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CCTV & Access Control System

Training Course

Training Workbook

CCTV & Access Control System - Training Workbook

Issue 2.0

© Olive Group 2011

All trademarks are acknowledged.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this document is true and correct at the time of going to press. However, the networks, systems,
products, processes, specifications and content in general described in this document are subject to continuous development and Olive Group is entitled to change them at any
time and to expand on them. Olive Group cannot accept liability for any loss or damage of any nature whatsoever arising or resulting from the use of or reliance on information
or particulars in this document.

All names and other data used in examples are fictitious.

The information contained in this document is of a general nature. Should you require further advice for your particular business requirements,
please refer to the contact details below.

No part of this document may be reproduced by any means, other than with the express written permission of the copyright holder.

© Copyright Olive Group 2011. All rights reserved.


Table of Contents

Introduction ...................................................................................................... 4
Aim of the Workbook ............................................................................................................... 4
Course Objectives.................................................................................................................... 4
Course Aims ............................................................................................................................. 4
Course Performance Objective ............................................................................................... 5
Course Performance Conditions............................................................................................. 5
Training Methods ..................................................................................................................... 5
Training and Demonstration.................................................................................................... 5
Lesson Exercises ..................................................................................................................... 5
Course Audience...................................................................................................................... 6
Evaluation criteria .................................................................................................................... 6

Chapter 1
The Purpose of a CCTV & Access Control Training .................................................. 8
Security Awareness Training .............................................................................. 13
Crime Awareness Training ................................................................................ 19
Threat Awareness Training ................................................................................ 26
Overview of CCTV System ................................................................................. 37

Chapter 2
The Evolution of CCTV System ............................................................................................. 46
Getting Started ....................................................................................................................... 49
Components ........................................................................................................................... 49
DVR SYSTEM SURFACE OVERVIEW.................................................................................... 49
System Operation................................................................................................................... 51

Chapter 3
IP based CCTV Systems .................................................................................... 60
Introduction to Video Management Software ...................................................................... 67
Aimetis Symphony Video Analytics...................................................................................... 74
Aimetis Symphony Functions ............................................................................ 77
Chapter 4
Introduction to Access Control System………….………………………………………………94
Types of Access Control Systems ………………………………………………………………..98
Access Control Technologies……………………………………………………………………..104
New Technologies……………………..…………………………………………………………….106

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Introduction
Aim of the Workbook
This workbook is designed for use in conjunction with the CCTV System Operator training course. The
course is structured so that the facilitator presents all modules using slides. Where relevant and possible,
the participants then have the opportunity to complete exercises to consolidate their learning. A training
environment has been set up with training data provided, allowing participants to practice in a safe
environment.

The aim of the workbook is to be a working document, reinforcing the information presented by the
facilitator. Each participant will have a copy of this workbook, which can be taken away and can be
referred to at a later date. It is not designed to provide a detailed explanation of all aspects of a
technology or application, moreover a working document where each delegate can make their own notes.

Course Objectives
By the end of this course, you will be able to:

Explain the purpose of a CCTV & Access control system.

Identify features and functions of a CCTV & Access control system.

Develop effective monitoring, camera patrolling and control skills.

Be able to identify suspicious activities and behaviors.

Understand recorded footage formats, retrieval and archiving of images and storage of recordings for
evidence

Describe codes of practice and policies relating to the role of a CCTV operator & technician.

Understand Health and Safety within a CCTV operational environment and be able to identify
potential Safety hazards through camera views.

Be fully versed in the day-to-day responsibilities for an operative of a CCTV & Access control system.

Course Aims
To introduce security personnel to CCTV & Access control System.

To understand why we use CCTV & Access control System.

To understand what makes up a System and where it is used.

To understand how CCTV & Access control works.

To develop threat awareness.

To develop a competent and confident CCTV Operator & Technician

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Course Performance Objective
At the end of this course, you will have been provided with comprehensive training to use CCTV &
Access control system competently to assist operations and security personnel as well as local authorities
in the management and response to an incident or emergency situation.

You will take part in Group activities, Group discussions, paper-based quizzes, practical based exercises
and assignments on how to use the capabilities of CCTV & Access control equipment, which will provide
you with an opportunity to practice and review the information presented in the course.

Course Performance Conditions

To successfully complete the stated performance goal, you will have access to:

Assistance from Trainer

Training Workbook

Demos and exercises

Practical-Lab environment

Training Workbook

Training Manual

Training Methods

During the course of this training, different training approaches will be used. In this course an emphasis is
placed on explaining fundamental concepts and demonstrating different system functions which are
pertinent to your job.

Training and Demonstration

This course has time allotted for training, demonstrations, activities, exercises and case studies. Care will
be taken to maintain your active involvement. Straight lecturing will be kept to a minimum. Some of the
exercises in this course involve case studies with instructor-led walkthroughs. They allow you to become
familiar with the course content and other source material made available to you during the lesson.
Demonstrations will precede individual practice.

We will solicit information from you to facilitate discovery and verify your grasp of the information already
presented. You will be encouraged to make notes to summarize the process and take down references.

Lesson Exercises

Exercises will be used to simulate task sequences which combine functions already taught with the new
function just demonstrated. You will use CCTV & Access Control Student Unit and case studies to
practice scenarios which allow you to gain knowledge of how to use the system.

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Course Audience

This course is exclusively designed for the Access Control & CCTV System Operator & Technician
responsibility.

Evaluation criteria

You will be evaluated on a regular basis to check your understanding of the topics covered. A Written
quiz/Practical assessment will be taken at the beginning of each day, and its scores will be added up into
the final assessment

Here are the parameters for Course Evaluation

Activity Weightage

1. Quizzes/Practical Assessments 20%

2. Class Participation 20%


3. Assignments 10%
4. Final Assessment 50%

Total 100%

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Chapter 1

In this chapter you will learn about:


• The purpose of CCTV & Access Control training

• Security Awareness

• Crime Awareness

• Threat Awareness

• Overview of CCTV system

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The Purpose of CCTV & Access Control Training

Mission of the CCTV & Access Control capability


To, in conjunction with other organisations and departments, notify, activate, deploy and/or employ
resources in response to the threat of an event.

The vision of the CCTV & Access Control capability


Employed for the prevention of crimes, as aid in investigations.

For facilities maintenance support.

CCTV & Access Control operators are regarded as highly knowledgeable regarding their use of the
system.

They are extremely familiar with the system layout and operations.

They continually contribute to identify system weaknesses & make suggestions for improvement.

The CCTV capability is viewed by all stakeholders as an integral part of infrastructure management.

Objectives

This capability is deployed to:

1. Restricted Crime
2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
8. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Group Discussion
Where do we Use CCTV?

Usages of CCTV
Notes:

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Why do we use CCTV?

Deterrent
To protect area/building
…………………………………………………
…………………………………………………
…………………………………………………

What are we searching for?

1. IED’s (Bombs)
2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
8. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
10. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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What are the areas we are searching?

Approaches and driveways


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Group Discussion
How the criminals operate?

Notes:

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Security Awareness – Overview
Criminals tend to follow a set pattern prior to action:

1. Information gathering
2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
8. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Recap

Things to Remember!

1. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
8. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
10. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
11. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
12. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Security Awareness Training
Aspects of Security

Security consists of 3 important aspects

1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

1. ............................ Security

Notes:

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2. ............................ Security

Notes:

3. ............................ Security

Notes:

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Four Pillars of Security

1. DETER
2. ……………………………...
3. ………………………………
4. ………………………………

1. DETER

Notes:

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2. DETECT

Notes:

3. ………………………..

Notes:

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4. ………………………..

Notes:

State of the art security

The best technology will not give you security without the correct
implementation of the four pillars of security!

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RECAP

Things to Remember!

1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
8. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
10. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
11. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
12. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Crime Awareness Training
We live in a world where there is sadly a growing culture of petty
crime!

Team Exercise

Notes:

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The 5 “A”s

1. APPRECIATE
2. ASSESS
3. ……………………………
4. ……………………………
5. …………………………...

1. Appreciate the threat


Notes:

Opportunity theft

Notes:

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Small scale theft

Notes:

Large scale robbery

Notes:

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Coercion

Notes:

Compliance

Notes:

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2. Assess your weaknesses

Notes:

3. ……………………………………………..

Notes:

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Warning indicators

Notes:

4. ………………………………………………………………

Notes:

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5. ………………………………………………………………

Notes:

RECAP

Things to Remember!

1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
8. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
10. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
11. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
12. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Threat Awareness Training
Threat Awareness – What is it?

The goal of this training is to increase your awareness and combat complacency.

Goals:
1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
8. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

What are the threats?

1. Theft and shoplifting

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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2. Destruction of Property

Notes:

3. Robbery

Notes:

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4. Terrorism

Notes:

What does an IED look like?

Think Again!

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What does an IED look like?

Notes:

5. Fire

Notes:

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6. Waterway Issues

Notes:

7. Traffic

Notes:

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Threat Awareness – Principles

Effective use of the following principles should ensure you have a


good awareness of the threats that face your location
1. Observation
2. ………………………………….
3. …………………………………

1. Observation

Body Language
Shapes of Clothing
Dress Sense
Accessories

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Group Exercise

Body Language

Understanding behaviour pattern recognition

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Body Language
Notes:

Shape of Clothing

Notes:

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Dress Sense

Notes:

Accessories

Notes:

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2. …………………………………………..

Notes:

Groups and Gangs

Notes:

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3. …………………………………………………….

Notes:

RECAP

Things to Remember!

1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
8. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
10. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
11. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
12. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Overview of CCTV System
What makes up a CCTV system?

Notes:

How CCTV Works

Notes:

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Components of CCTV System

Notes:

Types of Cameras

1. Fixed Cameras
2. ……………………………………….
3. ……………………………………….
4. ……………………………………….

1. Fixed Cameras
Notes:

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2. ………………………………………………..

Notes:

3. ……………………………………………………

Notes:

4. ……………………………………………………

Notes:

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Camera Specifications

Notes:

Analogue or Digital

Resolution

Notes:

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Lenses

There are two main lens mount standards

1. C-mount Lens

2. ………………………………………………

1. C-Mount Lens

Notes:

2. ………………………………..

Notes:

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Types of Lenses

Notes:

Fixed lens

Notes:

Fixed Lens

Keyboard

Notes:

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Control Panel

Notes:

Monitor

Notes:

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RECAP

Things to Remember!

1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
8. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
10. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
11. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
12. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Chapter 2

In this chapter you will learn about:


• The Evolution of CCTV system

• Analogue CCTV system with DVR

• DVR surface overview

• System Operations

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The Evolution of CCTV System
CCTV systems began as 100% analogue system and have gradually evolved into modern digitized
systems. Today’s CCTV systems have evolved a great deal since the early analogue tube cameras
connected to a Video Cassette Recorder (VCR). They now use network cameras and PC servers for
video recording in a fully digitized system. However, in between the fully analogue and the fully digital
systems, there are a number of solutions which are partially digital; these solutions include a number of
digital components but do not represent fully digital systems.

An analogue CCTV system using a VCR represents a fully analogue system consisting of analogue
cameras with coax output, connected to the VCR for recording. The VCR uses the same type of
cassettes as the ordinary old home VCR. The video is not compressed, and if recording at full frame rate,
one tape lasts a maximum of 8 hours. In larger systems, a quad or multiplexer can be connected in
between the camera and the VCR. The quad/multiplexer makes it possible to record several cameras to
one VCR, but at the cost of a lower frame rate. To monitor the video, an analogue monitor is used.

