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Modal verbs

Conceptul de capacitate, posibilitate, necesitate sau obligatie este redat de asa


numitele "modal auxiliary verbs" : can, could, shall, should, must, need, ought
to, used to, dare.

Caracteristici:

• Nu au infinitiv lung
• Nu primesc "s" la persoana a III a singular prezent simplu
• Nu primesc "-ing"
• Verbele care urmeaza sunt la infinitiv scurt; excceptie: used to, ought to
• Nu au toate timpurile si modurile unui verb normal, de aceea unele au
echivalenti
• Formeaza interogativul prin inversiune; negativul + not

Can-could ⇔ to be able to

May-might (numai in Indirect Speech) ⇔ to be allowed to; to be permited to

Must ⇔ to have to

Will
• Exprima vointa, hotarare I will pay you as much as you ask for.
• Promisiune I will not make such a mistake again.
• Posibilitate, presupunere That girl will be his sister? (Fata ceea o fi
sora lui?)
• Ceva inevitabil (expresii fixe) Children will be children.Accidents will
happen(accidentele sunt inevitabile)
• Inlocuieste prezentul simplu pentru actiune obisnuita, repetata I
always drink milk in the morning=I will drink milk in the morning
• Invitatie, cerere politicoasa Will you come and...?( Vrei sa...?)

Shall
• Hotarare The enemy shall not pass.
• Promisiune If you get a good mark you shall have a present.
• Refuz, insistenta, amenintare He shall pay for insulting my daughter.
• Exprima o interdictie in acte oficiale All the candidats shall not
bring(may not) the dictionaries into the examination room.

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• Oferta, sugestie Shall I help you?

NOTA: What about going to the cinema? ⇔ Let’s go to the cinema, shall we?

Can
• Abilitate fizica si intelectuala la prezent si viitor
• Exprima o continuitate alaturi de verbele de perceptie
• Exprima o permisiune (informal English)
• Exprima o posibilitate atunci cand imprejurarile o permit If you
come in my town we can swim (I have a swimming pool)
• Exprima o imposibilitate, neincredere: cu acest inteles can poate fi
urmat de un infinitiv prezent(pentru actiune simultana) sau infinitiv
perfect (pentru actiune anterioara )

Nu se poate/este imposibil sa faca o He can’t make such a mistake


asemenea greseala

Nu se poate sa fi facut o asemenea He can’t have made such a mistake


greseala
• Exprima o cerere politicoasa Can I help you?

Could
• Abilitate fizica si intelectuala la trecut.Cu acest inteles can/could
poate fi inlocuit cu echivalentul.Dar cand intelesul este de to succid
in, to manage, to achieve-se foloseste numai echivalentul, dar nu si la
negativ
• Cerere politicoasa, mai politicoasa deca can Could I help you?

May
• Exprima o permisiune(formal english).Cu acest inteles el poate fi
inlocuit cu echivalentul → to be allowed to; to be permited to
• Exprima o posibilitate.Cu acest inteles el poate fi inlocuit cu it is
possible/maybe/perhaps

It is possible for you to know her

Maybe/perhaps you know her

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You may hnow her

Poate ca o cunosti
May+infinitiv continuu=posibilitatea unei actiuni in momentul vorbirii → Ex:
She may be sleeping now.

May+infinitiv perfect=posibilitatea unei actiuni in trecut → Ex: She may have


lost the key.

• Exprima o urare, speranta May all your dreams come true! sau May
good luck attend you!
• In propozitia concesiva dupa: whatever, whenever, whereever,
whoever, thought, althought, no matter how No matter how much money
you have don’t spend it in one day1
• In completiva directa dupa to hope, to trust: I hope that you may find
tickets.
• In propozitia de scop dupa so that: I sit on the first row so that I may
see and hear well.

