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Mood indicates the manner of the action or state expressed by the verb.

1. Indicative or the mood of fact.

• Baguio is about 250 kilometers from Manila.

• The sun rises in the east.
• Stars twinkle, while planets glow.

Note: The indicative mood is also used for conditional statements expressing a
strong degree of certainty.
• If Paz is looking for a house, I know just the one for her.
• If the sun shines today, it will be hot.
• If she likes to attend the party, she will be telling me.

2. Imperative or the mood of command.

• Go, shut the door.

• Kindly give me my bag.
• Please bring these to the house.

3. Subjunctive or the mood expressing supposition, a wish, or suggestion.

• The subjunctive is used to express supposition which is contrary to fact or highly


◦ Present subjunctive
▪ If that man over there were Jose, he would have to us.
▪ If we lived far north, we could play in the snow anytime we wanted to.

◦ Past subjunctive
▪ If Mr. Cruz had been on the train, we could have sat by him.
▪ If Mr. Santos had been our coach, he would have known what to do in such
a situation.
▪ If he were the President, he would have solved this problem easily.

◦ Future subjunctive
▪ If it should rain tomorrow, I would call you.
▪ If he would approve the proposal, we could start the project right away.

Note: Sometimes, the if-clause is omitted:

▪ I wish you had asked me, I should have been glad to help.
▪ Josefa would like to visit the school.(if she were invited)
• The subjunctive is used to express a wish.

▪ I wish I were in the US during Manny's fight.

▪ I wish you had given me this dictionary last week.

• The subjunctive is used to express action after verbs denoting suggestion, command or
the like.

▪ I moved that Juan make the arrangements.(not “makes”)

▪ Hermie demanded that the janitor return the broom at once.(not “will return”)


1. A singular subject takes a singular verb and a plural subject takes a plural verb.

• The river winds through the valley to the sea.

• We have seen the workers.
• Flor doesn't want to go. She wants to stay with us.

2. When or, nor, neither....nor, either...or connect two subjects one of which is singular and
one plural, the verb agrees with the nearer subject.

• Neither the hunter nor his friends are expected to return tomorrow.
• The teachers or their Principal is requiring the parents to attend the meeting.
• Either they or I am to blame.

3. A collective noun takes a singular verb except when the members of the group are
regarded individually.

• The Philippine Senate is now in its closing session.

• The team are in their different positions in the field.

4. The connectives with, together with, including, as well as, no less than, when used to join
the subject of a sentence with other substantives, do not change the number of the subject.

• Mrs. Reyes, as well as her tenants, is here now.

• The children, together with their father, are required to buy season tickets.

5. The expression many a implies “a large number” but takes a singular verb.
• Many a hunter has been lost in the jungle.
• Many a young soldier has perished in battle.

6. The pronoun all when it means everything or the only thing takes a singular verb.

• All is not lost when hope lingers.

• All of the audience's attention was focused on the speaker.
• All they could do was scream.

7. When all stands for a group of individuals, takes a plural verb.

• All are here now.

• All were required to sign a paper before going out.

8. When what means that which, it takes a singular verb.

• What I want to know is why he came late and whether he brought a sack of rice.
• What I believe is he intentionally did that to humiliate me.

9. The verb agrees with its subject – not with the predicate noun.

• His objection to San Juan is the mosquitoes.

• Mango, apple, and banana are his favorite.
• Her favorite is cake and ice cream.

10. Two or more subjects connected by and require a plural verb. But when these subjects
designate the same person or thing, the verb is singular. Close related ideas expressed by a
compound subject may take a singular verb.

• My dog and my cat are very good friends.

• My mother and coach was at the contest yesterday.
• Bread and butter is my usual breakfast served with hot milk.

11. Quantities and sums, or multiples of numbers expressing a single idea require a single

• Fifty meters is the distance of this target.

• Five and six is eleven.
• One hundred pesos is too much to pay for ticket.

12. Fractions take a singular verb if the object of the of-phrase that follows is singular; and
a plural verb if the object of the of-phrase is plural.

• One third of the cake was eaten.

• One half of the students have said they want to have a party.

13. When a compound subject is composed of an affirmative and negative part, the verb
agrees with the affirmative part of the subject.

• Only one man, not the people, is guilty.

• Not the teacher, but the students, are responsible for this program.

14. Every always take a singular verb.

• When everything was finished, Leaonardo went to church.

• Everyone is enjoined to participate in the parade.
• Everybody is called to register and vote.

15. A compound subject (two subjects connected by and) takes a plural verb.

• Laguna and Batangas are included in the list of affected provinces.

• Tacloban City and Palo are identified as “hot spots” for the AH1N1 virus.

16. There is (was) precedes a singular noun, and there are (were) precedes a plural noun or
compound predicate.

• There were dancing, singing, and other activities in the party.

• There is a scare of the AH1N1 virus prevalent in the country now.

17. Many and much used as nouns.

• Many say that Nursing is adifficult course.

• Much remains to be done.

18. In lots of, all of, and some of, lots, all, and some have the same number as the object
of of.

• There are lots of books.

• All of the paper is gone.
• Some of the bread is given to the little boys across the street.