VCR

Coax Cable Quad/ Multiplexer

Analogue
Camera Analogue Monitor

An analogue CCTV system using a DVR is an analogue system with digital recording. In a DVR, the
videotape is replaced with hard drives for the video recording, which requires the video to be digitized and
compressed in order to store as many day’s worth of video as possible. With early DVR’s, hard disk
space was limited – so recording duration was limited, or a lower frame rate had to be used. Recent
development of hard disks means space is no longer a major problem. Most DVR’s have several video
inputs, typically 4, 9, or 16, which means they also include the functionality of the quad and multiplexers.

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The DVR system adds the following advantages:

No need to change tapes


Consistent image quality

Coax Cable

DVR Monitor
Analogue
Camera

An analogue CCTV system using a network DVR is a partly digital system which includes a network DVR
equipped with an Ethernet port for network connectivity. Since the video is digitized and compressed in
the DVR, it can be transported over a computer network to be monitored on a PC in a remote location.
Some systems can monitor both live and recorded video, while some can only monitor recorded.
Furthermore, some systems require a special Windows client to monitor the video, while others use a
standard web browser; the latter making the remote monitoring more flexible.

The network DVR system adds the following advantages:

Remote monitoring of video via a PC


Remote operation of the system

LAN/
LAN Internet PC

Coax Cable DVR


Analogue Network Switch
Camera

A network video system using video servers includes a video server, a network switch and a PC with
video management software. The analogue camera connects to the video server, which digitizes and
compresses the video. The video server then connects to a network and transports the video via a
network switch to a PC, where it is stored on hard disks. This is a true network video system.

A network video system using video servers adds the following advantages:

Use of standard network and PC server hardware for video recording and management.
The system is scalable in steps of one camera at a time.
Off-site recording is possible.
It is future-proof since the system can easily be expanded by incorporating network cameras.

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Analogue PC with Video
Camera Management
Video Server Software
Network Switch
LAN/
Coax Cable LAN Internet

A network camera combines a camera and computer in one unit, which includes the digitization and
compression of the video, as well as a network connector. The video is transported over an IP-based
network, via network switches, and recorded to a standard PC with video management software. This
represents a true network video system, and is also a fully digital system, where no analog components
are used.

A network video system using network cameras adds the following advantages:

High resolution cameras (mega pixel).


Consistent image quality.
Power over Ethernet and wireless functionality.
Pan/tilt/zoom, audio, digital inputs and outputs over IP along with video
Full flexibility and scalability.

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1 Getting Started
This chapter provides information on how to get started with a standalone “Analogue CCTV System with
DVR”

1.1 Components
Analogue Camera
Lens
Digital Video Recorder (DVR)
Coaxial Cable
BNC Connector
Monitor

1.2 DVR SYSTEM SURFACE OVERVIEW


1.2.1 Front
USB PORT - Port for USB devices, for mouse and backup
POWER - Turn on power of system
DISPLAY - Shift display mode between split and full mode
SEARCH - Enter to search more
MENU -Enter to system configuration menu
NAVIGATION KEY -Use for navigating on menu or control PTZ

1.2.2 Rear

Video Input

Connect the coaxial cables from the video sources to the BNC video in Connector

Monitor Out

Connect AV monitor for main system OSD

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Audio In/ Out

Connect Mic to Input / Connect Speaker to Output

Video Out

Provide for RGB monitor output

Alarm in/ Relay/ RS-485

Alarm in: Connect Sensor devices

RELAY: Connect Relay device for Alarm out

RS-485: Connect PTZ camera or Keyboard controller.

PS/2

Connect PS/2 type mouse

Network

Connect RJ-45 for local network or Internet

DC-12V

Connect Power Source from Power Adapter

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1.3 System Operation
1.3.1 Split Screen & Full Screen Mode

To display the entire Image window in full-screen mode:

Double click the mouse button to change between Split screen and Full screen mode.
1.3.2 Sequence Mode

With sequence mode, a group of cameras are displayed one after the other.

To start a sequence mode:

Click the right mouse button on the Live Display screen and Click the SEQUENCE TAB

You can configure the dwell time for these sequences in the SYSTEM SETUP >>> DISPLAY TAB

Under the following conditions, a sequence is not being displayed:

Video loss
Connection to the camera lost
Camera not configured

1.3.3 Manual Recording

Panic recording will override all standard recording settings to provide, by default, continuous recording
on all channels.

To Start Manual recording mode:

Click the right mouse button on the Live Display screen and Press the REC START button. The
top right of the display will show a red square with P to indicate that the DVR is in panic
recording mode.

To Stop Manual recording mode:

Click the right mouse button on the Live Display screen and Press the REC STOP button to
return to normal recording mode.

1.3.4 System Setup

To Access the System Setup:

Click the right mouse button on the Live Display screen and Click the SYSTEM SETUP menu

Note: Only operators with ADMIN rights can configure the DVR.

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1.3.4.1 Display

The DISPLAY menu tab contains two sub menus. The first tab is OSD (On Screen Display) and the
second is MONITOR

OSD
STATUS BAR: Turns the status bar ON or OFF at the bottom of the live display.
CAMERA TITLE: Determines whether the camera title is displayed.
EVENT ICON: Determines whether the DVR recording status is shown at the top right of each
channel display window.
BORDER: Determines whether there is a border around each channel in multi screen display mode.
MOTION SENSOR DISPLAY: If false motion recording is occurring, the operator can use this feature
to determine and rectify the cause in real-time.
MOTION COLOR: The color of the blocks displayed when MOTION SENSOR DISPLAY
LANGUAGE: Provides multi language feature.

Monitor
SEQUENCE DWELL: The time that each screen is displayed in a sequence operation.
ALARM POP-UP MODE: When set to ON, an alarm input will cause the associated channel to
display full screen.
ALARM POP-UP DWELL: Determines how long the full screen popup is displayed after an alarm
input. If the alarm condition continues, the popup screen is displayed constantly.
MOTION POP-UP MODE: When set to ON, motion detection will cause the associated channel to
display full screen.
MOTION POP-UP DWELL: Determines how long the full screen popup is displayed after motion
detection. If motion continues, the popup screen is displayed constantly.

1.3.4.2 Camera

The CAMERA menu tab contains four sub menus. The first tab is CAMERA TITLE, the second tab is
COLOR SETUP, the third is PTZ SETUP and the last tab is MOTION SENSOR.

Camera Title
COVERT: This option is used to hide the video feed of a camera. When set to ON, the camera
video is not displayed in live display but the video continues to be recorded.
TITLE: This option is used to change the camera name. For each camera, a title of up to 11
characters can be set using the virtual keyboard.
Color Setup
Click the COLOR SETUP menu and click the value on the BRIGHTNESS, CONTRAST, TINT
and COLOR menu.
Brightness, contrast, tint and color can be adjusted for each individual channel.
Highlight which channel to modify and press ENTER.

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Motion Sensor
Click the MOTION SENSOR menu and click the value on the SENSITIVITY menu.

SENSITIVITY: Between 1 (Lowest) and 10 (Highest) and determines the degree of motion
required before recording is activated.
AREA SETUP: Choosing this option allows the operator to define which areas of the image are
monitored for motion detection.

1.3.4.3 Sound

The SOUND menu tab contains two sub menus. The first tab is AUDIO and the second tab is BUZZER.

1.3.4.4 Audio

LIVE AUDIO: When set to ON, the selected audio channel can be monitored on the AUDIO
OUTPUT.
AUDIO MONITORING CHANNEL: Specify which one of the 4 AUDIO INPUTS is routed to the
AUDIO OUTPUT.
NETWORK AUDIO TX: When set to ON, live and playback audio is transmitted to a remote PC
connection.
NETWORK AUDIO RX: When set to ON, allows a remote PC connection to send audio back to
the DVR.

1.3.4.5 Buzzer

KEYPAD: When set to ON, each front panel button press is confirmed by a beep.
IR REMOTE: When set to ON, each command received from the IR remote is confirmed by a
beep.

1.3.4.6 System

Date/Time
DATE TIME: Allows the operator to set or modify the current date & time.
DATE FORMAT: Determines how the date is displayed.
TIME FORMAT: Determines how the time is displayed.
NETWORK TIME SERVER SETUP: If the DVR is connected to the Internet, the time and date
can be accurately set by selecting SYNC and pressing ENTER.
TIME ZONE SETUP: should be set according to the region that the DVR is used in.

Network
DHCP: When enabled, the DVR will obtain an IP address automatically if connected to a DHCP
server or router.
DDNS: When enabled, the DVR can be accessed through a Dynamic DNS server. Commonly

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used if a broadband connection does not have a static IP address.
WEB SERVICE: When enabled, allows remote connections using Internet Explorer or other web
browsers.

IP ADDRESS: If DHCP is not being used, the IP address can be manually set.
GATEWAY: If DHCP is not being used, the gateway IP address can be manually set.
SUBNET MASK: If DHCP is not being used, the subnet mask can be manually set.
1ST DNS SERVER: If DHCP is not being used, the first DNS server can be manually set.
2ND DNS SERVER: If DHCP is not being used, the second DNS server can be manually set.
DDNS SERVER: If DDNS is enabled, the host DDNS server is specified here.
NET CLIENT PORT: The port number that the DVR uses to support remote connection from the
client software.
WEB SERVER PORT: The port number that the DVR uses to support remote connection from
Internet Explorer or other web browsers.
MAX TX SPEED: Specifies the maximum bandwidth that the DVR can use during a remote
connection
Mail
DEFAUT SERVER: Use default mail server for sending email notification.
SERVER: The SMTP outbound email server that should be used to send email notifications.
PORT: The outbound email port number.
SECURITY: Set to OFF if the SERVER does not require a username and password to connect.
USER: Enter a username to identify the DVR in email messages.
PASSWORD: If SECURITY is set to ON, enter the password here.
TEST E-MAIL: Send a test email to registered users.

User Management
Click the USER MANAGEMENT menu and double click the ADMIN on the GROUP menu.

By default, the DVR is configured with a user ID of ADMIN, belonging to the ADMIN group
and with a password of 1234.

As well as the ability to add new users, existing user details can be modified.

To modify user details, highlight the user with the cursor then double click.

4.5 SYSTEM MANAGEMENT


Click the SYSTEM MANAGEMENT menu.

And click the PRESS menu for FW Upgrade, Factory Default and System Data.

Click PRESS button on SYSTEM INFORMATION.

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IP ADDRESS: Shows either the manual IP address entered in NETWORK setup or the IP
address assigned by a DHCP server if enabled.
MAC ADDRESS: Shows the MAC (Media Access Control) address of the DVR. It is unique – no
other network device has this MAC address.
DISK CAPACITY: The first value shows the amount of hard drive capacity used by recorded
footage, the second value shows the total hard drive capacity installed.
F/W version: Shows the firmware version of the DVR.
H/W version: Shows the hardware version of the DVR.
VIDEO SIGNAL TYPE: The DVR automatically switches between PAL and NTSC depending on
the channel 1 input signal at power on.
SYSTEM NAME: A system name of up to 10 characters can be defined. It is used so that
notification emails can be identified.
F/W UPDATE: Firmware updates may be released periodically to enhance system performance
and add extra features. The operator can upgrade the firmware using a USB memory stick.
FACTORY DEFAULT: If settings have been changed which cause erratic behavior, the factory
default settings can be loaded.
SYSTEM DATA: System settings can be saved to a USB memory stick. The settings can be
reloaded in case of accidental factory reset or can be transferred to another DVR if multiple units
need to be installed with the same settings. All information is saved apart from network settings
and system name.

