Comparison of Three Phase Shunt Active Power Filter Algorithms Under Non-Ideal Mains Voltages
ABSTRACT
In modern distribution systems the proliferation of non-linear loads results in a deterioration of the quality of voltage waveforms at the point of common coupling (PCC) of various consumers. Therefore, power-conditioning equipment is becoming more important for electric utilities and their customers. With the rapid development of semiconductor devices in power and control circuits, a new generation of equipment for power quality, the active power filters, has been developed. Their advantages over conventional means are more flexibility and very fast control response. The control of an active filter comprises two major parts: the reference current computation and the current control. There are two fundamental methods of generating the reference current: (i) frequency– domain methods, based on the Fourier analysis and (ii) time-domain analyze, based on the theory of instantaneous imaginary power in the three-phase circuits, often called p-q theory. In this work p-q, id-iq, modified p-q and synchronous detection methods are investigated for determining the reference compensation currents of shunt APF with respect to balanced, unbalanced and distorted source voltage conditions. The simulation is done on a three-phase system with a diode rectifier. Simulation results are used for comparison
Key words
Active filters, current reference, instantaneous imaginary power, compensation, reactive power
INTRODUCTION
The need for effective control and efficient use of electric power has resulted in massive proliferation of power semiconductor processors / converters in almost all areas of electric power such as in utility, industry, and commercial applications. This has resulted in serious power quality problems, since most of these non-linear converters contribute to harmonic injection into the power system, poor power factor, unbalance, reactive power burden, etc. all leading to low system efficiency. The vulnerability of equipments in automated processing industry to poor power quality leads to heavy losses. This resulted in the enforcement of stringent harmonic standards like IEEE 519 and IEC 61000-3.Among the various options available to improve power quality, the use of active power filters is widely accepted and implemented as a more flexible and dynamic means of power conditioning [1-2]. These shunt active power filters and series active power filters are basically pulse width modulated (PWM) current source inverters (CSI) and voltage source inverters (VSI), respectively. The drawbacks of the conventional passive filters such as huge size, problems associated with resonance, dependency on source impedance and fixed compensation. The hybrid filters combine passive and reactive filters reducing the effective cost. The active power filter is expected to generate the appropriate compensating voltage / current signals that cancel the harmonic and reactive power components in the voltage / currents from the mains. The reference compensation signals are generated by making use of a control algorithm. The Instantaneous PQ theory by Akagi [3] and the synchronous detection method [4] are two of the most widely used control algorithms for three-phase shunt active power filters. There have been several published papers on various time-domain based shunt active filtering algorithms [5, 6]. In [7], a modification of Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory (IRPT) in conjunction with Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) has been proposed to extract the reference compensation currents. In all the above mentioned algorithms, the computation steps and the circuits involved remain complex. In this context, the authors had proposed a new, simple, three- phase, shunt active power filter algorithm [10]. In this paper, the proposed algorithm which is known
1
as IcosΦ algorithm is compared with the Time-Domain Current Detection (TDCD) algorithm [8], Synchronous Reference Frame Theory (SRF) [9] especially for an AC voltage controller feeding an induction motor while the motor is being started. The simulation results have been presented for both the algorithms to compare the effectiveness and simplicity of one over the other.
І- Fig.1 shows the block diagram of a typical APF system.It is assumed that the investigated system is of three- phase three-wired, consequently, the zero sequence current is null. Therefore, the zero sequence voltage is not considered in the analysis as it has no contribution to the system current. In the p-q method, the APF compensation current iF is calculated from the feedback signals of mains voltage vS and load current iL. Using the transformation in (1), the α-β components of vS and iL in a stationary frame are received as follows:
where: x denotes either voltage or current components.