Might
• Exprima o permisiune la trecut
• Exprima o posibilitate in prezent, viitor si trecut (o posibilitate mai
indepartata)

Might+infinitiv continuu=posibilitatea indepartata a unei actiuni in momentul


vorbirii

Might+infinitiv perfect=posibilitatea indeparata a unei actiuni in trecut

• Exprima indignare, iritare, repros You might look in to my eyes when


I’m talking to you.
• In propozitia concesiva dupa: whatever, whenever, whereever,
whoever, thought, althought, no matter how
• In completiva directa dupa to hope, to trust
• In propozitia de scop dupa so that

Must

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• Exprima obligatie, comanda, necesitate.Cu acest inteles el poate fi
inlocuit cu echivalentul to have to

Must=obligatie impusa de vorbitor(regula)

Have to=obligatie externa impusa de autoritati sau imprejurari externe pe care


vorbitorul nu le poate controla

Don’t have to

Haven’t got to Lipsa de obligatie

Needn’t

Must not Interdictie, prohibitie (regula)

• Exprima deductie, concluzie logica, probabilitate

NOTA: cand must exprima probabilitate el poate fi inlocuit cu:

I’m sure/certain/positive

Certain/obviously

It’s likely/probable

Is likely

Need
A.verb notional, obisnuit= to be need of (dupa care apare un pronume,
substantiv, verb la gerunziu sau infinitiv lung)

Ex: Mother needs a pair of shoes.The windows need washing.

B.Verb modal auxiliar=to have to apare mai mult in interogativ si negativ;


poate sa apara si in afirmativ alaturi de never, hardly, barely

Ex: She need hardly mention her name, since I know it.

Diferenta dintre prezent si trecut:

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Prezent

Do I need...? actiune obisnuita, repetata

Need I...? ocazie speciala

Trecut

Didn’t need to... actiune care nu a fost necesara


si nu a fost facuta

Needn’t have+V (forma a III a) actiune care nu a fost necesara,


dar a fost facuta

Should
• Exprima obligatie, sfat, recomandare(obligatia este mai slaba decat cea
cu must)
• Exprima surpriza in intrebare retorica Ex:Why should I go there?
• Exprima presupunere, deductie logica
• In completiva directa dupa: to suggest, to propose, to insist, to
recommend, to advise, to urge...that
• In propozitia subiectiva dupa constructii impersonale: it is/was
advisable/essential/better/fair/important/natural/necessary/right..that
• In propozitia de scop dupa: so that, in order that, lest(ca sa nu..., ca sa
nu cumva...), for fear that
• In propozitia conditionala tip I si II (intamplare)
• Dupa verbe de emotie: to feel sory, to be delighted, to be annoyed, to be
shocked
• Dupa: don’t think why, see no reason why, can’t think why

Ought to (ar trebui, s-ar cuveni)


• Exprima o datorie, obligatie morala
• Ought to + Infinitive Perfect= datorie, obligatie neimplinita Ex:You
ought to have waited until the light were green.

NOTA: According to the wheather forecast it ought to rain today.He worked


here for 5 years.→ You ought to know him.

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Would
• Exprima o cerere politicoasa

Would you pass...

Would you please...

Would you be so kind...

Would you mind+ V (-ing)

# Would like/care=want

# Would care nu se foloseste in afirmativ

Would rather (arata preferinta) +infinitiv scurt (pentru acelasi subiect)

Would better/had better (mai bine)

Would sooner (mai degraba) +past tense (pentru subiecte diferite)

• Exprima o actiune repetata in trecut si incetata prezent (obisnuiam sa...)


• Diferenta dintre used to si would+infinitiv este ca al doilea se foloseste
narativ
• Apare dupa wish si if only pentru o dorinta in viitor
• Exprima o probabilitate Ex: That girl would be his sister!
• Exprima o vointa la trecut iar la negativ refuz Ex:She had to go there
whether she would or wouldn’t.

