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Brill’s Encyclopedia of Buddhism

Volume II:
Lives

Editor-in-chief
Jonathan A. Silk

Editors
Richard Bowring
Vincent Eltschinger
Michael Radich

Editorial Advisory Board


Lucia Dolce
Berthe Jansen
John Jorgensen
Christian Lammerts
Francesco Sferra

LEIDEN | BOSTON

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Contents

Prelims
Contributors ............................................................................................................................................................. xi
Editors and Editorial Board .................................................................................................................................. xxxiii
Primary Sources Abbreviations........................................................................................................................... xxxv
Books Series and Journals Abbreviations ......................................................................................................... xxxvii
General Abbreviations .......................................................................................................................................... xlii
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................. xliv

Section One:
Śākyamuni: South Asia .......................................................................................................................................... 3
Barlaam and Josaphat ............................................................................................................................................ 39

Section Two:

South & Southeast Asia:


Ajātaśatru .................................................................................................................................................................. 51
Āryadeva.................................................................................................................................................................... 60
Āryaśūra..................................................................................................................................................................... 70
Asaṅga/Maitreya(nātha)....................................................................................................................................... 73
Bhāviveka .................................................................................................................................................................. 81
Brahmā, Śakra, and Māra ...................................................................................................................................... 85
Buddhaghoṣa............................................................................................................................................................ 92
Buddhas of the Past: South Asia ......................................................................................................................... 95
Buddhas of the Past and of the Future: Southeast Asia ............................................................................... 109
Candragomin ........................................................................................................................................................... 121
Candrakīrti................................................................................................................................................................ 125
Ḍākinī ......................................................................................................................................................................... 132
Devadatta .................................................................................................................................................................. 141
Dharmakīrti .............................................................................................................................................................. 156
Dharmapāla .............................................................................................................................................................. 168
Dharmottara............................................................................................................................................................. 173
Dignāga ...................................................................................................................................................................... 179
Early Sarvāstivāda Masters ................................................................................................................................... 186
Gavampati in Southeast Asia ............................................................................................................................... 191
Gopadatta ................................................................................................................................................................. 196
Guṇaprabha.............................................................................................................................................................. 198
Haribhadra................................................................................................................................................................ 204
Haribhaṭṭa ................................................................................................................................................................. 209
Harivarman............................................................................................................................................................... 211
Harṣa .......................................................................................................................................................................... 214
Hayagrīva................................................................................................................................................................... 218
Indian Tantric Authors: Overview ...................................................................................................................... 228
Jñānagarbha ............................................................................................................................................................. 261
Jñānapāda ................................................................................................................................................................. 264

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vi Contents

Jñānaśrīmitra ........................................................................................................................................................... 269


Kamalaśīla ................................................................................................................................................................ 272
Karuṇāmaya ............................................................................................................................................................. 279
Kṣemendra ................................................................................................................................................................ 286
Kumāralāta ............................................................................................................................................................... 293
Mahādeva.................................................................................................................................................................. 298
Maitreya..................................................................................................................................................................... 302
Mārīcī ......................................................................................................................................................................... 325
Mātṛceṭa .................................................................................................................................................................... 332
Nāgārjuna .................................................................................................................................................................. 335
Paccekabuddhas/Pratyekabuddhas in Indic Sources ................................................................................... 348
Phra Malai in Thailand and Southeast Asia..................................................................................................... 357
Prajñākaragupta ...................................................................................................................................................... 363
Ratnākaraśānti......................................................................................................................................................... 366
Ratnakīrti .................................................................................................................................................................. 371
Saṅghabhadra .......................................................................................................................................................... 374
Śaṅkaranandana ..................................................................................................................................................... 378
Śaṅkarasvāmin ........................................................................................................................................................ 382
Śāntarakṣita .............................................................................................................................................................. 383
Śāntideva ................................................................................................................................................................... 391
Sarasvatī/Benzaiten................................................................................................................................................ 398
Śāriputra .................................................................................................................................................................... 409
Scholars of Premodern Pali Buddhism ............................................................................................................. 420
Seers (ṛṣi/isi) and Brāhmaṇas in Southeast Asia ............................................................................................ 437
Siddhas....................................................................................................................................................................... 443
Śrīlāta ......................................................................................................................................................................... 452
Sthiramati ................................................................................................................................................................. 456
Śubhagupta............................................................................................................................................................... 458
Tantric Buddhist Deities in Southeast Asia ..................................................................................................... 463
Thera/Therī in Pali and Southeast Asian Buddhism ..................................................................................... 474
Udbhaṭasiddhasvāmin .......................................................................................................................................... 479
Upagupta ................................................................................................................................................................... 481
Vāgīśvarakīrti ........................................................................................................................................................... 490
Vasubandhu .............................................................................................................................................................. 492
Vināyaka .................................................................................................................................................................... 507
Yama and Hell Beings in Indian Buddhism ..................................................................................................... 513

