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NOTES FOR PRACTICAL CONSTRUCTION WORK (CIVIL)

• What is the Height of hammer in Standard and Modified AASHTO Tests in Laboratory?
12” in Standard AASHTO and 18” in Modified AASHTO.
• Why we are not allowed cover from 1.5” to 4” for structure?
Effective depth will be disturbed. Specific tolerance will be allowed
according to the specifications.
• How much Overlap is required for compaction of cube, slump, and cylinder?
I thank no over lap is required and for compaction each layer compacted
separately and hammer will be dropped from top of the cone, cube. (Also
no detail in books for same)
• Which type of crush prefer for concrete?
Well Graded crush, sharp edges, non pours, free from dust &organic
material, rich strength and black color.
• How much time required for draying cubes/cylinders before testing?
24 hours required (Temperature will be effected)
• Chemical composition of Ordinary Portland Cement?
СаО- 63...66 %, MgO- 0.5...5 %, SiO2- 22...24 %, SO3- 0.3...1%, Al2O3- 4...8
%,
Na2O+K2O- 0.4...1 %, Fe2O3- 2...4 %, TiO2+Cr2O3- 0.2...0.5%
• What is batch error for batching plant?
After specific quantity of concrete or duration an error have occurred which
called batch error.
• If the PH value is up to 8 then which is in excessive qty Acids, Alkalis?
I thank acid quantity will increase.
• What is curtail bar/purpose?
The bar which is placed in bottom in beam, against bending moment. 10Lor
.015L from the support.
• In earth quake areas steel is used smaller dia or greater dia?
I thank smaller dia (grade-40), because have extra elongation as compare
to grade -60.On other side smaller dia put close reinforcement in section.
• Rusted steel increase/decrease the strength?
Decrease the strength (New research prove that increase the strength)
• What is method adopted to remove the rust from steel?
I thank wire brush used to remove rust and mud. Sand blasting can also be
used but it is costly.
• If we place same steel in two layers, any impact on structure?
I thank no impact, because steel weight will remain same.
• Camber in form work?
Camber has built in steel trusses, in case required designer will identify,
how ever nominal qty of camber is required.
• What are the Reactions of admixtures?
Setting time, strength, workability.
• What are full coat and half coat in tiles?

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NOTES FOR PRACTICAL CONSTRUCTION WORK (CIVIL)

I thank in glazing process term is used half coat and full coat.
• What is difference between raft and matt foundation?
Raft foundation has double steel mesh and matt has single.
• Definition of Mix design?
The design which is designed to achieved required strength or design
strength with minimum usage of cement, sand, crush and water.
• Methods of curing which are adopted?
Hassan cloth, sand dividers, sprinkler, admixtures
• What are the Soil Test?
1. Determination of liquid limit of soil 2.Determination of plastic limit and the
plasticity index of soil.
3. Determination of field density by core cutter (drive cylinder method)
4.Determination grain size distribution –sieve analysis 5.Determination of maximum
dry density and optimum moisture content by standard AASHTO compaction test 6.
Determination of maximum dry density and optimum moisture content by modified
AASHTO compaction test 7. Determination of field density by sand replacement
method 8. Determination of field density by rubber balloon method 9.Determination
of specific gravity 10.Determination of modulus of sub grade reaction
11.Determination of California Bearing Ration (CBR)
• What is CBR and its purpose?
California bearing ratio and its purpose to obtain MDD of base aggregate.
Optimum Moisture Content and Maximum Dry density are determined by
using Modified AASHTO compaction test T 180. For this 10 lb rammer is
used with a height of fall of 18 in. and in 5 layers. Number of blows for
each layer are 56.
• These abbreviations are stands for
SRC,ACI,ASTM,AASHTO,PSI,MPA,MDD,FDT,PCC,RCC,PPRC,UPVC,LBS,PN,SDR,PE,FFL,F
GL,DPC,BS,OPC,FIDIC
Salphate Resistance Cement, American Concrete institute, American
Society for Testing and Materials, American Association of State Highways
and Transportation Officials, Pound square inch, Maximum dry density,
Field density test, Plain cement Concrete, Reinforced cement concrete,
Poly Propylene Random Co-Polymer, Un-plasticized poly venial chloride,
Pounds, Nominal pressure, Standard dimension ratio, Poly ethane, Finish
floor level, Finish ground level, Damp proof course, British Standard,
Ordinary Portland Cement, Federation International Des Ingenieurs
Conseiles
• Proper method of slump testing and Cube filling?
To perform a slump test, a slump cone, a ruler, a scoop, a standard
tamping rod is 24 inches long, and 5/8 inch in diameter and plate 12”x12”
non absorbent surface smooth are required. The slump cone is made of
sheet metal and is 12 inches high. The opening in the top of the cone is 4
inches in diameter, and the opening at the bottom is 8 inches in diameter.
The metal cone is wetted, the concrete filled in three layered, and each
layer rodded 25 times. The cone is carefully lifted off, and the wet concrete