1.3.4.7 Control Device

Click the CONTROL DEVICE menu.


Select the SYSTEM ID, PTZ Protocol and camera BAUD RATE.
This will allow up to 254 DVRs to be controlled from the same keyboard.
SYSTEM ID: If more than one DVR is connected on the same RS485 bus, each one must have
a unique ID.
PROTOCOL: Must be set by Control Device.
BAUD RATE: Must be set to match the baud rate of the PTZ controller.

1.3.4.8 EVENT /SENSOR

HDD Event

DISK FULL EVENT: Makes alarm when disk full to recording data

Alarm Input

It determines the behavior of each alarm inputs

OPERATION: Alarm inputs can be enabled or disabled.


TYPE: Alarm inputs can be set as normally open or normally closed.

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Alarm Output
OPERATION: The selected alarm output can be enabled or disabled.
MODE: Can be either TRANSPARENT (the output is active only when the trigger criteria is
present) or LATCHED (the output is active for a set period of time after a trigger)
DURATION: In LATCHED mode, the time that the alarm output remains active after it has been
triggered.
HDD EVENT: Determines whether a hard drive event triggers the alarm output.

Action settings
ALARM: Determines whether alarm inputs will trigger the alarm output.
VIDEO LOSS: Determines whether video loss on any of the selected channels will trigger the
alarm output.
MOTION: Determines whether motion detection on any of the selected channels will trigger the
alarm output.

Buzzer Out
OPERATION: The internal buzzer can be enabled or disabled.
MODE: Can be either TRANSPARENT (the buzzer sounds only when the trigger criteria is
present) or LATCHED (the buzzer sounds for a set period of time after the trigger).
DURATION: In LATCHED mode, the time that the buzzer sounds after it has been triggered.
HDD EVENT: Determines whether a hard drive event sounds the buzzer

Action settings
ALARM: Determines whether alarm inputs will sound the buzzer.
VIDEO LOSS: Determines whether video loss on any of the selected channels will sound the
buzzer.
MOTION: Determines whether motion detection on any of the selected channels will sound the
buzzer.

E-Mail Notification
Determines the behavior and actions that will send an email to a remote user

Behavior settings
NOTIFICATION: Email notification can be turned ON or OFF.
HDD EVENT: Determines whether a hard drive event sends an email.
BOOTING EVENT: Determines whether a reboot event sends an email.
Action settings
ALARM: Determines whether alarm inputs will send an email.
VIDEO LOSS: Determines whether video loss on any of the selected channels will send an
email.
MOTION: Determines whether motion detection on any of the selected channels will send an
email.

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Disk Manage
OVERWRITE/ MANUAL OVERWRITES: When set ON, the DVR will start overwriting the earliest
recorded footage once the hard drive becomes full. In this case, the percentage of hard drive used shown
in live display will always be 99%. When set to OFF, the DVR will stop recording when the disk becomes
full.

FORMAT: If necessary, all footage can be erased from the DVR using this option.

1.3.5 Record Setup

1.3.5.1 Simple Recording

Click the RECORD SETUP menu.


Select SIMPLE on RECORDING TYPE.
SIMPLE recording provide same recording configuration for all cameras.
SCHEDULE MODE: Either DAILY (one schedule will apply to every day of the week) or
WEEKLY (each day of the week has its own schedule).
PRE EVENT RECORDING TIME: When the DVR is not in continuous recording mode, this
setting determines the amount of footage that is always recorded before an event occurs.
(Motion detection, alarm input etc.)
POST EVENT RECORDING TIME: When the DVR is not in continuous recording mode, this
setting determines the amount of footage that is always recorded after an event occurs. (Motion
detection, alarm input etc.)
Set recording quality, record size and FPS properly. Only one recording type supports for simple
recording.

1.3.5.2 Advance Recording

Click SETTING tab.


Select and drags mouse on the time line.
Set the size, fps, quality, audio and alarm per each camera.
Click ACTIVATION tab
Drag area for setting and select recording types. Multi choice allow on recording type
(CONTINOUS, MOTION, ALARM).

1.3.5.3 Manual Recording

Set recording configuration for Panic Recording.

During panic recording mode, the DVR will override all other recording settings and record continuously
on all channels at the settings configured here.

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1.3.6 Search

1.3.6.1 Search By Time

Click the right mouse button on the Live Display screen and Click the SEARCH menu.
Click the date that you want.
Drag the time bar by left mouse.
Click the PLAY TAB.

Controls play mode by control box

1.3.6.2 SEARCH BY EVENT

Click the SEARCH BY EVENT menu and each value for query.
Click the START menu.
Double click event on the list.
Now system will show play back mode.

1.3.7 Archive
Click the right mouse button on the Live Display screen and Click the ARCHIVING menu.
Select time and data then press PREVIEW button.
Backup information windows will be popped up.
Press ok to continue backup to external media.
Input title name for backup file and select device then press start.

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Chapter 3

In this chapter you will learn about:


• IP based CCTV system

• Introduction to Video management software

• Aimetis Symphony Video Analytics

• Aimetis Symphony Functions

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IP Based CCTV Systems
Modern video surveillance offers an increasingly wide range of systems and devices for video monitoring
with the aim to safeguard people and property. In order to understand the scope and potential of an
integrated, fully digitized system, you must understand the fundamentals of the technology incorporated
in such a system. This document covers the core components of a network video system, these being:

• The network camera.


• The video server.
• The video management software.

In order to select the appropriate surveillance system, it is recommended to make comparison of the
various technologies with reference to the planned application area and requirements in terms of cost-
effectiveness, scalability, usability and flexibility.

CCTV (Closed Circuit Television) is still a term in use today; however it is more accurate to describe
modern digital systems as Network video systems. These are also often referred to as IP-Surveillance.
For specific applications within security surveillance and remote monitoring, IP-Surveillance is a system
which gives users the ability to monitor and record video over an IP network (LAN/Internet).

Figure: IP based CCTV Network

Unlike analogue video systems, network video uses the network, rather than dedicated point-to-point
cabling, as the backbone for transporting information. The term network video refers to both the video
and audio sources available throughout the system. In a network video application, digitized video
streams are transferred via a wired or wireless IP network, enabling video monitoring and recording from
anywhere on the network.

A network or IP camera can be described as a camera and computer combined in one device. It
captures and transmits live images directly over an IP network, enabling authorized users to locally or
remotely view, store, and manage video over standard IP-based network infrastructure.

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An IP camera has its own unique IP address. It is connected to the network and has a built-in web
server, FTP server, FTP client, e-mail client, alarm management, programmability, and much more. A
network camera does not need to be connected to a PC; it operates independently and can be placed
wherever there is an IP network connection.

*Note – A network/IP camera is completely different to a web camera. A web camera is a camera that
requires connection to a PC via a USB or IEEE1394 port and a PC to operate. In addition to video, a
network camera also includes other functionalities and information being transported over the same
network connection, i.e. digital inputs and outputs, audio, serial port(s) for serial data or control of
pan/tilt/zoom mechanisms.

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Comparison of network and analogue cameras

Analogue cameras are one-directional signal carriers which terminate at the Digital Video Recorder
(DVR) and operator level, whereas a network camera is fully bi-directional and integrates with and drives
the rest of the system to a high degree in a distributed and scalable environment. A network camera
communicates with several applications in parallel, to perform various tasks, such as detecting motion or
sending different streams of video.

A video server makes it possible to move toward a network video system without having to discard
existing analogue equipment. It brings new functionality to analogue equipment and eliminates the need
for dedicated equipment such as coaxial cabling, monitors and DVRs – the latter becoming unnecessary
as video recording can be done using standard PC servers.

A video server typically has between one and four analogue ports for analogue cameras to plug into, as
well as an Ethernet port for connection to the network. Like network cameras, it contains a built-in web
server, a compression chip and an operating system so that incoming analogue feeds can be converted
into digital video, transmitted and recorded over the computer network for easier accessibility and
viewing.

Besides the video input, a video server also includes other functionalities and information which are
transported over the same network connection: digital inputs and outputs, audio, serial port(s) for serial
data or control of pan/tilt/zoom mechanisms.

A standard web browser provides adequate viewing for many network video applications, utilizing the web
interface built into the network camera or video server especially if only one or a few cameras are viewed
at the same time.

To view several cameras at the same time, dedicated video management software is required. In its
simplest form, it offers live viewing, storing and retrieving of video sequences.

Advanced software contains features like:


• Simultaneous viewing and recording of live video from multiple cameras.
• Several recording modes: continuous, scheduled, on alarm and on motion detection.
• Capacity to handle high frame rates and large amounts of data.
• Multiple search functions for recorded events.
• Remote access via a web browser, client software and even PDA client.

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• Control of PTZ and dome cameras.
• Alarm management functions (sound alarm, pop-up windows or e-mail).
• Full duplex, real-time audio support.
• Video intelligence.

Image Generation

Image quality is clearly one of the most important features of any camera, if not the most important. This
is especially true of security surveillance where lives and property may be at stake. Unlike traditional
analogue cameras, network cameras are equipped with the processing power not only to capture and
present images, but also to manage and compress them digitally for network transport. Image quality can
vary considerably and is dependent on several factors such as the choice of optics and image sensor, the
available processing power and the level of sophistication of the algorithms in the processing chip.

CCD sensor CMOS sensor

The image sensor of the camera is responsible for transforming light into electrical signals. When
building a camera, there are two possible technologies for the camera's image sensor:

• CCD (Charged Coupled Device).


• CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor).

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CCD sensors are produced using a technology developed specifically for the camera industry, while
CMOS sensors are based on standard technology already extensively used in memory chips, inside PCs
for example.

CCD technology

CCD sensors have been used in cameras for a long time and present many quality advantages, among
which a better light sensitivity than CMOS sensors. This higher light sensitivity translates into better
images in low light conditions. CCD sensors are however more expensive as they are made in a non-
standard process and more complex to incorporate into a camera. Besides, when there is a very bright
object in the scene (such as a lamp or direct sunlight), the CCD may bleed, causing vertical stripes below
and above the object. This phenomenon is called smear.

CMOS technology

Recent advances in CMOS sensors bring them closer to their CCD counterparts in terms of image
quality, but CMOS sensors remain unsuitable for cameras where the highest possible image quality is
required. CMOS sensors provide a lower total cost for the cameras since they contain all the logics
needed to build cameras around them. They make it possible to produce smaller-sized cameras. Large
size sensors are available, providing megapixel resolution to a variety of network cameras. A current
limitation with CMOS sensors is their lower light sensitivity. In normal bright environments this is not an
issue, while in low light conditions this becomes apparent. The result is either a very dark or a very noisy
image.