East Asia:
Ākāśagarbha in East Asia ...................................................................................................................................... 521
Arhats in East Asian Buddhism .......................................................................................................................... 529
Aśvaghoṣa (East Asian Aspects) ......................................................................................................................... 540
Avalokiteśvara in East Asia................................................................................................................................... 546
Dizang/Jizō ............................................................................................................................................................... 562
Jianzhen (Ganjin) ................................................................................................................................................... 571
Mahākāla in East Asia............................................................................................................................................ 576
Mahākāśyapa in Chan-inspired Traditions...................................................................................................... 586
Mañjuśrī in East Asia ............................................................................................................................................. 591
Maudgalyāyana (Mulian)...................................................................................................................................... 600
Musang (Wuxiang) ................................................................................................................................................. 608
Tejaprabhā ................................................................................................................................................................ 612
Yinyuan Longqi (Ingen) ........................................................................................................................................ 616

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Contents vii

China:
Amoghavajra ............................................................................................................................................................ 623
An Shigao .................................................................................................................................................................. 630
Chengguan ................................................................................................................................................................ 642
Daoxuan .................................................................................................................................................................... 648
Falin ............................................................................................................................................................................ 653
Faxian ......................................................................................................................................................................... 657
Fazun .......................................................................................................................................................................... 662
Hanshan Deqing ..................................................................................................................................................... 668
Hongzhi Zhengjue .................................................................................................................................................. 673
Huihong (see Juefan Huihong)
Huineng (see Shenxiu)
Huiyuan (see Lushan Huiyuan)
Jigong.......................................................................................................................................................................... 679
Juefan Huihong ....................................................................................................................................................... 684
Liang Wudi................................................................................................................................................................ 689
Lokakṣema ................................................................................................................................................................ 700
Luo Qing .................................................................................................................................................................... 707
Lushan Huiyuan ...................................................................................................................................................... 711
Mazu Daoyi............................................................................................................................................................... 722
Mingben (see Zhongfeng Mingben)
Nāgārjuna in China ................................................................................................................................................ 727
Nenghai...................................................................................................................................................................... 735
Ouyang Jingwu ........................................................................................................................................................ 741
Ouyi Zhixu ................................................................................................................................................................ 748
Paramārtha ............................................................................................................................................................... 752
Qian Qianyi............................................................................................................................................................... 759
Qisong ........................................................................................................................................................................ 764
Shenhui (see Shenxiu)
Shenxiu, Huineng, and Shenhui ......................................................................................................................... 768
Śubhākarasiṃha...................................................................................................................................................... 777
Wumen ...................................................................................................................................................................... 782
Wuxiang (see East Asia: Musang)
Wuzhu ........................................................................................................................................................................ 787
Xiao Ziliang............................................................................................................................................................... 791
Yinshun...................................................................................................................................................................... 795
Yixing ......................................................................................................................................................................... 800
Yuan Hongdao ......................................................................................................................................................... 806
Yuanwu Keqin .......................................................................................................................................................... 810
Zhanran ..................................................................................................................................................................... 814
Zhi Qian ..................................................................................................................................................................... 818
Zhili............................................................................................................................................................................. 826
Zhixu (see Ouyang Zhixu)
Zhiyi............................................................................................................................................................................ 833
Zhongfeng Mingben............................................................................................................................................... 839
Zhuhong .................................................................................................................................................................... 844

Korea:
Chinul......................................................................................................................................................................... 853
Hyujŏng ..................................................................................................................................................................... 860
Ich’adon ..................................................................................................................................................................... 864

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viii Contents

Kihwa ......................................................................................................................................................................... 869