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NOTES FOR PRACTICAL CONSTRUCTION WORK (CIVIL)

is allowed to slump under its own weight. The slump is measured to the
nearest 1/4 inch.
For Cube:-
Three equal layers, each layer 35 blows, rod 1”x1”x12”
• Density of Mud, bricks, soil, PCC, RCC, steel, water, asphalt crush, concrete asphalt
,sand, Stone crush, gravel?(All densities in Lbs/cft)
108,120, (Earth, loam, dry, excavated 78 )(Earth, moist, excavated 90)
(Earth, wet, excavated 100)140,150,490,62.4,45,140 (Sand, wet 120 )
(Sand, wet, packed 130 )(Sand, dry 100 )(Sand, loose 90 )(Sand, rammed
105 )(Sand, water filled 120),100, Gravel, loose, dry 1.52 95
(Gravel, w/sand, natural 120) (Gravel, dry 1/4 to 2 inch105)(Gravel, wet 1/4
to 2 inch 125)
• Main category of admixtures?
Air-entraining agents, Accelerators, Retarders, Water reducers, High-range
water reducers, Pozzolans.
• What is workability?
To ease in place and transportation and compaction of concrete. Increase
workability decreases the strength. Don not adds water to improve the
workability. Workability is determined by slump test.
• What is permeability?
Quality or state of permitting passage of water and water vapor into,
through, and from pores and interstices, without causing rupture or
displacement.
• What is the solution to improve the work ability at site?
By using Plasticizers.(Plasticizer reduces the quantity of mixing water
required to produce concrete of a given slump at 5-12%, Super plasticizer
reduces the quantity of mixing water at 12- 30 % and more.)
• What are water cement ratio and its unit?
Water/Cement=210lits/383 kg=0.548 (unit can be 0.548 lilts/kg) water is
one the liquid which have 1 kg weight in 1 liter. (0.40 to 0.60 by Naval)
• What is bleeding and shrinkage of concrete and how can this control?
Water rise on the surface of freshly mixed concrete. ASTM C 232-92
describes two methods for finding bleeding. Bleeding in excessive in lean
concrete, also rich design have less bleeding due to cement, if aggregate
porous then also less bleeding.
• What are the pre-engineered structures?
Light gauge steel structures are called pre-Engineered structures.
• Types of brick bonds and pointing types? (7 types)
1. Flemish bond2.Stretcher bond3.Englis bond4.Header bond5.Rat trap
bond6.erring /Diagonal bond7.A simple Basket bond pattern
• Temperature and setting time of concrete and ideal temperature?
Temperature 10 C̊̊ to 36 C̊̊, Initial sitting time is 30~45 minutes and final
sitting time 10~12 hours, 16 C̊̊~22 C̊̊

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NOTES FOR PRACTICAL CONSTRUCTION WORK (CIVIL)

• Concrete classes with its strength?