Image and video compression

Image and video compression can be done either in a lossless or lossy approach. In lossless
compression, each and every pixel is kept unchanged resulting in an identical image after
decompression. The price to pay is that the compression ratio, i.e. the data reduction, is very limited. A
well-known lossless compression format is GIF. Since the compression ratio is so limited, these formats
are impractical for use in network video solutions where large amounts of images need to be stored and
transmitted. Therefore, several lossy compression methods and standards have been developed. The
fundamental idea is to reduce things that appear invisible to the human eye and by doing so being able to
increase the compression ratio tremendously.

Compression methods also involve two different approaches to compression standards: still image
compression and video compression.

Still image compression standards


All still image compression standards are focused only on one single picture at a time. The most well
known and widespread standard is JPEG.

JPEG

JPEG, a well-known image compression method, was originally standardized in the mid-1980s in a
process started by the Joint Photographic Experts Group. With JPEG, decompression and viewing can
be done from standard web browsers.

JPEG compression can be done at different user-defined compression levels, which determine how much
an image is to be compressed. The compression level selected is directly related to the image quality
requested. Besides the compression level, the image itself also has an impact on the resulting

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compression ratio. For example, a white wall may produce a relatively small image file (and a higher
compression ratio), while the same compression level applied on a very complex and patterned scene will
produce a larger file size, with a lower compression ratio.

The two images below illustrate compression ratio versus image quality for a given scene at two different
compression levels.

Compression level “low” Compression level “high”


Compression ratio 1:16 Compression ratio 1:96
6% of original file size 1% of original file size
No visible image quality degradation Image quality clearly degraded

JPEG2000
Another still image compression standard is JPEG2000. It was developed by the same group that also
developed JPEG. Its main target is for use in medical applications and for still image photographing. At
low compression ratios, it performs similar to JPEG but at really high compression ratios it performs
slightly better than JPEG. The price to pay is that the support for JPEG2000 in web browsers and image
displaying and processing applications is still very limited.

Video compression standards


Motion JPEG is the most commonly used standard in network video systems. A network camera, like a
digital still picture camera, captures individual images and compresses them into JPEG format. The
network camera can capture and compress, for example, 30 such individual images per second (30 fps –
frames per second), and then make them available as a continuous flow of images over a network to a
viewing station.

H.263
The H.263 compression technique targets a fixed bit rate video transmission. The downside of having a
fixed bit rate is that when an object moves, the quality of the image decreases. H.263 was originally
designed for video conferencing applications and not for video surveillance where details are more crucial
than fixed bit rate.

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MPEG
One of the best-known audio and video streaming techniques is the standard called MPEG (initiated by
the Motion Picture Experts Group in the late 1980s). MPEG’s basic principle is to compare two
compressed images to be transmitted over the network. The first compressed image is used as a
reference frame, and only parts of the following images that differ from the reference image are sent. The
network viewing station then reconstructs all images based on the reference image and the “difference
data”.

Despite higher complexity, applying MPEG video compression leads to lower data volumes being
transmitted across the network than is the case with Motion JPEG. This is illustrated below where only
information about the differences in the second and third frames is transmitted.

H 264

The two groups behind H.263 and MPEG-4 joined together to form the next generation video
compression standard. AVC for Advanced Video Coding, also called H.264. The intent is to achieve very
high data compression. This standard is capable of providing good video quality at bit rates that are
substantially lower than what previous standards would need, and to do so without so much of an
increase in complexity as to make the design impractical or expensive to implement. The leading IP
video solutions almost always use H264 these days.

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An Introduction to Video Management Software
What is video management software?

Video management software running on a Windows or Unix/Linux server, supplies the basis for video
monitoring, analysis, and recording. A wide range of software is available, based on the users'
requirements. A standard Web browser provides adequate viewing for many network video applications,
utilizing the Web interface built into the network camera or video server especially if only one or a few
cameras are viewed at the same time.

To view several cameras at the same time, dedicated video management software is required. A wide
range of video management software is available. In its simplest form, it offers live viewing, storing and
retrieving of video sequences. Advanced software contains features such as:

• Simultaneous viewing and recording of live video from multiple cameras


• Several recording modes: continuous, scheduled, on alarm and on motion detection
• Capacity to handle high frame rates and large amounts of data
• Multiple search functions for recorded events
• Remote access via a Web browser, client software and even PDA client
• Control of PTZ and dome cameras
• Alarm management functions (sound alarm, pop-up windows or e-mail)
• Full duplex, real-time audio support
• Video Intelligence

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Aimetis Symphony Video Management Software

Aimetis Symphony is an advanced video management software product with integrated video analysis.
Symphony simultaneously enables digital video recording, intelligent video analysis and remote access to
live and recorded images from any networked computer. Symphony analyzes incoming video against
user-defined policies and initiates counter measures when an event violates a Rule.

By using Symphony’s advanced business intelligence reporting and query tools, users can quickly access
information or locate specific video in seconds, saving hours of forensic work. Sample content analysis
applications include:

• Perimeter breach protection


• Virtual fence
• Object stolen/left-behind
• Flow control
• People/vehicle counting
• Vehicle starting/stopping/moving
• Camera obstruction

Figure: Aimetis Symphony Video Management Software

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Symphony Client User Interface
Symphony Client acts as the user interface for all server configuration as well as alarm and report
management. This section will outline the key functions of Symphony Client to help you get started.
The Main Console is the main window that you will be using within Symphony Client.

The Main Console consists of typical Windows application items such as the Title Bar, Menu, Toolbars,
and controls for minimize, maximize, and close. Also included are Video Panels used for live mode,
historical playback, and analyzing still frames. To fully manage Symphony and take advantage of all its
many features there are several other panels available:

Main Console
Address Bar
The Address Bar contains a Symphony link to the last selected video position. Symphony links are very
useful. If you have already installed Symphony Client on a computer you can simply do Start - Run, and
paste in a Symphony link, and Windows XP will automatically start Symphony Client and position to the
link's location.

Figure: Address Bar

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Using the Forward and Back buttons on the Toolbar on the Main Console will bring you to places you
have just visited. For example, each time you click on the Timeline or navigate to a different camera on a
different server, this information is being recorded, so it is easy to navigate backwards or forwards from
where you are. To view a location you have just visited, clicking the Back button will return you to the
camera and time you were just viewing.

Timeline

The Timeline is a powerful way to view everything that has happened in a day at a glance. The Timeline
is integrated in the main view of Symphony Client. It can be turned on and off via the Toolbar Timeline
button, and via Menu item View > Timeline. The Timeline is also available in every Video Panel,
accessible by right-clicking on the Video Panel and choosing Timeline.

Figure: Timeline

If you click anywhere on the Timeline, a still image for that time will appear in the main view.
Meaning of the bar colors:
Green - No relevant foreground activity was detected.
Yellow - There is activity (ignores weather conditions and shadows).
Red - A Rule was broken that resulted in an alarm being raised.
Gray - No video signal.
The purple circle always indicates the Timeline position for what is currently being viewed in the Video
Panel.

Video Panels

Video Panels are used to show live video, recorded video, and analyze still frames. All Video Panels,
including the Main Video Panel, can optionally include a Timeline and a Navigation Bar. These options
and others are available via the context menu by right-clicking on the Video Panel (as seen below).

Live View Mode


By default, cameras are playing live in the Main Console. To navigate to different cameras, click on the
Camera Tree or Site Map to switch cameras. By clicking on Timeline will automatically exit live mode and
enter playback mode.

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Video Playback mode
If Timeline or Alarm log is clicked, video playback mode begins. Below is an example of playback mode. If
right clicking on playback mode, other configuration options exist.

Figure: Video Panel

Navigation Menu Usage (in video playback mode)

Navigates forward and backward by alarm, activity (motion), 10 seconds, 1 second, 1 frame

Controls video playback speed as well as reverse playback speed

Switches back to Live mode from playback mode.

Multi View

Multi View allows you to view multiple cameras' views at the same time. Multi View can be configured to
display 1 to 64 cameras at once. It is possible to have more than one multi view dialog open. Since the
Multi View is made up of individual Video Panels, it is possible to configure them individually for
appearance, the activities to perform upon alarm events, whether or not to have Timelines, Navigation
Bars, etc. Simply drag cameras from the Map or Camera Tree onto panes in the Multi View.

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Camera Tree
The Camera Tree is the default method of navigating between cameras. By default, all cameras are listed
in order of camera ID. Each camera has a unique ID and is set automatically by the system as cameras
are added. If the camera tree is not visible, from Symphony Client click View > Camera Tree.

PTZ Controls

When working with PTZ cameras, you have the ability to set multiple home positions (camera tour), pan,
tilt and zoom right from Symphony Client using a standard keyboard and mouse.
To move the camera you have three options. You can use the Navigation control (PTZ button on the
toolbar), or use the mouse to drag a box around the region you wish to zoom in on.

Navigation Menu Usage

To open the control dialog of the dome or PTZ camera, click on the PTZ toolbar button, or click View >
PTZ Controls.

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The PTZ Navigation dialog is summarized below.
The arrows move a dome or PTZ camera up and down, left and right. If it's a fixed camera, will digitally
move camera (must be digitally zoomed first). The +/- allows you to digitally zoom in or out (fixed
camera), or optically zoom in and out (dome or PTZ cameras). Clicking Home will automatically bring
camera back to its user defined Home Position. The numbers represent camera tour locations and
provide easy navigation.

Server List

The Server List is a panel on the right side of the main console that lists the servers that are in the current
server set along with their connection status. The menu item View > Server List Panel toggles its
visibility.

By right clicking on the top title bar (i.e. Server) the context menu appears where the Column Chooser
allows you to customize which fields are displayed.
By right clicking on a server from the Server List panel, a context menu pops up that includes menu items
to Add, Edit, Delete, Enable, Disable, and view properties of the selected servers.

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Aimetis Symphony Video Analytics
Introduction

With Aimetis' video analytics it is possible to detect specific events and activities automatically from your
cameras without human intervention. Video analytics makes it possible to filter video and only notify you
when user defined events have been detected, such as vehicles stopping in an alarm zone, or a person
passing through a digital fence. Today's robust video analytics produce far fewer false alarms than the
previous motion detection methods employed in earlier DVRs or cameras. Aimetis offers video analytics
add-ons on a per camera basis in the form of Video Engines (VE).

How to select video analytics

Some Video Engines (VE) can be run concurrently per camera with others (such as VE150 Motion
Tracking and VE350 Left Item Detection) but others cannot be run concurrently (such as VE160 People
Counting with VE150 Motion Tracking). If the desired video engine is not selectable, de-select the current
engine in order to select any other.

To run other video engines, perform the following steps:

1. From Symphony Client, click Server > Configuration to load the Configuration dialog.
This will allow you to configure devices for the currently selected server

2. Select Devices from the left pane.

3. Select the camera you wish to configure for use with video analytics and click Edit.

4. Click the Analytics Engines tab. Un-check whatever is currently checked (default is VE130) and
select the desired video analytic to run on the current camera.

5. Finally, click OK to save settings and continue (to configure the chosen analytics), or click OK to
close dialog (and use the default settings for the chosen analytics).

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How to configure video analytics:

After cameras have been added and analytics have been enabled for cameras, the analytics themselves
need to be configured. The Analytics Configuration dialog allows users to configure the analytics.

1. From Symphony Client, click Server > Configuration to load the Configuration dialog, and
then select Devices from the left pane.

