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THE EFFECT OF TiO 2 PARTICLE TO THE CO DUCTIVITY OF POLYTHIOPHE E THI FILM

N.F.A. JAMAR and E.A.Ghapur

Department of Physical Sciences, Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia

ABSTRACT

This work focused on the study of electrical conductivity of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and Polythiophene (PT) thin film on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) subtract. The layered of TiO 2 and PT thin films with ratio 1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 5:1 and 10:1 was deposited on the ITO subtract by using spin coating technique. TiO 2 solution with 3 different pH (pH 2, pH 7 and pH 12) was prepared by using electrochemical method to produce TiO 2 particle. Structure and morpholology of TiO 2 particle have been studied using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The result shows TiO 2 particle showed like plain surface for TiO 2 particle with pH 2, while spherical particle were observed in TiO 2 particles with pH 7 and rod like particle obtained for TiO 2 particle with pH 12. From XRD, its shows that all of this TiO 2 particles exhibit anatase phase. TiO 2 particle with pH 12 was used as a layer on the thin film. The optical absorption of thin film was obtained from the UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The lowest energy gap is TiO 2 :PT thin film at the ratio 5:1 which is 3.19eV. The electrical conductivity of the thin films was measured by using four point probes under dark and also under different light intensity (10, 30, 50, 80 and 100 Wm -2 ). Electrical conductivity under intensity of light shows that thin films with ratio 1:5 has the highest intensity of light that is 0.337Sm -1 .

Keywords: Solar cell, Organic semiconductor, Titanium dioxide, Shape of particle.

I TRODUCTIO

Currently, many solar cells in the world made from an inorganic crystalline silicon (c-Si) which is the most dominant technology among all the photovoltaic (PV) technologies, but c-Si is encumbered by both high cost and energy consuming production. The current cost of producing energy using this c-Si solar cells is ~$0.25 to $0.30 per kWhr . Moreover the current cost of electrical energy from power companies is ~ $0.03 to $0.05 per kWhr. Clearly, the world needs to seek alternative materials if solar cells are to become an economically viable source of energy. This fact has lead people towards the exploration of inexpensive materials such as organic semiconductors or conjugated polymers [1]. The advantage of the organic semiconductors compare to inorganic semiconductors is that they provide ease of processing, low cost, physical flexibility and large area coverage. Beside that organic semiconductor have very short excitons diffusion lengths. Excitons formation is an important intermediate solar energy conversion and photodetection process where excitons are separate into electrons and holes at the interface to create a photocurrent [1]. According to most studies, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is one of the most popular photocatalyst. It’s

able to photocatalyze many organic substance under UV irradiation. This TiO 2 is a candidate for use in organic-inorganic photovoltaics devices since it is nontoxic, low-cost and higher chemical stability [2].

The main objective of this work was to prepare TiO 2 solution with pH 2, pH 7 and pH 12 by chemistry material and prepared thin film by spin coating technique which the thin film was prepared using the TiO 2 solution with chosen pH and to characterize the electrical conductivity and optical properties of the couples.

EXPERIME TAL METHOD

3.1 Sample Preparation In the sample preparation stage, A volume of 450 ml deionized water was used as a solvent for synthesis and its pH was adjusted with HNO 3 or HCl to the desired final pH (pH 2, pH 7 and pH 12). The solution was cooled to 4-6 0 C in an ice bath. Then 4.5 ml titanium isopropoxide (Ti[OCH(CH 3 ) 2 ] 4 ) was slowly dripped into the 45 ml ethanol undergoing magnetic stirring. This 4.5 ml titanium isopropoxide and 45 ml ethanol then was slowly dripped into the solvent undergoing magnetic stirring. The mixed solution was then filtered. The sol gel obtained then burned for four hour at 300 0 C until it becomes white powder. The white powder then was characterized by SEM to determine it morphology and XRD for it phase identification. The particle with good morphology was being chosen as a particle to coat on the thin film. PT solution was prepared by dissolve 3-hexythiophene with 500 ml chloroform. Indium tin oxide (ITO) was cleaned using by ultrasonic bath Model 9333-1 before used as a thin film subtract. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and Polythiophene (PT) thin film was prepared using Spin Coater Model WS-400B-6NPP-LITE. Solution of TiO 2 particle and PT was coated onto the glass slide with 4 stages of spin that is 500 rpm for 10 s, 1000 rpm for 15 s, 1500 rpm for 20 s and 2000 rpm for 30 s to complete one cycle and repeated for 5 cycles to complete one layer. Thin film was prepared for 5 different ratio of TiO 2 : PT layered (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 5:1 and

10:1).

The sample was studied using V-Visible spectrophotometer model Lambda 25 with UV Winlab V2.85 software, Perkim Elmer to measure it energy gap and four point probe instruments system consists of the Jandel Universal Probe combined with a Jandel RM3 Test Unit to measure the electrical conductivity of thin film.

RESULTS A D DISCUSSIO The powder that obtained from three different pH TiO 2 solutions showed three aspect ratio of stage as showed in Figure 1. Figure 1(a), TiO 2 particles with pH 2 showed like a plain surface. Figure 1(b) TiO 2 particles with pH 7 shows spherical particles and for Figure 1(c) TiO 2 particle with pH 12 shows rod like particle. Rod like particle has a greater surface area which can increase the photocatalytic activity performance. The large surface area contribution to the excellent activity because it can absorb more oxygen and molecular water [3]. These results suggested that TiO 2 particle with pH 12 have the best photocatalytic performance.

with pH 12 have the best photocatalytic performance. Figure 1(a) TiO 2 particles with pH 2
with pH 12 have the best photocatalytic performance. Figure 1(a) TiO 2 particles with pH 2
Figure 1(c) TiO 2 particles with pH 12 The structural of XRD powder was determined