A (1:1:2),B (1:1.5:3),C (1:2:4),D (1:3:6),E(1:4:8),7 Days
strength.2900,2450,2000,1000,_____,28 Days
Strengt.4350,3750,3000,1550,1000.
• Mixing time of mixer and plant?
Mixer 01 minute and 30 seconds,
• What is the ultimate and yield strength of steel?
Grade Minimum Yield Strength (Psi) Minimum Ultimate
Strength (psi)
G-40A 40,000
70,000
G-60 60,000
90,000
G-75A 75,000
100,000
• Normally Gauges of MS steel sections?
Door-16, Window frame -18, Railing-16, wire mesh-22
• Maximum size of gauges and size in mm? (Gauges 1~36)
Gauge
1=7.62mm,2=7.01,3=6.40,4=5.89,5=5.385,6=4.577,7=4.47,8=4.064,9=3.6
6,10=3.25,11=2.95,
12=2.64,13=2.34,14=2.03,15=1.83,16=1.63,17=1.40,18=1.22,19=1.02,20=
0.91,21=0.81,22=0.71,23=0.61,
24=0.56, 25=0.51, 26=0.46, 27=0.42, 28=0.38, 29=0.35, 30=0.32, 31=0.29,
32=0.27,
33=0.25, 34=0.23, 35=0.21, 36=0.19
• Component of trusses?
Purlins, Ridge, Internal bracing, Rafter, Eaves, Main Tie
• Type of slump?
Slum can be stiff (Tight), medium (Loose), wet (Collapse).
• Definition of BM and Shear Force and its maximum intensity area?
BM=Force x Distance (Maximum in mid)
S.F=Force (Maximum AT L/4)
• Terrazzo mixing ratio and powder qty, function of powder in terrazzo? How helpful
powder in grinding?
(1:2) 1=cement 2=Chips(1+1) 7,8 No’s up ward No size small No.9
(Zero)use in skirting, steps and powder use 5 kg in per bag, this is helpful
in grinding.
• Water required for one bag?
It is varied from class wise, water required 25 lilts for (1:2:4) batch (one
bag).
• Why provide expansion joints and construction joints in concrete and location prefer
for construction joints?

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NOTES FOR PRACTICAL CONSTRUCTION WORK (CIVIL)

For expansion provide expansion joints and contractions provide


contraction joints, location is locate on drawings and construction joints
normally provide at L/3(beam or slab).
• Standard size of bricks, brick tile, blocks?
Brick
British Specification Recommends
LENGTH (L) Minimum Length = Minimum 8-5/8” Maximum Length =
Maximum 8-7/8”
WIDTH (W) Minimum Width = Minimum 4-1/8”Maximum Width = Maximum
4-1/4”
DEPTH (D) Minimum Depth = Minimum 1-15/16” Maximum Depth =
Maximum 2-15/16”
Brick tile: 8”x4”1.5”
Hollow Blocks: 16”x9”x8” (wall thickness 1.5” with two cell and corner are
chamfer each cell)
Solid Block: 12”x9”x8” and 12”4.5”x8”
• Why prefer blocks on bricks even where bricks available easily?
These are preferred area wise; availability of quality bricks is difficult in
market. Blocks are also preferred in temperature resistance.
• Types of Joints in Construction and prefer location for construction joint and why?
Expansion joints, contraction joints, construction joints, location prefer L/3.
• Course aggregate maximum size and minimum size also sand?
Nomenclature Range of Sizes
(Soil Type) ASTM AASHTO
75 mm to 4.75 mm
Gravel (3in Sieve to No. 4 Larger than 2mm
sieve)
4.75 mm to 2 mm
Coarse Sand 2mm to 0.425mm
(No. 4 to No. 10 Sieve)
2mm to 0.425mm
Medium Sand ---
(No. 10 to No. 40 Sieve)
0.425mm to 0.075mm
Find Sand (No. 40 to No. 200 0.425 mm to 0.075mm
Sieve)
0.075mm to 0.005mm
Silt 0.075mm to .002mm
(No. 200 to .005mm)
Clay Smaller than 0.005mm Smaller than 0.002mm
Colloids Smaller than 0.001mm Smaller than 0.001mm

Passed by #6 sieve sand and retained on #6 is crush.


• Brick tests?
Size (9”x4.5”x3”) with motor, compressive strength (2200psi), Abortion
(1/6 its weight 1st class brick).motor strength -1800psi
• What is setting out?
Lay out of any structure/building is called setting out.