2. Select the camera you wish to configure for use with video analytics and click Edit.

3. Next, click the Analytics Configuration tab to configure the analytics.

Each video analytic may have slightly different configuration options, however there are many
commonalities. Typically Mask, Analysis FPS / Analysis Resolution and Perspective must be set at a
minimum.

Masks

Masks define where Symphony can track objects. Anytime an object is tracked through the scene,
Symphony will colour that portion of the Timeline yellow. By default, the entire scene is covered in the
yellow mask, meaning everything in the field of view of the camera will be analyzed. Symphony has been
designed to work well in dynamic outdoor environments. Rain or snow would not normally result in
Symphony falsely tracking objects. However, in some cases, you may wish to remove certain portions of
the screen from analysis (such as a neighbor's property, or a swaying tree which is causing false alarms).
The Motion Mask dialog allows you to modify where tracking should and should not occur.

Analysis and Resolution

Additional features of the analytic can also be configured. The Analysis FPS field allows you to modify
the frames per second (FPS) that the analytic should analyze. Normally this field should be left at the
default value. It is possible to record at a higher frame rate than what is analyzed by the analytic engine,
to reduce CPU utilization (it is unnecessary to analyze 25 frames per second, for example). The Capture
Resolution text box displays the original video size, while the Analysis Resolution combo box allows
you to specify the image size to be analyzed. To reduce CPU utilization it is common to record at higher
frame rates and resolutions than what the video engine is receiving for analysis

Summary of Video Analytics:

Engine License Required Description


Simple video motion detection which can be used
VE130 Standard indoor/outdoor but does not classify object class and does
not provide good object segmentation capability (which is
required for object counting)
VE140 Standard Camera loss detection
Detects if camera's field of view is obstructed (such as
VE141 Standard spray painting the lens).
Good choice for outdoor applications given its ability to
VE150 Enterprise classify the object type (vehicle/human) and minimize
false alarms caused by shadows, snow, etc.
VE160 Enterprise Designed for indoor environments where primary
application is people counting
VE161 Enterprise Designed for indoor environments where accurate object
segmentation is required for people counting

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No configuration required. Designed for indoor/outdoor
VE250 Enterprise environments and is more accurate than VE130 at
detecting motion, however object counting not as accurate
as VE160/161. This is the default engine when Enterprise
license is used.
VE350 Enterprise Outdoor object removal/left.

PT090 Enterprise Auto PTZ tracking

VE352 Enterprise Indoor object removal/left.

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Aimetis Symphony Functions
Rules
A Rule is user-definable and is responsible for creating Alarms in Symphony. Alarms can occur as a
result of a video event (such as video motion detection) or a signal from another device (such as alarm IO
devices). The Rules Summary dialog lists all the current Rules and allows you to add, edit, delete, disable
and enable each one. To access the Rules Summary dialog, click Server > Configuration and
select the Rules pane.

Events
The first Rule Element to configure is the Event. An Event may comprise of one or more sub-events. For
example, the Event may involve a car stopping and a person loitering within 30 seconds before the Event
is triggered. The Event could also be an input from an Alarm IO device, or VMD detected on a network
camera.
To configure the Event dialog when selecting a camera as an input, complete the following steps:

1. Select a camera to assign to this Rule in the dialog shown below

2. Select which video engine to configure from the select video engine from those running on
camera.

3. Next, define what alarming attributes this rule will have, such as an alarm zone, or class of object
(i.e. people, vehicles). Depending on the video engine, different options will be available.

4. If only one event will be used in the Rule, click Next to continue. If other events are to be
included, click New.

5. Repeat steps 1-3 above. It is possible to pick a different analytic engine for the same camera to
combine the Events in the Rule. Now in the Sub Events dialog you will notice 2 events listed (by
clicking inside the Sub Events dialog and selecting the sub-event, it can be renamed to something more
descriptive).

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6. In the Sub Events must occur section, it is possible to define what order or what period of time
all the sub-events must occur in before the alarm will take place.

7. Click Next to configure the Actions

Caused by Alarm Input

Alarm Inputs include Video Motion Detection (VMD) from network cameras, external IO devices, and
many others. To configure the Events dialog when selecting the IO and Camera Motion Detection as an
input, complete the following steps:

1. Select which Digital I/O Devices (DIO) to assign to this Rule in the dialog shown below

2. Select which Input Number to control, and then define if it should be Activated or Deactivated
to trigger the event.

3. Click Next to configure the Actions.

Actions

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While the Events Element defines what causes an alarm, the Actions Element specifies what Symphony
should do as a result. By default, the Alarm tab is shown.

Alarm Tab
If Raise Alarm checkbox is selected, the Timeline and Alarm Log will reflect an alarm has occurred.
When this is unchecked the opposite is true. However, all other actions specified will still occur. This is
useful in the case of zooming with PTZ cameras since it may be unnecessary to show an alarm every
time the camera automatically zooms. The Record checkbox will ensure video recording for this camera
occurred, even if the default setting for the camera is No Recording as defined in the Device Setup.
Choose a camera is required in cases an alarm IO event has been selected as the event, and here it is
required to define with camera will be associated with this alarm, for the purposes of adding the event to
the camera's Timeline.

Relays

Use this to automatically send an electrical signal to an external device whenever an alarm occurs. This
would be useful if you setup a Rule that detected when cars were stolen and you wanted Symphony to
automatically close a gate or turn on a light. Symphony has been designed to work with alarm relays
to connect via the serial port of the Symphony Server. The Trigger Relay dialog enables you to set if the
relay should be turned on, off, or toggled, and the Relay # field allows you to define which address of the
relay board to control. The Restore state after field allows you to specify how long the relay should be in
its current state before being reset.

FTP
You can specify Symphony to automatically send a jpg to a FTP site after a Rule is broken. The jpg
features and filenames can be configured in this dialog. The filename can be automatically generated
based on the date, time, Rule and camera information using the symbols shown in the FTP tab.
Examples of filename patterns are shown here:

%d 2004_06_30.jpg
%t 14_01_45_050.jpg
%d-%t 2004_06_30-14_01_45_050.jpg
%m-%a-%h 05-30-14.jpg

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%h_%i_%s_%l_%p 14_01_45_050_My_Rule.jpg

Email
In the Email Tab, you can configure Symphony to automatically send email messages whenever an
alarm occurs. You may specify multiple recipients. Each recipient will receive an email with a picture
attached of the event which caused the alarm. Symphony runs its own internal SMTP server, so you do
not need to configure Symphony with another external mail server.
The email will include a hyperlink to the Aimetis Symphony Web Access application that will navigate to
the alarm in question.
The email will also include a hyperlink to the alarm's actual jpg file on the server.

Blackberry

You can configure Symphony to send alerts to Blackberry devices when a Rule is broken. Symphony
sends an email to the Blackberry device which includes a hyperlink. After clicking the hyperlink, it loads a
specially formatted web page for the Blackberry and displays the Alarm information.

TCP

It opens a TCP socket to some IP & port, and sends the specified ASCII message. This is a generic way
to interface with any access control system or other device.

Sounds
In this tab you can configure Symphony to play a pre-recorded sound when a Rule is broken. You can
upload files to Symphony and select which sound file (such as a .wav file) to play when the current Rule
is broken. This might be useful to automatically warn trespassers that the property is under surveillance.

Zoom
The Zoom tab allows you to specify actions for a dome (PTZ) camera after the current Rule Trigger is
detected. By selecting the Zoom radio, the camera will leave its Home Position and automatically zoom
and track the object. If you select the Force a PTZ camera to a location radio, you must specify a
preprogrammed position for the camera to move to. This is useful if you want to create an alarm Rule
where the trigger is a Hardware Alarm input (specified in the Alarm on section). For example, perhaps a
motion detector or even a fixed camera caused an alarm; you could force the PTZ camera to
automatically move to its location for further investigation. This will not work if the Trigger Rule element is
not region specific (such as a Cord Cut alarm).

Instructions
You can bind specific instructions to a Rule. This tells a monitoring agent or operator what to do in case of
alarm. When an alarm occurs it appears in the alarm log of the main console. If the user right clicks on
the alarm in this log, there is an option for viewing the alarm instructions. If there are any instructions set
for the Rule that caused the alarm, it will be shown there. Otherwise the default instructions from the
Server Instructions will be displayed.

Rule
After an alarm occurs, one of the Actions can be to automatically enable or disable other Rules

Schedule
The last Rule Element we define is the Schedule, or time period(s) when this Rule is active. The New
Schedule dialog allows you to specify on a weekly basis when the new Rule should be active or inactive.
You set different alarm schedules for different Rules.
If the Rule is disabled (in the Rules Summary), the schedule is ignored and Actions for that Rule will
not be triggered.

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The alarm schedule is set in 30 minute intervals only. By default, the schedule is completely red (armed).
You can modify this by performing the following steps:

1. Click the Armed or Unarmed radio button, and drag over the alarm schedule to set the schedule.

2. Give the new Schedule a descriptive name in the Name field.

3. Click View Exceptions to set an exception to this weekly schedule. An example might be
holidays.

The Exceptions dialog allows you to set special exceptions to the main weekly schedule.

To set exceptions, mark each half hour increment in red or green. Red means it is armed, green
means it is disarmed.
If a day already has exceptions it will be displayed in bold in the calendar. The current day is
highlighted in blue. Click OK to save your changes, or the X at the top of the form to close it
without saving changes to the current day.

4. Click Next to move to the next dialog in the wizard.

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Camera Tour
By default, each Pan-tilt-Zoom (PTZ) camera has a Home Position, where it is positioned unless a user
manually controls the camera, or if the camera is automatically controlled by Symphony (for more
information on auto control, please see the Rule element Actions). Using the Camera Tour function, the
camera can be configured to have multiple Home Positions. This effectively allows the camera to cover
more area.

To configure a Camera Tour, perform the following:

1. Access the Camera Tour dialog. Select the PTZ camera you wish to configure, and right click on
the live view of the camera and click Camera Tour and then click Edit.
The Camera Tour dialog opens.

3. By default, there is one Camera Tour configuration. It is possible to have multiple Camera Tour
configurations with different tour locations and schedule. Select which Tour to modify.

4. Move the camera to the desired location by using the arrows and the + and - buttons to configure
the zoom level. To save location, click Add Current Live View PTZ Location To The List.

5. By default, Symphony will move the camera between the different Locations every 600 seconds.
To change this value, modify the Pause Time text box.

6. Click Change Motion Mask to modify the Motion Mask for the new Camera Tour location. This
enables you to define where Symphony should track or not track objects. Symphony treats each Camera
Tour location much like a separate camera, since it has its own field of view. As a result, you need to
define the Motion Mask are for each Camera Tour location.

7. Click Change Perspective Settings to modify Perspective information for the new Camera Tour
location (as required, not all video analytic engines require this). As in step 4 above, the Camera
Tour location requires its own Motion Mask and Perspective information (to classify objects
properly).

8. Click Set Schedule for This Tour to define when this Camera Tour is active. Since many Camera
Tours can be configured you may decide to have a Camera Tour sequence that is different during the day
than at night, for example. The Set Schedule for this Tour dialog allows you to configure the Schedule for
this specific Camera Tour. Each Camera Tour can run on a separate schedule.

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Camera Setup/Configuration

Three kinds of device types can be added to Symphony Server.

