Sunteți pe pagina 1din 13

ITTC – Recommended 7.

6-02-07
Procedures Page 1 of 13
Sample Work Instructions
Effective Date Revision
Calibration of Chronometers with 2002 00
Digital Indication

CONTENTS

PURPOSE
5. Treatment of the calibration results
WORK INSTRUCTION and calibration period
5.1 Treatment of Calibration Results.
1. Introduction
5.2 Calibration period
2. Technical Requirements
2.1 Interior Crystal Oscillator APPENDICES
2.2 Time Interval Measuring
Appendix 1
3. Calibration Conditions
3.1 Environmental Conditions Contents and format of the calibration
3.2 Standard equipment for calibration certificate
4. Subject and method of calibration
Appendix 2
4.1 Examination of the exterior and
during normal working Calibration of the crystal oscillator
4.2 Calibration of the interior crystal standard if the chronometer does not have
oscillation an output of the crystal oscillator
4.3 Calibration of the measuring error frequency
Appendix 3
The calibration of the crystal-oscillator
stopwatch

Source:
Verification regulation of time interval measuring instrument with digital indication (trial usage)
[Issued on May 31, 1995 and put into effect since May 1, 1996 by National Technical Bureau - JJG 238—95, National
Measuring Verification Regulation of People’s Republic of China]
Prepared by Approved

Quality Systems Group of 23rd ITTC 23rd ITTC 2002

Date Date
ITTC – Recommended 7.6-02-07
Procedures Page 2 of 13
Sample Work Instructions
Effective Date Revision
Calibration of Chronometers with 2002 00
Digital Indication

Calibration of Chronometers with Digital Indication

PURPOSE numbers for indicating the time interval meas-


uring value.
This working instruction can be applied to
the calibration of a time interval-measuring in- The fundamental principle of these chro-
strument with digital indication with a measur- nometers is that the unit time (time base), the
ing range larger than 10 ns on new products, accuracy of which is known, is used to measure
also for products in the use and after repair. the time interval. The measuring results are re-
corded and displayed by an electronic counter.
The selected time base is generated by division
WORK INSTRUCTION or doubling of the frequency of a quartz crystal
oscillator .
1. Introduction
The principle block-diagram is shown in
Chronometer with digital indication means Fig. 1.
a time interval measuring instrument with

Crystal Frequency doubling/ Electric Counting


oscillator Frequency division gate display

Signal A Filter A controller

Signal B Filter B

Fig. 1 Fundamental diagram of the time interval measuring instrument with digital indication

These chronometers are used for the fol- opening of two mechanical contacts
lowing measurements: ƒ duration of closing or opening for a single
mechanical contact
ƒ time interval between two electronic pulses ƒ time interval between the actions of a sin-
(rising or falling edge) gle electronic pulse and a single mechanical
ƒ time of one single electronic pulse contact
ƒ time interval between closing and (or)
ITTC – Recommended 7.6-02-07
Procedures Page 3 of 13
Sample Work Instructions
Effective Date Revision
Calibration of Chronometers with 2002 00
Digital Indication

2. Technical Requirements 3.2 Standard equipment for calibration

2.1 Interior Crystal Oscillator 3.2.1 Standard time interval generator


3.2.1.1 It has two outputs. The signal pattern
Frequency fluctuation: 10-6 ~ 10-10 should be:
Accuracy of frequency: 10-5 ~ 10 -9 ƒ The interval of two positive and (or)
negative electronic pulses
ƒ single positive or negative electric
2.2 Time Interval Measuring pulse width
ƒ the interval between the open circuit
Time base: 10ns ~ 100ms and (or) the short circuit of two output
Measuring range: 10ns ~1d terminals
The measuring error may be calculated by ƒ the duration of the open circuit or the
the following formula short circuit of the single output termi-
nal
Measuring error = T × accuracy of the 3.2.1.2 The rise or fall time of the pulse must
frequency of crystal oscillation + trigger be less than one-fifth of the minimum
error +τ0 resolution of the calibrated chronometer.
Where: 3.2.1.3 The range of the output time interval
T measured time interval should meet the measuring requirements of
τ0 selected time base during measuring the calibrated chronometers.
3.2.1.4 The error of the output time interval
should be less than or equal to one-tenth of
the measuring error of the calibrated
3. Calibration Conditions chronometers.
3.2.2 Reference frequency standard
3.1 Environmental Conditions This can be a highly stable crystal oscilla-
tor or an atomic frequency standard. The
3.1.1 Environmental temperature: can be frequency fluctuation and the frequency
between 10 ℃ ~30 ℃ . The temperature accuracy must be ten times higher than the
variation should not exceed ±2℃ during relevant indexes of the calibrated chro-
the calibration. nometer.
3.1.2 Relative humidity: (65±15)% 3.2.3 Frequency Standard Comparator
3.1.3 Power supply: ~Voltage(1±10%)V Able to compare the functions and the
3.1.4 No strong electro-magnetic interfer- technical indexes for realizing the calibra-
ence tion of the crystal oscillation index of the
calibrated chronometer.
3.2.4 Electronic counter
Able to measure the frequency in the range
from 1 Hz to 10 MHz.
ITTC – Recommended 7.6-02-07
Procedures Page 4 of 13
Sample Work Instructions
Effective Date Revision
Calibration of Chronometers with 2002 00
Digital Indication

