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Introduction to

Finite Element Methods

Participant’s Workbook
CONTACT INFORMATION
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Introduction to
Finite Element Methods
Edited by:

William J. Bryan
ANSYS, Inc.

Copyright © 1999 by

All Rights Reserved


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Part 1: PARTICIPANT NOTES……………………………………… 4


Part 2: BACKGROUND MATERIAL………………………………… 49
I Introduction
II. Inspection and Testing Practices
III. Inspection Frequency and Extent
IV. Evaluation and Analysis of Inspection Data
V. Repairs, Alterations, and Rerating
VI. Inspection of Buried Piping
VII. Summary
VIII. Suggested Reading
Part 1
Participant Notes

4
Introduction to Finite
Element Methods
William J. Bryan
ANSYS Inc.

100

Notes:

The Course Will Cover


• Matrix Algebra
• Matrix Structural Analysis
• Finite Element Analysis
• Examples of the Use of Finite Element
• Dynamics
• Heat Transfer

101

Notes:

5
Matrix Algebra
• Terminology
• Special Properties of Finite Element
Matrices
• System of Equations in Matrix Form
• Solution of Systems of Equations using
Gaussian Elimination

102

Notes:

Terminology
• Matrix Notation
– Row
– Column
– Element
• Order
• Row Matrix
• Column Matrix

103

Notes:

6
Terminology (cont.)
• Square Matrix
– Trace
– Diagonal Matrix
• Identity Matrix
– Triangular
– Symmetric
– Skew-Symmetric
• Null Matrix
104

Notes:

Special Properties of Finite


Element Matrices
• Transpose

• Determinant
|A| = Σ (-1)i+k aik Mik if expanded along a row

|A| = Σ (-1)j+k akj Mkj if expanded along a


column
105

Notes:

7
System of Equations in
Matrix Form
• [A] ([B][C]) = ([A][B])[C] = [A][B][C] Associative
• [A]([B] + [C]) = [A][B] + [A][C] Distributive
• [A][B] ≠ [B][A] Commutative

• [A]-1 Inverse
• Partioning 106

Notes:

Simultaneous Algebraic
Equations Example
• Consider the set of equation:
x + 2y - z = -3
4x - 3y + 4z = 1
2x - y + z = -2
In matrix form

[A] {x} = {B}


{x} = [A]-1{B}
107

Notes:

8
Solution of Systems of
Equations using Gaussian
Elimination
• Use last example
• Normalize the diagonal coefficients to 1
• Eliminate the coefficients of variables by making the
columns below the given diagonal zero.

∴z=3
y = -13/11 + 8/11 (3) = 1
x = -2 (1) + (3) - 3 => x = -2
108

Notes:

Matrix Structural Analysis


• Discretization
• Spring Element
• Beam Element
• Assembly of Elements
• Boundary Conditions
• Solution of Equations

109

Notes:

9
Discretization
Finite element methods are an
extension of the matrix structural
analysis methods used on beams and
trusses. These matrix methods use a
direct physical approach in setting up
and solving the beam and frame
problems. This direct approach will be
used to demonstrate discretization
element development and assemblage
procedures. 110

Notes:

Discretization Influence
Coefficients
The flexibility and stiffness matrices are
a collection of terms called influence
coefficients. An influence coefficient
relates the forces and deflections of a
structure. The deflection at a point
(node) is related to a set of forces by
deflection influence coefficients
(flexibilities).
111

Notes:

10
Spring Elements

112

Notes:

Spring Elements

113

Notes:

11
Spring Element

114

Notes:

Spring Elements

115

Notes:

12
Spring Elements

116

Notes:

Beam Elements

117

Notes:

13
Beam Elements

118

Notes:

Beam Elements

119

Notes:

14
Beam Elements

120

Notes:

Beam Elements

121

Notes:

15
Beam Elements

122

Notes:

Assembly of Elements

123

Notes:

16
Boundary Conditions
Boundary conditions on a structure
occur as either applied displacements
or forces.

124

Notes:

Finite Element Analysis


• Direct Formulation of Elements
• Energy Methods of Element
Development
• Theoretical Basis of Classes of
Elements

125

Notes:

17
Direct Formulation of
Elements

126

Notes:

Truss Element

127

Notes:

18
Truss Element

128

Notes:

Truss Element

129

Notes:

19
Truss Element

130

Notes:

Truss Element

131

Notes:

20
Truss Element

132

Notes:

Truss Element
Points of Interest:
• Formulation did not rely on equilibrium within
the element.
• Displacements are continuous within the
element.
• For the chosen displacement function the
displacements are continuous across the
nodes between elements.
• With a linear displacement function the
element is a constant stress element.
133

Notes:

21
The Principal of Virtual Work

134

Notes:

The Principal of Virtual Work

135

Notes:

22
The Principal of Virtual Work

136

Notes:

The Principal of Virtual Work

137

Notes:

23
The Principal of Virtual
Work

138

Notes:

The Principal of Virtual Work

139

Notes:

24
The Principal of Virtual Work

140

Notes:

The Principal of Virtual Work

141

Notes:

25
The Principal of Virtual Work

142

Notes:

The Principal of Virtual Work

143

Notes:

26
Energy Methods of Element
Development
Truss Element

144

Notes:

Truss Element

145

Notes:

27
Truss Element

146

Notes:

Truss Element

147

Notes:

28
Truss Element

148

Notes:

Energy Methods of Element


Development
Remember: Displacement Functions can affect equilibrium and
compatibility.
1. Equilibrium is not always satisfied within the elements. For some
constant strain elements it is satisfied.
2. Equilibrium is not normally satisfied between elements. Here, the
constant strain (stress) elements clearly do not satisfy the equilibrium.
3. Equilibrium of nodal forces and moments is satisfied. The simultaneous
equation for finite elements, kδ=P, is the nodal force-displacement
equilibrium equation.
4. Compatibility is satisfied within an element only if the displacement
function is continuous.
5. Interelement compatibility is not always satisfied.
6. Compatibility between elements is satisfied at the nodes. Again, this is
because the elements are developed in terms of the nodal
displacements where compatibility is enforced.
149

Notes:

29
Displacement Functions
To insure finite element solution will converge the following criteria must
be met:
1. The assumed displacement function must be continuous within the
element. Choices of polynomials with all derivatives satisfies this
requirement.
2. The displacement functions should be chosen so that the element
displacements are compatible with adjacent element displacements.
No openings, overlapping or skewing should occur between
elements. The linear functions obviously satisfy this criteria.
Generally functions called Hermetian Polynomials are used for the
displacements that satisfy this requirement.
3. The displacement function must be able to represent all constant
strain states within the element. This is commonly called the “patch
test”. As an element gets smaller, the stress within the element must
not satisfy this criteria, it then may not converge to the proper
solution.
150

Notes:

Displacement Functions
4. All rigid body modes of the element must be represented. This
says the element must have a zero stress state under rigid body
motion. Shell elements sometimes violate this criteria.
Fictitious forces appear at the nodes if this is not satisfied.
5. The element strain energy should be invariant to changes in
node numbering or element coordinate axis changes.

151

Notes:

30
Examples of Finite Element
Use for a Cantilever Beam
• Beam Theory with and without shear
• 2-D Solid Theory
• 3-D Solid Theory

152

Notes:

Class Exercise
Solve simple beam problem with
various finite element models.

153

Notes:

31
Class Exercise

154

Notes:

Class Exercise
Solve the following models:

155

Notes:

32
Dynamics
• Development of Dynamic Equations
• Solutions to Dynamic Equations

156

Notes:

Development of Dynamic
Equations - Spring-Mass System

157

Notes:

33
Spring - Mass System

158

Notes:

Spring - Mass System

159

Notes:

34
Spring - Mass System

160

Notes:

Spring - Mass System

161

Notes:

35
Spring - Mass System

162

Notes:

Spring - Mass System

163

Notes:

36
Development of Dynamic
Equations - Plane Triangle Element

164

Notes:

Plane Triangle Element

165

Notes:

37
Plane Triangle Element

166

Notes:

Plane Triangle Element

167

Notes:

38
Solutions to Dynamics
Equations - Modal Analysis

168

Notes:

Modal Analysis

169

Notes:

39
Modal Analysis

170

Notes:

Modal Analysis

171

Notes:

40
Modal Analysis

172

Notes:

Modal Analysis

173

Notes:

41
Heat Transfer
• Development of Heat Transfer
Equations
• Development of Heat Transfer Metrics
• Transient Heat Transfer Analysis

174

Notes:

Development of Heat Transfer


Equations

175

Notes:

42
Development of Heat Transfer
Equation

176

Notes:

Development of Heat Transfer


Equation

177

Notes:

43
Development of Heat Transfer
Equation

178

Notes:

Development of Heat Transfer


Equation

179

Notes:

44
Development of Heat Transfer
Equation

180

Notes:

Development of Heat Transfer


Equation

181

Notes:

45
Development of Heat Transfer
Matrices
1-D Conducting Bar

182

Notes:

I-D Conduct Bar Element

183

Notes:

46
I-D Conduct Bar Element

184

Notes:

I-D Conduct Bar Element

185

Notes:

47
I-D Conducting Bar Element

186

Notes:

I-D Conducting Bar Element

187

Notes:

48