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NOTES FOR PRACTICAL CONSTRUCTION WORK (CIVIL)

• What are the long column, short column and one way two way slab?
H/Least dimension < 15 (short column), L/B < 2 (one way), L/B > 2 (Two
way).
• Formula for calculation of steel weight for any section?
Volume x density=weight of steel 7850kg/m3 490Lbs/cft
• Capacity of mixer, batching plant and excavator?
Single Load, Double Load, 0.75m3, and 1m3.
• Vibrator types and time of vibrator for compaction of concrete?
External, Internal, Electric, Mechanical, when remove Voids and bubbles.
• Why we prefer steel with concrete & Coefficient of expansion of steel and concrete?
Because coefficient of factors is nearly same for both.
(0.000011&0.0000117)
• Conversion psi to MPA?
1 MPA have a 145.44 psi (approximately)
• What is the Shoot angle and maximum fall height for concrete?
Height of dropping concrete less than 1.5 m and angle should be minimum.
(Angle of repose)
• Coverage of paint animal and venial emulsion and graffito?
01 liters 13 ~15 sq.m (according to the required coat), 10~13 sq.m (equal
water)
Note:-paint not applied when temperature 43C0 Humidity-90%
• Form work removing time for different parts of structure?
Time of formwork removal depends on the following factors
1. Type of Cement. Rapid hardening cements require lesser time as compared to
OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement)
2. Ratio of concrete mix. Rich ratio concrete gain strength earlier as compared to
weak ratio concrete.
3. Weather conditio1.Hydration process accelerates in hot weather conditions as
compared to cold and humid weather conditions.
Sr. No Structural Member (OPC Cement)
Rapid Hardening Cement
1 Beam sides, walls & Columns 2-3 Days
2 Days
2 Slab (Vertical Supports 4 Days 3 Days
Remains intact)
3 Slab (Complete Formwork 10 Days
5 Days
Removal)
4 Beams (Removal of Sheeting, 8 Days 5 Days
Props remain intact)
5 Beams & Arches (Complete form 14 Days
5~8 Days
Work removal) (Up to 6 m span)

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NOTES FOR PRACTICAL CONSTRUCTION WORK (CIVIL)

6 Beams & Arches (Complete form 21 Days


8~10 Days
Work removal) (More than 6 m span)

• What is pitch range for stair?


It can be 250 ~400.
• What is the bearing capacity of soil?
0.1kg/cm2 or 1 Ton/sq.m
• Why provides rings in beams and columns?
To against shear force and rings, binders also called temperature
reinforcement.
• What is primary and secondary reinforcement?
Main bars are primary reinforcement and rings are secondary
reinforcement. And cover always subject to primary reinforcement.
• What is the definition of CPM?
Critical Path Method (shortest rout to achieve any activity/project/goal).
• How we can control Quality at site?
Through supervisory staff, with contract section, Reconciliations,
Management.
• What is the RPM of mixture and plant?
Mixture 30~45
• What the proportionate ratio of concrete to the weather?
Temperature is less than as compare to weather.
• Clauses of escalation, Priority of documents, extension of time, rate of progress,
variations, monthly payments, Final payment certificate, Increase or decrease in
cost, secure advance, notice, progress report, claims etc?
5.2, 44.1, 46.1, 51.1, 60.1, 60.8, 70.1
• Types of admixtures class A, B, C, D and E.
Additives & Admixtures for concrete
Admixtures are chemicals added to concrete mix (not more than 5%) for achieving
specific modifications to the normal properties of concrete.
ASTM C 494-92 classify 7 types of admixtures as follows
Type A. Water reducing. Type B. Retarding. Type C. Accelerating. Type D. Water
reducing and retarding.
Type E. Water reducing and accelerating. Type F. Super plasticizing. Type G.
Super plasticizing and retarding.
• Tests of fresh and hard concrete?
Concrete testing can broadly classified in to two major divisions.
Green concrete Tests.
Workability tests
1. Slump test 2.Compacting factor test 3.ASTM flow test 4.Remouldingtest
5.VebeTest 6.Flow test

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7. Ball penetration test 8.Nasser’s K-test 9.Two point tests 10.Temprature