4. Subject and method of the calibration interval is deliberately given by a standard


time interval generator for checking the
4.1 Examination of the exterior and during variety of functions in the measuring range
normal working of the calibrated chronometer.

4.1.1 The calibrated chronometer should 4.2 Calibration of the interior crystal oscilla-
not have any mechanical damages, which tion
could affect the normal use of the instru-
ment. All the control switches should work The connection of the instruments is shown in
easily and reliably. Fig. 2.
4.1.2 Switch the current on. A standard time

Calibrated chro-
nometer comparator Reference frequency standard

(a)
Calibrated chro-
counter Reference frequency standard
nometer

(b)
Fig. 2 Connection diagram of the instruments for calibrating the interior crystal oscillation

urement per hour, totally N times (N = 4, 8


If the accuracy of the frequency measure- or 24). The measuring sample time can be
ment can meet the calibration requirement taken as 10s.
when the gate time of the electronic counter is Three values each time. The frequency
10s, the version shown in Fig. 2 (b) may be se-
fluctuation value can be calculated the
lected for the calibration. The reference fre-
quency standard can be used as the input of the formulae (1) or (2).
external standard for the electronic counter.
f max − f min
4.2.1 Calibration of the frequency fluctua- S= (1)
f0
tion
After the chronometer has been warmed 1 3
up according to it’s specification the f = ∑ fi
3 i =1
measurements can be started. One meas-
ITTC – Recommended 7.6-02-07
Procedures Page 5 of 13
Sample Work Instructions
Effective Date Revision
Calibration of Chronometers with 2002 00
Digital Indication

where: f − f0
fi measured value of each sample by A= (4)
use of the electronic counter. f0
f0 nominal value of the output fre- The crystal oscillation frequency must be
quency for the calibrated crystal oscillation. aligned to the same order as that of the
frequency fluctuation. However, the accu-
Or: S = ymax (τ ) - ymin (τ ) (2)
racy ought to be noted on the the calibra-
tion certificate.
1 3
y (τ ) = ∑ yi (τ )
3 i =1
If the calibrated chronometer does not
have an output of the crystal oscillation,
where: the calibration of the crystal oscillation
yi(τ) average relative frequency devia- norm can be carried out on the basis of the
tion directly measured using a comparator method given in the Appendix 2.
of the frequency standard.

4.2.2 Alignment of the frequency accuracy 4.3 Calibration of the measuring error
To ensure the reliability of the calibration
result during the process the accuracy of 4.3.1 Selection of the calibration values and
the crystal oscillation must be restricted to the error calculation.
a value less than one-tenth of the fre- The measurement begins at the minimum
quency fluctuation value. value, followed by a series of values ten
The frequency accuracy may be calculated times greater each time and then ends with
by formula (3) using the data of the fre- the maximum value.
quency fluctuation calibration. If the measuring range of the chronometer
is divided into sub-ranges, the calibration
f − f0 value at the lowest sub-range can be se-
max
A= (3)
f0 lected according to the above mentioned
If the result of the calculation is better than method. For the calibration only the
the required accuracy, the crystal oscillat- maximum values of the other sub-ranges
ing frequency need not be adjusted. Oth- need to be taken.
erwise it must be aligned. The measurement must be done three times
When being adjusted the sampling time for each calibration value. The arithmetic
can be taken as 10s and only one meas- mean value will be taken as the measuring
urement is sufficient. The frequency accu- value.
racy may be calculated by formula (4): The measuring error can be calculated by
formula (5):
ITTC – Recommended 7.6-02-07
Procedures Page 6 of 13
Sample Work Instructions
Effective Date Revision
Calibration of Chronometers with 2002 00
Digital Indication

