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MITOCHONDRIAL: THE ENERGY PATHWAY IN MOOD DISORDERS

Debree Septiawan*

Abstract

Mitochondrial dysfunctions are assuming an increasingly important role in hypotheses of mood


disorders. Neuronal energy supplies are completely dependent on mitochondrial oxidative
phosphorylation, which makes them particularly vulnerable to mitochondrial dysfunction.
Mitochondria pathway use microtubule networks to move around, including synapses and areas of
neurite outgrowth. ATP produced by mitochondria is essential for loading neurotransmitters into
synaptic vesicles and maintaining neuronal membrane potentials. Mitochondria are also involved in
the regulation of intracellular calcium levels, which is crucial at synapses because calcium
stimulates neurotransmitter release and facilitates many other processes (including gene
transcription, the activation of second-messenger pathways, etc.).
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Keywords: Mitochondrial, energy, pathway, mood.

* Department of Psychiatry, Division of Biological Psychiatry, Sebelas Maret University,


Surakarta, Indonesian.