Kim Sisŭp .................................................................................................................................................................. 873
Kyŏnghŏ..................................................................................................................................................................... 877
Kyunyŏ ....................................................................................................................................................................... 882
Muhak Chach’o ........................................................................................................................................................ 887
Musang (see East Asia)
Pou .............................................................................................................................................................................. 891
Tosŏn .......................................................................................................................................................................... 895
Ŭich’ŏn ....................................................................................................................................................................... 900
Ŭisang ........................................................................................................................................................................ 903
Wŏnch’ŭk .................................................................................................................................................................. 908
Wŏnhyo...................................................................................................................................................................... 913
Yi Nŭnghwa .............................................................................................................................................................. 918

Japan:
Amaterasu Ōmikami .............................................................................................................................................. 923
Annen......................................................................................................................................................................... 930
Benzaiten (see South and Southeast Asia: Sarasvatī)
Dōgen ......................................................................................................................................................................... 933
Dōhan......................................................................................................................................................................... 941
Eisai (see Yōsai)
Eison ........................................................................................................................................................................... 944
En no Gyōja .............................................................................................................................................................. 951
Enchin ........................................................................................................................................................................ 956
Ennin .......................................................................................................................................................................... 961
Ganjin (see East Asia: Jianzhen)
Genshin ..................................................................................................................................................................... 967
Hachiman ................................................................................................................................................................. 971
Hakuin ....................................................................................................................................................................... 976
Hōnen ........................................................................................................................................................................ 980
Ikkyū Sōjun ............................................................................................................................................................... 987
Ingen (see East Asia: Yinyuan Longqi)
Ippen Chishin .......................................................................................................................................................... 991
Jakushō ...................................................................................................................................................................... 995
Jiun Sonja .................................................................................................................................................................. 998
Jizō (see East Asia: Dizang)
Jōjin............................................................................................................................................................................. 1002
Jōkei ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1006
Kakuban .................................................................................................................................................................... 1011
Keizan Jōkin ............................................................................................................................................................. 1016
Kōmyō ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1020
Kūkai .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1026
Kūya ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1036
Menzan Zuihō ......................................................................................................................................................... 1041
Monkan ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1047
Mugai Nyodai ........................................................................................................................................................... 1057
Mujaku Dōchū ......................................................................................................................................................... 1062
Musō Soseki .............................................................................................................................................................. 1066
Myōe ........................................................................................................................................................................... 1071
Nichiren ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1076
Nōnin.......................................................................................................................................................................... 1088

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Contents ix
Raiyu........................................................................................................................................................................... 1094
Ryōgen........................................................................................................................................................................ 1097
Saichō ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1102
Saigyō ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1107
Shinran....................................................................................................................................................................... 1111
Shōtoku Taishi ......................................................................................................................................................... 1117
Tenjin ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1122
Tenkai ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1128
Yōsai/Eisai ................................................................................................................................................................. 1134
Zaō .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1139

Tibetan Cultural Sphere


Atiśa and the Bka’ gdams pa Masters ................................................................................................................ 1145
Ge sar of Gling ......................................................................................................................................................... 1159
Gter ston: Tibetan Buddhist Treasure Revealers ............................................................................................. 1165
Gtsang smyon Heruka ........................................................................................................................................... 1171
Lcang skya Rol pa’i Rdo rje ................................................................................................................................... 1175
Mi la ras pa................................................................................................................................................................ 1181
The Mongolian Jebdzundamba Khutugtu Lineage ....................................................................................... 1191
Padmasambhava in Tibetan Buddhism ............................................................................................................ 1197
The Sa skya School’s Five Forefathers................................................................................................................ 1213
Spirits of the Soil, Land, and Locality in Tibet ................................................................................................ 1226
Ston pa Gshen rab: The Bön Buddha ................................................................................................................. 1233
Tibet's Crazy Yogins ................................................................................................................................................ 1239
Tsong kha pa and his Immediate Successors .................................................................................................. 1246
Worldly Protector Deities in Tibet ..................................................................................................................... 1254

Appendix To Volume I:
Buddhist Narrative Literature in Japan ............................................................................................................. 1269
Poetry: Japan ............................................................................................................................................................ 1286
Korean Sŏn Literature............................................................................................................................................ 1294

