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Study Notes History

Things to Revise
Angkor/Khmer Empire:
Assessed on: How to Revise:
 The way of life in the Khmer Empire  Revise notes on the Angkor Khmer
 The reasons for Angkor’s rise to Empire
prominence  Revise social, cultural, economic
 The cultural achievements of the Khmer features of the empire
civilisation  Revise Angkor’s use of trade and
 Theories of the decline of Angkor agriculture
 Revise system of water management
and building of temples in the Khmer
empire
 Revise the overuse of water
resources, neglect of public works,
ongoing war and climate change

The Black Death:


Assessed on: How to Revise:
 The living conditions and religious  Revise life expectancy, medical
beliefs of the 14th Century knowledge, beliefs about the pow
 The role of expanding trade between God
Europe and Asia in the Black Death  Revise the origin and spread of th
 The causes and symptoms of the Black disease
Death and the responses of different  Revise notes on identifying the
social groups different symptoms of the disease
 The immediate and long-term effects  Revise notes on the flagellants an
of the Black Death monasteries
 Revise the effects of labour shorta
peasant uprisings, the weakening
feudal structures, and increased so
mobility
Khmer Empire:

The way of life in the Khmer Empire:

 Rice and Fish were the main foods


 Floating houses
 Indian Beliefs and Customs (Indianisation)
 Water was important
 Religions were Buddhism (2 types) and Hinduism
 Fishing and tending to animals and rice fields
 Slept on bamboo mats laid on wooden floors
 Little furniture (used animal hides)
 Knotted hair, Bare chested and bare foot
 A strip of cloth around their waist, over which a larger piece could
be drawn
 Food served in leaves or wooden bowls
 Strict social Hierarchy
 People were expected to perform their specific jobs
 Not much is known about society as no written evidence on paper or
leaves survived
 No coins, only traded for their goods

The reasons for Angkor’s rise to prominence:


 Had a large supply of rice and fish which they could trade
 Location along the river allowed easier trade routes
 Trading gave them new technology and other advancements
 In 13th century exported luxury goods such as rhinoceros horns,
ivory, beeswax, lacquer, pepper, feathers and cardamom
 Traded above goods for products such as paper, metal goods,
porcelain, silk and wicker
 Water management systems were very important in the rise
 Main source of water was the Kulon Mountains
 Constructed reservoirs called Barays
 Excess water from rivers was channelled into Barays
 Water from Barays was used all year round for irrigation to allows
multiple crop harvests in a year (3-4)
 Largest Baray called the West Baray
The cultural achievements of the Khmer civilisation
 Constructed Angkor Wat which is so well known that it is featured
on the flag of Cambodia
 Khmer temples were dedicated to the Hindu gods Shiva and Vishnu,
or to Buddha
 Temples featured large open courtyards, linked by galleries and
walkways
 Built many temples throughout their land
 Temples were built out of sandstone and laterite
 Feature corbel arches, built by stacking two columns of stone on
either side of an opening
 Decorative stone lintels, providing horizontal support over doorways
Theories of the decline of Angkor
Water Management System Breakdown:
 Began to decline as Angkor Wat was Built
 Irrigation system was affected by environmental change and cutting
down of forests
 Water ran of land with sediment into water system
 Killed fish and lost water as drought damaged Barays
 Rice harvest dropped from 3-4 a year to 1-2 a year
Economic Problems:
 Jayavarman VII began an expensive building project
 Built many temples, roads and hospitals
 Conquered new areas and expanded the empire
 Cost of building and army was too much
 Change of trading patterns and moving site south
Religious Conflict:
 Religion was constantly changing
 Large temples were built
 People defaced the old religions temples
 Theravada Buddhism was formed
 New Buddhism didn’t need temples
 People moved south and abandoned the empire
Climate:
 Above average rainfall helped growth of crops and fish during
medieval warm period
 Followed by Medieval Climate Anomaly with less rain
 Caused damage to system with less food and money and went south