Figure 1(c) TiO 2 particles with pH 12

The structural of XRD powder was determined by using XRD. Based on the result it indicates that TiO 2 prepared by controller hydrolysis process exits in an anatase phase. Meanwhile the diffraction peak becomes sharper and sharper with the increase of pH. It indicates that the crystallization degree of anatase TiO 2 becomes better and better with the increase of pH. Figure 2(a) showed the TiO 2 with pH 2. Figure 2(b) showed the TiO 2 with pH 7 and Figure 2(c) showed the TiO 2 with pH 12. Figure 2(a) indicate the sample exhibits the rutile to anatase phase. The XRD pattern of TiO 2 particles give two distinctive peaks at 8.86 o and 47.66 o , corresponding to rutile (040) and anatase (200) crystal plane [4]. Figure 2(b) indicate the sample exhibits anatase phase. The XRD pattern of TiO 2 particles give four distinctive peaks at 25.34 o , 37.4 o , 47.62 o and 53.56 o corresponding to anatase (101), (103), (200) and (211) crystal plane [4]. Figure 2(c) indicate the sample exhibits anatase phase. The XRD pattern of TiO 2 particles give five distinctive peaks at 25.3 o , 37.84 o , 47.66 o , 54.12 o and 62.36 o corresponding to anatase (101), (004), (200), (211) and (204) crystal plane [4]. TiO 2 pH12 shows the sharper peak showing that this sample has higher crystalline structure.

showing that this sample has higher crystalline structure. Figure 2 (a) XRD images for TiO 2

Figure 2 (a) XRD images for TiO 2 pH 2

structure. Figure 2 (a) XRD images for TiO 2 pH 2 Figure 2(b) XRD images of

Figure 2(b) XRD images of TiO 2 pH 7

2 (a) XRD images for TiO 2 pH 2 Figure 2(b) XRD images of TiO 2

Figure 2(C) XRD images for TiO 2 pH 12

Figure 3 exhibits UV-Vis spectrum of prepared TiO 2 particles obtained from TiO 2 particle with pH 12 for 5 ratio of layered TiO 2 and PT (TiO 2 : PT = 1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 5:1 and 10:1). From Figure 3, its shows that when the layered for TiO 2 /PT is increased, the wavelength also increasing. TiO 2 :PT thin film at the ratio 5:1 shows the lowest energy band gap which is 3.19eV showing that ratio 5:1 is the best photocatalyst.

is 3.19eV showing that ratio 5:1 is the best photocatalyst. Figure 3 UV-Vis images for 5

Figure 3 UV-Vis images for 5 ratio of layered TiO 2 and PT

Electrical conductivity characterization of thin film was tested by using four point probe. Two different conditions have been observed in order to verify the thin film as solar cell that is in the dark (Figure 4(a)) and under light intensity (Figure 4(b)). PT fixed indicated that one layer PT while TiO 2 fixed indicated that one layer TiO 2. The electrical conductivity is increased as the TiO 2 /PT increased from one to five layers. The highest peak for electrical conductivity for PT fixed is 0.9894 Sm -1 while for TiO 2 fixed the highest electrical conductivity is 0.9889 Sm -1 . The graph also shows the decreasing of electrical conductivity starting from five to ten layers of TiO 2 /PT due to the no physical contact of the TiO 2 to the PT because its already reach the optimum level so its act as insulator. The excitons dissociate and separate successfully at the interface of PT (donor) and TiO 2 (acceptor). Figure 4(b) shows that the electrical conductivity for five different ratio of layered TiO 2 : PT. electrical conductivity is increase with the increasing of the light intensity. Ratio of 1:5 shows the good performance since it have the higher electrical conductivity compared to the others layers that is 0.337Sm -1 .

compared to the others layers that is 0.337Sm - 1 . Figure 4(a) Images of electrical

Figure 4(a) Images of electrical conductivity in the dark

. Figure 4(a) Images of electrical conductivity in the dark Figure 4(b) Images of electrical conductivity

Figure 4(b) Images of electrical conductivity under intensity of light

CO CLUSIO In conclusion, Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and polythiophene (PT) thin film were prepared. TiO 2 solution with 3 different pH (pH 2, pH 7 and pH 12) was prepared by using electrochemical method to produce TiO 2 particle.The layered of TiO 2 and PT thin films with ratio 1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 5:1 and 10:1 was deposited on the ITO subtract. SEM images shows that the aspect ratio of shape can be controlled by addition of appropriate amount of nitric acid, HNO 3 or Hydrogen chloride, HCl. XRD pattern indicate that TiO 2 prepared by controller hydrolysis process exits in an anatase phase. TiO 2 with pH 12 shows the sharper peak and it indicates that TiO 2 particle with pH 12 has a good crystallization degree of anatase. optical characterization was explored. UV-Vis absorption revealed that TiO 2 : PT thin films with the ratio of 5:1 have the lowest energy band gap that is 3.19eV. Electrical conductivity in the dark shows that thin film at ratio 5:1 has the highest electrical conductivity that is 0.9894Sm -1 . Electrical conductivity under intensity of light shows that thin films with ratio 1:5 has the highest intensity of light that is 0.337Sm -1 at the intensity of 100Wm -2 . In conclusion, TiO 2 : PT thin film at the ratio 5:1 shows the suitable ratio to generate a solar cell.

ACK OWLEDGEME T The authors would like to thank Physical Sciences Department & INOS of University Malaysia Terengganu for the helps and support of this work.

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[3] Zhang, C., Chen, R., Zhou, J., Cheng, J.H. & Xia, Q. 2009. Synthesis of TiO 2 films on glass slides by the sol-gel method and their photo-catalytic activity. Rare Metals. (28): 378.

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