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Zhanran

The Life process of which many Buddhist institutions suf-


fered considerable depredation, which posed a
The earliest extant biographical reference to the particular threat for those traditions that relied
scholar-monk Zhanran (湛然; 711–782) is in the on textual transmission. Like many, Zhanran was
Naishō buppō sōjō kechimyaku fu (内證佛法相承血 forced to travel to avoid the worst of the destruc-
脈譜; DDZ, vol. I, 199–248) of 819, a work written by tion. The picture is a little confused, but in 755, for
the Japanese monk →Saichō (最澄; 767–822) in an example, we find him in Lin’an (臨安; Zhejiang
attempt to prove the orthodoxy of various transmis- province), where it is thought he produced the first
sions he had obtained in China. As ever, it tells us draft of what was to become his magnum opus, the
little: “the star pupil of Zuoxi (左溪, Xuanlang [玄 Zhiguan fuxing chuanhong jue (止觀輔行傳弘決; A
朗])…whose behavior, understanding, awakening, Resolution to Assist and Promote the Practice of
and eloquence were beyond compare” (DDZ, vol. I, “Concentration and Insight,” T. 1912). The biographi-
227). The next source is the Song Gaoseng zhuan (宋 cal note in the 13th-century Fozu tongji (佛祖統
高僧傳; T. 2061 [L] 739b10–740a17) of 988, followed 記) suggests that during this period, Zhanran was
by numerous Tiantai (天台) sectarian histories that invited to court as many as three times under three
date from the 13th century (see Penkower, 1993, successive emperors, all of which he managed to
20–21 for a list). Not being of high official rank, turn down on grounds of ill health (T. 2035 [XLIX]
Zhanran does not appear in any of the dynastic 189a7). The next year finds him revising the manu-
histories, but he is now treated as one of the most script of the Zhiguan fuxing chuanhong jue at the
revered of Tiantai (天台) masters (the most recent Guoqing si (國清寺) on Mount Tiantai. From 758 to
detailed biography is Chi, 2008, 7–102). 762 it is likely that he was back near his hometown
A native of Jingxi (荊溪) in present-day Chang- of Jingxi in the area of Biling (毘陵) (Hibi, 1966, 18)
zhou (常州), Jiangsu (江蘇) province, Zhanran and in 764, he arrived at Folong (佛隴) on Mount
received an excellent Confucian education, but Tiantai. It was during this period that the first
from the age of eighteen he turned to Buddhism, drafts of many of his commentaries (both full and
first under the guidance of a Fangyan (方嚴; d.u.) abridged) were written.
at Jinhua (金華) in 732, and then under the Tian- At least 33 works have been attributed to Zhan-
tai scholar Xuanlang (673–754; for a biography of ran, 11 of which are suspect, and only 21 of which
Xuanlang see Penkower, 1993, 46–52), who had are extant (Penkower, 1993, 12–16; Matsumori, 2016,
retired to Mount Zuoxi (in present-day Zhejiang 85–102). Of these the most important are the Zhi-
province) (T. 2061 [L] 739b16). Zhanran was to stay guan fuxing chuanhong jue, together with further
at Mount Zuoxi for more than 20 years, studying, digests of the same work such as the Zhiguan yili
practicing meditation, and acting as a lay lecturer (止觀義例, T. 1913), the Zhiguan fuxing suyao ji (止觀
with special reference to →Zhiyi’s guide to medita- 輔行捜要記, X. 919), and the Zhiguan dayi (止觀大
tion, the Mohe zhiguan (摩訶止觀, T. 1911). Eventu- 意, T. 1914), which was commissioned by Auxiliary
ally Zhanran sought ordination, which he received Secretary Li Hua (李華; c. 710–c. 767), who retired
in the Jingle si (淨樂寺) at Junshan (君山) in 748. around 758. Zhanran also wrote sub-commentaries
He then spent some time studying the Vinaya under on two other important early Tiantai works, the
the monk Tanyi (曇一; 691–771) at Huiji (會稽) (for Fahua wenju ji (法華文句記, T. 1719), and the Fahua
useful maps of his movements at various stages of xuanyi shiqian (法華玄義釋籤, T. 1717) (Matsumori,
his career see Hibi, 1966, 64, 70, 77). 2016, 119–258); and a further two on the Vimalakīrti-
Zhanran was already 44 years old when his men- nirdeśa, the Weimo lüeshu (維摩略疏, T. 1778) and
tor Xuanyan died in 754. The next year brought the Weimojing shu ji (維摩經疏記, X. 340) (For a
country-wide upheaval in the form of the so-called detailed study of how these texts interrelate with
An Lushan (安祿山) Rebellion (755–763), in the each other see Hibi, 1966, 135–496).

