MATLAB and LabVIEW. Conduct several trials (at least ten trials) and plot

the step response of the system in each trial. Comment on the effect of the values of the resistor, inductor

and capacitor on the output capacitor voltage.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Q1.4(d) Discuss the different timing options in the Configure Simulation Parameters of the simulation loop.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Q1.4(e) Create a virtual instrument using the control design and simulation module and MathScript node of

LabVIEW to simulate the electrical network below. Provide a screenshot of the block diagram and the front

panel of the VI on a separate sheet of paper. Plot the step response on the space provided below.

Q2.1(a) Find the transfer functions G 1 ( s )=X 1 ( s ) / F ( s ) and G 2 ( s )=X 2 ( s ) / F ( s ). Fill up the spaces

provided below.

G 1 ( s )=X 1 ( s ) / F ( s )

G2 ( s )=X 2 ( s ) / F ( s )

Q2.1(b) Compute for the output displacement of the system x 1 ( t ) and x 2 ( t ) to a step force input and plot

them on the space provided.

x1 ( t )

x2 ( t )

Plot of x 1 ( t ) and x 2 ( t )

Q2.2(a) Roughly sketch the plot of x 1 ( t ), x 2 ( t ) and the step input as seen in the waveform chart on the

space provided.

Plot of x 1 ( t ) and x 2 ( t ) in MATLAB

Q2.2(b) Interpret the waveforms. How does the position of the masses vary as a step force is applied to the

system at f ( t )? (Hint: what happens when you apply a step force to the system above?)

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Q2.2(c) Determine what happens when the surface at which the masses moves on has friction which is

f v =1 N /m for both masses. Plot the new response on a separate sheet of paper and interpret the results.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Q2.2(d) Simulate the rotational mechanical system below, plotting the responses θ1 ( t ) and θ2 ( t ) with

respect to an input step torque.

Plot of θ1 ( t ) and θ2 ( t )

Q2.2(e) Interpret the waveforms. How does the angular position of the inertia vary as a step torque is

applied to the system at T ( t )?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment:

1. Create a MATLAB program or a LabVIEW virtual instrument that will interactively simulate electrical

and mechanical system. System configuration is your choice, just provide the schematic. The interface

must contain controls to adjust the parameters of the components of the system. Build one program or

VI for each of the system (electrical, translational mechanical and rotational mechanical). Graphics can

be integrated into the program. Using these programs or VIs, investigate the effect of the component

values to the time response, error performance and stability of the system.

2. A position control system can be represented by a block diagram shown below, where K is a constant

gain and G ( s ) is the transfer function of the plant, which takes the form

K1

G ( s )=

s ( s+ a )

where K 1 and a are constants. (Note that G ( s ) has the same form as the transfer function of a

servomotor.)

Create a MATLAB program or a LabVIEW virtual instrument to implement and simulate the position

control system as shown. Using this simulator, investigate the effect of the constants K, K 1 and a to

the time response, error and stability of the system.

Assessment rubric for the activity’s intended learning outcomes

INTENDED

LEARNING 1 2 3 4 Points

OUTCOMES

The program returns

Create a A program for The program works

The program works, results that are

program that will electrical system was but the results are

the results are expected and with

simulate the created but does not doubtful or are

credible but the little or no variation

performance of work or results vary inconsistent when

interface is difficult to from reality and with

electrical system significantly from trials are repeatedly

use user friendly

(MP 1) reality done

interface.

Determine the

effect of

component The data gathered

An investigation was A sufficient amount of The data gathered

values of was analyzed very

made but contains data were gathered was analyzed but

electrical system well and valid

insufficient data or but was not does not support the

to the conclusions were

limited trials. synthesized properly. conclusions made.

performance of drawn.

the system

(MP 1)

Create a

A program for

program that will The program works The program returns

translational The program works,

simulate the but the results are results that are

mechanical system the results are

performance of doubtful or are expected and with

was created but does credible but the

translational inconsistent when little or no variation

not work or results interface is difficult to

mechanical trials are repeatedly from reality and with

vary significantly from use

system done user friendly interface

reality

(MP 1)

Determine the

effect of

component

The data gathered

values of An investigation was A sufficient amount of The data gathered

was analyzed very

translational made but contains data were gathered was analyzed but

well and valid

mechanical insufficient data or but was not does not support the

conclusions were

system to the limited trials. synthesized properly. conclusions made.

drawn.

performance of

the system

(MP 1)

Create a

A program for

program that will The program works The program returns

rotational mechanical The program works,

simulate the but the results are results that are

system was created the results are

performance of doubtful or are expected and with

but does not work or credible but the

rotational inconsistent when little or no variation

results vary interface is difficult to

mechanical trials are repeatedly from reality and with

significantly from use

system done user friendly interface

reality

(MP 1)

Determine the

effect of

component

The data gathered

values of An investigation was A sufficient amount of The data gathered

was analyzed very

rotational made but contains data were gathered was analyzed but

well and valid

mechanical insufficient data or but was not does not support the

conclusions were

system to the limited trials. synthesized properly. conclusions made.

drawn.

performance of

the system

(MP 1)

Create a A program for a

The program works The program returns

program that will position control The program works,

but the results are results that are

simulate the system was created the results are

doubtful or are expected and with

performance of a but does not work or credible but the

inconsistent when little or no variation

position control results vary interface is difficult to

trials are repeatedly from reality and with

system significantly from use

done user friendly interface

(MP 2) reality

Determine the

effect of

The data gathered

component An investigation was A sufficient amount of The data gathered

was analyzed very

values of position made but contains data were gathered was analyzed but

well and valid

control system to insufficient data or but was not does not support the

conclusions were

the performance limited trials. synthesized properly. conclusions made.

drawn.

of the system

(MP 2)

Total Score

Mean Score = (Total Score /8)

Members follow good Members follow good

Members do not follow

Conduct experiments in and safe laboratory and safe laboratory

good and safe

accordance with good and safe practice most of the time practice at all times in

laboratory practice in the

laboratory practice. in the conduct of the conduct of

conduct of experiments.

experiments. experiments.

Members are able to

Members are able to

Members are unable to operate the equipment

Operate equipment and operate equipment and

operate the equipment and instruments with

instruments with ease instrument with

and instruments. ease and with minimum

supervision.

supervision.

Performance Indicators 1 2 3 Points

The group has complete

Analyze data, validate

data, validates

experimental values against The group has complete

The group has experimental values

theoretical values to determine data but has no analysis

incomplete data. against theoretical

possible experimental errors, and valid conclusion.

values, and provides

and provide valid conclusions.

valid conclusion.

Total Score

Mean Score = (Total Score /3)

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