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1-Modern concept of sustainable development focuses more on

(A) economic development


(B) social development
(C) environmental protection
(D) all of the above

2-Sustainability Science is the study of the concepts of sustainable development and ___ .
(A) environmental science
(B) general science
(C) social science
(D) geo science

3-As per United Nations, following is (are) the broader issue(s) of human development
(A) education
(B) public health
(C) standard of living
(D) all of the above

4-United Nations (UN) decade of education for sustainable development is from


(A) 2002-11
(B) 2003-12
(C) 2004-13
(D) 2005-14

5-Numbers of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by United Nations are


(A) 15
(B) 16
(C) 17
(D) 18

6-The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recognize that all countries must stimulate action in
the following key areas.
(A) people, planet, prosperity, peace and partnership
(B) people, planet, prosperity, plants and planning
(C) people, planet, prosperity, plants and partnership
(D) people, planet, prosperity, peace and planning

7-Sustainable development can be thought of in terms of three spheres i.e.


(A) environment, economy and society
(B) environment, economy and equity
(C) environment, ecology and society
(D) environment, economy and ecology

8-When the consumption of natural resources are equal to nature’s ability to replenish then
sustainability is
(A) not sustainable
(B) steady state economy
(C) environmentally sustainable
(D) none of the above
9- A promising direction towards sustainable development is to design systems that are
(A) flexible and irreversible
(B) flexible and reversible
(C) inflexible and reversible
(D) inflexible and irreversible

10-Following is (are) the element(s) of sustainable agriculture


(A) permaculture
(B) agroforestry
(C) mixed farming
(D) all of the above

11-Sustainable energy
(A) is clean
(B) can be used over a long period of time
(C) both (A) and (B)
(D) none of the above

12-The technology which meets the sustainable development needs is often referred to as
(A) advanced technology
(B) appropriate technology
(C) sustainable technology
(D) adaptive technology

13-The criterion for corporate sustainability


(A) eco-efficiency
(B) socio-efficiency
(C) both (A) and (B)
(D) none of the above

14-Four domains of circles of sustainability, used by the United Nations.


(A) economic, ecological, political and cultural
(B) economic, social, political and cultural
(C) economic, ecological, social and cultural
(D) economic, ecological, political and social

15-The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) is also known as


(A) Rio 2010
(B) Rio 2011
(C) Rio 2012
(D) Rio 2013

ANSWERS:
1-(D), 2-(A), 3-(D), 4-(D), 5-(C), 6-(A), 7-(A), 8-(B), 9-(B), 10-(D), 11-(C), 12-(B), 13-(C), 14-(A), 15-
(C)
1-Recycling reduces
(A) energy usage
(B) air pollution
(C) water pollution
(D) all of the above

2-The international recycling logo consists of ___ chasing arrows.


(A) two
(B) three
(C) four
(D) five

3-Recycle is ___ component of waste hierarchy.


(A) first
(B) second
(C) third
(D) fourth

4-Following ISO standard is for environmental management control of recycling practice.


(A) 14001:2012
(B) 14001:2013
(C) 14001:2014
(D) 14001:2015

5-Which of the following legislative option(s) has (have) used to create stable supply?
(A) mandatory recycling collection
(B) container deposit legislation
(C) refuse bans
(D) all of the above

6-Conatiner deposit legislation involves


(A) imposing fine for not returning the container
(B) offering a refund for the return of certain containers
(C) crushing the container after use
(D) none of the above

7-The raw material that is sent to, and processed in a waste recycling plant or materials recovery
facility which will be used to form new products
(A) Recyclate
(B) Recycling material
(C) recycled material
(D) none of the above

8-Following material has highest recyclate quality


(A) paper
(B) plastic
(C) steel
(D) oil

9-Following is (are) the system(s) to collect recyclates from the general waste stream.
(A) Curbside collection
(B) buy back centers
(C) drop-off centers
(D) all of the above

10-Plastic Pyrolysis can convert petroleum based streams such as plastics into
(A) fuels
(B) carbons
(C) both (A) and (B)
(D) wax

11-Following is (are) suitable raw material(s) for pyrolysis


(A) Mixed plastic
(B) Mixed waste plastic from waste paper mill
(C) Multi-layered plastic
(D) All of the above

12-Type 1 (polyethylene terephthalate) plastic is commonly found in


(A) soft drinks and water bottles
(B) laundry detergent bottle
(C) pipes
(D) shopping bags

13-Type 3 (polyvinyl chloride) plastic is commonly found in


(A) soft drinks and water bottles
(B) laundry detergent bottle
(C) pipes
(D) shopping bags