The instantaneous active and reactive powers of the load are defined by [4] as:
It should be noted that pL and qL can be decomposed in
to
dc
and
ac
components as:
pL = pL + p L and qL = qL + q L . Under balanced and sinusoidal voltage supply, the dc- components pL and qL represent the active and reactive load powers related to the fundamental component of load current whist the ac terms p L and q L relate to higher harmonics of load currents. Therefore, the powers pF and qF which the APF needs to generate will be:
p _{F} p _{L} and q _{F} q
(in case of harmonic current compensation)
q _{F}
-q _{L}
(in case of reactive and harmonic current compensation)
Then the reference for APF compensation current, iF, can be estimated from pF and qF as follows:
2-Modified p-q method
Under non-ideal supply conditions, the mains voltage vS can be unbalanced and/or distorted by harmonics. As shown in [3], the fundamental load current now cancombine with the fundamental negative sequence and harmonics in the voltage to produce extra ac-values in p L and q L . Further, the harmonic currents and voltages which have the same order can produce extra dc-power in pL and qL . Thus the instantaneous active and reactive load powers calculated in (2) will be distorted and the APF cannot compensate successfully the harmonic and/or reactive currents from the load. To improve the performance of p-q method, Ozdemir et al. [6] proposed the use of fundamental positive sequence of voltage vS (hereinafter denoted as vS ) in (2) and (5)
2
to calculate pL, qL and then iF. The key point of this modified p-q method is to extract instantaneously vS from the three-phase mains voltage. Different from the method used in [6] which requires a rotating d-q frame, this paper proposes a new algorithm to detect vS in the stationary frame. Therefore, a PLL will not be required for this algorithm.
3-Self-Tuned Vector Filter
A. Time-domain expressions
The Self-Tuned Vector Filter (STVF) is, basically, a sequence filter that extracts one particular component, of a given frequency, from a vector signal. The filter frequency may also be adjusted, or self- tuned. In Fig. 1, the structure of the filter is shown. As it can be seen, the filter is a first- order, two inputs, two outputs, coupled system. In the figure, (Ya, Yb) are the components of the vector to be filtered, and Yfa, Yfb the components of the filtered vector.The equations of this filter are, in time domain, as shown in (1)
where i, and ip represents the components of the filtered vector, i, and ip are the components of the input vector, kf is the filter constant, and ois the center frequency for the lilter.
B. Frequency-domain expressions
Equation 1 could be represented in a vectorial form, in the frequency domain (2)
Also, the central frequency could be self-tuned, using an iterative process, being o proportional to the modulus of vectorial product of the vector filtered and the input vector, as shown in (3). That feature gives its name to this filter (self-tuned), although is not used in the present application, as the frequency is a known constant (50Hz).
4-Synchronous reference frame method
In the synchronous reference frame method [3], the load current is transformed into the conventional rotating frame dq. If 8 is the transformation angle, the transformation is defined by:
3
Where x denotes voltages or currents. In the synchronous reference frame, 0 is a time variant angle that represents the angular position of the reference frame. This reference franne is rotating at constant speed in synchronism with the three-phase ac voltages. To implement the synchronous reference frame method some kind of synchronizing system should be used. In [4] and [SI a phase- locked loop (PLL) is used for the implementation of the this method. The fundamental current of the dq components is now a dc value. The harmonicis appear like ripple. Harmonic isolation of the dq transformed signal is achieved by removing the dc offset. T,his is accomplished using a high pass filter (HPF). The reference currents are obtained with an inverse transformation. Fig. 2 illustrates a block diagram of the dq synchronous reference frame method. Three is no need to supply voltage information for a SRF based controller. However the phase position angle must be determined in some way.
5-Control of APF system using SDM: In this algorithm,the three-phase source currents are assumed to be balanced after compensation. The real power p(t) consumed by the load could be calculated from the instantaneous voltages and load currents as:
where, vsa(t), vsb(t), vsc(t) are the instantaneous values of supply voltages and ila(t), ilb(t), ilc(t) are the instantaneous values of load currents. The average value Pdc is determined by applying p(t) to a low pass filter. The real power is then split into the three phases as follows:
Thus for purely sinusoidal balanced supply voltages:
where
4
and the unit amplitude wave form in synchronism with the supply voltage is given by:
Thus the reference source current:
Similarly
where, Vsma, Vsmb, Csmc are the amplitudes of the supply voltages. The compensation currents are then calculated using Eq. 8a-8c:
6-frequency domain based on Fourier analysis
A new control algorithm is proposed by [17,18],characterized as the "compensation of customer
generated harmonics", for the control of shunt active power filter. It compensates harmonics and reactive power requirement of nonlinear loads, and maintains similar distortion in the compensated current as present in the mains voltage.Therefore, load behaves as a linear/resistive load, and the resultant source current will have the same waveform as that of the supply voltage.The non-sinusoidal utility voltage and current signal can be expressed as a sum of sinusoidal signal of various frequencies
as –
n=1
Where, O3n and , are the phase difference of nth order voltage and current waveform. The reference current drawn from the source is the portion of the current, which retains the same level of distortion
as of the voltage, while at the same time accounts for the entire fundamental frequency component.