1. Network (IP) cameras or video servers


2. Analog cameras
3. External I/O Modules

To add or modify devices, click Server > Configuration. The Configuration dialog appears with the
Devices pane by default. Adding and modifying cameras (and configuring their respective video analytic
engines) is explained below

Adding Network Cameras

1. To add a new network camera or video server, click New from the Devices pane. The device
configuration interface opens

On the Network tab, enter the Name you wish to call the camera, URL which is normally the IP Address,
Username and Password and click Connect to Camera to detect the camera type and settings. The
model, resolution, Record FPS and Video Format will be auto-detected. If you wish to manually add the
camera, do not click Connect to Camera but instead manually select the Manufacturer, Camera Type
and set the Resolution, Record FPS and Video Format appropriately. You may also click Discover
Devices to locate devices on the network. The Movability option specifies whether the device will
automatically move to a redundant server under a failover condition. If it is set to movable then this
device can move to another server in the farm during failover. If it is set to unmovable then the device
can't be moved.

Recording Setup

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The Recording section is where video recording is configured and where the Symphony Codec can be
enabled. Enabling the Symphony Codec could be useful in cases where the network camera only records
MJPEG video and Symphony is to recompress the video as MPEG-4. The Record Video combo box
allows users to specify when Symphony should record video on the specific camera.
Options available are:

Always: Symphony will also record video for this specific camera

Schedule: will record video on the schedule specified by the user

Schedule & Tracked will record video on motion but only during the time period specified by the
Motion: user
video is recorded whenever pixel changes are detected (a tree moving in
Pixel Changes: heavy
wind could cause pixel changes and therefore cause Symphony to record
video)
video is recorded if objects are tracked through the scene (normally a person
Tracked Motion: or vehicle moving through the scene is tracked as motion, but moving tree
branches should not be tracked and therefore video would not be recorded)
video is recorded using motion detection capabilities inside network camera
Motion on Camera: itself, not using a video analytic engine from Symphony (quality of motion
detection similar to Pixel Changes)
Schedule & Motion on Same as Motion on Camera option, however recording will occur if motion is
Camera: detected during a specific time interval as defined by user.

Never: video is not recorded, unless specified to be recorded in a Rule

If the network device allows, additional network video streams can be added from the same physical
device. This is useful in the situation where one level of quality of video is defined for recording and
another for live video, for example. To add another video stream for the current network device, click Add
a new Stream. The video recording options available are the same as to what was defined by the default
stream. Further, video resolution can also be defined independently for the additional stream(s).

Finally, the Panoramic Settings section allows users to configure settings related to 360-degree camera

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lenses. Currently Immervision and IPIX 360-degree camera lens technology is supported. By enabling
panoramic technology and selecting the appropriate camera type, users can de-warp 360-degree video in
Symphony Client.

Analytics Engines

By selecting the tab, the individual video engines can be added to the camera. An Enterprise license is
required to enable video engines in the Analytics Engines tab. This step is only necessary if video
analytics are to be configured on this camera.

The default engine is the VE130. Different video (analytic) engines detect different events. When
configuring Rules, the type of analysis available or "Event" is determined by which engine is selected
here. Not all analytic engines can be run in parallel. By selecting the VE250 for example, it will disable
other similar engines (such as VE150 or VE160). If an engine you wish to enable is disabled, try disabling
other engines to allow the selection of the desired engine.

Click Apply to save your settings and move onto the Analytics Configuration tab, or click OK to save
settings and close the dialog without configuring the selected video analytics engines (default
configuration settings will be used).

Video Motion Detection


Overview

The VE130 is a general purpose video motion detection engine and is good choice for static
environments (such as indoors or certain outdoor environments). The VE130 is a good alternative over
camera based motion detection due to its simplified configuration and higher accuracy.

Working Scenarios
The VE130 is a good choice in indoor and simple outdoor environments where only motion is to be
detected and the class of object or object count is not required. Camera position, unlike other video
engines, is not heavily constrained, making VE130 a good general purpose video engine in many
applications. If object counting or dwell time is required, use the VE160 or VE161. For outdoor
environments, use VE150 as shadows, lighting changes, etc will cause VE130 to function inaccurately.

VE130 Analytic Configuration Steps

1. Select Server > Configuration.

2. Select a camera from the Devices branch of the left pane.

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3. In the Analytics Engines tab, select VE130.

4. In the Analytics Configuration tab, select Intel_VE130 from the Analytics Engines combo box.

5. In the Motion Analysis tab, define the area in yellow where objects should be detected. Select the
Erase radio to erase the yellow mask, and select the Draw radio to draw the mask. The Size
slider adjusts the pen thickness.

6. Select the Grid View tab. Normally the default settings and grid spacing is adequate.

7. Click OK to save settings.

Create a Rule using VE130

Configuring the VE130 is required before creating a Rule that uses the VE130. To configure
a Rule using the VE130, follow the steps below:

1. Open Server > Configuration > Rules and click New.

2. Select the camera (if it is a PTZ camera, select the camera tour position).

3. Pick the VE130 from the video engine combo box.

4. Mark the Alarm zone using the Draw and Erase options. The Size slider changes the drawing or
erasing thickness.

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5. Click Next to continue to next step in wizard.

Camera Loss
Overview

The VE140 analytic is designed to detect if video signal loss occurs.

Working Scenarios
It is a good idea to run the VE140 on all cameras. This analytic is environment independent.

VE140 Configuration Steps

1. Add the VE140 Cord Cut analytic to the camera(s) where you wish to detect signal loss (cord cut)
events.

2. No configuration is required for the VE140 from the Analytics Configuration tab.

3. Click Apply to save settings.

4. Create a Rule to alarm on signal loss events.

Create a Rule using VE140

Configuring the VE150 (see above) is required before creating a Rule that uses the VE150. To configure
a Rule using the VE150, follow the steps below:

1. Open Server > Configuration > Rules and click New.

2. Select the camera

3. Pick the VE140 from the video engine combo box. No further configuration is required.

4. Click Next to continue to next step in Rule wizard.

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Camera Obstructed
Overview
The VE141 Camera Obstructed Vide Engine is designed to detect when the field of view is obstructed.
This can occur if the camera has been moved, if the lens is spray painted, or if a large object is placed in
front of the camera.

Working Scenarios
This is a general purpose analytic and should normally run on each camera.

VE141 Configuration Steps


1, Add the VE141 Camera Obstructed analytic to the camera(s) where you wish to detect camera
obstructed events. 1. No configuration is required for the VE141 from the Analytics Configuration tab.

2. Click Apply to save settings.

3. Create a Rule to alarm on camera obstructed events.

Create a Rule using VE141

Configuring the VE150 (see above) is required before creating a Rule that uses the VE150. To configure
a Rule using the VE150, follow the steps below:

1. Open Server > Configuration > Rules and click New.

2. Select the camera

3. Pick the VE141 from the video engine combo box. No further configuration is required.

4. Click Next to continue to next step in Rule wizard.

Searching Video

Symphony provides two methods of searching video: using the Timeline or the Search Tool.
The Timeline is integrated in the main interface of Symphony Client and summarizes a full day's activity.
This is useful if you want an overview of the entire day on the current camera. The Search Tool allows
your to query video for specific events in specific parts of the video.

Search
Search allows you to search recorded video for motion or alarms in specific areas. Symphony will search
based on your criteria and create a mini movie and thumbnails showing the results. For example, you
may search for all activity around a car for the last 24 hours. Symphony will create a video only containing
activity which occurred in the blue highlighted area (which may result in a 5 minute movie, depending on
how much activity was found).

To access the Search dialog, select Search > Search from Symphony Client or click CTRL-F from the
keyboard.

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To perform a search perform the following:

1. From the Analytics Engines section, select the engine. Depending on which engine is selected,
different search options will be available.

2. Using VE130 as an example, select Draw to mark the area of interest for searching. The area in
blue will be searched for activity. To erase the blue area, select Erase. The Size slider adjusts
the size of the brush when marking or unmarking the image. Alternatively, digital fences can be
used as the search criteria. Select Any fence to draw a digital fences. Selecting All fences
denotes that the object must pass through all fence lines to result in resulting search video.

3. Optional: Select the Class of object you wish to search for, such as People, Vehicles or Unknown
objects (unknown objects are objects that were tracked but were not classified as people or
vehicles).

4. Optional: Select the Behavior to filter by, such as loitering.

5. Specify your Search Type. Enter the date and time range. Other Advanced settings:

6. If the Search is being conducted against a PTZ camera, select the Home Position to search in.
Home Positions are configured in the Camera Tour.

7. Click Search to start search. The View Search Results dialog will now open.

View Search Dialog


After you perform a Search or export video using the Save Clip option, the View Search Results Dialog
automatically opens. To manually open this dialog, click Search > View Search Results.

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The View Search Results dialog shows all your previous searches.

There are several operations you can perform on a search result once it is selected from the list:
• To play a search click the Play button in the toolbar. Symphony Player will automatically open
and will play the video of the selected result.

• To delete a search click the Delete button (X) in the toolbar. The corresponding .aira and .mpeg
files will be deleted from the server.

• To save a search to your computer click the Save button in the toolbar. The video will be saved in
.aira format to your PC. You will require Symphony Player to play .aira files.

• To save as an .mpeg format right-click the search from the list and choose the Convert to MPEG
option. This will save it as MPEG4v2 format which can be played in a wide variety of media
players including Microsoft Media Player.

• To email a search result video right-click the search from the list and choose the Email option.
The right pane of the View Search Results window shows snapshots of each event for the currently
selected search. Clicking on a snapshot will force Symphony Client to navigate to that same frame.

Exporting Video

You can export video from the Symphony server two different ways.

1. You can perform a Search and save it to disk from the View Search Results dialog.

2. You can export video by selecting a time period to export using the Save Clip button in the
Toolbar.

Option 1 Using Search


Perform your search in the normal way, right-click a search result from the list, and select either Save to
save in .aira format, or Convert to MPEG to save as .mpeg format.

Option 2 Using Save Clip Button to Export Video

1. Click on the Timeline to the location you wish to begin the export.

2. Click the Save Clip button in the toolbar.

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3. By default it sets up the parameters for a movie clip starting 60 seconds before the timeline
clicked time, until 60 seconds after it.

4. Alter these settings as necessary.

5. Enter the Clip Name and Click Save Clip.

Alternatively,
1. Choose the Pick start time by clicking on timeline radio button, then click on the timeline at the
location you wish to start the export.

2. Choose the Pick end time by clicking on timeline radio button, then click on the timeline at the
location you wish to end the export.

3. Enter the Clip Name and Click Save Clip.

Carousels (Sequence)

Carousels allow you to loop through multiple cameras across multiple servers, pausing on each camera
for a defined period of time. To access Carousels, click Server > Configuration and select Carousels.

Creating or Modifying Carousels


To create a new Carousel, perform the following:

1. From the Carousels menu, click New

2. Give the Carousel a descriptive name in the Sequence Name field

3. Add cameras from the Available Cameras on Servers tree into the Cameras in Current Carousel
tree

4. Note: The same camera can be added multiple times

5. Define a pause time in seconds

6. Click OK to save

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Working with Carousels

Carousels can be accessed from Symphony Client by clicking View > Carousels > select your
Carousel name. Carousels can also be docked directly inside a Multi View by selecting Carousel from
the Multi View navigation bar.