test11.Voids test (air meter)
Hardened concrete tests:
Strength in compression
Cube test (BS 1881: Part 111:1983),
Cylinder test (BS 1881: Part 110:1983) (ASTM C 192-90a
Flexural strength test
Tensile test
• Slumps for different structure?
Recommended Slump Values for different works
Slab -----------------------1” to 2”
Narrow column sections ---4” to 7”
Vibrating concrete ------1/2” to 1”
General RCC. Works ----2” to 6”
Road work concrete ----¾” to 1-1/2”
A slump of 50-150 mm is recommended for pumped concrete.
• Types of cement (Type-I to Type- V).
The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Specification for
Portland cement (C150–78) establishes the quality of cement and identifies
eight different types:
Type I—This is most commonly used for general construction and is called normal
cement.
Type IA—this is normal air-entraining cement.
Type II—this is modified cement for use with concrete in contact with soils or
water containing sulfates, which are salts of sulfuric acid. Sulfates attack concrete
and can cause the concrete to crack and break up.
Type IIA—this is moderate sulfate-resistant, air-entraining cement.
Type III—this is high early strength cement that is as strong in 3 days as is Type I
or Type II cement in 28 days. Because Type III generates a significant amount of heat
(which could damage the concrete), it should not be used in massive structures. It
also has poor resistance to sulfates.
Type IIIA—this is high early strength air-entraining cement.
Type IV—this is low heat of hydration cement, developed for use in massive
structures such as dams. If the concrete cannot get rid of the heat as it dries out, its
temperature can increase by 50◦F or 60◦F. The temperature increase causes the soft
concrete to increase in size. As it hardens and cools off, shrinkage causes cracks to
develop. The cracking may be delayed and not show up until much later. These
cracks weaken the concrete and allow harmful substances to enter and attack the
interior of the concrete.
Type V—this is special high-sulfate-resistant cement for use in structures exposed
to fluids containing sulfates (such as seawater or other natural waters).
• Weight of cement bags Gray and white?
Gray 50kg, White 40kg.

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NOTES FOR PRACTICAL CONSTRUCTION WORK (CIVIL)

• Field test of cement?


Fineness, Normal consistency, Set time, effect of super plasticizers, PH
value consistency.
• What is sill, reveal, jambs, soffits?
Top of window, Outer edge of window/door, Inner edge of door/ window,
Bottom of lintel
• Cube and cylinder ratio for conversion strength?
Ratio=cylinder/cube=∏D2/4/6”X6”= (3.1415)*(6”)2/36=0.78 SAY 0.80
• What is the hot and cold joint in concrete?
Fresh joint called hot joint before final setting of concrete (Before 10~12
hours)
Cold joint after final setting of concrete (after 10~12 hours)
• Admixtures manufacture names?
Seka ment, ultra chemicals, emporient, FMC
• Tests of steel, its checking, length of sample, cutting method (length of sample for
steel composition test)
(ASTM-A615) Chemical composition, Cross sectional area, weight, ultimate
strength, yield strength, bend test, elongation, Tolerance in cross sectional
area/weight is allowed up to 6% increase or decrease, ratio of yield and
ultimate not less than 1.25,cut sample should cut after 01 meter, for
chemical composition 2” length.(18” three sample required for UET Taxila.)
• Vibration of shaft in one minute?
I thank 5000 in one minute.
• How much psi in one bar?
14. Something (approximately)
• Method of terrazzo polish?
Two types polish 1.wax polish 2.chimical
1.One daba of polis(3.5Kg Kiwi) and mix up with ½ lits tar peen oil, it
become a white danay dar past and apply into the cleaned surface of
terrazzo with cotton after dry buff with Nariel brush. This qty will be
sufficient up to 550sft area.
2. in this method chemical watee used to polish, this is costly as compare
to wax polish.
• Compressive strength for OPC cement and rapid Harding cement?
OPC:
3 days up to 40% 03 months 115%
7 days up to 65% 06 months 120%
28 days 100% 01 year 130%
RAPID HARDING CEMENT:
24 hours 140kg/sq.cm 07 days 370kg/sq.cm
02 days 200kg/sq.cm 28 days 480kg/sq.cm
03 days 280kg/sq.cm 12 months 530kg/sq.cm
• Water proofing admixture puddlo?