The connection of the instruments is shown


∆T = Ti − T0 (5) in Fig. 3.
4.3.2.1 Pulse Width Measurement of the
1 3
Ti = ∑ Ti
3 i =1
Positive Pulse
The single positive electronic pulse signal
is given by the time interval generator and
at the same time is sent to the A and B in-
where: put terminals of the calibrated chronome-
Ti value which is measured every time. ter. The trigger slope of A channel (start-up
T0 given value of the standard time in- channel) is set to be positive; the trigger
terval generator. slope of B channel (stop channel) is set to
be negative.
4.3.2 Measuring of the time interval of the
electronic pulse

A calibrated
Time interval generator
B chronometer

Reference of frequency
Standard

(a) for single pulse measurement

Time interval generator A calibrated


B chronometer

Reference of frequency
Standard

(b) for twin pulse measurement


Fig. 3 The instruments connection diagram of the time interval measure for the electric pulses
ITTC – Recommended 7.6-02-07
Procedures Page 7 of 13
Sample Work Instructions
Effective Date Revision
Calibration of Chronometers with 2002 00
Digital Indication

4.3.2.2 Pulse Width Measurement of the calibrated chronometer. The stop signal is
Negative Pulse put on B channel. The trigger slopes of
The time interval generator gives a single both channels are set to be negative.
negative pulse signal. The trigger slopes of 4.3.3 Action Time Measurement of the me-
A and B input channels of the calibrated chanical contacts
chronometer are set to be negative and The connection of the instruments is shown
positive respectively. in Fig. 4.
4.3.2.3 Time interval measurement of two 4.3.3.1 Duration Measurement of the clos-
positive electronic pulses ing for one contact
The time interval generator gives a single A single start signal (short circuit) given by
positive pulse signal in two traces. The the time interval generator, connected to
start-up signal is put on A channel of the the relevant measurement input terminal of
calibrated chronometer. The stop signal is the chronometer.
put on B channel. The trigger slopes of 4.3.3.2 Duration of the opening for a single
both channels are set to be positive . contact
4.3.2.4 Time interval measurement of two The single turn-off signal (open circuit)
negative electronic pulses given by the time interval generator is put
The time interval generator gives a single onto the relevant measurement input ter-
negative pulse signal in two lines. The minal of the chronometer.
start-up signal is put on A channel of the

Time interval generator Calibrated chronometer

Reference of frequency standard

(a) for single contact

Time interval generator calibrated chronometer

Reference of frequency standard

(b) for two contacts


Fig. 4 The instruments connection diagram of the action time measurement of the mechanical con-
tacts
ITTC – Recommended 7.6-02-07
Procedures Page 8 of 13
Sample Work Instructions
Effective Date Revision
Calibration of Chronometers with 2002 00
Digital Indication

4.3.3.3 Measurement of the time interval 5. Treatment of the calibration results and
for closing between two contacts calibration period
The time interval generator gives single
start signals as two outputs, one is the 5.1 Treatment of Calibration Results.
start-up signal and the other is the stop
signal. Both of them are connected to the For chronometers which meet the re-
relevant measurement input terminals of quirement of this working instruction, a cali-
the chronometer respectively. bration certificate will be supplied: For the
4.3.3.4 Measurement of the time interval ones which do not meet the requirement, an
for the turn-off of two contacts advice note of the calibration result should be
Single turn-off signals given by the time supplied with the items which do not comply
interval generator one after another are being pointed out.
connected to the relevant measurement
input terminals of the chronometer re- 5.2 Calibration period
spectively.
The calibration period of the chronometer
is one year
ITTC – Recommended 7.6-02-07
Procedures Page 9 of 13
Sample Work Instructions
Effective Date Revision
Calibration of Chronometers with 2002 00
Digital Indication

APPENDICES

Appendix 1 positive pulses


Contents and format of the calibration 4. Time interval measurement between two
certificate negative pulses
5. Duration measurement for closing me-
A. Calibration of the internal crystal oscilla- chanical contacts
tion 6. Duration measurement for opening of me-
1. Frequency fluctuation chanical contacts
2. Accuracy of frequency 7. Time interval measurement for closing of
two contacts
B. Calibration of the time interval measure- 8. The time interval measurement for opening
ment of two contacts
1. Pulse width measurement of the positive Each item of the calibrated data is given on
pulse the basis of the following table.
2. Pulse width measurement of the negative
pulse
3. Time interval measurement between two

Standard value Measured value Error


T0 Ti ΔT
ITTC – Recommended 7.6-02-07
Procedures Page 10 of 13
Sample Work Instructions
Effective Date Revision
Calibration of Chronometers with 2002 00
Digital Indication