Registering Symphony client

New Symphony Server Registration allows Symphony Client to connect to a Symphony Server over a
network. You need at least one server registered.

Address
Enter the address of the Symphony Server you want to connect to. You can enter the IP address of the
Symphony Server, or the Symphony Dynamic name, which was defined during installation. If the
Symphony Server is running on a nonstandard TCP port, you can suffix the address with a colon followed
by the TCP port number. If you do not suffix with a port, it will try the default port, 50,000.

Name
This is the name that will appear in Symphony Client for this address. This information is not actually
used to connect. Type any descriptive name here.

User
A username with access to connect to the server.

Password
The password that is set up for the User.

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Chapter 4

In this chapter you will learn about:


• Introduction to Access Control systems

• Types of Access Control systems

• Access Control Technologies

• Types of Locks

• New Technologies

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Introduction to Access Control Systems
From the earliest dawn of mankind we have recognized a need to restrict access to our home,
place of business, or any place that is not completely public and welcome to all who would
enter. You could consider that the first access control system was a rock or some other
obstruction placed at the entrance to man's domicile. Doors, bars, locks, fences, gates, or any
number of obstacles to prevent free ingress have been employed throughout time. In today's
world we speak of access control as the system or device that actively grants or denies entry;
usually to a commercial, industrial, or governmental structure. Today's systems usually consist
of electronic locks, keypads, card readers, or biometric devices. Although these systems do
much more than keep the wrong people out, that is still their basic function.

Why do we need it
The need for some type of access control in every building is generally accepted. Consider the
number of buildings that do not have so much as a locking door; very few, if any, such
structures exist in civilized society. The obvious reasons for controlling access - to prevent
unauthorized access of someone that may steal or damage property or harm people - is just the
beginning of the rational that justifies the expense of an access control system. Improving
productivity of employees and limiting exposure to liability are two additional reasons that these
systems are commonly deployed.

Improved Productivity
If employees are restricted to those areas of a building that they need to access in order to
accomplish their purpose for the company will, in many cases, help them be more productive.
You can imagine that if the employees assigned to the shop floor or warehouse have access to
the administrative or accounting areas of the business, productivity in both areas may decrease.
By streamlining the distances between the entry points, work areas, break areas, and rest
facilities you can increase the amount of time spent actually performing the employee's
assigned tasks. A system that limits access to certain areas during certain times of day can
accomplish this streamlining and facilitate the desired affect.

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Principles of Access Control System

There are four processes that make up the foundation of access control.

These processes are:


1. Identification
2. Authentication
3. Authorization
4. Accountability

Regardless of the methods employed to execute these processes, they must always be
included in order to construct a reliable access control system.

Identification

Simply stated, identification is the process by which a person provides information, unique to
himself, as the basis of his request to be granted access.This unique identifier can be generated
and presented in a number of ways, but it's purpose is always the same; it says "this is who I
am and this is how you can tell me from any other individual." This is often a card number or
PIN that has been assigned to a single individual and is recorded in a database

Authentication

The authentication process intends only to determine if the individual requesting access is
telling the truth about who they say they are.

There are four methods of authentication, namely:


• Something you know (PIN)
• Something you have (card)
• Something you are (fingerprint)
• Something you produce (signature)

For higher security applications these methods are often used in a cascading hierarchy.
For example, during normal working hours a building access control system may allow entry
using only an access card (something you have) but after hours the authentication process may
escalate to require both a card and a PIN (something you know). The combination of any two
authentication methods will provide a higher level of security than the use of only one method

Authorization

Authorization can take place after the identification and authentication processes have
determined who you say you are and that you are telling the truth. Authorization is often based
on complex rules. Using parameters such as the time of day, the day of the week, the entry
point in question, and other criteria, the access system will either grant (authorize) access or
deny it.
The ability to input complex and customized rules of authorization is routinely what makes the
difference between a commercially popular or unpopular system.

Accountability

Accountability ensures that a record is kept of what actions were allowed or denied by the
system. It should also record and report how the authorization rules were created and by whom.

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The process of accountability is the adhesive that guarantees all other processes are adhered
to and are compliant with the system's overall objective.
Components of Access Control System

The basic components of any access control system are:

1. Credential
2. Reader or Keypad
3. Locking Device
4. Door Position Switch
5. Request to Exit Device (REX)
6. Controller
7. User Interface (Software

1. Credentials

Credentials are typically the familiar access card but can also include a personal identification
number (PIN) or a biometric such as a finger print, hand geometry, or iris pattern. Whatever
credential is used, it serves as a method by which identification of an individual is presented to
the system for authentication

2. Reader or Keypad

A reader or keypad is used to receive the information presented by the credential. Most
common is the proximity card reader whereby an access card is presented to within a few
inches of the reader so that the reader can read the identification information from the access
card. The identification information, or card number, is sent upstream to the controller for
processing

3. Locking Device

Locking devices are electrified locks, electric strikes, or even electromagnetic devices
All designed to hold a door closed until such time that the controller has authenticated the
identification information presented via the credential and determined that the circumstances
warrant authorization to access a door or gate.

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4. Door position switch

A door position switch keeps the system apprised as to the status, open or closed, of the entry
point at all times. Without this sometimes neglected device the access system will never know if
the door has been propped open.

5. Request-to-exit Device

Request-to-exit devices are used to alert the system to the fact that someone is about to egress
the secured area. This information is necessary to differentiate between a door forced open
alarm condition and a routine egress opening

6. The controller

The controller is the intelligence of the system and all access decisions are made by the
controller. The controller firmware and database make every decision and remember every user
A well designed access system will distribute all intelligence throughout the controllers in the
system such that the system does not rely on the user Interface software for routine operation.

7. User interface (Software)

The user interface is software that is used for human interaction with the access system
Software can include simple set up and reporting commands or very sophisticated graphical
representations of a building with device icons, alarm indications, and even live video feeds.
Regardless of the complexity of the software, its purpose is to allow people to input information,
create authorization rules, and review accountability information about the system.

Copyright Olive Group 2011. All rights reserved. Page 97 of 108


Types of Access Control System
Standalone access control

Standalone systems are ideal for controlling access on one or many independent doors in a
building. Access is gained by using a numeric code, PIN with a keypad, or by presenting a
proximity or magnetic stripe token, depending on the reader type fitted.

These systems are programmed at each door. If tokens need to be barred or codes changed,
this action must be completed at every door on the system.

Typical applications:

1. Small business premises


2. Sports clubs
3. Storage units
4. Any small or medium sized site requiring access control

Standalone systems are great for smaller sites with a relatively small number of users, token
management is simple, and the system can be extended easily as your requirements change.

PC based / Networked access control.

These systems control one or many doors in a building. Access is gained by using a numeric
code, PIN with a keypad, by presenting a proximity or magnetic stripe token, or by 'possession'
with hands free tokens depending on which type of reader fitted. PC based access control offers
central control, via a network.

Instructions given at the PC are sent to each of the doors. A token can be barred from all of the
doors instantly. Flexible control allows you to set up different access permissions for individuals
or groups of users.

Reports may also be generated to track movement, who went where and when. Many systems
allow control of additional buildings via existing LAN/WAN. PC based systems are increasingly
being used to control other services within buildings, for example intruder alarms, fire doors, lifts
and lighting.

Typical applications:

1. Small/medium premises
2. Large corporate premises

Copyright Olive Group 2011. All rights reserved. Page 98 of 108


3. Multiple-site premises
4. Government buildings
5. Universities
6. Sports clubs
7. Car parks

PC based systems are ideal for medium to large sites providing simple management control of
users and large numbers of doors. The system can be extended very easily, and advanced
features such as event reporting and integration with CCTV and other systems make such a
system much more than just a replacement for a bunch of keys.

Copyright Olive Group 2011. All rights reserved. Page 99 of 108


Access control technologies

Magnetic Strip

Magnetic strip technology consists of a ferrite strip affixed to a card.


The strip may have several ‘tracks’ containing binary data to a length
of up to 128 bits. Not all magnetic strips are the same. The properties
of the magnetic strip define things such as; the signal strength of the
encoding of the strip, the ability to resist erasure and the wave shape
of the recording. The magnetic strip is read by physical contact and
swiping past a reading head.

Proximity Card

Proximity Cards have embedded integrated circuits which can


process and store data. A Proximity Card Reader radiates an
electrical field which excites a coil in the card. The coil charges
a capacitor and in turn powers the integrated circuit (microchip).
The microchip then outputs the card number to the coil which
transmits to the reader. The microchip has only one function: to
provide the reader with the card’s identification number. All user
details related to the card number are stored on the Access
Control System’s user database.

Smart Card

Smart Cards have embedded microprocessors with an operating


system that can handle multiple applications such as a cash card,
membership card and access control card.

Smart Cards can be either contact or contactless. Contact smart


cards must be inserted into the reader where contacts on the card
will physically touch contacts on the reader. Contactless smart Contact Smart Card
cards use the same radio-based technology as proximity cards.

Smart Cards have a much larger storage capacity than proximity cards.

Contactless
Smart Card

Copyright Olive Group 2011. All rights reserved. Page 100 of 108
Access cards

Security managers have never had more options for access control cards and other badging and
credentialing applications. Magnetic stripe, Wiegand and proximity technology all remain popular and
effective.

One new technology many security and IT managers are evaluating is contactless smart cards. Just as
proximity technology brought advantages over Wiegand card technology 20 years ago, contactless smart
card technology today is bringing new advantages over proximity for physical access control as well as
other applications.

Benefits of Smart Cards

Whether installing a new or expanding an existing system, or undertaking a major upgrade, there are
several considerations for using contactless smart cards instead of proximity or other access control card
technologies. The following are the most important benefits of contactless smart cards.

• Contactless smart cards achieve a higher security level of the credential and the overall access
control system
• Contactless smart card technology is optimized to provide highly-secure devices by using
cryptography, encryption and the internal computing power of the smart chip.

Access control data in the card may be protected using 64-bit diversified security keys based on a unique
card serial number. This security can be further customized by the end-user with a card programmer.
The reader never transmits this unique card serial number to the control panel, because it is used
exclusively for key diversification and to prevent data collisions when reading several cards at the same
time.

RF data transmission between the cards and readers is encrypted using a secure algorithm so that with
certain contactless technology, the transaction between the card and reader cannot be “sniffed” and
replayed to a reader. By using diversified unique keys and industry standard encryption techniques, the
risk of compromised data or duplicated cards is reduced. Even if an unauthorized person obtains a
reader, without the keys the reader will not authenticate with the card and data will not be transmitted.

Contactless physical access control credentials can carry secure IT applications such as secure logon to
networks, digital signature, and encryption

Contactless smart card memory capacity ranges from 64 to 64k Bytes while proximity card memory
ranges from eight to 256 Bytes (2k bit).

As a result of contactless reading and writing the chances of failure due to wear are very limited. The
technology of the card ensures 100,000 writing cycles and a ten-year data retention under normal
operating conditions. The capability to add other applications to the card is one of the most important
advantages of contactless smart cards over proximity technology

Depending on the amount of memory available and the number of memory areas, contactless smart
cards can serve as multi-application credentials that are used for many purposes. Since the memory can
securely store any kind of information, physical access control credentials based on contactless
technology can be used for just about anything. These application examples may include:

• Biometrics Time and Attendance.