14-In which of the following recycling, maximum energy is saved


(A) steel
(B) cardboard
(C) paper
(D) aluminium cans

ANSWERS:
1-(D), 2-(B), 3-(C), 4-(D), 5-(D), 6-(B), 7-(A), 8-(C), 9-(D), 10-(C), 11-(D), 12-(A), 13-(C), 14-(D)
1-Which of the following is (are) renewable resource(s)
(A) wind
(B) tides
(C) geothermal heat
(D) all of the above

2-Which of the following country generate all their electricity using renewable energy?
(A) Iceland
(B) England
(C) USA
(D) China

3-Renwable energy often displaces conventional fuel in which of the following area
(A) space heating
(B) transportation
(C) electricity generation
(D) all of the above

4-Which of the following is used as fuel for transportation


(A) ethanol
(B) aldehyde
(C) ketone
(D) all of the above

5-Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using


(A) fermentation
(B) transesterification
(C) distillation
(D) none of the above

6-Photovoltaic cell converts solar energy into


(A) heat energy
(B) electric energy
(C) mechanical energy
(D) chemical energy

7-In which of the following region winds are stronger and constant
(A) deserts
(B) offshore
(C) low altitudes sites
(D) all of the above

8-Following country met more than 40% of its electricity demand from wind energy
(A) Denmark
(B) Portugal
(C) Ireland
(D) Spain
9-Concentrated solar power (CSP) systems use ____ to focus a large area of sunlight into a small
beam.
(A) lenses
(B) mirrors
(C) tracking systems
(D) all of the above

10-The difference, in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, is known as
(A) geothermal coefficient
(B) geothermal gradient
(C) geothermal constant
(D) none of the above

11-Biomass can be converted to


(A) methane gas
(B) ethanol
(C) biodiesel
(D) all of the above

12-The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) was formed in


(A) 2008
(B) 2009
(C) 2010
(D) 2011

13-Which of the following was the first solar powered aircraft to complete a circumnavigation of
the world?
(A) Solar impulse
(B) Solar impulse 2
(C) Solar impulse 3
(D) Solar impulse 4

14-Following is true for biomass and biofuels


(A) their contribution in reduction in CO2 emissions is limited
(B) both emit large amount of air pollution when burned
(C) they consume large amounts of water
(D) all of the above

ANSWERS:
1-(D), 2-(A), 3-(D), 4-(A), 5-(B), 6-(B), 7-(B), 8-(A), 9-(D), 10-(B), 11-(D), 12-(B), 13-(B), 14-(D)
1-Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the ___ level.
(A) genetic
(B) species
(C) ecosystem
(D) all of the above

2-Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near the ___ .


(A) north pole
(B) south pole
(C) equator
(D) tropic of cancer

3- The tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 percent of earth’s surface, and contain about
___ percent of the world’s species.
(A) 30
(B) 50
(C) 70
(D) 90

4-The age of earth is about ___ billion years.


(A) 3.04
(B) 3.54
(C) 4.05
(D) 4.54

5-Following is usually measured at the species diversity level.


(A) ecological diversity
(B) taxonomic diversity
(C) morphological diversity
(D) functional diversity

6-Diversity of all living things depends on


(A) geography
(B) presence of other species
(C) soils
(D) all of the above

7-A biodiversity hotspot


(A) is a region with a high level of endemic species
(B) that have experienced great habitat loss
(C) both (A) and (B)
(D) none of the above

8-Which of the following is true


(A) land has more species than the ocean
(B) ocean has more species than the land
(C) land and ocean has almost equal number of species
(D) not yet known
9-Provisioning services
(A) involve the production of renewable services
(B) are those that lessen environmental change
(C) represent human value and enjoyment
(D) all of the above

10-Provisioning services of
(A) plants increases fodder yield
(B) plants increases overall crop yield
(C) trees increases overall wood production
(D) all of the above

11-Regulating services of plants


(A) decreases disease prevalence on plants
(B) increases resistance to plant invasion
(C) increases soil nutrient remineralization
(D) all of the above

12-Biodiversity is directly involved in


(A) water purification
(B) recycling nutrients
(C) providing fertile soil
(D) all of the above

13-The most studied group is


(A) birds
(B) mammals
(C) both (A) and (B)
(D) fishes

14-The species which occupy new territory, often supplanting native species by occupying their
niches, are called
(A) invasive species
(B) extinct species
(C) endangered species
(D) exotic species

15-Following step(s) can conserve the forest cover


(A) prevent forest fire
(B) prevention of overgrazing by cattle
(C) hunting and poaching should be banned
(D) all of the above

ANSWERS:
1-(D), 2-(C), 3-(D), 4-(D), 5-(B), 6-(D), 7-(C), 8-(A), 9-(A), 10-(D), 11-(D), 12-(D), 13-(C), 14-(A), 15-
(D)
1. What is sustainable development?
A. The development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

B. To conserve natural resources and to develop alternate sources of power while


reducing pollution and harm to the environment.