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Capacity 3kg one kg use for one bag (50kg)


Above ground 1 kg /bag (motor, external walls, water proofing
purpose)
Above ground 1.5kg /bag (D.P.C etc.)
Below ground 2kg /bag (water pressure, storage of water tank)
• What is contract and documents on which contract contained?
Contract between two parties Employer and contactor.
Contract documents:-
1. Agreement 2. Letter of Acceptance 3. Schedule 4. Contract conditions 5.Works
requirement
6. Pricing document 7.Work Proposals
Condition of Contract:-
Part-I General Condition of contract
Part-IIA Conditions of particular applications
Part-IIB Conditions of particular applications
Special Provisions
• What are the heads of Rate analysis?
1. Material cost 2. Carriage 3. Wastage 4. Labor (Skilled & un-skilled) 5.
Equipment/machinery/tools
6. Testing 7. Contingencies 8.Sundries 9.Over heads
• What is shop drawing?
The drawing which is prepared with the existing drawing for completion of
work at site.
• Primavera
FF, SF,FS, Labor, Non Labor, CPM, Floating activities,1st base line,2nd base
line.
• Method of Plaster and its checking?
By volume equally mixed on mixer or on clean platform, limited water add
to workability, Mortar which have been prepared must be used in ½ hour,
surface which have been treated keep moisture 24 hour before. Surly 1:1
wit brush and cure for 03 days, level spots properly, distance guz range
tested with 10’ guz, doree, plum and cure the surface 10days or least 07
days.
• Method of Block masonry and Brick masonry?
Mortar which has been prepared must be used in ½ hour, soaked bricks 04
hours, frog upward. Stretcher bon prefer if not specified, 3/8” joint
thickness, horizontal joints parallel, holes and cuts reappoints with parallel,
joints in line level, brick once correct pace on move again, masonry edges
sharp, plumb and line ,curing at least 07 days.
• Design of Lintel Beam?
Loading calculations in triangular shape +slab load etc and then apply WL/8
or any other, calculate Area of steel by formula and calculate number of
bars.

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• Codes/Standards of ASTM, BS for different test and material?


GI (1387) MEDIUM DUTY 1985, CI 416&2494, Bronze Gate valve-BS, 1152,
Bronze Check valve-BS, 5152, Bronze float valve-BS, 1212
• What are the types of pointing?
Six type of pointing in Khana.three majors types are 1.deep struck pointing
2.Flus pointing 3.Embosed fillet pointing.
• Standard height of doors, windows, sills, kitchen counters?
Door 7’, window 4’~6~ varies, Sill (lintel Height-window eight=sill), KC
height 2.5’~3’, Self 3’, 5’ &7’.
• Standard height of plumbing and electrical points?
Electrical points normally on 4.5’ high.
• Code of steel (ASTM-615A), concrete (ACI-318), plaster, bricks (ASTM-C-62), tiles
(BS-1284), GI, UPVC, PPRC, water supply, sewerage, Excavation, Carpentry &
joinery?
• Motor required for 100cft bricks, blocks, 100sqft plaster and 100cft concrete cement
bags?
30 CFT dry(4.8 bags 1:6),10 CFT dry(1.14 bags 1:6),6 CFT dry(.96 bag
1:4),17.6 bags (1:2:4)
• Cover for different structures and why provide?
Permanently exposed earth-3”,expose to weather #6 or larger -2”,less
than #6 -1.5”,slab,walls-3/4”,Beams,coulmns(primary reinforcement)-1.5”.
• Identification of G-40 and G-60 at site?
By bend it we can check its elongation, with Taste we can assess carbon
Qty (G-60 have greater Qty of carbon as compare to G-40)
• Meeting agenda can be contained on?
Introduction, salient features, physical progress, financial progress, IPC’s
record, on going activities progress, drawing issues, site issues, up date
progress etc.
• Which are the Tender documents?
1. Tender/contract drawings 2. Volume –l (BOQ) 3. Volume -ll (Technical
Specifications)
• How to bid for a tender?
Employer collect profiles, pre-qualify, acquire prequalify after qualification
of contractor
1. Pre-bid meeting for any ambiguity 2.Quantityfication 3.pricing &
evaluation 4.Submission
• How steel stay in two layers in beams?
With horizontal steel spacer.
• Field test of sand and crush?
In sand we can check dust with hand, also glass can be used and same for
crush.
• Factor of terrazzo to convert wet to dry and calculation of chips/cement/powder?
1.50 wet to dry and powder is not allowed officially.