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Zhanran 815
Zhanran remained at Mount Tiantai until 769, (玉泉寺) in Jingzhou (荊州) to exert more influ-
when he finished the Zhiguan fuxing suyao ji. He ence. Indeed, given that the latter monastery was
then travelled widely. In 775 he lectured at Suzhou known for its eclecticism and particularly for its
(蘇州), where the Huayan (華嚴) specialist →Cheng- interest in esoteric ritual, there was little sense of
guan (澄觀) was in the audience (T. 2035 [XLIX] Tiantai as a larger group beyond the firm link with
293b9). In 776 he then went further north to Wutai- Zhiyi’s Mohe zhiguan. Nevertheless, it has always
shan (五臺山), where there was another strong proved difficult to negate entirely the idea of a
Tiantai community. On his way back, he visited the Tiantai sense of identity, and there is much discus-
Kaiyuan si (開元寺) in Suzhou where he deposited sion as to how Zhanran saw his own contribution.
a number of his major works. Back at Jingxi he fin- Penkower, for example, saw Zhanran as driven by a
ished the Fahua wenju ji (also known as the “Miaole” desire to retain some prominence for Zhiyi’s teach-
because he was resident at the Miaole si [妙樂寺] ing in the face of a serious challenge from Chan
at the time). He died at Folong in 782. Although it and Huayan, and in this context pointed out that it
is possible that he made one trip to Chang’an, this is precisely in this period that we begin to see the
cannot be corroborated (Penkower, 1993, 110). emergence in discourse of such terms as zu (祖,
patriarch) and zong (宗, school). In fact it is claimed
that Zhanran was the first person to use the term
“Tiantai zong,” although the provenance of the text
The Commentaries
in which this passage appears, the Fahua jing dayi
The traditional (Japanese) Tendai image is that, (法華經大意, X. 583 [XXVII] 532a7), remains very
between them, Zhiyi and Guanding founded a uncertain (Hibi, 1966, 38; Penkower, 1993, 281–299;
“Tiantai School” (天台宗) in the late 6th century, Matsumori, 2016, 259–307). The question is one of
establishing a doctrine and practice that remained degree. Did Zhanran generate a sense of sect spe-
unchanged through all the vicissitudes that affected cifically as a response to the rise of an equivalent
Buddhism through the Tang, to be revitalized in notion in his “rivals;” or was it simply that he was
the Song. This sectarian vision, which necessarily concerned to maintain the teachings of the Mohe
called for a founder followed by a legitimate series zhiguan in an increasingly pluralistic environment?
of “patriarchs,” was successfully challenged by Japa- Chi, for example, sees no sign of diminution in the
nese scholars in the 1960s and 1970s (Hibi, 1966; 1975; status of Tiantai teachings at this point, and denies
Sekiguchi, 1978), who revealed that, on the contrary, that it was ever “in danger.” Instead she investigates
there had been very little sense of “schools” in the Zhanran’s preface to the Zhiguan fuxing chuan-
early Tang and that, although some rivalry inevita- hong jue, which, although rooted in Zhiyi’s Mohe
bly existed, there was no interest in either purity zhiguan, is not a simple commentary but rather,
or exclusivity; there was, rather, a fluid, relatively as the unusual title suggests, a bold statement of
free exchange between different persuasions, and resolve (jue [決]) to proselytize Tiantai method
a particular monk could have many teachers. This and practice. Chi suggests that it was written not
scholarship also showed that Zhanran was not just as a sectarian manifesto, but as an attempt to reaf-
one of the many patriarchs but had played a far firm and gain ownership over the doctrinal base of
more important role in the development of Tian- Zhiyi’s practice in the face of its spreading use (and
tai than was usually thought; it turned out that he misuse) by all and sundry, not only in the Buddhist
had exerted considerable influence on what later world at large but also within Tiantai itself (Chi,
became accepted doctrine. This was largely a result 2008, 290). The key passage in this preface is as
of historical conditions. follows:
In the 200 years that had passed since Zhiyi’s As long as doctrine that assists practice is based
death, a number of new forms of Buddhist doc- on fundamental principles, then trusting in that
trine and practice unknown in Zhiyi’s time had doctrine will inevitably assist practice. As long as
emerged; two in particular, Chan (禪) and Huayan, practice that expresses doctrine tallies with prin-
flourished in the early years of the Tang Dynasty. ciple, that practice can be widely promoted. How
The community on Mount Tiantai had meanwhile can practice be promoted? Only by basing it on
become a quiet backwater, allowing other Tian- the various teachings. And how the teachings be
tai communities at Wutaishan and the Yuquan si assisted? Only by interpreting subtle practice. So