C. It is the practice of developing land and construction projects in a manner that


reduces their impact on the environment by allowing them to create energy efficient
models of self-sufficiency.

D. All of the above

Ans: D

2. Which of the following is correct, if we only achieve two out of three pillars of
Sustainable Development?
A. Social + Economic Sustainability = Equitable

B. Social + Environmental Sustainability = Bearable

C. Economic + Environmental Sustainability = Viable

D. All of the above

Ans: D

GK Questions and Answers on Environment Degradation and Management


3. Consider the following statement (s) related to the Sustainability.
I. It refers to a process or state that can be maintained indefinitely.

II. Natural resources must use in ways that do not create ecological debts by over
exploiting the carrying and productive capacity of the earth.

III. A minimum necessary condition for sustainability is the maintenance of the


total natural capital stock at or above the current level.

Code:

A. Only I

B. Only II

C. Only II & III


D. I, II & III

Ans: D

4. Which of the following is/are not an objective (s) of sustainable development?


A. Continue to implement the family planning program.

B. Maintain a dynamic balance of arable land (not less than 123 million hectares)
and implement an agricultural development strategy

C. Maintain a dynamic balance of water resources by reducing water consumption


for every unit of gross development product growth and agricultural value added

D. To bring about a gradual and sometime catastrophic transformation of


environment

Ans: D

GK Questions and Answers on the Biodiversity and Legislation


5. What are the Primary Goals of Sustainability?
I. The end of poverty and hunger

II. Better standards of education and healthcare - particularly as it pertains to water


quality and better sanitation

III. To achieve gender equality

IV. Sustainable economic growth while promoting jobs and stronger economies

Code:

A. I, II & III

B. I, III & IV

C. I & III

D. I, II, III & IV

Ans: D

6. When was the term ‘Sustainable Development’ came into existence?


A. 1987
B. 1980

C. 1978

D. 1992

Ans: B

GK Questions and Answers on Ecological Succession and Pyramid


7. The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was
established by the UN General Assembly in December-------.
A. 1992

B. 1993

C. 1994

D. 1995

Ans: A

8. Which of the following UN commission is responsible for reviewing progress in


the implementation of Agenda 21 and the Rio Declaration on Environment and
Development?
A. United Nation Disarmament Commission

B. United Nations Statistical Commission

C. United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)

D. United Nations Commission on Human Rights

Ans: C

GK Questions and Answers on the Hot Spots of Biodiversity


9. Consider the following statement (s) related to the parameters of sustainable
development refer to the guiding principles.
I. Help in understanding the concept of sustainable development

II. Point the problems associated with it

III. Help to take active policy measures

Code:
A. Both I & II

B. Bot II & III

C. Both I & IV

D. I, II & III

Ans: D

10. Which of the following is not included in the parameters of sustainable


development?
A. Carrying capacity

B. Inter and Intra-generation equity

C. Gender disparity and diversity

D. None of the above

Ans: D

1. Any adulterated elements leak into the ground, filtration, and are carried into groundwater
reservoir is known as

A) Land Contamination

B) Noise Pollution

C) Water Pollution

D) Air pollution

Answer: C

2. South Africa is leading exporter of which mineral?

A) Copper

B) Diamond

C) Silver

D) Gold

Answer: D

3. Which option is correct, when we only accomplish two out of three pillars of Sustainable
Development?

A) Economic + Environmental Sustainability = Viable


B) Social + Environmental Sustainability = Bearable

C) Social + Economic Sustainability = Equitable

D) None of the above

Answer: D

4. The word ‘Sustainable Development’ came into existence in the year?

A) 1992

B) 1978

C) 1980

D) 1987

Answer: C

5. The United Nation’s Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was started by the UN
General Assembly in the year.