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• Types of galvanization/purpose/method?
Two types of galvanization hot & cold and its purpose to avoid rust,
because GI use in open weather.
• Ratio for concrete, plaster, masonry, bitumen (building), termite, terrazzo, bitumen
(road), rise husk etc which are normally used?
1:2:4, 1:4, 1:6, 10/20(20lbs/100sft each coat), 1:50(5 lilts/sq.m solution),
1:2, 80/100, 60 to 70lbs/20cft.
• Types of wood, ply wood, marble, tiles, cladding, glass, facing etc?
HARD WOOD-(Oak wood, beech wood, walnut mahogany, Teak, Iroko and
Sheesham)
SOFT WOOD-(Pines, Spruce, Hemlock, Douglas fir orcedrous deodar, partal)
Lasbeela, boteseena, MDF (medium density board)
Glass-(Reflective, Tented, Frosted, Plain)
• Escalation formula (detail), basic rate, escalation payable material?
N= {(C/Y) XBXQ} + {(C/Y) XAXQ}
Q=Labor component of item rate=25%, (A=Ratio of skilled labor=60%,
B=Ratio of Un-skilled labor=40%)
Y=Basic wages of un-skilled labor, Z=YX2,
C=Increase as determined on the basis of monthly static bulletin.
N= Increase in labor wages (as fraction of certified of IPC), Fuel=5%
Basic Rate=one month before tender opening
Escalation is payable on cement, steel, labor & fuel at our project.
• Secure advance % and material?
75 % of factory price, recover according to the consumption are equally
installments. Materials which are entertained for secure advance are given
in contract agreement or as suggest employer.
• Supervision of reinforcement structure?
Steel test report, approval of binding schedule, approved drawing, cover
spacers, chairs, free from oil and rust, stirrups, spacing, No’s of bars etc.
• What is contractual correspondence and field instruction memo?
In which contract clauses or specification referred. Site instruction memo is
a book at site. Site instruction memo have a four copies 1.White
(contractor) 2.Pink (office) 3.Yellow (PM) 4.Green (VP)
• Certification of NESPAK?
PNAC (Pakistan National Accreditation Council), MOODY (International
certification ISO 9001 Approved certificate No.9803539), UKAS (Quality
management)
• Extension of time Problems?
Revision of drawings, Decisions, Possession, payment, load shedding,
shortage of labor
Un foreseeable, heavy rains, Employer risks etc.
• Site problem which are normally occurred?

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NOTES FOR PRACTICAL CONSTRUCTION WORK (CIVIL)

Supervisory staff, sub-contractors, shortage of material, shortage of


manpower, lack of management etc.
• Angle of repose (maximum minimum) and unit weights kg/m3 (maximum ~minimum.
Clay (dry) 30° (18.8~22.0), Clay (moist) 45° (20.4~25.1), Clay (wet) 15°
(20.4~25.1)
Sand (dry) 30° ~35° (15.7~18.8) Sand (moist) 35° (18.1~19.6) Sand (wet)
25° (18.1~20.4)
Gravel (clean) 35° ~40° (14.1~17.3) Gravel (with sand) 25° ~30°
(15.7~17.3), Cement20° (14.1), Mud0° (16.5~18.8), Crushed stone35° ~40°
(17.3~20.4)
• Auto CAD Commands?
• Grinding of Terrazzo?
• Method of laying/fixing tiles?
• Method of concreting and staff required during concrete?
• How to check water cement ratio in laboratory?
• Geometry formulas for area calculation of different shapes?
• What is term used for chap in plaster?
• Reading of Window/ventilator cross section?
• Method of plumb in shuttering for circular columns, rectangular, elliptical, diagonal,
irregular?
• Calculation of Form work?
• Standard production rates for labor, mason, carpenter, scaffold, steel fixers, and
painters?
• Chemical composition of steel and carbon quantity in steel?
• What about GI, Asbestos and corrugated sheets material thickness?
• Design of structure starting from?
• Gradation of crush should be done aftr______________cft/tons?
• What is curing period for RCC concrete, plaster and PCC and Why?
• What is the heat of hydration for curing?
• Types of brick foundation?
• Impact of direct rays of sun on concrete?
• Admixtures names which are normally used for concrete, as super plasticizer,
concrete joints, water proofing etc?
• Tools names which are used for masonry, excavation, pointing, plaster, concrete etc?
• Method of taking sample for proctor to obtain MDD, CBR?
• Size of WC, Plumbing fitting names (which are normally used), types of valves and
purpose and location preferred?
• Why provide plaster groove in building?
• Concrete water PH Value range?

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NOTES FOR PRACTICAL CONSTRUCTION WORK (CIVIL)

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