Used to
• A nu se confunda cu to use= a folosi
• Used to modal auxiliar cu forma numai de trecut
• Desi e un modal auxiliar formeaza interogativul cu did si negativul cu
did not (formal english)
• A nu se confunda cu: to be/get accustomed to dupa care urmeaza un
substantiv sau un verb la gerunziu Ex:I am not used to drinking tea in
the morning.

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Dare
• La afirmativ e un verb notional obisnuit
• La interogativ si negativ el poate fi atat verb modal cat si verb obisnuit
Ex: How dare you contradict me? (modal) I dared her/I challenged him
to run in the street(a provoca)

Hypothetical Constructions

Wish+Past Tense=dorinta in prezent (to be, were-la toate persoanele)

Wish (ed)+Past Perfect=regretul, o actiune a avut loc sa nu a avut loc

Wish(ed)+would+infinitiv=dorinta in viitor

If only=constructie echivalenta cu wish

Numai sa..., de-as....

Would rather (arata preferinta) +infinitiv scurt (pentru acelasi subiect)

Would better/had better (mai


bine)
+Past Tense (pentru subiecte diferite)
Would sooner (mai degraba)

It’s time/it’s about time/ it’s high +for+acuzativ+infinitiv lung=e timpul


time potrivit sa...

+S+Past Tense=e putin cam tarziu sa..

as if/ as thought(ca si cand)/ even +S+Past Tense=actiune contrara


if/ even thought realitatii in prezent

+S+Past Tense=actiune contrara


realitatii in trecut

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The Subjunctive
A.The synthetical subjunctive
1.The Present Subjunctive
• Este identic cu infinitivul scurt al verbului, este socotit vechi, pretentios
si nu se foloseste in limba contemporana
• Apare in urari(expresii fixe)

Far be it from me! (departe de mine)

Heaven

Be that as it may!

Suffice it to say that...

Good bye!(God be with you!)

God forgive/bless you!


• Apare dupa impresii impersonale

It is natural that they should come! It is natural that they come.


• Dupa advise, to recommend...should

They suggest that he should read.


They suggest him to read.
They suggest that he read.

2.The Past Present Subjunctive


• Identic cu Past Tense –ul verbului (to be/were)
• Apare dupa constructii ipotetice
• In conditional tip II

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3.The Past Perfect Subjunctive
• Identic cu Past Perfect-ul verbului
• Apare dupa wish, if only, as if, as thought, even if, even thought

B.The Analythical Subjunctive


• Format dintr-un verb modal(shall, should, would, may, mught, could)
• Este mai des folosit si apare atat in propozitia secundara cat si in
propozitia principala.

Shall+infinitiv

Prozitia principala Propozitia secundara

Shall I help you? (oferta) Amenintare (informal english)

Should+infinitiv

Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara

Why should I go there? In conditional tip I si II

Dupa constructii ipotetice

In completiva directa

In propozitia de scop

May/might+infinitiv

Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara

exprima o urare: Dupa constructii impersonale: it


is/was possible, probable, likely
May all your dreams come true!
In propozitia concesiva

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In propozitia de scop

Oh, that they might win!


Would+infinitiv

In propozitia secundara dupa wish si if only

Could+infinitiv

Exprima scopul ca o alternativa a lui may/might, could avand un grad


mai mare de siguranta

I studied so that I might pass the exam (but I didn’t).

I studied so that I could pass the exam (I am a student).

The infinitive
1)The Split Infinitive
• E socotit vechi pretentios, e scos din uz Ex:To really understand.

2)Short Infinitive
• Apare dupa verbe modale si verbe de perceptie Ex: I heard her sing.
• Dupa verbe cauzative (make, let, have) Ex: He made me laugh.
• Dupa would/rather/sooner/better/had better/cannot but (anu putea decat
sa...) Ex:I cannot but consent to his opinion.
• Apare dupa to do nothing but/except Ex: She does nothing but lie in the
sun all day long
• In constructii eliptice Ex:Why not go on the trip?

NOTA:dupa to help apare atat infinitivul scurt cat si lung

Ex:The boy helps his sister do/to do her homework.