The reference current has the same graphical pattern of variation as the voltage. It might have a time
5
leg or lead or may be in phase with the voltage, depending on the harmonic or harmonic and reactive power compensation capability. Thus the fundamental frequency component of the reference current will equal to the fundamental frequency component of load current Ii (plus loss component) for harmonic compensation, and Ilcos4 (plus loss component) [12] for both harmonic and reactive power compensation respectively. All other frequency components will be in the same proportion as their counterparts in the voltage, which can be mathematically expressed as-
For Harmonic Compensation
For both Harmonic and Reactive Power Compensation
Based on this principle it is possible to estimate the reference current, which customer should draw from the utility.The reference current component can be estimated by measuring the supply voltage harmonics, fundamental load current and their respective angles, as in eq. (3) and (4).
Id-Iq METHOD
The id-iq method is based on a synchronous rotating frame derived from the mains voltages without the use of a phase-locked loop (PLL) [3]. In this theory, active filter currents are obtained from the instantaneous active and reactive current components (iLd and iLq) of the nonlinear load in a two- step procedure. In the first step, the load current in the a-b-c reference frame is transformed to the α-β reference frame according to (2). In the second step these stationary reference frame quantities are then transformed into synchronous reference frame quantities based on the Park transformation by
(10).
original stationary two-axis reference frame and the new rotating reference frame is shown in Figure
3. In fact the α-β transformation is the subset of d-q transformation.
can be defined to enable the vector representation to become a constant without any time-variation. Thus, a d-q coordinate system hasbeen defined such that the d and q axes rotate at the angular frequency ω in the α-β plane. A balanced three-
The relationship of the real and imaginary components of the current space vector in the
A rotating coordinate system
phase vector representation in this rotating d-q coordinate system will now be constant over all time and the angle θ is a uniformly increasing function of of time. This transformation angle is sensitive to unbalanced and distorted main voltage conditions, so its change with respect to time may not be constant over a mains period.
From the Figure 3, the direct and quadrature current components can be written as:
6
which may also be written in matrix form as:
, where
The real component of the current space vector in this new reference frame is the direct axis component (id) while the imaginary component is called the quadrature axis component (iq). With vector rotation (10), the direct voltage component and the quadrature voltage component are:
By using the simple geometry, the equation (10) is written in terms of the stationary reference frame load voltage vectors as:
The Matlab simulation diagram of this theory is given in Figure 4. In the nonlinear load case the instantaneous active and reactive load currents can also be decomposed into oscillatory and average terms. Since the d and q axes rotate at the angular frequency ω (=2*π*ffundamental ) in the α-β plane; the first harmonic positive sequence current is transformed to dc quantity, and other current components constitute the oscillatory parts. After removal of the DC-component of iLdq by using high-pass filters, the compensation current is obtained
Compensation powers derived from the p-q method are the parts other than the average power; from the id-iq method include the load current terms other than the average ones. If the reference frame is chosen as vq is equal to zero, (look at Figure 3), the nonlinear load powers can be calculated in d-q reference frame as:
7
Under balanced and sinusoidal mains voltages performance.
both methods have the same
For unbalanced and nonsinusoidal mains voltages, the oscillatory part of the mains voltages is considered. The compensation powers from the p-q theory and the id-iq method can be expressed by (16) and (17) respectively.
By comparing (16) and (17), it is seen that there exists one more term calculated by the p-q theory resulting in additional power components under unbalanced and nonsinusoidal mains voltages.