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816 Zhanran
by constant repetition, both doctrine and prac- commentary Fahua wenju ji specifically alluded to
tice can be unified. and criticized the Faxiang position; and his Fahua
Sometimes one decides (jue) based on what has wubaiwen lun (法華五百問論, X. 939) was a read-
been passed down from the master; sometimes ing of the Miaofalian jing xuanzan (妙法蓮華經玄
one decides (jue) what is important by investi- 讃, T. 1723) of Kuiji (窺基; 632–682), a disciple of
gating principle; sometimes one resolves (jue) Xuanzang; the Fahua wubaiwen lun systematically
doubts by posing questions; sometimes one de- refutes Faxiang-inspired interpretations chapter
cides (jue) by choosing among various categories; by chapter (Penkower, 1993, 252–257).
sometimes one resolves (jue) cryptic passages by A further result of Sekiguchi Shindai’s  research
searching widely; sometimes one decides (jue)
was to show that the “Tiantai” classification scheme
on the correct interpretation by collecting a wide
whereby the teachings of the Buddha were ana-
range of references; sometimes one drives the
lyzed in terms of Five Periods and Eight Teachings
prose by cutting (jue) through the dross; some-
(五時八教) was not, as the Korean scholar-monk
times one cuts through (jue) to contemplation of
the way; sometimes one decides on mistakes by Ch’egwan (諦觀; d. 971) had assumed in his late
investigating the prose; sometimes one cuts out 10th-century Tiantai primer Ch’ŏnt’ae sagyo ŭi (天台
error by measuring the parts. Adopting all these 四教儀, T. 1931), the work of Zhiyi, but should rather
meanings, I chose [jue] for the title. All I do is be attributed to Zhanran, who first used the term
transmit what has been handed down, and keep in the Zhiguan fuxing chuanhong jue (T. 1912 [XLVI]
in mind the views of those who have gone be- p. 292a20) (for an extended discussion see Pen-
fore (T. 1912 [XLVI] 141b12–14; cp. Penkower, 1993, kower, 1993, 220–280).
92–93; Chi, 2008, 291–295).

The other area of discussion is the position of Buddha-Nature for the Insentient
the Lotus Sūtra within Tiantai. Tiantai prac-
tice is usually thought of as being indissolubly Although the idea that natural objects also partake
linked to belief in, and devotion to, this sūtra, of buddha-nature (wujing youxing [無情有性]) was
the three most important texts (三部經) being a concept that had been previously mentioned in
the Mohe zhiguan, the Fahua wenju (法華文 passing in Jizang’s (吉藏; 549–623) Dasheng xuan-
句, T. 1718), and the Fahua xuanyi (法華玄義, T. lun (大乘玄論, T. 1853), in which we find the phrase
1716). Here too, the work of Sekiguchi Shindai “grass and trees too have buddha-nature” (caomu
(1978) and Hirai Shun’ei (1985; but for a major yiyou foxing [草木亦有佛性]; T. 1853 [XLV] 40b19–
reappraisal of Hirai’s position, see Matsumori, 20), it was hardly noticed at the time. This was,
2016, 23–118) has shown that Zhiyi himself was however, a topic that interested Zhanran from the
mainly concerned with questions of practice, outset; he first mentioned it in the Zhiguan fuxing
and that it was his student Guanding who was chuanhong jue (T. 1912 [XLVI] 151c27–28) and later
chiefly responsible for the two Lotus commentar- gave it the full voice in his one and only treatise, the
ies, responding in part to the work of the Sanlun Jingang bi (金剛錍, Diamond Scalpel, T. 1932; trans.
(三論) scholar Jizang (吉藏; 549–623) (→Zhiyi). Penkower, 1993, 382–556; Ziporyn, 2000, 186–195).
The link between Tiantai doctrine and the Lotus It was a discussion that involved some sleight of
Sūtra stemmed, it is argued, not from Zhiyi but hand – as, for example, when Zhanran argued that
was developed by Zhanran, the catalyst being his when the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa-mahāsūtra
wish to counteract the influence of another post- denies buddha-nature to the insentient, it must be
Zhiyi doctrinal tradition, namely Faxiang (法相), interpreted as a statement addressed only to those
East Asian Yogācāra. Faxiang, through a quirk in of a lesser capacity in the Latter Days of the Law
the way its major texts had been transmitted and (modai [末代]; T. 1932 [XLVI] 782a17; Penkower,
translated by Xuanzang (玄奘; 600–664), posited 1993, 423) – but it proved to be extremely influential.
the existence of a class of being that was inca- Not only did it spawn 60 commentaries, but also it
pable of achieving awakening (Skt. icchantika), was highly influential in Japan, where it was used
and thus denied the universality of buddha- to justify in doctrinal terms the blending of Tendai
nature, inevitably thereby downgrading the sta- Buddhism with Shintō (神道), itself characterized
tus and significance of the Lotus Sūtra. Zhanran’s by a belief in the inherent spiritual properties of