A) 1995

B) 1994

C) 1993

D) 1992

Answer: D

6. After mining the huge holes left behind is used for

A) Wastewater storage

B) Waste and water storage

C) Waste Disposal

D) Waste Storage

Answer: C

7. Mercury and lead are toxic elements, which causes

A) Noise Pollution

B) Air Pollution

C) Water Pollution

D) Land contamination

Answer: D

8. The other word of Landscaping is

A) Reduction

B) Restoration

C) Removing topsoil
D) Restore

Answer: B

9. Whenever the price of the mineral remains high, the firm seeks for

A) New countries

B) Remains the same

C) New miners

D) New deposits

Answer: D

10. Which of the option is not incorporated as sustainable development parameters?

A) Gender disparity and diversity

B) Inter and Intra-generation equity

C) Carrying capacity

D) None of the above

Answer: D

Q.1 _____________development meets the needs of the present


generation without compromising the ability of the future generation.

a. Sustainable
b. Original
c. Balanced
d. None of the above

Q.2 Which of the following is the feature of Sustainable Development?

a. Rises per capita income


b. Rational use of Natural Resources
c. No increase in Pollution
d. All of the above

Q.3 _____________development promote the kind of development that


minimizes environmental problems.

a. Sustainable
b. Original
c. Balanced

The UN MDGs
stands for
what?
United Nations 'Multiple
Development Grants'
United Nations 'Multiple
Development Goals'
United Nations 'Millennium
Development Grants'
United Nations 'Millennium
Development Goals'

The UN MDGs include, what?


Reducing Child Mortality

Empowering Women

Targets for Poverty Reduction

All of the Above

Social sustainability refers to what?


Stewardship of resources and managing and conserving the environment

The concept of the enterprise supporting jobs and delivering income to


communities in the long term
The concept of the enterprise supporting jobs and delivering income to
communities in the short term
Sharing benefits fairly and equitably and respecting the quality of life of
communities and of human rights

What is the most commonly cited definition for, and accepted


thinking about, sustainable development?
Brundtland World on Committee Environment and Sustainable Development

Brutland World Committee on Environment and Development

Brundtland World Commission on Environment and Sustainable Development

Brundtland World Commission on Environment and Development

The Brundtland definition comprises what three parts?


Growth, Needs and Future Generations

Development, Needs and Future Responsibility

Development, Issues and Future Generations

Development, Needs and Future Generations

What words is missing from this shortened UNWTO (2005)


definition: 'Tourism that takes full account of its current and future
economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs
of visitors, the industry, the environment and __________'
Host Communities

Host Committees

Host Populations

Host Groups

Which town in Canada put in place a 'green plan' for the


community?
Labrador

Ottowa

Bouctouche

St John
How does Hunter (1997) define Weak sustainability/product led
tourism?
Tourism activity is small in scale, and in places discouraged if it could cause
environmental damage.
Tourism remains dominant and sustainability secondary to the development
of new products, although the need for resource conservation and the
management of growth is recognised
Emphasis is on satisfying the demands of the tourism sector and tourists,
sometimes at the expense of destination resources
Environmental management lies at the heart of destination management

How does Hunter (1997) define very strong sustainability/limited


tourism?
Environmental management lies at the heart of destination management

Emphasis is on satisfying the demands of the tourism sector and tourists,


sometimes at the expense of destination resources
Tourism remains dominant and sustainability secondary to the development
of new products, although the need for resource conservation and the
management of growth is recognised
Tourism activity is small in scale, and in places discouraged if it could cause
environmental damage.

Why does the government play an important role in tourism?


The sector is fragmented

Leadership

Funding

All of the Above

At the Capacity and Activity Zones stage of the visitor management process what a
principles involved?
Determination of capacity and monitoring

Visitor control and marketing

Determination of capacity and avoidance of conflicting uses in the same area

Visitor control and avoidance of conflicting uses in the same area


1) Which of the following are the 17 new Sustainable Development Goals?

1) Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources
2) Reduce inequality within and among countries
3) Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

a. 1, 3
b. 2, 3
c. 1, 2
d. All of the above
Answer Explanation

ANSWER: All of the above


Explanation:
The goals are to be achieved in 15 years i.e. till 2030. The goals are –
1. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
2. Reduce inequality within and among countries
3. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
4. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
5. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
6. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat deser
reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
7. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build
inclusive institutions at all levels
8. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

2) Which of the following are the 17 new Sustainable Development Goals?

1) Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
2) End 80% poverty in all its forms everywhere
3) Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

a. 1, 2
b. 1, 3
c. 2, 3
d. All of the above
Answer Explanation
ANSWER: 1, 3
Explanation:
The goals are to be achieved in 15 years i.e. till 2030. The goals are -
1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere;
2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture;
3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages;
4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all;
5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
6. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
7. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent wor
9. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

3) Sustainable Development Goals and targets are to be achieved by-

a. 2020
b. 2025
c. 2030
d. 2050
Answer Explanation

ANSWER: 2030
Explanation:
On September 25th, countries will have the opportunity to adopt a set of global goals to end poverty, protect the p
for all as part of a new sustainable development agenda. Each goal has specific targets to be achieved over the nex

4) ”A Million Voices: The World We Want" is report by -

a. WHO
b. IUCN
c. UNISEF
d. UN
Answer Explanation

ANSWER: UN
Explanation:
The voices of more than 1 million people all over the world were gathered to produce a United Nations report that
concerning development issues, which will help Member States shape the post-2015 sustainability agenda.

Question 1

Although companies are increasingly recognizing the negative impacts they have on
society, many are also increasingly trying to contribute positively to societal
development through_____________.

a) ethics.

b) the marketing concepts.

c) facilitating functions of marketing.

d) Corporate social responsibility programmes.


Question 2

The concept of ______________ accepts the limitations of marketing philosophy,


acknowledging the need to impose regulatory constraints on the market mechanism
in economic development (van Dam and Apeldoorn, 1996), particularly the impact
of marketing activity on the environment.
a) Sustainable marketing

b) Green marketing

c) Relationship marketing

d) Ethics
Question 3

The concepts of the three Es of sustainability are:

a) Economic, Etiquette, and Environmental.

b) Environmental, Economic and Equitable.

c) Environmental, Etiquette, and Economic.

d) Ecological, Equitable and Economic .


Question 4

An ethical approach which recognizes that a manager ought to act in his or her own
best interests and that an action is right if it benefits the manager undertaking that
action is called:

a) Utilitarianism.

b) Deontological ethics.

c) Managerial egoism.

d) Virtue ethics.
Question 5

Marketing ethics can be divided into normative and _____________ branches.

a) moral

b) normative

c) descriptive

d) virtue
Question 6

Sustainable marketing can also be characterized as the 'third age' of _____________.

a) planned obsolescence

b) green marketing

c) pollution

d) recycling
Question 7

A central theme of corporate social responsibility is defined as __________.

a) belief that the legal system defines ethical behaviour

b) development of inclusive codes of ethics

c) rules by which social rewards are attained


d) corporations have some responsibility to wider society that goes
beyond the pursuit of profit
Question 8

_______________ is concerned with how marketers go about the management process of


identifying, anticipating, and satisfying customer requirements profitably.

a) Marketing ethics

b) Philanthropy

c) Cause marketing

d) Green marketing
Question 9

Professional marketing organizations typically have a __________ which requires


members to behave and act in a professional manner.

a) regulation

b) code of professional practice

c) system

d) norm
Question 10

The model of marketing decision-making is stressing the importance of considering


what is the right thing to do (________norms) and what are the right intended
outcomes for us to follow (__________norms).
a) deontological; virtue ethics.

b) deontological; teleological

c) teleological; utilitarianism.

d) teleological; managerial egoism.


Question 11

This is when sub-contractors might collude to agree in advance who will win a bid,
with some submitting bids with overly expensive pricing, to ensure selection of that
pre-conceived competitor.
a) Switch rigging.

b) Bait and switch.

c) Bid rigging.

d) Collusion.
Question 12

Companies collude over production quotas, companies abuse their monopoly status,
and companies overcharge or exploit their supply chain partners. These are
examples of ethical breaches in:

a) Promotion.

b) Distribution management.

c) Products.

d) Process.
Question 13

This occurs when companies collaborate on submitting bids for some competitions
but not others.

a) Switch rigging.

b) Bait and switch.

c) Bid rigging.

d) Collusion.
Question 14

Which of the following is not one of the rationales for developing CSR initiatives?
a) Corporations' impacts limit to only marketplace transactions.

b) Corporations have a broader constituency of stakeholders than


shareholders alone.

c) Corporations serve a wider range of human values that cannot be


captured solely by a focus on economic values.
d) Corporations have responsibilities that go beyond the production of
their offerings at a profit.
Question 15

This is a form of ethical approach by which the rightness or wrongness of an action


or decision is not judged to be exclusively based on the consequences of that action
or decision:

a) Descriptive ethics.

b) Deontological ethics.

c) Social ethics.

d) Religious ethics.
Question 16

This involves the setting of different prices for different groups of people:

a) Price gouging.

b) Price discrimination.

c) Price differential.

d) Price fixing.
Question 17

This occurs when a company charges more than governments perceive is fair for
their offerings:

a) Price gouging.

b) Price discrimination.

c) Price differential.