COMPARISON
The performance of the algorithms is compared by simulating the compensation of a nonlinear current according to these algorithms. The simulations are performed in Matlab/Simulink. A three-phase diode rectifier(LOAD1) and a thyristor converter controlled DC motor (LOAD2)are taken as the nonlinear loads. All theories are simulated under normal and unbalanced - distorted voltage conditions.
SIMULATION RESULTS The purpose of the simulation is to show the effectiveness of p-q, i _{d} - i _{q} , modified p-q, synchronous detection methods , Synchronous. Reference Frame, Self-Tuned Vector Filter and Frequency Domain Control, for maintaining sinusoidal source currents when the source supplying a nonlinear load. In simulation, a butter-worth type of filter was chosen since its magnitude response is maximally flat in the pass-band and is monotonic in both pass-band and stop-bands. To minimize the influence of the phase responses of the high-pass filter, an alternative high-pass filter is used by means of a low-pass filter as shown in Figure
7.
Figure 7. Schematic diagram of high-pass filter
For all of the methods, the choice of the cut-off frequency and the order of the filters have a direct effect on the performance of the detection algorithm. In this work, the performances of the seven calculation methods are evaluated and no dynamic voltage source inverter is considered. Simulation waveforms obtained with Matlab-Simulink/Power System Blockset related to the previously mentioned seven methods under unbalanced - distorted mains voltage conditions are presented in Figure. The results obtained from the balanced source case are not shown due to the lack of space but all of the methods work well in this situation. The case is with unbalanced - distorted source voltages, which are:
8
vt
sa
vt
sb
vt
sc
Load1
311sin
311sin(
311sin(
t
120)
120)
t
31sin
t
18sin 5
t
t
t
t
31sin(
31(sin
120)
120)
18sin(5
18sin(5
t
t
120)
120)
a)p‐ q
b)id‐ iq
c)modified pq
d)sdm
9
e)srf
f)stvf
j)fdc
Load2
a)p‐ q
b)id‐ iq
c)modified pq
10
d)sdm
e)srf
f)stvf
j)fdc
11
Method |
p-q |
id-iq |
modified |
synchron. |
SRF |
STVF |
FDC |
||||||||
p-q |
detection |
||||||||||||||
Total harmonic |
^{I} source |
^{I} |
compensated |
^{I} |
compensated |
^{I} |
compensated |
^{I} |
compensated |
^{I} |
compensated |
^{I} |
compensated |
^{I} |
compensated |
distortion |
in |
in |
in |
in |
in |
in |
in |
in |
|||||||
%THD |
% THD |
% THD |
% THD |
% THD |
% THD |
% THD |
% THD |
||||||||
Ideal condition |
30.7 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
|||||||
Load1 |
|||||||||||||||
Ideal condition |
29.12 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
|||||||
Load2 |
|||||||||||||||
Unbalanced Distorted Main voltages – Load1(phase A) |
22.4 |
19.84 |
17.06 |
14.74 |
13.75 |
10.5 |
14.17 |
13.78 |
|||||||
Unbalanced Distorted Main voltages – Load2(phase A) |
25.36 |
16.45 |
11.05 |
7.08 |
5.25 |
3.97 |
7.18 |
7.11 |
Table 1. Comparison of percentage total harmonic distortion (THD)
CONCLUSION The paper presents a comparative study of seven compensation methods for three phase shunt active filters under balanced, unbalanced - distorted mains voltage conditions. In the simulation study, it is shown that the p-q method has poorer performance than the i _{d}_{-} i _{q} method under unbalanced and distorted mains voltage conditions.
However the solution based on using a PLL circuit for better performance of the p-q theory works well under unbalanced and distorted mains voltage but it has the disadvantage of its fairly complex algorithm and requirement of a PLL circuit. The synchronous detection method’s performance is poor in respect to the voltage distortion but good at unbalanced condition and demands less calculations due to the needlessness of reference frame transformation. Another disadvantage of this method is that it assumes equal currents in every phase which meaning balanced load conditions.
Although the historically important p-q theory is limited to balanced voltage conditions, the modified version of it is the most effective method for all voltage conditions.
REFERENCES
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