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Zhanran 817
natural phenomena. By the 10th century the idea DDZ Dengyō daishi zenshū (伝教大師全集; Collected
that nature itself could become, or perhaps already Works of Saichō), 1975–1988. ed., Hieizan Senshuin Fu-
was, awakened (sōmoku jōbutsu [草木成佛]) was zoku Eizan Gakuin (比叡山専修院叡山学院), 6 vols.,
common in Japan (Sueki, 1994; 1995). Tokyo, Sekai Seiten Kankō Kyōkai.
Hibi Senshō (日比宣正), 1975. Tōdai Tendaigaku kenkyū:
Whether it was for sectarian reasons or not, the
Tannen no kyōgaku ni kansuru kōsatsu (唐代天台学
revival of active scholarship under Zhanran cer-
研究:湛然の教学に関する考察), Tokyo: Sankibō
tainly gave Tiantai and the community on Mount Busshorin.
Tiantai renewed prominence, but this situation Hibi Senshō (日比宣正), 1966. Tōdai Tendaigaku josetsu:
was not to last. Disaster struck again in the form of Tannen no chosaku ni kansuru kenkyū (唐代天台学
the Huichang Suppression (會昌法難) of 842–846, 序説:湛然の著作に関する研究), Tokyo: Sankibō
when many Buddhist texts were destroyed on the Busshorin.
orders of Emperor Wuzong. The Guoqing si was Hirai Shun’ei (平井俊榮), 1985. Hokke mongu no seiritsu
very badly affected, and many of Zhiyi’s and Zhan- ni kansuru kenkyū (法華文句の成立に関する研究),
ran’s writings became impossible to find. Revival Tokyo: Shunjūsha.
was only possible with the help of Buddhist insti- Matsumori Hideyuki (松森秀幸), 2016. Tōdai Tendai
hokke shisō no kenkyū: Keikei Tannen ni okeru Tendai
tutions in Korea and Japan, which sent copies of
Hokekyō sho no chūshaku o meguru shomondai (唐代
the major works and so slowly managed to refill the
天台法華思想の研究:荊渓湛然における天台法華
Tiantai libraries (Brose, 2006). It was not, however, 経疏の注釈をめぐる諸問題), Kyoto: Hōzōkan.
until the emergence of Siming →Zhili (四明知禮; Penkower, L., 1993. “T’ian-T’ai during the T’ang Dynasty:
960–1028) in the Song Dynasty that Tiantai’s long- Chan-jan and the Sinification of Buddhism,” diss, Co-
term survival was truly secured. lumbia University.
Sekiguchi Shindai (關口眞大), 1978. Tendai kyōgaku no
kenkyū (天台教学の研究), Tokyo: Daitō Shuppan.
Bibliography Sueki Fumihiko (末木文美士), 1995. Heian shoki Bukkyō
shisō no kenkyū (平安初期仏教思想の研究), Tokyo:
Brose, B., 2006. “Crossing Thousands of Li of Waves: The Shunjūsha.
Return of China’s Lost Tiantai Texts,” JIABS 29/1, 21–62. Sueki, Fumihiko (末木文美士), 1994. “Annen: The Phi-
Chi Limei (池麗梅), 2008. Tōdai Tendai Bukkyō fukkō undō losopher who Japanized Buddhism,” AcAs 66, 69–86.
kenkyū josetsu: Keikei Tannen to sono Shikan bugyō Ziporyn, B., 2000. Evil and/or/as the Good: Omnicentrism,
dengu ketsu (唐代天台仏教復興運動研究序説:荊 Intersubjectivity, and Value Paradox in Tiantai Buddhist
渓湛然とその『止観輔行伝弘決』), Tokyo: Daizō Thought, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
Shuppan.
Richard Bowring
(In memoriam Linda Penkower)

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