Appendix 2
The connection of the instruments is shown in
Calibration of the crystal oscillator stan- the following Fig.
dard if the chronometer does not have an
output of the crystal oscillator frequency

Time interval generator Calibrated chronometer

Reference frequency standard

The functions of the chronometer are taken per hour, in total N times (N = 4, 8 or
measured by use of the electronic pulse. The 24). The frequency fluctuation value can be
time interval generator gives the pulse width of calculated by use of formulae (1):
the single pulse or the interval between two S = (yi)max –(yi)min (1)
single pulses.
Ti − T0
yi =
The given time interval may be supposed to T0
be T0. The time unit corresponding to the
where:
minimum display position of the chronometer
is τ0. Then the value of T0 must meet the fol- Ti measured value every time.
lowing formula:
2. Alignment of the frequency accuracy
τ0 1
≤ v If the result of the calculation using the data
T0 10 from the frequency fluctuation measurements
satisfies the following formula, the alignment
where:
of the crystal oscillator frequency is not
v frequency fluctuation of the internal needed.
crystal oscillator of the chronometer.
10 S ≥ yi max
≥S (2)
1. Calibration of the frequency fluctuation else: open the cover of the chronometer, ad-
After the chronometer has warmed up ac- just the frequency of the crystal oscillation till
cording to the working instruction the meas- it meets the requirement of formula (2). This
urement can be started. One measurement is time the value of |yi|max need only be calcu-
ITTC – Recommended 7.6-02-07
Procedures Page 11 of 13
Sample Work Instructions
Effective Date Revision
Calibration of Chronometers with 2002 00
Digital Indication

lated for one measured value after the align- |yi|max must be stated in the calibration report
ment. as the frequency accuracy.

If the crystal oscillator frequency cannot be


adjusted or although it can be adjusted but the
requirement of formula (2) cannot be met,
ITTC – Recommended 7.6-02-07
Procedures Page 12 of 13
Sample Work Instructions
Effective Date Revision
Calibration of Chronometers with 2002 00
Digital Indication

Appendix 3 use of an electromagnetic pulse should be used


in the standard calibration equipment. The stan-
The calibration of the crystal-oscillator stop- dard time interval generator must possess the
watch corresponding function or a calibrator for this
special use may be used.
A crystal-oscillator stopwatch belongs to
If the crystal-oscillator stopwatch does not
the type of instruments for the time interval
have an output of the crystal oscillator fre-
measuring with digital indication based on its
quency, the interior crystal oscillator need not
working principle and display. Owing to the
be calibrated. Only the measuring error of the
particularity and uniqueness of its measuring
time interval and the daily difference should be
principle, the general-purpose items in the
calibrated.
main body of this working instruction cannot
completely meet the requirements for the cali-
The connection of the instruments is shown
bration of the crystal–oscillator stopwatch. For
in the following Figure:
this reason a stopwatch fixture i.e. a mechani-
cal hand that starts and stops the stopwatch by

Time interval generator Stopwatch fixture

Or

Stopwatch calibrator Stopwatch fixture

working instruction.
1. Calibration of the measuring error

The calibration values are selected as 1s, 2. Calibration of the daily difference
10s, 1min and 1h.
The daily difference means the measuring
Three measurements should be carried out error when the time interval is taken as one day.
for the first three measuring values. The arith- For the normal stopwatch no one will measure
metic mean of their measurement values may such a long time interval. But the crys-
be taken. For the last case, two measurements tal-oscillator stopwatch also posses the display
can be performed. Take the arithmetic mean function of hour, minute and second. So the
value of its measurement value. requirement of the index of the travel-time –
The measuring error can be calculated by “daily difference” similar as watch and crystal
use of the formula (5) in the main body of this clock is required.
ITTC – Recommended 7.6-02-07
Procedures Page 13 of 13
Sample Work Instructions
Effective Date Revision
Calibration of Chronometers with 2002 00
Digital Indication

The calibration of the daily difference is the


same as that of the calibration of the measuring 3. Format of the calibration certificate for
error. The crystal-oscillator stopwatch meas- crystal-oscillator stopwatch
ures the time interval, the standard time inter-
val generator gives only one time. The calcula- See the table below.
tion of the error is the same as above.
The daily difference can also be calibrated
by use of an instantaneous measuring device
for the daily difference.

Standard value Measuring value Error


T0 Ti ∆T = Ti − T0
1s
10s
1min
1h