d) Price fixing.
Question 18

When an organization's rhetoric concerning the promotion of its environmental


impacts (based on its offering or organizational practices) are not backed up in
practice, i.e. it makes misleading claims about how environmentally friendly it is.
This is referred to as:
a) marketing ethics.

b) sustainable marketing.

c) CSR.

d) greenwashing
Question 19

This is an ethical approach, which suggests that an action is right if, and only if, it
conforms to the principle of utility. Thus utility: pleasure, happiness or welfare, is
maximised or pain or unhappiness minimized, more than any alternative:

a) Virtue ethics.

b) Utilitarianism.

c) Normative ethics.

d) Teleological ethics.
Question 20

This branch of ethics stresses the importance of developing virtuous principles, with
'right' character, and the pursuit of a virtuous life:

a) Virtue ethics.

b) Utilitarianism.

c) Normative ethics.

d) Teleological ethics.
MCQs Managing for Sustainability
1. The acronym CSR stands for
a. Corporate Search and Rescue
b. Corporate Social Responsibility
c. Corporate Sensitive Reliability
d. Corporate Social Reality
2. All those who are affected by or can affect the ~perations of the organisation are known as: a. Owners
b. interested parties
c. stakeholders
d. stockholders
3. The stakeholder view of social responsibility states that organisations must respond to the needs of
a. employees and customers
b. shareholders and owners
c. all interested parties
d. all those who might sue the organisation
4. A firm is said to have good corporate social performance when:
a. stockholders invest in socially responsible causes
b. charitable deductions are automatically deducted from pay without the consent of employees
c. the company has not been convicted of ethical violations for five consecutive years
d. stakeholders are satisfied with its level of social responsibility
5. A socially responsible mutual fund will only purchase stocks in companies that
a. have a no-smoking policy in place
b. have a culturally diverse management team
c. hire some job candidates who are HIV positive
d. have good social performance.
6. A whistle blower is an employee who
a. exposes organisational wrongdoing
b. complains a lot to company management
c. engages in un-ethical behavior
d. referees disputes with other employees
7. Which one of the follciwing approaches to creating an ethical and socially responsible workplace is
likely to be the most powerful?
a. Passing out buttons with the statement "Just Say No to Bad Ethics"
b. Placing posters about ethics throughout the organisation
c. Top management acting as models of the right behavior
d. Including a statement about ethics and social responsibility in the employee handbook
8. A recommended way of minimising unethical behaviour is for employees to
a. write anonymous notes to ethical violators
b. immediately report all suspicious behaviour to top management
c. spend part of their vacation preparing a personal philosophy of ethics
d. confront fellow employees about ethical deviations
9. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) consists of which four kinds of responsibilities
a. Economic, ethical, societal, and altruistic
b. Economic, legal, ethical, and altruistic
c. Fiscal, legal, societal, and philanthropic
d. Economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic
10. Which of the items listed is NOT a product of a "favourable corporate reputation"?
a. Charge more for its products and services
b. Attract, hire and keep higher quality applicants/employees
c. Enhance their access to better capital markets
d. Ignore the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
11. Typical Codes of Conduct cover conduct described below. In the aftermath of Bhopal, the chemical
industry wishing to demonstrate responsible corporate citizenship has added which additional
behaviours set out below
a. Legal compliance
b. Continuous improvement, communication with external stakeholders and training of suppliers
on the standards
c. Pollution prevention
d. Safe handling of chemicals from manufacture through disposal
12. Why, according to stakeholder theory, is it in companies' best interests to pay attention to their
stakeholders?
a. If firms only act in their own self-interest employees may feel exploited
b. If firms only act in their own self-interest government might put more regulation on them
c. If firms only act in their own self-interest customers might not like the image that the company
portray
d. If firms only act in their own self-interest and inflict harm on stakeholders then society might
withdraw its support
13. What is triple bottom line?
a. An accounting tool that looks at the impact on people, planet and profits
b. A management strategy which states all the attention should be on profits
c. An accounting tool that looks at cost, profit and loss
d. A management strategy which focuses on corporate social responsibility
14. Why do alternative organisations run differently from conventional shareholder led approach?
a. They do not have shareholders
b. They are run in non-hierarchical ways which aim to provide a positive impact on society rather
than to make profit
c. They prioritise corporate social responsibility.
d. They aim to give money to charities and good causes
15. Which of the following would most effectively act as the primary objective of a business organisation?
a. To procure resources
b. To make a profit
c. To communicate with shareholders
d. To mediate between the organisation and the environment
16. Which of the following does the term Corporate Social Responsibility relate to?
a. Ethical conduct
b. Human rights and employee relations
c. All of the above
d. None of the above
17. Who are organisational stakeholders?
a. Customers
b. Community
c. Providers of finance
d. All of the above
18. The human activity, among the following, which causes maximum environmental pollution having
regional and global impacts, is:
a. Urbanization
b. Industrialisation
c. Agriculture
d. Mining
19. The ____________ dimension of social responsibility refers to a business's societal contribution of
time, money, and other resources.
a. Ethical
b. Philanthropic
c. Volunteerism
d. Strategic
20. Stakeholders are considered more important to an organisation when:

a. they can make use of their power on the organisation

b. they do not emphasise the urgency of their issues

c. their issues are not legitimate

d. they can express themselves articulately

21. Better access to certain markets, differentiation of products, arid the sale of pollution-control
technology are ways in which better environmental performance can:

a. increase revenue
b. increase costs
c. decrease revenue
d. decrease costs
22. Atmospheric issues include all of the following except:
a. acid rain
b. global warming
c. air pollution
d. water quantity
23. In a __ organisation, decision making is delegated as far down the chain of command as possible a.
Decentralized
b. Creative
c. flexible
d. centralized
24. __ refers to a strategic process involving stakeholder assessment to create long-term relationships
with customers, while maintaining, supporting, and enhancing the natural environment. a. Eco-strategy
b. Green marketing
c. Superfund reauthorization
d. Recycle and reprocess management
25. Sustainable development will not aim at:
a. Social economic development which optrrruse the economic and societal benefits available in
the present, without spoiling the likely potential for similar benefits in the future.
b. Reasonable and equitably distributed level of economic well-being that can be perpetuated
continually.
c. Development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs.
d. Maximising the present day benefits through increased resource consumption
26. Which of the following statements in relation to sustainable development is not true?
a. Sustainable development is defined as the development that meets the needs of present
without compromising the ability of our future generations to meet their own needs.
b. Sustainability has the main objective of purely focussing on the natural environment.
c. Sustainable development of various countries and the entire world is the only solution left with
mankind to survive for a longer period on Earth.
d. Sustainable development not only considers the protection of the environment but also the
maintenance of economic viability as well as the social and ethical considerations.
27. The term sustainability refers to ________
a. Maintaining resource use at current or higher levels
b. Keeping the natural environment and human society in a happy, healthy and functional state
c. Holding or increasing the current quality of human life
d. Always focusing on fulfiling short-term needs
e. Opposing change from current policies 28. Social sustainability refers to what?
a. The concept of the enterprise supporting jobs and delivering income to communities in the
long term
b. Stewardship of resources and managing and conserving the environment
c. The concept of the enterprise supporting jobs and delivering income to communities in the
short term
d. Sharing benefits fairly and equitably and respecting the quality of life of communities and of
human rights
29. The Brundtland definition comprises of which three parts?
a. Development, Needs and Future Responsibility
b. Development, Issues and Future Generations
c. Development, Needs and Future Generations
d. Growth, Needs and Future Generations
30. What is the most commonly cited definition for, and accepted thinking about sustainable
development?
a. Brundtland World on Committee Environment and Sustainable Development
b. Bruntland World Committee on Environment and Development
c. Brundtland World Commission on Environment and Sustainable Development
d. Brundtland World Commission on Environment and Development
31. Which one of the following characteristics is widely regarded as being an important aspect of
sustainable development?
a. Inter-generational equity
b. Increasing consumption expenditure
c. Intra-generational inequity
d. Increased levels of saving
32. A "green transport plan" is:
a. An environmentally acceptable travel plan devised by a local authority for its area
b. An internationally agreed strategy for reducing the impact of international transport activity on
the global environment.
c. A plan devised by a company or organisation to reduce the environmental impact of the
transport demands generated by itself and its employees
d. The UK government's plan for a sustainable transport sector
33. Food, space, disease, natural disasters, climate, competition and predation are examples of what? a.
Capacity Factors
b. Limiting Factors
c. Predation Factors
d. Sustainable Factors
34. Sustainable Development focuses on more use of:
a. Renewable resources
b. Abiotic resources
c. Agricultural resources
d. Natural resources
35. Which of the following perspectives takes the strongest stance in support of sustainability? a.