Constructii cu infininive

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• Acuzativ+infinitiv: format dintr-un substantiv sau pronume in
acuzativ+un infinitiv
• Apare dupa verbe de perceptie si acuzative

I heard her sing I heard her singing

AC infinitiv Participiu prezent

NOTA: cand aceste verbe sunt in diateza pasiva ele sunt urmate de infinitiv
lung Ex:She was heard to sing

• Dupa verbe de vointa Ex:I want him to understand me.


• Dupa verbe de activitate mentala Ex: I imagined him to be right.
• Dupa: to order, to command, to allow, to force, etc. Ex: I ordered the
soldiers to live.
• Dupa expresii impersonale Ex:It is important for them to come.
• Nominativ+Infinitiv:format dintr-un substantiv sau pronume in
nominativ + infinitiv
• Dupa verbe de perceptie si de activitate mentala in diateza pasiva Ex:
She was heard to sing.He is known to be...
• Dupa: to be lucky/unlucky/fortunate/unfortunate...etc. I was lucky to find
you.

The Long Infinitive


• Exprima scopul;el poate fi precedat de in order to/so as to Ex:I went to
the country(so as to) to help my grand-parents.
• Inlocuieste o subordonata care incepe cu what, where, how, etc. She
adviced me what to buy.She adviced me to go.
• Dupa adjective care exprima o calitate morala sau intelectuala: clevered,
brave, cruel, kind
• Dupa superlative, numerale ordinale si the only
• Dupa too si enough
• In constructii absolute: to tell the rtuth, to be sure, to be frank, to say
nothing of, to be honest, to be more precise.

The Gerund
• Exprima prohibitie, interdictie Ex: No parking!No smoking!

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• Dupa: to admit, to advise, to anticipate, to avoid, to begin, to consider,
to continue, to delay, to deny, to detest, to dread, to dislike, to enjoy, to
escape, to excuse, to fancy, to finish, to forget, to forgive, to hate, to
imagine, to intend, to involve, to keep (on), to like, to love, to mind, to
miss, to omit, to postpone, to practice, to recollect, to remember, to
regret, to resist, to risk, to save, to start, to stop, to suggest, to try, to
understand
• Dupa: to accuse of, to aim at, to agree with, to approve, to consist of, to
count on, to dissuade from(a schimba parerea), to excuse from, to insist
on, to prevent from, to rely on, to result in, to succed in, to think of
• Dupa: to be afraid of, to be agreeable to, to be annoyed at, to be averse
to, to be capable of, to be intent on, to be interested in, to be responsible
for, to be suitable for, to be surprised at, to be tired of, to be/get used to,
to be/get accustomed to
• Dupa: to go on, to keep on, to give up, to put off
• Dupa: can’t help, can’t stand, it’s no good/use, to be looking forward to,
to be worth(while), to feel like
• Substantive cu prepozitie: apology for, art of, change of, disappointment
at, experience in, habit of, necessity of, objection to, apportunity of,
preasure of, possibility of, process of, reason for, right of, skill in,
surprise at, way of...

to stop, +gerunziu=actiune deliberata


to begin,
to cease +infinitiv=incetarea unei actiuni pentru a incepe alta

She stops crying.She stoped to look at me.

to like +infinitiv=to prefer

+gerunziu=to be fond of

+infinitiv=to intend

to mean +gerunziu=to signify

To be good at english means working hard

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The Inversion
Not only, never, rarely, seldom, hardly, barely, scarcely, no sooner, anly, on no
condition, not until, such

Examples:

Not only did he fail to report the accident but also...


Never have I enjoyed myself more
Only after posting the letter did I remember that I had forgotten to put on a
stamp.
On no condition are they to open a...
But until got home did I notice that..
Little does the government appriciate...
Such was the force of/the storm that...

La conditional tip II si tip III inversiunea se realizeaza prin omiterea lui If

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