• Secure Authentication Guard Tour Information.
• Health Records Equipment and Material Check-out.
• Transit Passes Loyalty and Membership Programs.
• Digital Cash Lighting and HVAC Control and Billing.
• Information Access Authorized Access to Office Equipment.

Copyright Olive Group 2011. All rights reserved. Page 101 of 108
Advantages over smart cards

Contact smart cards never gained acceptance for use in physical access control systems for these main
reasons:

• A contactless presentation of the card is much more user friendly and convenient for physical access
control.
• With contact smart cards, users must properly orient the card to put the contact in the correct
position, find the opening in the reader, insert the card and leave it there until the end of the
transaction before removing it.
• Contactless smart cards and readers are much more durable in harsh, dirty, or outdoor environments
such as those typically found in access control applications.
• Contactless card transactions are designed to be faster than contact transactions.

Contact smart cards were not optimized for fast transactions, but for very high-security applications like
financial services and debit card PIN protection. Since contactless card were targeting high-throughput
applications like transit fare collection and ticketing, fast transactions were mandatory while still
maintaining high levels of security. For that reason, as contactless technology developed it was
optimized for fast reading and authentication, an advantage in access control systems as well.

Access Control Reader

Card Readers read a credential that allows access through control points. Access control readers
include: magnetic strip readers, proximity readers, smart card readers and a biometric reader. Biometric
readers can be either biometric only or a combination of card and biometrics.

Biometric Reader

Widely used forms of biometric identification include:

• Fingerprint,
• Iris.
• Facial recognition.

Biometrics significantly increases the level of security provided by a system. The readers compare a
template stored in memory to the scan obtained during the process of identification. With biometric only
readers, the templates are stored in the reader itself or on a central database. In comparison a
combined smart card/biometric reader will read the template from the smart card.

Copyright Olive Group 2011. All rights reserved. Page 102 of 108
Facial Recognition

A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person
from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the ways to do this is by comparing
selected facial features from the image and a facial database.

Fingerprint recognition

Fingerprint recognition or fingerprint authentication refers to the automated method of verifying a match
between two human fingerprints. Fingerprints are one of many forms of biometrics used to identify an
individual and verify their identity. A fingerprint sensor is an electronic device used to capture a digital
image of the fingerprint pattern. The captured image is called a live scan. This live scan is digitally
processed to create a biometric template (a collection of extracted features) which is stored and used for
matching. This is an overview of some of the more commonly used fingerprint sensor technologies.

Optical fingerprint imaging involves capturing a digital image of the print using visible light. This type of
sensor is, in essence, a specialized digital camera. The top layer of the sensor, where the finger is
placed, is known as the touch surface. Beneath this layer is a light-emitting phosphor layer which
illuminates the surface of the finger. The light reflected from the finger passes through the phosphor layer
to an array of solid state pixels (a charge-coupled device) which captures a visual image of the fingerprint.
A scratched or dirty touch surface can cause a bad image of the fingerprint. A disadvantage of this type
of sensor is the fact that the imaging capabilities are affected by the quality of skin on the finger. For
instance, a dirty or marked finger is difficult to image properly. Also, it is possible for an individual to
erode the outer layer of skin on the fingertips to the point where the fingerprint is no longer visible.

Retinal Scan

During a retinal scan, the user must stare at a specific point, and hold their head still. A retinal scan is
very difficult to fake because no technology exists that allows the forgery of a human retina, and the retina
of a deceased person decays too fast to be used to fraudulently bypass a retinal scan.

Retinal scanning is part of biometrics, the field of science and engineering which develops ways to
uniquely identify individual persons. The most popular form of biometrics employed today is of course the
fingerprint, though the error rate for fingerprint identification is sometimes as high as 1 in 500. A retinal
scan, on the other hand, boasts an error rate of 1 in 10,000,000. Its close cousin, the iris scan, is slightly
less precise, maintaining an error rate of approximately 1 in 131,000.

Traditionally used to block physical gateways, such as those guarding the cores of power plants or
military installations, the retinal scan has been employed in recent times to safeguard critical computers
and their data. The retinal scan retails at a low price, making it affordable to anyone wanting to maintain
high levels of security. Furthermore, it is probably the most accurate biometric available, far surpassing
the fingerprint in both reliability and accuracy.

Copyright Olive Group 2011. All rights reserved. Page 103 of 108
Types of lock
The lock originated in the Middle East; the oldest known example was found near Nineveh. Possibly
4,000 years old, it is of the pin tumbler type, otherwise known as an Egyptian lock. The Romans were the
first to use metal locks and to make small keys for them. They also invented wards, projections in the
keyhole that prevent a key from turning unless it has slots that avoid the projections. Probably the most
familiar lock today is the cylinder lock, a pin tumbler lock opened by a flat key with a serrated edge; the
serrations raise pins in the cylinder to the proper heights, allowing the cylinder to turn. Also common are
the unit lock, housed within a rectangular notch cut into the edge of a door, and the mortise lock, housed
in a mortise cut into the door edge, the lock mechanism being covered on both sides. Electronic locks that
open with a magnetic card key are popular for banks, hotel rooms, and offices.

Mortise lock

The two main parts of a mortise lock. Left: the lock body, installed in the thickness of a door.
This one has two bolts: a sprung latch at the top, and a locking bolt at the bottom. Right: the box
keep, installed in the door jamb.

A mortise lock is one that requires a pocket—the mortise—to be cut into the door or piece of
furniture into which the lock is to be fitted. In most parts of the world, mortise locks are generally
found on older buildings constructed before the advent of bored cylindrical locks, but they have
recently become more common in commercial and upmarket residential construction.

The parts included in the typical mortise lock installation are the lock body (the part installed
inside the mortise cut-out in the door); the lock trim (which may be selected from any number of
designs of doorknobs, levers, handle sets and pulls); a strike plate, or a box keep, which lines
the hole in the frame into which the bolt fits; and the keyed cylinder which operates the
locking/unlocking function of the lock body. However, in most other countries, mortise locks on
dwellings do not use cylinders, but have lever mechanisms.

Mechanical Locks

There are two basic types of mechanical locks, each with variations. The oldest and simplest is the
warded lock, which is essentially a spring-loaded bolt in which a notch has been cut. The key fits into the
notch and slides the bolt backward and forward. The lock takes its name from the fixed projections, or
wards, inside the lock and around the keyhole. The correct key has notches cut into it that match the
wards, which block the wrong key from operating the lock. The ward lock is the easiest to pick and now is
used only for cheap padlocks.

The tumbler lock contains one or more pieces of metal (called tumblers, levers, or latches) that fall into a
slot in the bolt and prevent it being moved. The proper key has serrations that raise the metal pieces to
the correct height above the slot, allowing the bolt to slide. There are three types of tumbler locks, pin-

Copyright Olive Group 2011. All rights reserved. Page 104 of 108
tumbler, disk-tumbler, and lever-tumbler. Pin-tumbler locks are the most common. The tumblers in this
type of lock are small pins. The modern door lock is a compact pin-tumbler cylinder lock of the type
developed (1860) by the American inventor Linus Yale. Door locks on automobiles and most high-security
locks have pin tumblers. Disk- or wafer-tumbler locks, use flat disks, or wafers, instead of pins. When the
proper key is inserted, the disks retract, releasing the bolt. Disk-tumbler locks are often used in desks and
file cabinets. Lever-tumbler locks employ a series of different-sized levers resting on a bolt pin to prevent
the bolt from moving. When the proper key is inserted, all the levers are raised to the same height,
enabling the bolt pin to release the bolt. Lever-tumbler locks are often used in briefcases, safe-deposit
boxes, and lockers.

Electric and Magnetic Locks

Recent lock developments include the magnetic-key lock, in which the pins are actuated by small
magnets on the key, which has no serrations. When the key is inserted into the lock, these magnets repel
magnetized spring-loaded pins, raising them in the same way that the serrations on a tumbler-type key
would. The card-key lock is actuated by a series of magnetic charges; the card-key is popular where
security is vital, because a new series may be electronically defined for each new user, without having to
change the lock itself. Similarly, electronic card access systems are used in many hotels and office
buildings.

In an electromagnetic lock a metal plate is attached to the door and an electromagnet is attached to the
doorframe opposite the plate. When the current flows, the electromagnet attracts the plate, holding the
door closed, When the flow of current is stopped, the door unlocks. A variation places the plate and
electromagnet so that the door is held open when current flows, enabling the door to be closed
automatically when the current stops.

Keyless entry systems, which are common in motor vehicles, rely on a keychain fob that contains a
remote-control unit consisting of an integrated circuit and a radio transmitter. The fob sends a low-
powered radio signal to a receiver in the motor vehicle, and, if the received code is the correct one, the
receiver in the vehicle relays the signal to a microprocessor, which opens the lock. The acceptance of
such entry systems has led to devices that allow additional functions within the vehicle to be activated
remotely.

Copyright Olive Group 2011. All rights reserved. Page 105 of 108
New Technologies
Millimetre-wave

Millimetre-waves lie in the spectral region between radio waves and infrared. This band possesses a
unique property of passing transparently through lightweight materials such as clothing fabrics. Millimetre-
wave imagers have evolved over the past 50 years to live video-like images for use as advanced people
screening portals.
Recently developed is the imager that is suitable for mass people screening.

Millimetre-wave Portals

Takes about 2 seconds. The rest of the time is spent for the screener to observe the resultant
pictures and make a judgment.

Disadvantages - False alarm rates are very high (about 50%) mainly due to people not understanding
that they should empty their pockets completely.

Another problem is the visibility of human genitalia on the images. Even though the face is completely
obscured, the remaining visible genitalia evoke objections in certain areas of the world (mainly Middle
East). This can be solved through software modifications.

Passive Millimetre-wave “Open Space” screening machines do exist.

Raman Spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy is a technique that identifies unknown chemicals by recording how they scatter
laser light into distinct frequencies. Key advantage is its ability to penetrate glass and plastic containers to
identify potentially dangerous unknown substances. Extensive Raman libraries allow chemicals to be
identified on the basis of their distinct molecular fingerprint.

Copyright Olive Group 2011. All rights reserved. Page 106 of 108
X-Ray Technology

Modern X-ray inspection units unite the benefits of scanning with state-of-the art image processing. Data
gathered by ultra-sensitive detectors is digitally stored. The detailed and high-contrast image is shown on
a colour monitor.

HI-MAT

The HI-MAT feature allows colour representation unlike the pseudo colour representation, which simply
changes gray values into colours. HI-MAT offers the advantage of an improved detection of items inside a
piece of luggage due to its colour representation as compared to other systems or to the black and white
representation.

Copyright Olive Group 2011. All rights reserved. Page 107 of 108
HI-SPOT

HI-SPOT illuminates dark image areas; it automatically detects sections of high absorption. The detected
area is analyzed by means of special enhancement filter software and then locally illuminated.

HI-SPOT allows an automatic evaluation of dense areas. It works online and in real time without loss of
evaluation time for the operator. HI-SPOT does not require any operator manipulation or stopping of
baggage flow. It allows automated conveyor stops in case of detection of suspicious areas. It also
improves the detection of objects in high absorption areas without deteriorating the image quality of lower
absorption image sections.

Copyright Olive Group 2011. All rights reserved. Page 108 of 108