Communalist
b. Free market
c. Deep ecology
d. Cornucopian
e. Accommodating
36. Social, economic and ecological equity is the necessary condition for achieving
a. Social development
b. Economic development
c. Sustainable development
d. Ecological development
37. 'Meeting the needs of the present compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own
need'
is
a. Brundtland
b. Mahatma Gandhi
c. Maathai
d. Sunderlal Bahugana
38. The idea of sustainable development was conceived in early
a. 1950
b. 1960
c. 1970
d. 1980
39. The definition of sustainable development was expressed during the World Commission on
Environment and Development in 1987, chaired by
a. Gro Harlem Brundtland
b. Murray Bookchin
c. Rees and WackernackeJ
d. John Elkington
40. Which of the following statement is correct?
(a) Renewable resources should provide a sustainable yield (the rate of harvest
should not exceed the rate of regeneration).
(b) For non-renewable resources there should be equivalent development of
renewable substitutes.
(c) Waste generation should exceed the assimilative capacity of the
environment
a. (a) and (c)
b. (b) and (c)
c. (a) and (b)
d. None
41. Dematerialisation is being encouraged through the ideas of industrial ecology _and
a. Ecodesign
b. Ecolabelling
c. Both (a) and (b)
d. None of the above
42. The ecological footprint is an __ tool for ecological resources
a. Accounting
b. Management
c. Decision making
d. Financial
43. Eco-tracking tools need to be available which
a. Do not allow you to trace environmental footprint
b. Avoids data collection
c. Set-up an environmental management system
d. Help in decision making
44. A sustainability rep~rt is the key platform for communicating ., __ and impacts whether positive or
negative
a. Sustainability performance
b. Management decisions
c. Financial analysis
d. Information
45. Adverse social impacts could be in the form of______
a. Loss of land
b. loss of structures
c. Loss of livelihood
d. All of the above
46. Who uses the Triple Bottom Line?
a. Businesses
b. Non-profit organisations
c. Government entities
d. All of the above
47. Under which ISO Standard the Guidance on Social Responsibility was recognized?
a. ISO 26000
b. ISO 27000
c. ISO 22000
d. ISO 14000
48. Carbon footprints is used to determine the amount of offsets necessary by a business to sell their
product as ___ but is not used to determine carbon liability
a. Carbon neutral
b. Carbon dating
c. Carbon cutting
d. Carbon rating
49. Production, transformation and use of energy are the major problems of:
a. Industrial activity
b. Sustainable development
c. Global warming
d. Acid rain
50. A chemical industry is not a cause of
a. Air pollution
b. Noise pollution
c. Water pollution
d. Nuclear pollution
51. Electronic waste is the adverse effect of
a. Industry
b. Agriculture
c. Housing
d. Mining
52. Extraction of mineral and metal form the earth is:
a. Agriculture
b. Transportation
c. Mining
d. Sustainable development
53. Underground and ope caste is a methods of
a. Agriculture
b. Mining
c. Housing
d. Transportation
54. This is an effect of transportation
a. Air emission
b. Material consumption
c. Solid waste generation
d. Acid mine drainage
55. In EIA hearing is made within
a. 5 days
b. 10 days
c. 20 days
d. 30 days
56. What process may explain the decline in the number of tones of fish caught?
a. Bioremediation
b. Deforestation
c. Extinction
d. Overexploitation
e. Succession
57. Food, space, disease, natural disaters, climate, competition and predation are examples of what? a.
Capacity factors
b. Limiting factors.
c. Predation factors
d. Sustainable factors
58. Which is not a benefit of maintaining sustainable forest ecosystems?
a. Empty space on which to build homes
b. Habitat for thousands of species
c. Reduction of erosion in watersheds
d. Regulation
59. In a kelp forest ecosystem, which species is a keystone species?
a. Kelp
b. Otter
c. Fish
d. Rock
60. The top three ecological footprints in the world are
1. USA
2. Ireland
3. New Zealand
4. Australia
5. Canada
6. Denmark
a. 1,2,3
b. 2,4,6
c. 3,5,6
d. 1,2,6
Answers
1·. (b) 2. (c) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (d) 6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (d) 9. (d) 10. (d)
11. (b) 12. (d) 13. (a) 14. (b) 15. (b) 16. (c) 17. (d) 18. (a) 19. (b) 20. (a)
21. (a) 22. (d) 23. (d) 24. (b) 25. (d) 26. (b) 27. (a) 28. (d) 29. (c) 30. (d)
31. (a) 32. (c) 33. (d) 34. (a) 35. (c) 36. (c) 37. (a) 38. (d) 39. (a) 40. (c)
41. (c) 42. (a). 43. (c) 44. (a) 45. (d) 46. (d) 47. (a) 48. (b) 49. (a) 50. (d)
51. (a) 52. (c) . 53. (b) 54. (c) 55. (d) 56. (d) 57. (b) 58. (a) 59. (b) 60. (d)